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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 50-57, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364302

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: A primary medical relevance of thyroid nodules consists of excluding thyroid cancer, present in approximately 5% of all thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a paramount role in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules due to its availability and diagnostic performance. Nevertheless, intraoperative frozen section (iFS) is still advocated as a valuable tool for surgery planning, especially for indeterminate nodules. Subjects and methods: To compare the FNAB and iFS performances in thyroid cancer diagnosis among nodules in Bethesda Categories (BC) I to VI. The performance of FNAB and iFS tests were calculated using final histopathology results as the gold standard. Results: In total, 316 patients were included in the analysis. Both FNAB and iFS data were available for 272 patients (86.1%). The overall malignancy rate was 30.4%% (n = 96). The FNAB sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for benign (BC II) and malignant (BC V and VI) were 89.5%, 97.1%, and 94.1%, respectively. For all nodules evaluated, the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80.9%, 100%, and 94.9%, respectively. For indeterminate nodules and follicular lesions (BC III and IV), the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 25%, 100%, and 88.7%, respectively. For BC I nodules, iFS had 95.2% of accuracy. Conclusion: Our results do not support routine iFS for indeterminate nodules or follicular neoplasms (BC III and IV) due to its low sensitivity. In these categories, iFS is not sufficiently accurate to guide the intraoperative management of thyroidectomies. iFS for BC I nodules could be an option and should be specifically investigated


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Frozen Sections/methods
2.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 85(4): 83-90, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356978

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo. Evaluar retrospectivamente la capacidad diagnóstica de la elastografía cuantitativa para determinar la posibilidad de malignidad o benignidad de los nódulos tiroideos benignos y malignos, y determinar su utilidad para así decidir qué nódulos deberán ser sometidos a punción aspirativa con aguja fina (PAAF). Pacientes y métodos. Se analizaron 203 nódulos tiroideos de 195 pacientes remitidos por el Servicio de Endocrinología para estudio citológico durante el año 2018. A todos ellos se les realizó ecografía convencional, elastografía cuantitativa y PAAF. Se realizó un análisis estadístico mediante regresión logística, que pone en relación la probabilidad de que un nódulo sea sospecho de malignidad y el valor de la elasticidad medido en kilopascales (kPa) y el ratio elastográfico. Resultados. Existe una relación significativa y positiva entre el resultado citológico de Bethesda V/VI y los kPas/ratio elastográfico. Se recomienda realizar PAAF a aquellos nódulos con valores superiores a 25kPa y/o ratio elastográfico superior a 1,5. Conclusión. La elastografía cuantitativa es una herramienta útil que, junto a otros parámetros ecográficos, ayudaría a predecir o sospechar la malignidad de un nódulo tiroideo y a una mejor selección para la PAAF.


Abstract: Objective. To retrospectively assess the diagnostic capacity of quantitative elastography to determine the odds between benign and malignant thyroid nodules, and determine its usefulness in deciding which nodules should be subjected to fine needle aspiration puncture (FNA). Patients and methods. 203 thyroid nodules from 195 patients referred by the Endocrinology Service for cytological study during the year 2018 were analyzed. All of them underwent conventional ultrasound, quantitative elastography and FNA. A statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression that relates the probability that a nodule is suspected of malignancy and the elasticity value measured inkilopascals (kPa) and the elastographic ratio. Results. There is a significant and positive relationship between the cytological result of Bethesda V / VI and the kPas / elastographic ratio. FNA is recommended for those nodules with values greater than 25kPa and / or elastographic ratio greater than 1.5. Conclusion. Quantitative elastography is a useful tool that, together with other ultrasound parameters, would help to predict the malignancy of a thyroid nodule and to better select for FNA.

3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 336-341, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285154

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine sonographic features of malignancy in partially cystic thyroid nodules and assess the diagnostic efficacy of these features for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions in the nodules with indeterminate cytology. Subjects and methods: From January 2016 to December 2017, a total of 91 patients with 94 partially cystic thyroid nodules who had undergone ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and thyroid surgery in our hospital were included in this study. The sonographic features of the thyroid nodules were analyzed to identify the predictive features of malignancy and assess the diagnostic efficacy of these features. Results: The features of hypoechogenicity, microcalcification, composition, and an eccentric solid component with an acute angle had statistically significant associations with malignant nodule (p<005) by univariable analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that microcalcification and hypoechogenicity were significantly associated with malignancy. Using the combination of microcalcification, hypoechogenicity, and a solid component comprising of greater than or equal to 50% of the total volume, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were 97.6%, 32.7%, 53.9%, and 94.4%, respectively. In these nodules with indeterminate cytology, this combination also exhibited a high sensitivity of 92.3% and an NPV of 83.3%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that microcalcification and hypoechogenicity were independently associated with malignancy in partially cystic thyroid nodules. The combination of microcalcification, hypoechogenicity, and a solid portion that is greater than or equal to 50% of the total volume will help guide clinical decisions in mixed cystic solid nodules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2739-2747, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156771

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la citología con aguja fina se mantiene como el estudio fundamental ante un nódulo tiroideo, pero el diagnóstico de neoplasia folicular es aún su punto débil para definirlo. Se mantiene como conducta su extirpación quirúrgica para alcanzarlo. Objetivo: determinar la correlación citopatológica en las neoplasias foliculares del tiroides. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo que incluyó a 80 pacientes operados con diagnóstico citológico de neoplasia folicular del tiroides, en el Hospital "Comandante Faustino Pérez" de la ciudad de Matanzas, de marzo del 2012 a febrero del 2016. Se evaluaron las variables: edad, sexo, tamaño, localización, número de nódulos y diagnóstico histológico definitivo. Resultados: predominaron las lesiones benignas con 56 para el 70 % dentro de ellas, los bocios multinodulares con 33,75 % y los adenomas foliculares con el 31,25 %. Los tumores malignos ocuparon el 30 %. El carcinoma papilar, variedad folicular con 12 para el 15 %, seguido del carcinoma papilar clásico con 10 para el 12,50 %. Conclusiones: el porcentaje de malignidad de este estudio fue del 30 % con predominio del carcinoma papilar variedad folicular y el carcinoma papilar clásico. Entre las lesiones benignas predominaron los bocios multinodulares y los adenomas foliculares (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: fine needle cytology is still the main study against a thyroidal nodule, but the follicular neoplasia diagnosis is still its weak point to define it. The surgical removal keeps being used to reach it. Objective: to determine the cytopathological correlation in follicular thyroid neoplasia. Materials and methods: a prospective, descriptive study was carried out including 80 patient with diagnosis of follicular thyroid neoplasia in the Hospital "Comandante Faustino Pérez" of Matanzas, who underwent a surgery from March 2012 to February 2016. The assessed variables were age, sex, size, location, quantity of nodes and final histological diagnosis. Results: benign lesions predominated, with 56 for 70 %; among them, multinodular goiters with 33.75 % and follicular adenomas with 31.25 %. Malignant tumors were 30 %: papillary carcinoma, follicular variety with 12 for 15 %, followed by the classical papillary carcinoma with 10 for 12.50 % Conclusions: the malignity percent of this study was 30 % with the predominance of the papillary carcinoma, follicular variant and the classic papillary carcinoma. Multinodular goiters and follicular adenomas predominated among the benign lesions (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenoma , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Goiter, Nodular
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911412

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the correlation between serum claudin-1(Cla-1) level and the risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC) in patients with thyroid nodules.Methods:The clinical data of 345 patients with thyroid nodules were retrospectively analyzed. According to the pathological results, they were divided into PTC group and benign thyroid nodule(BTN) group. The difference of serum Cla-1 level between 2 groups and its correlation with the risk of PTC were analyzed.Results:In groups of PTC( n=225) and BTN( n=120), the median value of serum Cla-1 level was 14.03(10.30, 20.40) ng/mL. The differences in the median value[17.90(14.00, 22.93)ng/mL vs 9.40(8.15, 11.20) ng/mL] of serum Cla-1 level in the PTC and BTN were statistically significant by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The prevalence of PTC in thyroid nodules increased gradually with increasing of serum Cla-1 level. Receiver operated characteristic curve analysis showed that the best diagnostic cut-off value of the PTC was 13.02 ng/ml of which the sensitivity was 81.8%, the specificity was 89.2%, and the area under curve(AUC) was the largest(AUC=0.944, P<0.01, 95% CI 0.922-0.965). Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated serum Cla-1 level increased the risk of PTC, and it was statistically significant( OR=4.334, 95% CI 1.662-11.303, P=0.003). There was a significant correlation among the serum Cla-1 level and gender, age, location of involvement, number and diameter of cancer nodules, extracapsular invasion of thyroid, lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and combined with Hashimoto′s thyroiditis( P<0.01). Conclusion:The serum level of Cla-1 may be one of risk factors to predict PTC, and it is related to the total amount of PTC tumor cells in vivo, but it was not related to the aggressive behavior of tumor.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910836

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the consistency and diagnostic efficiency of Chinese Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Date System (C-TIRADS) in thyroid nodule evaluation by different seniority sonographers.Methods:The preoperative ultrasonographic datum of 134 thyroid nodules in 112 patients from January to November 2020 were independently analyzed by sonographers with different seniority. According to the C-TIRADS guidelines, the C-TIRADS ultrasonographic indicators of each nodule were recorded and C-TIRADS classification was performed. Cohen′s Kappa (K) statistical method was used to analyze the consistency of ultrasonic indicators evaluated by different seniority sonographers. Using postoperative pathological results as the gold standard, the diagnostic efficacy of C-TIRADS classification for differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules by junior and senior sonographers was calculated respectively, and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn respectively.Results:The solid structure and vertical orientation of thyroid nodule judged by different seniority sonographers were very consistent ( K=0.84, 0.81). The consistencies of very hypoechoic and microcalcifications were substantial agreement ( K=0.80, 0.61), and moderate ( K=0.531) for the margin of the nodules. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of distinguishing benign and malignant thyroid nodules by junior and senior sonographers were 91.8%, 65.8%, 77.6%, 69.1%, 90.6% and 96.7%, 67.1%, 80.6%, 71.1%, 96.1%, respectively. The corresponding area under the ROC curves were 0.788 and 0.819, respectively ( Z=1.369, P=0.171). Conclusion:Ultrasonologists with different experience have good consistency in evaluating the C-TIRADS ultrasonic indicators of thyroid nodule, and the diagnostic efficacy of C-TIRADS classification in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodule was similar.

7.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 718-723, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909084

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the detection rate and related factors of thyroid nodules in people with abnormal lipid metabolism.Methods:From September 4, 2016 to February 1, 2017, community residents living in Lanzhou City, Longnan City, Dingxi City and Linxia City of Gansu Province for more than 5 years were selected as the respondents. General data were recorded, venous blood was collected, blood lipid related biochemical indexes were detected, and thyroid ultrasound was performed. By comparing the general data and biochemical indexes, the detection of abnormal lipid metabolism and thyroid nodules were analyzed, and the risk factors of thyroid nodules in people with abnormal lipid metabolism were analyzed by logistic regression.Results:Two thousand and fifty-nine residents were included in this study (1 049 males and 1 010 females). The total detection rate of thyroid nodules was 23.17% (477/2 059). The detection rate of thyroid nodules in people with abnormal lipid metabolism [34.16%(151/442)] was significantly higher than that in people with normal lipid metabolism [20.16% (326/1 617) , P < 0.01], and the detection rate of thyroid nodules of women [43.37% (85/196) ] was higher than that of men [26.83% (66/246) , P < 0.01]. Among the people with abnormal lipid metabolism, the highest detection rate of thyroid nodules was in mixed hyperlipidemia [57.14% (16/28)], followed by hypertriglyceridemia [34.59% (92/266)]. The detection rates of thyroid nodules in the groups with elevated total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels [35.16% (32/91), 34.85% (23/66)] were higher than those in the marginal elevated group [27.04%(86/318), 30.42% (73/240)] and the normal groups [21.76% (359/1 650), 21.73% (381/1 753), P < 0.05]. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of thyroid nodules in people with abnormal lipid metabolism were increased age, elevated fasting blood glucose (FPG), elevated blood glucose 2 hours (2 h PG) after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) load and elevated glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c, odds ratio ( OR)=1.065, 1.387, 1.866, 1.384, P < 0.05]. Conclusions:The prevalence of TN is higher in populations with abnormal lipid metabolism. The control of blood sugar and blood lipid levels may play a role in the prevention of thyroid nodules.

8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 625-631, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345189

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the association of clinical, anatomical, and ultrasound (US) characteristics of malignancies in Bethesda III or IV (III-B or IV-B) thyroid nodules. Subjects and methods: The association between malignancies and the following variables were analyzed: III-B or IV-B, age < 55 years and ≥ 55 years, sex, family history of thyroid cancer, history of irradiation, nodule size, and ACR TI-RADS classification in 62 participants who underwent thyroidectomy. Results: Of the 62 participants, 87.1% (54/62) were women, 74.2% were < 55 years old, 95.2% had no family history of thyroid cancer, 56.5% had nodules < 2 cm in size, 62.9% were IV-B, and 69.4% were ACR TI-RADS 4. Thirty-two patients had thyroid carcinoma, and 30 had benign histology. Among all factors associated with malignancy, only ACR TI-RADS 5 classification on US was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.014), while III-B with architectural atypia cytological classification was the only one significantly associated with benign status (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Only a high risk of malignancy as assessed using US was able to refine the indication for molecular tests in a group of patients with indeterminate nodules. We found 85% (53/62) of III-B or IV-B thyroid nodules would benefit from available molecular diagnostic tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/genetics , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Pathology, Molecular , Middle Aged
9.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(6): 735-742, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142191

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Ultrasonography (US) is the most accurate and cost-effective imaging method in diagnosis of thyroid nodules. A practical thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) for thyroid nodules has been proposed to classify nodules of the thyroid gland to solve the problem of nodule selection for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Real-time elastography and strain ratio (SR) is a method used to assess the stiffness and predict the malignancy of thyroid nodules. The objective of this study was to assess the role of elastography and SR and the TIRADS scoring system in discriminating malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: From 2015 to 2018 at Cairo University Hospital, a series of 409 patients with thyroid nodules was referred to undergo thyroid ultrasound. Categorization of each nodule according to the TIRADS ranged from 1 to 5. The qualitative elastography score and semiquantitative SR of the nodules were evaluated. Final diagnosis was done by either post-thyroidectomy histopathological examination or US-guided FNAC. Results: Our study included 409 patients with thyroid nodules. Their mean age was 39 ± 10 SD; 36 were males and 373 were females. There were 22 malignant nodules and 387 benign nodules. There were statistical differences between benign and malignant nodules regarding TIRADS classification, SR, anteroposterior/transverse ratio, degree of echogenicity, border, presence of calcification, and absence of halo sign (P < 0.001). The elastic properties of thyroid nodules proved to be a good discriminator between malignant and benign nodules (P- < 0.001) at a cut off value of > 2.32 with 95.2% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. For every unit increase in SR, the risk of malignancy increased by nearly 2 times. Patients with irregular borders had nearly 17 times increased risk of malignancy than those with regular borders. Conclusion: Elastography and SR proved to be of high significant value in discriminating benign from malignant nodules, so we recommend adding it to the TIRADS classification.

10.
Más Vita ; 2(4): 80-87, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1373018

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia del nódulo tiroideo (NT) en la población general es de entre el 2 al 7% por palpación y de 19 a 76% por ultrasonido. Su incidencia es más alta con la edad, en personas provenientes de áreas con deficiencia de yodo, en mujeres, y después de exposición a radiación. Objetivo: Estudiar distintas fuentes bibliográficas para así establecer la importancia del uso práctico de la clasificación TI-RADS en el nódulo tiroideo. Metodología: Se constituye en una investigación de carácter documental, tanto bibliográfica como digital. Resultados: La importancia del estudio del nódulo tiroideo radica en la necesidad de excluir cáncer, por lo cual, todo nódulo tiroideo >1cm debe ser evaluado. Los nódulos <1cm serán sospechosos cuando se encuentren asociados a factores de riesgo y en presencia de hallazgos ultrasonográficos sugestivos de malignidad. La clasificación TI-RADS de los NT basada en un sistema de puntuación acorde a los criterios ecográficos más relevantes de malignidad tiene una mejor y más fácil aplicación en la práctica diaria. Conclusión: Según los criterios de malignidad y la puntuación asignada en este estudio, la posibilidad de que un NT con un punto en la escala sea maligno es de aproximadamente un 10%, mientras que la probabilidad para aquellos con dos puntos es casi del 50% y para los valorados con tres o cuatro puntos del 85%. Todos los NT con 5 o más puntos son malignos. El presente artículo resume una comparación de referencias bibliográficas para actualización y aplicación de la clasificación TIRADS(AU)


The prevalence of the thyroid nodule (TN) in the general population is between 2 to 7% by palpation and from 19 to 76% by ultrasound. Its incidence is higher with age, in people from iodine-deficient areas, in women, and after exposure to radiation. Objective: To study different bibliographic sources in order to establish the importance of the practical use of the TI-RADS classification in the thyroid nodule. Methodology: It constitutes a documentary research, both bibliographic and digital. Results: The importance of studying the thyroid nodule lies in the need to exclude cancer, therefore, any thyroid nodule> 1cm should be evaluated. Nodules <1cm will be suspicious when associated with risk factors and in the presence of ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy. The TI-RADS classification of NTs based on a scoring system according to the most relevant ultrasound criteria of malignancy has a better and easier application in daily practice. Conclusion: According to the malignancy criteria and the score assigned in this study, the possibility that a TN with one point on the scale is malignant is approximately 10%, while the probability for those with two points is almost 50% and for those valued with three or four points of 85%. All TNs with 5 or more points are malignant. This article summarizes a comparison of bibliographic references for updating and applying the TIRADS classification(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Iodine Deficiency , Thyroid Nodule , Methodology as a Subject , Palpation , Radiation , Diagnostic Imaging , Risk Factors
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(4): 356-361, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study aims to determine the cost effectiveness of rapid frozen section (RFS) for indeterminate thyroid nodules. Materials and methods A retrospective chart review was conducted between January 2009 and June 2013 at a tertiary care institution. Main outcomes were number needed to treat, RFS efficacy, and cost-savings of avoiding second completion thyroidectomy. Cost-effectiveness was estimated using 2015 Medicare reimbursement rate. Results Out of 1,114 patients undergoing thyroid surgery, 314 had preoperative AUS/FLUS cytopathology and subsequent thyroid lobectomy with RFS. RFS identified 13 of the 32 patients with malignancy resulting in a total thyroidectomy. 19 of the 29 malignancies not detected by RFS were papillary microcarcinomas. Conclusions Completion thyroidectomy was avoided in 1 out of every 24 patients resulting in cost-savings of $ 80.04 per patient. In the era of outpatient thyroid surgery, intraoperative RFS for indeterminate thyroid nodules is cost-effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Nodule , Thyroidectomy , United States , Thyroid Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Medicare , Cost-Benefit Analysis
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862533

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence of thyroid nodules in the physical examination population in Shenyang, and analyze its related risk factors. Methods Between January 2015 and May 2019, 920 people who underwent thyroid ultrasound examination in the medical examination center of our hospital were enrolled, and their clinical data were collected. The prevalence of thyroid nodules and the related risk factors influencing the disease were statistically analyzed. Results The prevalence of thyroid nodules in the 920 people who underwent physical examination was 44.02% (405/920), including 38.13% (212/556) in males and 53.02% (193/364) in females, with the prevalence rate gradually increasing with age (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female, old age, obesity, permanent residence in rural areas, high TG, high FPG, and combined metabolic syndrome were high risk factors for thyroid nodules (P<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of thyroid nodules in the physical examination population in Shenyang was relatively high, which was related to age, gender, BMI, residence, and glucose and lipid metabolism. It is necessary to strengthen prevention and publicity and disease screening for high-risk groups to improve the prevention and treatment of thyroid nodules.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837753

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the efficacy of AI-SONICTM Thyroid system, a version 2.0 artificial intelligence (AI) automatic detection system, in the preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and to evaluate the application value of AI automatic detection system version 2.0 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules by comparing with the subjective diagnosis conclusions of sonographers with different seniorities. Methods A total of 247 patients (325 thyroid nodules) admitted to the Department of General Surgery in our hospital from Aug. 2019 to Jan. 2020 were selected for this study. All patients underwent routine ultrasound examinations by a senior sonographer with 13 years of experience in thyroid ultrasound diagnosis and a junior sonographer with 4 years of work experience. At the same time, the patients were also examined by another sonographer with 20 years of work experience using AI automatic detection system version 2.0, without knowing the diagnosis conclusions of the above two sonographers. Kappa test was used to evaluate the consistency of the results of routine ultrasound examination of sonographers with different seniorities and AI automatic detection system version 2.0 and the postoperative pathological results. Results The postoperative pathology confirmed 229 malignant nodules and 96 benign nodules. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules were 85.15% (195/229), 66.67% (64/96) and 79.69% (259/325), 93.45% (214/229), 79.17% (76/96) and 89.23% (290/325), and 92.58% (212/229), 71.88% (69/96) and 86.46% (281/325) for junior sonographer, senior sonographer and AI automatic detection system version 2.0, respectively. The Kappa consistency test results showed that the diagnosis result of senior sonographer was highly consistent with the pathological diagnosis result (Kappa value 0.78, P<0.01), while the diagnosis results of junior sonographer and AI automatic detection system version 2.0 were generally consistent with the pathological diagnosis result (Kappa values 0.55 and 0.74, both P<0.01). Conclusion The sensitivity, accuracy and specificity of the AI automatic detection system version 2.0 AI-SONICTM Thyroid in diagnosing benign and malignant thyroid nodules are similar to those of routine ultrasound examination by senior sonographers, and the system might be a reliable auxiliary means for preoperative evaluation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-855919

ABSTRACT

In addition to the role of vitamin D in regulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and bone metabolism, immune regulation and anti-tumor proliferation have been gradually proposed by researchers. At present, a large number of studies have found that patients with thyroid diseases have low vitamin D levels, and it is believed that vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases, but the specific relationship and mechanism between vitamin D and thyroid diseases have not been fully clarified. This article reviewed in the relationship between vitamin D and several common thyroid diseases in recent years, in order to analyze the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases, as well as the influence of vitamin D supplementation on the occurrence and development of thyroid diseases.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826360

ABSTRACT

To investigate the value of injecting a small amount of absolute ethanol into the benign solid nodules of the thyroid before radiofrequency ablation(RFA)to improve the efficiency of radiofrequency ablation. A total of 98 eligible patients(98 nodules)with pathologically confirmed benign solid nodules who were treated in our center from December 2016 to February 2018 were included and randomized into ethanol ablation(EA)combined with radiofrequency ablation(RFA)group(EA+RFA group)and RFA group,with 49 patients in each group.Routine ultrasound,contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS),and thyroid function test were performed before treatment and 1,3,6,and 12 months after treatment.The general information,treatment time,ablation energy,ablation power,postoperative nodule volume reduction ratio(VRR),symptom score(SS)and cosmetic score(CS),thyroid function level,and incidence of complications were compared between these two groups. The mean treatment time [(441.30±243.31)s (790.70±349.82)s;= 4.403, =0.000],mean ablation energy [(3.92±2.01)kJ (5.15±2.12)kJ;=2.709, =0.009],and mean ablation power [(6.07±1.44)W (7.30±1.29)W;=3.612, =0.006] were significantly lower in the EA+RFA group than in the RFA group.At 3,6 and 12 months after surgery,the VRR in the EA+RFA group was(57.73±11.07)%(=-3.16, <0.001),(64.40±10.56)%(=-5.45, <0.001),and(77.29±8.48)%(=-10.46, <0.001),respectively;the VRR in the RFA group was(55.44±13.01)%(=-1.76, <0.001),(65.28±11.33)%(=-5.09, <0.001),and(75.17±9.84)%(=-8.93, <0.001),which were significantly smaller than those before surgery.There was no significant difference in VRR between the EA+RFA group and the RFA group at 1(=3.41, =0.33),3(=2.05, =0.21),6(=2.77, =0.49),and 12 months(=5.05, =0.10)after treatment.During the follow-up,no recurrence of nodules was observed on CEUS.In the EA+RFA group,the SS [(1.77±0.86).(5.54±2.15);=9.63, <0.001] and the CS[(1.39±0.77).(3.32±0.61);=10.09, =0.004]at 12 months after surgery were significantly lower than those before surgery.In the RFA group,SS [(1.63±1.04).(5.90±1.79);=12.72, <0.001] and CS [(1.64±0.83).(3.15±0.72);=8.13, =0.012] at 12 months after surgery were also significantly lower than those before surgery.The CSS in the EA+RFA group was significantly lower than that in the RFA group [(0.93±0.55).(2.44±0.53);=-11.70, =0.007].Both groups had no significant change in thyroid function during the follow-up period,and no serious complications were observed. Anhydrous alcohol injection can effectively improve the efficiency of radiofrequency ablation in treating benign solid thyroid nodules and is effective in reducing nodule volume,alleviating compressive symptoms,and decreasing cosmetic discomfort.


Subject(s)
Catheter Ablation , Ethanol , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prospective Studies , Thyroid Nodule , Treatment Outcome
17.
Clinics ; 75: e1720, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies are recommended for the detection of suspicious thyroid nodules. However, the best approach regarding suspicious ultrasound features for thyroid nodules is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of location and size of thyroid nodules on the diagnostic performance of strain ultrasound elastography. In addition, this study evaluated whether ultrasound elastography predicts malignancy in thyroid nodules. METHODS: Data regarding the size, depth, and distance from the carotid artery of nodules, the elasticity contrast index, and the nature of nodules were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the depth (p=0.092) and the distance from the carotid artery (p=0.061) between benign and suspicious nodules. Suspicious nodules were smaller than benign nodules (p<0.0001, q=23.84) and had a higher elasticity contrast index (p<0.0001, q=21.05). The depth of nodules and the size of the nodule were not associated with the correct value of the elasticity contrast index (p>0.05 for both). The diagnostic performance of ultrasound elastography was not affected by the distance of the nodules from the carotid artery if they were located ≥15 mm from the carotid artery (p=0.5960). However, if the suspicious nodules were located <15 mm from the carotid artery, the diagnostic accuracy was hampered (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The strain ultrasound elastography should be carefully evaluated when small thyroid nodules are located near the carotid artery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Differential
18.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 56(4): 51-60, dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125843

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los nódulos tiroideos representan un problema clínico a nivel mundial debida a su alta prevalencia. La importancia clínica de su estudio radica en excluir malignidad, que ocurre entre el 7-15% de los mismos. El método estándar de oro para el diagnóstico de los mismos es el análisis citológico de la punción aspiración con aguja fina. Sin embargo, hasta un 30% de estos presentan citologías indeterminadas (Bethesda III o IV). Con un resultado histopatológico benigno en, aproximadamente tres de cada cuatro de estos casos, la cirugía diagnóstica (tiroidectomía parcial o lobectomía) resulta en un inconveniente ya que expone al paciente a innecesarios riesgos quirúrgicos. En el caso de lesiones malignas, una tiroidectomía en una segunda etapa es a menudo indicada, lo que se asocia con costos adicionales y mayores riesgos de complicaciones quirúrgicas. Es por esto que se requiere de una herramienta con mayor precisión para determinar la benignidad o malignidad de un nódulo tiroideo con citología indeterminada. En este contexto el análisis molecular del tejido tiroideo se convierte en un poderoso complemento para el diagnóstico preoperatorio de los nódulos tiroideos con citología indeterminada, ya que entre el 60 al 70% de los cánceres de tiroides albergan al menos una mutación genética conocida.


ABSTRACT Thyroid nodules represent a clinical problem worldwide due to its high prevalence. The clinical importance lies in excluding malignancy, which occurs between 7-15% of them. The cytological analysis is the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, up to 30% of these have indeterminate cytologies (Bethesda III or IV). In these patients, diagnostic surgeries are performed. With a benign histopathological result in approximately three out of four of these cases, surgery results in an inconvenience since it exposes the patient to unnecessary surgical risks. In the case of malignant lesions, a thyroidectomy in a second stage is often indicated, which is associated with additional costs and increased risks of surgical complications. A more precise method is needed to determine the benignity or malignancy of a thyroid nodule with indeterminate cytology. In this context, molecular analysis of thyroid tissue becomes a powerful complement for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology, since between 60 to 70% of thyroid cancers harbor at least one known genetic mutation.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805686

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the detection of thyroid nodules and related risk factors in nuclear power workers, and to provide scientific evidence for thyroid protection of nuclear power workers.@*Methods@#In December 2018, select 295 workers of a nuclear power production enterprise and 238 administrative staff of it, and select 250 staff members of a thermal power generation enterprise 70 kilometers away from the nuclear power station to conduct thyroid ultrasound examination and questionnaire survey for single factor. Analysis and further multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to study the risk factors of thyroid nodules in the population.@*Results@#Women and smoking history were independent risk factors for the increased incidence of thyroid nodules in the study population; three shifts work pattern was an independent risk factor for the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in nuclear power workers (P<0.05) , and other factors such as the history of nuclear exposure had no significant correlation with thyroid nodules (P>0.05) .@*Conclusion@#Nuclear exposure has little effect on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in nuclear power workers.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804672

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous lauromacrogol injection (PLI) in treatment of cystic or predominantly cystic thyroid nodules.@*Methods@#A total of 114 cystic thyroid nodules and 61 predominantly cystic thyroid nodules with pain or uncomfort or aesthetic complaints were offered PLI. Therapeutic success rates and side effects were evaluated. From October 2012 to December 2015,114 patients with cystic thyroid nodules and 61 with predominantly cystic thyroid nodules with pain or uncomfortable or aesthetic complaints at the outpatient clinic of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University were offered percutaneous lauromacrogol sclerotherapy. Cytological results were benign. This study was a prospective trial. Ultrasonography sound examination was performed in all patients before treatment. The baseline data of all the patients and the data of the patients examined at the follow-up of 1, 3, 6 and 12 months were analyzed. Therapeutic success rate (nodule volume reduction >50%) and safety were observed. The data of nodule volume reduction ratio and the function of thyroid were normal distribution and analyzed by Mann-Whitney test and t test. The data of nodule volume, symptoms score and cosmetic score were skewed distribution, which were indicated with median and analyzed by nonparamentic test.@*Results@#The mean volume of the cystic thyroid nodules was reduced from 12.5 cm3 before PLI to 0.2 cm3 at 12 months after PLI (χ2=266.175, P<0.001), with a therapeutic success rate of 100%, and the mean volume of the predominantly cystic thyroid nodules was reduced from 10.5 cm3 before PLI to 2.0 cm3 at 12 months after PLI (χ2=203.122, P<0.001) with a therapeutic success rate of 93.4%(57/61). Pressure symptom score and cosmetic grade were significantly improved at 12 months after PLI in patients with cystic or predominantly cystic thyroid nodules. Pressure symptom score and cosmetic grade in patients with cystic thyroid nodules were Z=-6.126 and Z=-13.735, respectively; pressure symptom score and cosmetic grade in patients with predominantly cystic thyroid nodules were Z=-3.126 and Z=-7.212, respectively (all P<0.001) . There no significant difference in the thyroid functions before and after PLI in two groups of patients (all P>0.05) . The side effects of PLI were mild.@*Conclusion@#PLI is a safe and effective alternative to treat benign cystic or predominantly cystic thyroid nodules.

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