Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 556
Filter
1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5,supl.1): 60-71, May 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393930

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Despite there being a robust amount of literature and numerous randomized clinical trials regarding acute ischemic stroke treatment, the trials have not included some frequent controversial situations for which decision-making strategies are an urgent and unmet need in clinical practice. This article tries to summarize the current evidence about some selected situations (mechanical thrombectomy in low ASPECTS, low NIHSS with proximal occlusion, acute basilar occlusion, distal and medium vessel occlusion, among others), make suggestions on how to approach them in clinical practice and show what to expect in acute stroke research in the near future.


RESUMO Apesar de possuir um corpo de literatura robusto e inúmeros ensaios clínicos randomizados sobre o tratamento do AVC isquêmico agudo, os trials não incluíram algumas situações frequentes e controversas para as quais as estratégias de tomada de decisão são uma necessidade urgente na prática clínica. Este artigo tenta resumir as evidências atuais sobre algumas situações selecionadas (trombectomia mecânica em ASPECTS baixo, NIHSS baixo com oclusão proximal, oclusão basilar aguda, oclusão de vaso distal e médio, entre outras), propor sugestões de como abordá-las na prática clínica e mostrar o que esperar na pesquisa de AVC agudo no futuro próximo.

2.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 248-254, ene.-abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376887

ABSTRACT

Resumen La disección espontánea de la arteria coronaria es una causa no aterosclerótica de infarto de miocardio, la cual es más común en mujeres jóvenes con pocos o ningún factor de riesgo cardiovascular. Es infrecuente, no se asocia a iatrogenia ni trauma, y se presenta por acumulación espontánea de sangre entre las capas de la pared arterial coronaria, por ruptura de la íntima; de ahí que genera una falsa luz que produce compresión externa del verdadero lumen arterial, con lo cual altera el flujo sanguíneo coronario y ocluye la arteria comprometida. Se expone el caso de una mujer de 31 años, sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular, quien ingresó a un servicio de urgencias con dolor torácico típico, de 2 horas de evolución. En el electrocardiograma se apreció elevación del segmento ST en las derivaciones de la cara anteroseptal e inferior, y troponina T de alta sensibilidad positiva, por lo que se realizó terapia trombolítica con tenecteplasa, sin obtener criterios de reperfusión. Se hizo angiografía coronaria, la cual mostró obstrucción total de la arteria coronaria descendente anterior en el tercio medio. El ultrasonido intravascular documentó flap de disección y hematoma en este segmento, los cuales confirmaron la disección coronaria espontánea. Se realizó angioplastia con implante de stent coronario y se restableció la circulación, observando mejoría de los síntomas.


Abstract Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a non-atherosclerotic cause of myocardial infarction, more frequent in young women with few or no cardiovascular risk factors, it is infrequent, and it is not associated with iatrogenesis or trauma. It occurs due to spontaneous accumulation of blood between the layers of the coronary artery wall, due to rupture of the intima, generating a false lumen that produces external compression of the true arterial lumen, altering coronary blood flow, occluding the compromised artery. It is presented the case of a 31-year-old woman with no cardiovascular risk factors, who was admitted to an emergency department, with typical chest pain of 2 hours of evolution, showing ST-segment elevation in leads of anteroseptal and inferior face on the electrocardiogram and troponin T with high sensitivity positive. Therefore, thrombolytic therapy was performed with tenecteplase, without obtaining reperfusion criteria. Coronary angiography was performed that demonstrates total obstruction of the anterior descending coronary artery in the middle third. Intravascular ultrasound documents the dissection flap and hematoma in this segment that confirm spontaneous coronary dissection, performing angioplasty with implantation of a coronary stent, restoring circulation with improvement of symptoms.

4.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(1): 2-11, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374126

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La evaluación de la calidad de la atención del ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) es una prioridad para los sistemas de salud, debido a su relación con la disminución de la discapacidad y la muerte. En este estudio se analizan los marcadores de calidad en ACV en un hospital de referencia en Nariño, Colombia. OBJETIVO: Evaluar los marcadores de calidad de atención en ACV en el Hospital Universitario Departamental de Nariño E. S. E., entre junio del 2018 y diciembre del 2019. Como referencia se comparó con los registros de Colombia en la plataforma RES-Q. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de pacientes con ACV atendidos intrahospitalariamente. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante la plataforma RES-Q, en tanto que el análisis se efectuó por medio de estadísticos descriptivos y frecuencias absolutas y relativas y las diferencias con pruebas analíticas. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 457 pacientes con predominio de ACV isquémico y se llevó a cabo trombólisis endovenosa al 7,2% en el 2018 y al 9,2 % en el 2019, el 27,7 % con tiempo puerta aguja menor a 60 minutos en el 2018 y el 42,8 % en el 2019. Entre los marcadores de calidad, se encontró mejoría en realización de NIHSS, evaluación de disfagia en las primeras 24 horas, realización de doppler carotideo en los primeros siete días. En comparación con Colombia, se encontró un porcentaje inferior en trombólisis endovenosa y trombectomía. La mayoría de los indicadores de atención en ACV es similar al promedio nacional. CONCLUSIONES: La mejoría en el cumplimiento de marcadores de calidad en ACV refleja el impacto de programas de atención en ACV. El monitoreo de los parámetros de calidad permite generar programas para fortalecer la atención integral del ataque cerebrovascular en la región.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of the quality of care for Stroke is a priority for health systems, given its relationship with disability and death. In this study, Stroke quality markers are analyzed in stroke in a referral hospital in Narino, Colombia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the markers of quality of care in stroke in the Hospital Departamental Universitario de Narino E.S.E between June 2018 and December 2019. As a reference, the outcomes were compared with the Colombian registries on RES-Q platform. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of patients treated in-hospital with stroke, data collection was performed using the RES-Q platform. The analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and absolute and relative frequencies and the differences with analytical tests. RESULTS: 457patients were evaluated, with ischemic stroke predominance, endovenous thrombolysis was performed in 7.2 % in 2018, and 9.2 % in 2019, 27.7 % of patients had door to needle time less than 60 minutes in 2018 and 42.8 % in 2019. Among the quality markers evaluated, an improvement was found in the performance of NIHSS, dysphagia evaluation, and carotid doppler performance in ischemic stroke. Compared with Colombian registry, a lower percentage was found in endovenous thrombolysis and thrombectomy. Most of Stroke Care Markers are similar to national average. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in compliance of standard of Stroke Care Quality Markers reflects the impact of stroke care programs. The monitoring of quality parameters allows the generation of comprehensivestroke care programs in the region.


Subject(s)
Quality of Health Care , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Colombia , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Stroke , Developing Countries
5.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(1): 12-22, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374127

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCION: El ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) de etiología isquémica es una patología cuya incidencia y mortalidad aumentaron en la última década. Cuando se maneja oportunamente, mediante trombólisis como terapia inicial, mejora su desenlace y funcionalidad. En el departamento del Tolima (Colombia) no hay registros de esta patología y en el país la bibliografía al respecto es limitada. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los desenlaces clínicos del manejo agudo con r-tPA en los pacientes que presentaron ACV isquémico en dos instituciones de la ciudad de Ibagué, capital de dicho departamento, entre junio del 2019 y junio del 2020, e identificar los tiempos de atención hospitalaria y las principales variables asociadas con el grupo de pacientes que fallecieron. MATERIALES Y METODOS: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal del manejo del ACV isquémico con r-tPA, en el que se describen las variables sociodemográficas, la escala NIHSS como evaluación neurológica inicial, los tiempos de atención (inicio-aguja, puerta-tac y puerta-aguja), los desenlaces postoperatorios y el Rankin modificado al egreso. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 38 pacientes con una media de 67,37 años, el 60,53 % fueron mujeres. La escala NIHSS al ingreso fue 13,47 puntos (DE 5,24). Los tiempos de atención fueron 183 minutos (DE 72,63) inicio-aguja, 41 minutos (RIQ 17-72) puerta-TAC y 101,50 minutos (RIQ 77 - 137,25) puerta-aguja. La mortalidad fue del 23,68 %. CONCLUSION: La mortalidad y el desenlace funcional del ACV en nuestra población fueron similares a los reportados en la literatura nacional e internacional, sin embargo, es preciso implementar protocolos de atención del infarto cerebral para incrementar el número de pacientes con desenlace favorable, acortando los tiempos de atención en toda la cadena del tratamiento adecuado del infarto cerebral.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Ischemic stroke is a growing disease in the last decade, increasing both its incidence and its mortality. However, timely thrombolysis management as initial therapy can improve both disease progression as well as an individual's functionality. In Tolima, there are no registries of this disease and in Colombia in general, the literature is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes of the acute management of ischemic stroke using r-tPA as well as identifying in-hospital treatment times, at two institutions in Ibague between 2019 and 2020. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using a cross-sectional descriptive study, we describe the management of ischemic stroke using r-tPA, describing sociodemographic variables, NIHSS scale as the initial neurological evaluation, in-hospital treatment times (symptoms-to-needle, door-to-TAC, door-to-needle), the clinical outcomes, and lastly the modified Rankin score upon discharge. RESULTS: We included 38 patients with median age of 67,37 years, 60,53 % were females. The initial average NIHSS scale upon admission was 13,47 (DE 5,24). In-hospital attention time averages were: symptoms-to-needle 183 minutes (DE 72,63), door-to-CAT 41 minutes (RIQ 17-72), and door-to-needle 101,50 minutes (RIQ 77-137,25). Overall the rate of mortality was 23,68 %. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and functionality outcomes of the stroke population observed was similar to previously reported, both nationally and internationally. However, protocols should be implemented for the timely ischemic stroke management to improve the number of patients with favorable outcomes, by reducing the in-hospital attention times in all areas of the management chain.


Subject(s)
Mortality , Colombia , Stroke
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 68-74, jan. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360106

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Apesar da grande proporção de octogenários com embolia pulmonar aguda, há pouca informação indicando a estratégia de manejo ideal, especialmente medidas terapêuticas, como a terapia lítica. Objetivos O número de pacientes idosos diagnosticados com embolia pulmonar aguda aumenta constantemente. Porém, o papel do tratamento trombolítico não está claramente definido entre os octogenários. Nosso objetivo é avaliar a efetividade da terapia lítica em pacientes octogenários diagnosticados com embolia pulmonar. Métodos Cento e quarenta e oito indivíduos (70,3% de mulheres, n=104) com mais de 80 anos foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: tratamento trombolítico versus não-trombolítico. As taxas de mortalidade hospitalar e episódios de sangramento foram definidos como desfechos do estudo. Valor de p <0,05 foi considerado como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados A mortalidade hospitalar reduziu significativamente no grupo trombolítico em comparação ao não-trombolítico (10,5% vs. 24,2%; p=0,03). Episódios de sangramento menores foram mais comuns no braço que recebeu o tratamento trombolítico, mas grandes hemorragias não diferiram entre os grupos (35,1% vs. 13,2%, p<0,01; 7% vs. 5,5% p=0,71, respectivamente). O escore de PESI alto (OR: 1,03 IC95%; 1,01-1,04 p<0,01), a terapia trombolítica (OR: 0,15 IC95%; 0,01-0,25, p< 0,01) e níveis altos de troponina (OR: 1,20 IC95%; 1,01-1,43, p=0,03) estiveram independentemente associados a taxas de mortalidade hospitalar na análise de regressão multivariada. Conclusão A terapia trombolítica esteve associada à mortalidade hospitalar reduzida em detrimento do aumento geral das complicações de sangramento em octogenários.


Abstract Background Despite the high proportion of octogenarians with acute pulmonary embolism, there is little information indicating the optimal management strategy, mainly therapeutic measures, such as lytic therapy. Objectives The number of elderly patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism increases constantly. However, the role of thrombolytic treatment is not clearly defined among octogenarians. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of lytic therapy in octogenarian patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. Methods One hundred and forty eight subjects (70.3% women, n=104) aged more than eighty years were included in the study. The patients were divided in two groups: thrombolytic versus non-thrombolytic treatment. In-hospital mortality rates and bleeding events were defined as study outcomes. P-value <0.05 was considered as statistical significance. Results In-hospital mortality decreased significantly in the thrombolytic group compared to the non-thrombolytic group (10.5% vs. 24.2% p=0.03). Minor bleeding events were more common in the arm that received thrombolytic treatment, but major hemorrhage did not differ between the groups (35.1% vs. 13.2%, p<0.01; 7% vs. 5.5% p=0.71, respectively). High PESI score (OR: 1.03 95%CI; 1.01-1.04 p<0.01), thrombolytic therapy (OR: 0.15 95%CI; 0.01-0.25, p< 0.01) and high troponin levels (OR: 1.20 95%CI; 1.01-1.43, p=0.03) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality rates in the multivariate regression analysis. Conclusion Thrombolytic therapy was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality at the expense of increased overall bleeding complications in octogenarians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Body Composition , Weight Loss/physiology , Body Mass Index , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eRW6642, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy associated with standard medical treatment compared with standard medical treatment only to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods This was a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. An electronic search was performed in the following databases: MEDLINE ® /PubMed ® , Cochrane Library (Trials), LILACS/IBECS (via Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS)) and Embase. Complementary searches were also conducted. The selection of studies and data collection were done by two investigators independently. Results The final analysis included 16 publications related to 15 studies. The mechanical thrombectomy was associated to a reduction in the risk of death of all cause (16.81% versus 20.13%; relative risk of 0.85; p=0.04), improvement in the number of patients with functional independence after 90 days (45.65% versus 27.45%; relative risk of 1.65; p<0.01), and improvement in the rate of revascularization (76.2% versus 33.85%; relative risk of 2.20; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in terms of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (4.78% versus 3.88%; relative risk of 1.27; p=0.21). Conclusion Mechanical thrombectomy associated with standard medical treatment seem to be safe and effective to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke compared with standard medical treatment only.

10.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13: 1-6, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1395266

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar os fatores de risco associados ao déficit neurológico em pessoas vítimas de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo descritivo quantitativo realizado em um hospital no interior de Minas Gerais Brasil. Os dados foram coletados em 52 prontuários, através de um instrumento contendo variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e janelas de tempo de tratamento. Para avaliação do déficit neurológico utilizou-se National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Os testes de Shapiro-Wilk, Quiquadrado de Pearson, T Student e McNemar foram utilizados para a análise estatística. O nível de significância foi de 0,05. Resultados: Na admissão hospitalar houve prevalência do déficit neurológico moderado, e na alta hospitalar, o déficit neurológico leve. O valor do déficit neurológico na admissão hospitalar e alta hospitalar foram, respectivamente 13,10 (±7,2) e 7,58 (±8,3), p = (0,000). O período de internação foi de 7,78 dias para os indivíduos com déficit neurológico leve/moderado e 11,67 dias para déficit neurológico grave (p=0,044). O tempo de janela porta agulha foi 38 minutos nos pacientes com déficit neurológico leve/moderado e 55,3 minutos para o déficit neurológico grave (p=0,025). Conclusão: Destaca-se a influência da condição neurológica no tempo de internação e a importância do atendimento ágil por parte da equipe. (AU)


Objective: To identify the risk factors associated with neurological deficit in people who victims of ischemic stroke. Methods: This is a retrospective quantitative descriptive study carried out in a hospital in the interior of Minas Gerais Brazil. Data were collected from 52 medical records, using an instrument containing sociodemographic and clinical variables and treatment time windows. To assess neurological deficit, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was used. The Shapiro-Wilk, Pearson Chi- square, T Student and McNemar testes were used for statistical analysis. The significance level was 0,05. Results: At hospital admission there was a prevalence of moderate neurological deficit, and at hospital discharge, mild neurological deficit. Neurological deficit values at hospital admission and discharge werw respectively 13,10 (±7,2) and 7,58 (±8,3), p = (0,000). The hospital stay was 7,78 days for individuals with mild/moderate neurological deficit and 11,67 days for severe neurological deficit (p=0,044). The needle door window time was 38 minutes for patients with mild/moderate neurological deficit and 55,3 minutes for severe neurological deficit (p=0,025). Conclusion: The influence of the neurological condition on the length of stay and the importance of prompt care by the team are highlighted. (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados al déficit neurológico en personas víctimas de ictus isquémico. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo descriptivo retrospectivo realizado en un hospital del interior de Minas Gerais Brasil. Se recolectaron datos de 52 historias clínicas, utilizando un instrumento que contiene variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y ventanas de tiempo de tratamiento. Para evaluar el déficit neurológico, se utilizó la National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizaron las pruebas de Shapiro-Wilk, Chi-cuadrado de Pearson, T de Student y McNemar. El nivel de significancia fue 0.05. Resultados: al ingreso hospitalario prevaleció déficit neurológico moderado y al alta hospitalaria déficit neurológico leve. Los valores de déficit neurológico al ingreso y al alta hospitalaria fueron respectivamente 13,10 (± 7,2) y 7,58 (± 8,3), p = (0,000). La estancia hospitalaria fue de 7,78 días para individuos con déficit neurológico leve / moderado y de 11,67 días para déficit neurológico severo (p = 0,044). El tiempo de ventana de la puerta de la aguja fue de 38 minutos para pacientes con déficit neurológico leve / moderado y de 55,3 minutos para déficit neurológico severo (p = 0,025). Conclusión: Se destaca la influencia de la afección neurológica en la duración de la estadía y la importancia de una atención inmediata por parte del equipo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Stroke , Thrombolytic Therapy , Risk Factors , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
11.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(4): 189-196, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349890

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: El ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) es la segunda causa de muerte y tercera causa de discapacidad en el mundo. La trombólisis intravenosa, como tratamiento agudo del ACV isquémico ha demostrado reducir discapacidad y mortalidad; sin embargo, está directamente ligado al tiempo de administración y un adecuado programa hospitalario. Mediante este trabajo se evalúan los tiempos de atención en trombólisis intravenosa en el Hospital Universitario Departamental de Nariño E.S.E, como institución de referencia departamental en Colombia. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal retrospectivo, incluyó pacientes con ACV isquémico que recibieron trombólisis intravenosa entre 2014 y 2019. El análisis se realizó mediante estadísticos descriptivos, y frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Para evaluar las diferencias se dividió en tres periodos de atención. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 50 pacientes, con edad promedio 67,6 años, 58% hombres. En 70% se observó una disminución mayor a 3 puntos NIHSS post-trombólisis. El 58 % tuvo escala modificada Rankin (mRS) 0 a 1. Hubo una diferencia significativa entre las medianas del tiempo Puerta-TAC con 36,5 (n=10, 2014-2015 ), 34,5 (n=16, 2016-2017) y 16 minutos (n=24, 2018-2019). Y en el tiempo Puerta-Aguja fue de 154,8; 98,2 y 79,9 minutos en los mismos periodos. En 45,8% el tiempo Puerta-Aguja fue menor a 60 minutos en el tercer periodo. CONCLUSIONES: Se evidencia aumento del número de pacientes que reciben trombólisis intravenosa a través de los años evaluados, así como disminución en tiempo Puerta-TAC y Puerta-Aguja, como marcadores de mejoría en la atención clínica.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and third of disability in the world. Intravenous Thrombolysis as a treatment for acute ischemic stroke has been shown to reduce disability and mortality; however, it is directly linked to administration time and adequate stroke care attention. Through this work, the times of attention in thrombolysis are evaluated at the Hospital Universitario Departamental de Narino E.S.E, as a local reference institution in Colombia. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study included patients with ischemic stroke who received intravenous thrombolysis between 2014 and 2019. The analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and absolute and relative frequencies. To assess the differences, it was divided into three attention periods. RESULTS: 50 patients were evaluated, with an average age of 67.6 years, 58% men. In 70% a decrease greater than 3 NIHSS points was observed post-thrombolysis. The 58% had mRS 0-1. There was a difference between the medians in the Door-CT time with 36.5 (n = 10, 2014-2015), 34.5 (n = 16, 2016-2017) and 16 minutes (n = 24, 2018-2019). And in the Door-Needle time was 154.8; 98.2 and 79.9 minutes in the same periods. In 45.8%, the Door-Needle time was less than 60 minutes in the third period. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of an increase in the number of patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis throughout the years evaluated, as well as a decrease in Door-CT and Door-Needle times, as markers of improvement in clinical care.


Subject(s)
Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Stroke , Developing Countries
12.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 41-59, 13 oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342185

ABSTRACT

El tromboembolismo pulmonar es la manifestación más grave de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa y la tercera causa de mortalidad cardiovascular. Su sintomatología puede ir desde un cuadro asintomático o con síntomas leves, hasta el paro cardiaco. Dentro del enfoque de esta patología es importante tener en cuenta escalas que permiten estimar la probabilidad de que determinado paciente con ciertos signos, síntomas y factores de riesgo presente un tromboembolismo pulmonar, así como escalas diseñadas para valorar el riesgo de morir, en pacientes en los que ya se estableció este diagnóstico. Los pilares del tratamiento son la anticoagulación y la trombólisis, sin embargo, esta última está indicada únicamente en algunos casos. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo presentar una actualización de la evidencia sobre el enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico del tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo, desde el ingreso del paciente al servicio de urgencias.


Pulmonary embolism is the most severe manifestation of venous thromboembolic disease and the third cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its symptoms can range from asymp-tomatic or mild symptoms to cardiac arrest. The approach to patients with suspected pulmonary embolism includes scores that allow estimating the clinical probability that a certain patient with certain signs, symptoms and risk factors will present a pulmonary thromboembolism, as well as scores that classify patients by severity and risk of hemody-namic decompensation. Treatment is based on anticoagulation and thrombolysis, which is used only in certain patients. The goal of this review is to present updated evidence regarding diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism from the moment the patient arrives at the emergency room.


A embolia pulmonar é a manifestação mais grave da doença tromboembólica venosa e a terceira principal causa de mortalidade cardiovascular. Seus sintomas podem variar de sintomas assintomáticos ou leves a parada cardíaca. No enfoque desta patologia, é importante levar em consideração escalas que permitem estimar a probabilidade de um determinado paciente com determinados sinais, sintomas e fatores de risco apresentar tromboembolismo pulmonar, bem como escalas destinadas a avaliar o risco de morrer, em pacientes nos quais esse diagnóstico já foi estabelecido. Os pilares do tratamento são a anticoagulação e a trombólise, porém, esta última está indicada apenas em alguns casos. A presente revisão tem como objetivo apresentar uma atualização das evidências sobre a abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo, desde a admissão do paciente no pronto-socorro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5): 557-565, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Treatment time in the emergency room for acute myocardial infarction is very important and can be life-saving if one understands the importance of a patient's chest pain. Objetice: The aim of this study is to evaluate how much patients entering the emergency room due to acute myocardial infection (AMI) know about chest pain and thrombolytic therapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty patients (126 males,14 females) from three different institutes with complaints of chest pain were randomly chosen to participate in this study. The mean age of the patients was 55.4 ± 11.2 years (71+33). Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire consisting of 70 questions within the first seven days. All differences in categorical variables were computed using the χ2-test and Fisher Exact test. A two-tailed hypothesis was used in all statistical evaluations, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: It was observed that 17% of the patients came to the hospital within the first 30 minutes; 18.3% of them came to the hospital between 30 minutes and 1 hour; 27.5% of them came to the hospital between 1 hour and 3 hours; and 21.4% of them came to the hospital more than 6 hours after symptoms began. It was also observed that 68% of the patients were not aware of the AMI, and 96% of them had no prior knowledge of antithrombolytic therapy. Conclusion: Because the majority of the patients did not have enough information about AMI, a training program should be implemented to ensure that people to come to the hospital earlier. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Chest Pain , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Artery Disease , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hypothesis-Testing , Emergency Service, Hospital
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 15-25, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285243

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A intervenção coronária percutânea primária é considerada o "padrão-ouro" para reperfusão coronária. Entretanto, quando não disponível, a estratégia fármaco-invasiva é método alternativo, e o eletrocardiograma (ECG) tem sido utilizado para identificar sucesso na reperfusão. Objetivos Nosso estudo teve como objetivo examinar alterações no segmento-ST pós-lise e seu poder de prever a recanalização, usando os escores angiográficos TIMI e blush miocárdio (MBG) como critério de reperfusão ideal. Métodos Foram estudados 2.215 pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supra-ST submetidos à fibrinólise [(Tenecteplase)-TNK] e encaminhados para angiografia coronária em até 24 h pós-fibrinólise ou imediatamente encaminhados à terapia de resgate. O ECG foi realizado pré-TNK e 60 min-pós. Os pacientes foram categorizados em dois grupos: aqueles com reperfusão ideal (TIMI-3 e MBG-3) e aqueles com reperfusão inadequada (fluxo TIMI <3). Foi definido o critério de reperfusão do ECG pela redução do segmento ST >50%. Consideramos p-valor <0,05 para as análises, com testes bicaudais. Resultados O critério de reperfusão pelo ECG apresentou valor preditivo positivo de 56%; valor preditivo negativo de 66%; sensibilidade de 79%; e especificidade de 40%. Houve fraca correlação positiva entre a redução do segmento-ST e os dados angiográficos de reperfusão ideal (r = 0,21; p <0,001) e baixa precisão diagnóstica, com AUC de 0,60 (IC-95%; 0,57-0,62). Conclusão Em nossos resultados, a redução do segmento-ST não conseguiu identificar com precisão os pacientes com reperfusão angiográfica apropriada. Portanto, mesmo pacientes com reperfusão aparentemente bem-sucedida devem ser encaminhados à angiografia brevemente, a fim de garantir fluxo coronário macro e microvascular adequados.


Abstract Background Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is considered the "gold standard" for coronary reperfusion. However, when not available, the drug-invasive strategy is an alternative method and the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been used to identify reperfusion success. Objectives Our study aimed to assess ST-Segment changes in post-thrombolysis and their power to predict recanalization and using the angiographic scores TIMI-flow and Myocardial Blush Grade (MBG) as an ideal reperfusion criterion. Methods 2,215 patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) undergoing fibrinolysis [(Tenecteplase)-TNK] and referred to coronary angiography within 24 h post-fibrinolysis or immediately referred to rescue therapy were studied. The ECG was performed pre- and 60 min-post-TNK. The patients were categorized into 2 groups: those with ideal reperfusion (TIMI-3 and MBG-3) and those with inadequate reperfusion (TIMI and MBG <3). The ECG reperfusion criterion was defined by the reduction of the ST-Segment >50%. A p-value <0.05 was considered for the analyses, with bicaudal tests. Results The ECG reperfusion criterion showed a positive predictive value of 56%; negative predictive value of 66%; sensitivity of 79%; and specificity of 40%. There was a weak positive correlation between ST-Segment reduction and ideal reperfusion angiographic data (r = 0.21; p <0.001) and low diagnostic accuracy, with an AUC of 0.60 (95%CI: 0.57-0.62). Conclusion The ST-Segment reduction was not able to accurately identify patients with adequate angiographic reperfusion. Therefore, even patients with apparently successful reperfusion should be referred to angiography soon, to ensure adequate macro and microvascular coronary flow.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography , Fibrinolysis
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 382-388, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346473

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se realizó un estudio unicéntrico retrospectivo para evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de trombolisis dirigida por catéter (TDC) en pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo (TEP) de 2014 a 2020. Se analizó la efectividad (mejoría de presión pulmonar), y seguridad (sangrado intracraneal y grave definido por compromiso hemodinámico). Se incluyeron 43 pacientes, de 67(56-79) años, 5 (12%) con shock, 41 (95%) con dilatación del ventrículo derecho y TEP bilateral. La decis ión de TDC fue: tratamiento inicial (53%), escalada de anticoagulación (42%) y rescate de trombolisis sistémica (5%). Se utilizó TDC facilitada por ultrasonido en 40 casos (93%), utilizándose 30 (25-35) mg de activador tisular del plasminógeno recombinante (rtPA) durante 20 h. Se administró un bolo de rtPA en 38 (89%) casos, que fue 5 mg (95%) o 1 mg (5%). Se utilizó un solo catéter por paciente. En 4 (9%) se decidió recolocación (mismo pulmón) para continuar infusión en otro sector. Se observó una disminución significativa de la presión media pulmonar (pre 35 [29-41] mmHg vs. post 24 [20-34] mmHg, p<0.001). No se observó ningún caso de hemorragia intracraneal, y un caso (2%) de sangrado grave. Se observó hematoma del sitio de punción en 5 (12%) (incluyendo el sangrado grave), y requirió transfusiones en 3 (7%). La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue 12%, siendo un solo c aso (2%) atribuido al TEP. El tratamiento con TDC fue efectivo asociándose a una reducción significativa de la presión pulmonar, sin observarse ningún sangrado intracraneal y con un sangrado grave. Nuestros resultados se asemejan a lo publicado en otros estudios.


Abstract We performed a single center retrospective study in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) undergoing catheter directed thrombolysis (CDT) from 2014 to 2020. Efficacy was defined by mean pulmonary pressure drop, and safety was assessed by intracranial and severe bleeding (defined by GUSTO). Forty-three patients were included, aged 64 (56-79) years old, 5 (12%) with shock, most with right ventricle dilation (95%) and bilateral PE (95%) or unilateral (5%) in patients with only one functional lung. CDT was used as first treatment (53%), upscale after anticoagulation alone (42%), or after failed systemic thrombolytics (5%). Median recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) dose was 30 (25-35) mg over 20 (20-20) hours, and rtPA bolus was used after catheter placement in 38 cases (89%), consisting of 5 mg (95%) or 1 mg (5%). Only one lung was treated for technical reasons, and 4 (9%) were repositioned in the same lung for continuation of infusion. A significant reduction in mean pulmonary pressure was observed (pre 35 [29-41] mmHg vs. post 24 [20-34] mmHg, p<0.001) with no intracranial bleeding. One patient (2%) experienced severe bleeding, while 5 (12%) presented access site bleeding, and 3 (7%) required blood transfusions. In-hospital mortality was 12% but only one case (2%) due to PE. Our results are similar to previously reported studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Plasminogen Activators/therapeutic use , Thrombolytic Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Catheters , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(2): 167-177, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248781

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the myocardial infarction treatment network and compare in-hospital mortality in patients undergoing either primary angioplasty or pharmacoinvasive strategy in Mexico City and a broad metropolitan area. Methods: Cohort study including patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. We recorded demographic and clinical data, laboratory tests and in-hospital mortality in patients that underwent primary angioplasty and pharmacoinvasive strategy. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess mortality and Cox-regression assessed mortality risk factors. Results: Three hundred forty patients from a network of 60 hospitals and 9 states were analyzed. Of the total population, 166 were treated with pharmacoinvasive strategy and 174 with primary angioplasty. Door to thrombolytic time was 54 min and door to wire crossing time was 72.5 min; no differences in total ischemia time were demonstrated. No differences for in-hospital mortality (6.3% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.49) were found when comparing pharmacoinvasive and primary angioplasty groups. The main predictors for in-hospital mortality were: glucose > 180 mg/dl (HR 3.73), total ischemia time > 420 min (HR 3.18), heart rate > 90 bpm (HR 5.46), Killip and Kimball > II (HR 11.03), and left ventricle ejection fraction < 40% (HR 3.21). Conclusions: This myocardial infarction network covers a large area and constitutes one of the biggest in the world. There were no differences regarding in-hospital mortality between pharmacoinvasive strategy and primary angioplasty. Pharmacoinvasive strategy is an effective and safe option for prompt reperfusion in Mexico.


Resumen Objetivo: Describir la red de atención de infarto agudo de miocardio y comparar los desenlaces intrahospitalarios en pacientes tratados con angioplastía coronaria o estrategia farmacoinvasiva en la Ciudad de México y su área metropolitana. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte que incluyó pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST. Se recabaron datos demográficos y clínicos, así como estudios de laboratorio y mortalidad intrahospitalaria en los pacientes que fueron tratados con angioplastía coronaria o estrategia farmacoinvasiva. Se realizó un análisis de Kaplan-Meier para describir la mortalidad y un modelo de regresión de Cox para evaluar los factores asociados a mortalidad. Resultados: Se analizaron 340 pacientes provenientes de una red compuesta por 60 hospitales. Del total de la población, 166 fueron tratados con estrategia farmacoinvasiva y 174 con angioplastía primaria. El tiempo puerta-aguja fue 54 min. y el tiempo puerta-dispositivo de 72.5 min.; no se encontraron diferencias en el tiempo total de isquemia. Además, no existieron diferencias en la mortalidad intrahospitalaria (6.3% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.49) al comparar la estrategia farmacoinvasiva y la angioplastía primaria. Los principales predictores de mortalidad intrahospitalaria fueron: glucosa > 180 mg/dl (HR 3.73), tiempo total de isquemia > 420 min. (HR 3.18), frecuencia cardiaca > 90 lpm (HR 5.46), Killip and Kimball > II (HR 11.03) y fracción de eyección < 40% (HR 3.21). Conclusiones: En esta red de atención al infarto agudo de miocardio no se encontraron diferencias en la mortalidad intrahospitalaria entre la estrategia farmacoinvasiva y la angioplastia primaria. La estrategia farmacoinvasiva puede ser una alternativa efectiva y segura para lograr reperfusión adecuada en México.

18.
Rev. enferm. neurol ; 20(2): 115-125, may.-ago. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368337

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el tratamiento con activador recombinante del plasminógeno tisular (siglas en inglés rt-PA), aplicado vía intravenosa (IV) es el procedimiento de primera línea en casos de evento vascular cerebral (EVC) en una ventana de 4,5 horas a partir del inicio de los síntomas y con bajo riesgo de transformación hemorrágica del infarto cerebral. El personal de enfermería es un elemento clave para el tratamiento de las personas que han padecido un EVC y se encuentra en su etapa aguda. La fibrinólisis con alteplasa (rt-PA) se ha establecido como tratamiento de primera línea para los casos de ictus isquémico, la administración de este fármaco, control y seguimiento de estos pacientes idealmente debe realizarse por el personal de enfermería en las unidades de ictus. Objetivo: investigar el nivel de conocimiento del personal de enfermería en la administración del activador recombinante del plasminógeno tisular (rt-PA) en el servicio de urgencias en una institución de tercer nivel. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en el Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez de la Ciudad de México, con un muestreo por conveniencia, participaron 33 profesionales de enfermería que laboran en el servicio de urgencias, se observaron las 24 horas del día. Se tomó en cuenta a enfermeras de todas las categorías, excluyendo a personal médico, camilleros y enfermeras suplentes. Se aplicó un instrumento para evaluar el conocimiento sobre enfermedad vascular isquémica e intervenciones de enfermería en el cuidado inmediato y mediato en la administración del fármaco activador tisular de plasminógeno (rt-PA). Resultados: llama la atención que sólo 58 % del personal de enfermería conozca el tiempo vital para recuperar al cerebro, otro dato que alarma es que el 30 % no tiene claro el concepto de ictus y al ser una institución de especialidad neurológica de debe establecer un programa de capacitación para establecer intervenciones oportunas con (rt-PA) para reducir secuelas o daño neurológico. Discusión: el papel del personal de enfermería en unidades especializadas en afecciones neurológicas a los pacientes con ictus es proporcionar un cuidado de calidad, eficaz y eficiente, además de participar en la valoración integral del paciente y en la administración del actilyse cuando se trata de una terapia fibrinolítica. En consecuencia, la enfermera debe estar formada sobre los cuidados que requiere este tipo de pacientes, las complicaciones propias de la patología, tratamiento y efectos secundarios del mismo. Proponer un plan de cuidados integral, porque ya el personal tiene conocimientos al respecto de la enfermedad y la aplicación del activador tisular, pero sería interesante implementar para los profesionales en formación, sin olvidar la elaboración de una propuesta como guía de actuación. Conclusión: los cuidados que el personal de enfermería lleva a cabo deben ser especializados en constante actualización y capacitación para ser capaces de detectar y prevenir las complicaciones del proceso patológico y tratamiento.


Introduction: recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy, given intravenously (IV), is the first-line procedure in cases of cerebral vascular event (CVE) within 4.5 hours of symptom onset and with low risk of haemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarction. Nurses are a key element in the management of people who have suffered a stroke and are in the acute stage. Fibrinolysis with alteplase (rt-PA) has been established as the first-line treatment for ischaemic stroke, and the administration of this drug, control and follow-up of these patients should ideally be carried out by nurses in stroke units. Objective: to investigate the level of nursing staff knowledge in the administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in the emergency department of a tertiary care institution. Material and methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out at the Manuel Velasco Suárez National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Mexico City, with convenience sampling. 33 nursing professionals working in the emergency department participated, and 24 hours a day were observed. All categories of nurses were considered, excluding medical staff, orderlies and substitute nurses. An instrument was used to assess knowledge of ischaemic vascular disease and nursing interventions in immediate and intermediate care in the administration of tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Results: It is striking that only 58 % of nursing staff are aware of the vital time to recover the brain, another alarming fact is that 30 % are not clear about the concept of stroke and, being a neurological speciality institution, a training programme should be established to establish timely interventions with (rt-PA) to reduce sequelae or neurological damage. Discussion: the role of nurses in units specialising in neurological disorders in stroke patients is to provide quality, effective and efficient care, in addition to participating in the comprehensive assessment of the patient and in the administration of actilyse in the case of fibrinolytic therapy. Consequently, the nurse must be trained in the care required by this type of patient, the complications of the pathology, treatment and its side effects. Propose a comprehensive care plan, because the staff already has knowledge of the disease and the application of the tissue activator, but it would be interesting to implement it for professionals in training, without forgetting the development of a proposal as a guide for action. Conclusion: the care carried out by nursing staff must be specialised and constantly updated and trained in order to be able to detect and prevent complications of the pathological process and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thrombolytic Therapy , Stroke , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Nursing Care
20.
Acta méd. colomb ; 46(1): 14-19, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278150

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: se describe la experiencia de un programa de trombólisis para ataque cerebro-vascular isquémico en un hospital público colombiano de tercer nivel. Objetivos: caracterizar los pacientes que recibieron trombólisis intravenosa por ataque cerebro-vascular isquémico en la institución hospitalaria entre enero de 2014 y junio de 2019. Material y métodos: estudio observacional retrospectivo, a partir de la revisión de historias clínicas. Resultados: se incluyeron 156 pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 66.1 años y 50.6% fueron mujeres. Sólo 28.8% provenían de Tunja. La hipertensión arterial fue el factor de riesgo más prevalente. El tiempo promedio de estancia fue de ocho días (DE 7.7) y el tiempo promedio de ventana fue de 2.8 horas (DE 1.29). El puntaje NIHSS promedio de ingreso fue 12.4 (DE 5) y el de egreso de 4.8 (DE 4.48). La tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue 14.7% y la tasa de transformación hemorrágica de 10.9%. El tiempo puerta-aguja promedio fue de 62.8 minutos (DE 42.95) y el tiempo puerta-imagen promedio de 23.5 minutos (DE 27.42). Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos contribuyen a robustecer los datos epidemiológicos sobre los programas de trombólisis en el ataque cerebrovascular isquémico en Colombia y Latinoamérica. La distribución geográfica de la población de este estudio realza la importancia de la construcción de redes de trombólisis y la utilización de herramientas como la telemedicina.


Abstract Introduction: the experience of a thrombolysis program for ischemic cerebrovascular accidents in a Colombian public tertiary care hospital is described. Objectives: to characterize patients who received intravenous thrombolysis due to an ischemic cerebrovascular accident in this hospital between January 2014 and June 2019. Materials and methods: a retrospective observational study based on a chart review. Results: 156 patients were included. The average age was 66.1 years, and 50.6% were women. Only 28.8% were from Tunja. Arterial hypertension was the most prevalent risk factor. The average length of stay was eight days (SD 7.7), and the average window period was 2.8 hours (SD 1.29). The average NIHSS score on admission was 12.4 (SD 5) and at discharge was 4.8 (SD 4.48). The inpatient mortality rate was 14.7%, and the rate of hemorrhagic transformation was 10.9%. The average door-to-needle time was 62.8 minutes (SD 42.95), and the average door-to-imaging time was 23.5 minutes (SD 27.42). Conclusions: The results obtained contribute to strengthening the epidemiological data on thrombolysis programs for ischemic cerebrovascular accidents in Colombia and Latin America. The geographical distribution of the study population highlights the importance of constructing thrombolysis networks and using tools like telemedicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Stroke , South America , Therapeutics , Program Evaluation , Thrombolytic Therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL