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1.
Radiol. bras ; 55(1): 1-5, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360665

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary tuberculosis during the current pandemic, as well as to describe the main computed tomography (CT) findings in patients suffering from both diseases simultaneously. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional observational study of the chest CT scans of 360 patients with COVID-19, as confirmed by RT-PCR. Results: In four (1.1%) of the patients, changes suggestive of COVID-19 and tuberculosis were observed on the initial CT scan of the chest. On chest CT scans performed for the follow-up of COVID-19, cavitary lesions with bronchogenic spread were observed in two of the four patients, whereas alterations consistent with the progression of fibrous scarring related to previous tuberculosis were observed in the two other patients. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion: Albeit rare, concomitant COVID-19 and tuberculosis can be suggested on the basis of the CT aspects. Radiologists should be aware of this possibility, because initial studies indicate that mortality rates are higher in patients suffering from both diseases simultaneously.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a associação entre COVID-19 e tuberculose pulmonar durante a pandemia atual e descrever os principais achados tomográficos. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo transversal e observacional de tomografias computadorizadas de tórax realizadas em 360 pacientes com COVID-19 confirmada por RT-PCR. Resultados: Em quatro pacientes (1,1%) foram encontradas alterações tomográficas sugestivas de associação entre COVID-19 e tuberculose. Em dois pacientes observaram-se escavações com disseminação broncogênica e em outros dois, alterações compatíveis com progressão de lesões fibrocicatriciais relacionadas a tuberculose prévia, em exames de controle para COVID-19. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo isolamento do Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusão: Apesar de incomum, a associação entre COVID-19 e tuberculose pode ser sugerida com base em aspectos tomográficos, devendo os radiologistas estar atentos a esta possibilidade, pois estudos iniciais indicam aumento da mortalidade nesses pacientes.

2.
Radiol. bras ; 55(1): 54-61, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360668

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon condition that is potentially reversible if properly diagnosed and promptly treated. Although CVT can occur at any age, it most commonly affects neonates and young adults. Clinical diagnosis is difficult because the clinical manifestations of CVT are nonspecific, including headache, seizures, decreased level of consciousness, and focal neurologic deficits. Therefore, imaging is crucial for the diagnosis. Radiologists should be able to identify the findings of CVT and to recognize potential imaging pitfalls that may lead to misdiagnosis. Thus, the appropriate treatment (anticoagulation therapy) can be started early, thereby avoiding complications and unfavorable outcomes.


RESUMO A trombose venosa cerebral (TVC) é uma condição incomum que é potencialmente reversível se diagnosticada corretamente e prontamente tratada. Embora a TVC possa ocorrer em qualquer idade, ela afeta mais comumente neonatos e adultos jovens. O diagnóstico clínico é difícil porque as manifestações clínicas da TVC são inespecíficas, como cefaleia, convulsões, diminuição do nível de consciência e déficits neurológicos focais. Nesse contexto, a imagem é crucial para o diagnóstico e os radiologistas devem ser capazes de identificar os achados de TVC e reconhecer potenciais armadilhas de imagem que podem levar a diagnósticos incorretos. Portanto, o tratamento adequado (terapia anticoagulante) deve ser iniciado precocemente para evitar complicações e desfechos desfavoráveis.

3.
Radiol. bras ; 55(1): 13-18, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360671

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare 68Ga-DOTA-DPhe1,Tyr3-octreotate (68Ga-DOTATATE) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings with those of conventional 111In-octreotide scintigraphy in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Materials and Methods: This was a single-center prospective study including 41 patients (25 males; mean age, 55.4 years) with biopsy-proven NETs who underwent whole-body 111In-octreotide scintigraphy and whole-body 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT. The patients had been referred for tumor staging (34.1%), tumor restaging (61.0%), or response evaluation (4.9%). Images were compared in a patient-by-patient analysis to identify additional lesions, and we attempted to determine the impact that discordant findings had on treatment planning. Results: Compared with 111In-octreotide scintigraphy, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT revealed more lesions, the additional lesions typically being in the liver or bowel. Changes in management owing to the additional information provided by 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT occurred in five patients (12.2%), including intermodal changes in three (7.3%) and intramodal changes in two (4.9%). In addition, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT yielded incidental findings unrelated to the primary NET in three patients (7.3%): Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid, bowel non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and a suspicious breast lesion. Conclusion: We conclude that 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT is superior to conventional 111In-octreotide scintigraphy for the management of NETs because of its ability to determine the extent of the disease more accurately, which, in some cases, translates to changes in the treatment plan.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os achados da PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE em relação aos da cintilografia com 111In-octreotide em pacientes com tumores neuroendócrinos (TNEs). Materiais e Métodos: Estudo prospectivo unicêntrico incluindo 41 pacientes (25 homens; média de idade: 55,4 anos) com TNEs comprovados por biópsia submetidos a cintilografia de corpo inteiro com 111In-octreotide e PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE. Os pacientes incluídos foram encaminhados para estadiamento do tumor (34,1%), reestadiamento (61,0%) ou avaliação da resposta (4,9%). As imagens foram comparadas para identificar lesões adicionais e o impacto dos achados discordantes no planejamento terapêutico. Resultados: Na comparação com a cintilografia com 111In-octreotide, a PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE revelou mais lesões, mais frequentemente localizadas no fígado e intestino. Mudanças no tratamento devidas às informações adicionais reveladas pela PET/ CT ocorreram em 5/41 pacientes (12,2%), incluindo mudanças intermodalidade em três casos (7,3%) e intramodalidade em dois casos (4,9%). A PET/CT também identificou achados incidentais não relacionados ao TNE em 3/41 pacientes (7,3%), incluindo um carcinoma de células de Hürthle da tireoide, um linfoma não Hodgkin de intestino e uma lesão mamária suspeita. Conclusão: A PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE é superior à cintilografia convencional com 111In-octreotide para o manejo de pacientes com TNEs, em virtude da sua capacidade de detectar a extensão da doença com mais precisão, o que se traduz, em alguns casos, em alterações terapêuticas.

4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 61-68, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365744

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The approachability of the cervicothoracic region anteriorly based on age and gender, and the possibility of anatomic variances in different geographic populations have not been previously investigated. The aim of the present work was to perform a radiographic analysis of Brazilian patients to assess anterior approachability of the cervicothoracic junction based on age and gender. Methods Retrospective radiographic analysis of 300 computed tomography scans. Patients were separated based on age and gender. The radiographic parameters studied were: horizontal level above the sternum (HLS), vertebral body angle (VBA), intervertebral disc line (IDL), and intervertebral disc line angulation (IDLA). Results The most frequent HLS and IDL were T2 (34.3%) and C7-T1 (46%) respectively. Vertebral body angleand IDLA had average values of 18 ± 8.94 and 19 ± 7.9 degrees, respectively. Males had higher values in both IDLA (p= 0.003) and VBA (p= 0.02). Older groups had higher values in both IDLA (p= 0.01) and VBA (p= 0.001). No differences were observed in HLS between gender (p= 0.3) or age groups (p= 0.79). No differences were seen in IDL between gender groups (p= 0.3); however, the older group had a more caudal level than the younger groups (p= 0.12). ConclusionsCompared to other populations, our sample had a more cephalad IDL and HLS. Vertebral body angle and IDLA were higher in males and higher angles for VBA and IDLA were shown for older groups. Intervertebral disc line was more caudal with aging.


Resumo Objetivo A capacidade de acesso anterior à região cervicotorácica com base na idade e gênero do paciente e a possibilidade de variações anatômicas em diferentes populações geográficas ainda não foram investigadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma análise radiográfica de pacientes brasileiros para avaliar a acessibilidade anterior da junção cervicotorácica conforme idade e gênero. Métodos Análise radiográfica retrospectiva de 300 tomografias computadorizadas. Os pacientes foram separados por idade e gênero. Os parâmetros radiográficos estudados foram: nível horizontal acima do esterno (HLS, na sigla em inglês), angulação do corpo vertebral (VBA, na sigla em inglês), linha do disco intervertebral (IDL, na sigla em inglês) e angulação da linha do disco intervertebral (IDLA, na sigla em inglês). Resultados Os HLS e IDL mais frequentes foram T2 (34,3%) e C7-T1 (46%), respectivamente. Os valores médios de VBA e IDLA foram de 18 ± 8,94 e 19 ± 7,9 graus, respectivamente. Os homens apresentaram valores maiores de IDLA (p= 0,003) e VBA (p= 0,02). Os grupos de maior idade apresentaram valores maiores de IDLA (p= 0,01) e VBA (p= 0,001). Não houve diferenças de HLS entre os gêneros masculino e feminino (p= 0,3) ou faixas etárias (p= 0,79). Não foram observadas diferenças na IDL entre os gêneros masculino e feminino (p= 0,3); entretanto, o grupo mais velho apresentou nível mais caudal do que os grupos mais jovens (p= 0,12). ConclusõesEm comparação a outras populações, nossa amostra apresentou IDL e HLS mais cefálicos. AVBA e a IDLA foram maiores no gênero masculino, enquanto VBA e IDLA foram maiores em grupos mais velhos. A IDL era mais caudal em pacientes idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Spinal Diseases , Spinal Fusion , Thoracic Vertebrae , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Gender Identity , Intervertebral Disc
5.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 82-88, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365738

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a body coil with computed tomography (CT) in measuring the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG) and the patellar tendon-cartilaginous trochlear groove (PT-CTG) distances, and evaluate interrater reliability. Methods The study group consisted of 34 knees from 17 asymptomatic subjects with no history of knee pathology, trauma or surgery. A low-dose CT scan and an axial T1-weighted MRI sequence of the knees were performed with rigorous standardization of the positioning with full extension of the knees and parallel feet. Two musculoskeletal radiologists performed the measurements independently. The reliability of the TT-TG and PT-CTG distances on CT (17.1 ± 4.2 mm and 17.3 ± 4.2 mm) and of MRI (16.2 ± 3.7 mm and 16.5 ± 4.1 mm) was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC [2,1]) and Bland-Altman graphs, as well as the interrater reliability for both methods. Results Good reliability and agreement was observed between CT and MRI measurements for TT-TG and PT-CTG, with an ICC of 0.774 (p< 0.001) and 0.743 (p< 0.001), respectively, and no systematic bias was observed. The interrater reliability was excellent for all measurements on both imaging methods. Conclusion This was the first study that compared MRI using a body coil with CT in measuring the TT-TG distance, with the potential clinical implication that the CT in this clinical setting could be avoided.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar a ressonância magnética (RM) usando uma bobina corporal e tomografia computadorizada (TC) na medição da distância tubérculo tibial-sulco troclear (TT-ST) e as distâncias tendão patelar-sulco troclear cartilaginoso (TP-STC), e avaliar a confiabilidade interavaliador. Métodos O grupo de estudo consistiu em 34 joelhos de 17 indivíduos assintomáticos sem história de patologia, trauma ou cirurgia no joelho. Uma tomografia computadorizada (TC) de baixa dose e uma sequência axial de RM ponderada em T1 dos joelhos foram realizadas com padronização rigorosa do posicionamento com extensão total dos joelhos e pés paralelos. Dois radiologistas musculoesqueléticos realizaram as medidas de forma independente. A confiabilidade das distâncias TT-ST e TP-STC na TC (17,1 ± 4,2 mm e 17,3 ± 4,2 mm) e RM (16,2 ± 3,7 mm e 16,5 ± 4,1 mm), foi avaliada pelo coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI [2,1)]) e gráficos Bland-Altman, bem como a confiabilidade entre avaliadores para ambos os métodos. Resultados Boa confiabilidade e concordância foram observadas entre as medidas de TC e RM para TT-ST e TP-STC com um CCI de 0,774 (p< 0,001) e 0,743 (p< 0,001), respectivamente, e nenhum viés sistemático foi observado. A confiabilidade entre avaliadores foi excelente para todas as medições em ambos os métodos de imagem. Conclusão Este foi o primeiro estudo que comparou a RM usando bobina de corpo com a TC na medição da distância TT-ST, com a implicação clínica potencial de que a TC neste cenário clínico poderia ser evitada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Patellar Ligament , Patellar Dislocation , Knee
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 89-98, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356281

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Contrast-enhanced CT scan is the standard staging modality for patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy (RC). Involvement of lymph nodes (LN) determines prognosis of patients with bladder cancer. The detection of LN metastasis by CT scan is still insufficient. Therefore, we investigated various CT scan characteristics to predict lymph node ratio (LNR) and its impact on survival. Also, pre-operative CT scan characteristics might hold potential to risk stratify cN+ patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed preoperative CT scans of patients undergoing RC in a tertiary high volume center. Retrospectively, local tumor stage and LN characteristics such as size, morphology (MLN) and number of loco-regional LN (NLN) were investigated and correlation to LNR and survival was analyzed. CT scan characteristics were used to develop a risk stratification using Kaplan-Maier and multivariate analysis. Results: 764 cN0 and 166 cN+ patients with complete follow-up and imaging data were included in the study. Accuracy to detect LN metastasis and locally advanced tumor stage in CT scan was 72% and 62%. LN larger than 15mm in diameter were significantly associated with higher LNR (p=0.002). Increased NLN correlated with decreased CSS and OS (p=0.001: p=0.002). Furthermore, CT scan based scoring system precisely differentiates low-risk and high-risk profiles to predict oncological outcome (p <0.001). Conclusion: In our study, solely LN size >15mm significantly correlated with higher LNR. Identification of increased loco-regional LN was associated with worse survival. For the first time, precise risk stratification based on computed-tomography findings was developed to predict oncological outcome for clinical lymph node-positive patients undergoing RC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cystectomy , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 30: e20210492, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365011

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic periodontal status of impacted permanent maxillary central incisors (Mx.1) after a long term of orthodontic traction. Methodology This split-mouth study evaluated a sample of 11 patients (five females, six males) treated with Mx.1 unilateral traction one to 28 years after the removal of orthodontic appliances. The traction Group (TG) consisted of 11 Mx.1 and the Comparison Group (CG) comprised 11 spontaneously erupted contralateral Mx.1. High-resolution CBCT exams of central incisors were performed using Accuitomo (J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan). Cross-section imagens passing through the center of maxillary central incisors were used to measure buccal and lingual alveolar bone level. Presence of fenestration, root dilacerations, root coverage, and position of the root apex were also assessed in the same images. Clinical parameters included periodontal probing depth, attachment level, gingival bleeding index, plaque index, degree of gingival recession, amount of gingival mucosa, and evaluation of interproximal papilla and black triangle. Digital model analysis included an assessment of clinical crown height and width. Intergroup comparisons were performed using paired t-, McNemar's, and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05). Results Compared to CG, we found a significantly thinner labial bone plate thickness in TG at the middle (p=0.000) and apical (p=0.009) root level. We also observed an apical displaced labial bone crest level in TG (p=0.000). The Traction Group showed a greater frequency of root dilacerations and gingival recessions, a decreased amount of keratinized mucosa, and a decreased clinical attachment level at the labial aspect compared to contralateral teeth. Conclusions A decreased thickness and height of labial alveolar bone and gingival recessions were found in maxillary central incisors 15 years after orthodontic traction. Though incisor traction might cause some periodontal impact, differences are acceptable under a clinical point of view considering the cost-benefit ratio.

8.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e219912, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254429

ABSTRACT

Aim: Evaluation of the reliability of 3D computed tomography (3D-CT) in the diagnosis of mandibular fractures. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study was carried out, through the application of a questionnaire for 70 professionals in the area of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Radiology. 3D-CT images of mandibular fractures were delivered to the interviewees along with a questionnaire. Participants answered about the number of traces, the region and the type of fracture. The correct diagnosis, that is, the expected answer, was based on the reports of a specialist in oral and maxillofacial radiology after viewing the images in the axial, sagittal and coronal sections. The resulting data from the interviewees was compared with the expected answer and then, the data was analyzed statistically. Results: In the sample 56.9% were between 22 and 30 years old, 52.8% were oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMF), 34.7% were residents in OMF surgery and 12.5% OMF radiologists. Each professional answered 15 questions (related to five patients) and 50.8% of the total of these was answered correctly. Specialists in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology correctly answered 53.9%. Interviewees with experience between 6 and 10 years correctly answered 58.2%. In identifying fracture traces, 46.1% of the questions were answered correctly. In terms of location, 5.6% of interviewees answered wrongly while 14.2% answered wrongly regarding classification. Conclusion: 3D computed tomography did not prove to be a reliable image for diagnosing mandibular fractures when used alone. This made necessary an association with axial, sagittal and coronal tomographic sections


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Surveys and Questionnaires , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mandibular Fractures
9.
Acta ortop. bras ; 29(5): 258-262, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339063

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze reformatted sagittal sternal tomography images and classify sternal body curvature types, and compare different types of pectus populations with one another and with normal individuals. Methods: In total, 50 controls and 167 pectus patients were selected for chest CT to analyze the median sagittal plane, of whom 89 had pectus carinatum (mean age, 12 ± 10 years) and 78 pectus excavatum (mean age, 14 ± 10 years). Clinical types of pectus were classified as inferior, superior, or lateral pectus carinatum, and localized or broad pectus excavatum. The following types of sternal patterns were defined: gradual vertical curve, gradual posterior curve, gradual anterior curve, proximal third curve, middle third curve, distal third curve, anterior rectilinear, vertical rectilinear, and posterior rectilinear. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the different types of pectus with one another and with the control group. Results: Patients with different thoracic deformities, but with similar sternal curvature patterns, were observed. Some types of sternal curvature were significantly more frequent in certain types of pectus (p < 0,05). The gradual vertical curve and anterior rectilinear types prevailed in controls (p < 0,05). Conclusion: Some sternal curvature patterns were more frequent than the others in certain types of pectus and the controls. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic studies - investigating the effect of a patient characteristic on the outcome of disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a reformatação sagital tomográfica do esterno por meio da análise de uma classificação do tipo de curvatura do corpo esternal nos diferentes tipos de pectus, comparando-os entre si e com indivíduos normais. Métodos: 50 controles e 167 pacientes submetidos à TC do tórax para análise da reconstrução sagital no plano mediano, sendo 89 com pectus carinatum (idade média, 12 ± 10 anos) e 78 com pectus excavatum (idade média, 14 ± 10 years). Os tipos clínicos de pectus foram classificados em: pectus carinatum superior, inferior e lateral, e pectus excavatum amplo ou localizado. Foram definidos os seguintes tipos de padrões esternais: curvo gradativo vertical; curvo gradativo posterior; curvo gradativo anterior; curvo terço proximal; curvo terço médio; curvo terço distal; retilíneo anterior; retilíneo vertical; e retilíneo posterior. Foi realizada análise estatística entre o grupo pectus e controle, e entre diferentes tipos de pectus. Resultados: Observamos pacientes com deformidades torácicas diferentes, mas com esternos com padrão de curvatura semelhante. Alguns tipos de curvatura esternal são significativamente mais frequentes em alguns tipos de pectus (p < 0,05). Em controles prevaleceram os tipos curvo gradativo vertical e retilíneo anterior (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Alguns tipos de curvatura esternal são mais frequentes que outras em determinados tipos de pectus e controles. Nível de Evidência II, Estudos prognósticos - investigação do efeito de característica de um paciente sobre o desfecho da doença.

10.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 295-302, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340573

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the technique, efficacy, and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsies of head and neck masses. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study of CT-guided percutaneous core-needle biopsies of head and neck masses. For the analysis of diagnostic accuracy, biopsy results were compared with the final diagnosis, which was determined by histological examination and clinical follow-up. Results: We evaluated 74 biopsies performed in 68 patients. The mean age of the patients was 55.6 years. Most of the lesions (79.7%) were located in the suprahyoid region, and the maximum diameter ranged from 11 mm to 128 mm. The most common approaches were paramaxillary (in 32.4%), retromandibular (in 21.6%), and periorbital (in 14.9%). Five patients (6.8%) developed minor complications. The presence of a complication did not show a statistically significant association with any clinical, radiological, or procedure-related factor. Sufficient material for histological analysis was obtained in all procedures. Thirty-eight biopsies (51.4%) yielded a histological diagnosis of malignancy. There was a false-negative result in three cases (8.3%), and there were no false-positive results. The procedure had a sensitivity of 92.7%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 96.0%. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that CT-guided percutaneous core-needle biopsy of head and neck lesions is a safe, effective procedure for obtaining biological material for histological analysis.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a técnica, eficácia e segurança das biópsias percutâneas guiadas por tomografia computadorizada (TC) de lesões de cabeça e pescoço. Materiais e Métodos: Este estudo retrospectivo e unicêntrico incluiu pacientes submetidos a biópsia percutânea guiada por TC de lesões de cabeça e pescoço. Para avaliação da acurácia diagnóstica, os resultados da biópsia foram comparados com o diagnóstico final determinado por avaliação histológica ou acompanhamento clínico. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 74 biópsias realizadas em 68 pacientes. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 55,6 anos. A maioria das lesões (79,7%) estava localizada na região supra-hioide e o maior diâmetro variou de 11 a 128 mm. Os acessos mais comuns utilizados foram paramaxilar (32,4%), retromandibular (21,6%) e periorbital (14,9%). Cinco pacientes (6,8%) desenvolveram complicações menores e não houve associação estatisticamente significante entre a presença de complicações e fatores clínicos, radiológicos ou relacionados ao procedimento. Foi obtido material suficiente para análise histológica em todos os casos. Trinta e oito biópsias (51,4%) tiveram diagnóstico histológico de malignidade. Houve três (8,3%) resultados falso-negativos e nenhum falso-positivo, demonstrando sensibilidade de 92,7%, especificidade de 100% e acurácia de 96,0%. Conclusão: Nossos resultados demonstram que a biópsia percutânea guiada por TC de lesões de cabeça e pescoço é um procedimento seguro e efetivo para obter material para análise histológica.

11.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 341-347, Sept.-Oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340575

ABSTRACT

Abstract The diseases that affect the thalamus are heterogeneous in their etiologies, including infectious, inflammatory, vascular, toxic-metabolic, and neoplastic causes. It is often difficult to make the clinical differentiation between different entities. Within this context, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have come to be of fundamental importance for defining the etiology and planning the treatment. In this pictorial essay, we will illustrate the main causes of diseases affecting the thalamus, discussing the possible differential diagnoses, as well as the most relevant imaging aspects.


Resumo As doenças que envolvem os tálamos incluem um grupo heterogêneo, englobando causas infecciosas, inflamatórias, vasculares, tóxico-metabólicas e neoplásicas. Muitas vezes a diferenciação clínica entre as diversas entidades é difícil, e dentro desse contexto, a tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética assumiram fundamental importância na busca da definição etiológica e para guiar a conduta terapêutica. Neste ensaio iconográfico ilustraremos as principais causas de acometimento talâmico, discutindo seus possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais, bem como seus aspectos de imagem mais relevantes.

12.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 336-340, Sept.-Oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340576

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vanishing bone metastasis (pseudopathological vertebral body enhancement) is a pitfall in the interpretation of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with thoracic vein obstruction, mainly in the superior vena cava and brachiocephalic veins, typically being related to thrombosis due to malignant tumors. On the basis of the CT findings, pseudopathological vertebral body enhancement can be misdiagnosed as sclerotic bone metastasis, leading to unnecessary treatment. Although not rare, pseudopathological vertebral body enhancement is usually underdiagnosed by radiologists. The aim of this study is to review the pathophysiology of this phenomenon, illustrating the most common collateral venous pathways in thoracic vein obstruction and making the correlation with the CT findings.


Resumo Vanishing bone metastasis é um pitfall na tomografia computadorizada (TC) com contraste em pacientes com obstrução das veias torácicas, principalmente das veias cava superior e braquiocefálica, geralmente ocasionada por tumores malignos. Na TC, aparece como um realce pseudopatológico do corpo vertebral e pode ser erroneamente interpretado como metástase óssea esclerótica, levando a tratamento desnecessário. Embora não seja raro, esse achado geralmente é subdiagnosticado pelos radiologistas. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a fisiopatologia desse fenômeno, ilustrando as vias venosas colaterais mais comuns na obstrução da veia torácica e correlacionar com os achados da TC.

13.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 289-294, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340578

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine whether the whole-body tumor burden, as quantified by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT), is a prognostic indicator in advanced (stage III or IV) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in which we evaluated 18F-FDG PET/CT staging parameters to quantify tumor burdens in patients with stage III or IV NSCLC. The following parameters were evaluated for the whole body (including the primary tumor) and for the primary tumor alone, respectively: maximum standardized uptake volume (wbSUVmax and tuSUVmax); metabolic tumor volume (wbMTV and tuMTV); and total lesion glycolysis (wbTLG and tuTLG). To determine whether the 18F-FDG PET/CT parameters were associated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), we evaluated the wbSUVmax/tuSUVmax, wbMTV/tuMTV, and wbTLG/tuTLG ratios. Results: 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed for staging in 52 patients who were followed for a median of 11.0 months (mean, 11.7 months). The estimated median PFS and OS were 9.6 months and 11.6 months, respectively. In the univariate analysis, OS was found to correlate significantly with wbTLG (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.001; 95% confidence interval [95 CI]: 1.000-1.001; p = 0.0361) and with the wbTLG/tuTLG ratio (HR = 1.705; 95% CI: 1.232-2.362; p = 0.0013). In the multivariate analysis, only the wbTLG/tuTLG ratio was independently associated with OS (HR = 1.660; 95% CI: 1.193-2.310; p = 0.0027). Conclusion: The wbTLG/tuTLG ratio is an independent prognostic indicator of OS in advanced-stage NSCLC.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar se a carga metabólica tumoral do corpo inteiro medida na tomografia por emissão de pósitrons/tomografia computadorizada com 18F-fluordesoxiglicose (18F-FDG PET/CT) é um indicador prognóstico em pacientes com câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas (CPCNP) em estágio avançado (estágio III ou IV). Materiais e Métodos: Avaliamos, prospectivamente, a carga tumoral na 18F-FDG-PET/CT de estadiamento em pacientes com CPCNP avançado. Os parâmetros avaliados do tumor primário (tu) e do corpo inteiro (wb) (incluindo o primário) foram: SUV máximo (wbSUVmax e tuSUVmax), volume metabólico tumoral (wbMTV e tuMTV), glicólise total da(s) lesão(ões) (wbTLG e tuTLG), além das seguintes razões: wbSUVmax/tuSUVmax, wbMTV/tuMTV e wbTLG/tuTLG. Os parâmetros medidos na 18F-FDG-PET/CT, variáveis clínicas e patológicas foram correlacionados com a sobrevida global (SG) e a sobrevida livre de progressão (SLP). Resultados: 18F-FDG-PET/CT foi realizada em 52 pacientes (tempos mediano/médio de sobrevida = 11,0/11,7 meses). A SLP mediana foi de 9,6 meses e a SG foi de 11,6 meses. Houve correlação significativa da wbTLG (hazard ratio [HR] = 1,001; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,000-1,001; p = 0,0361) e wbTLG/tuTLG (HR = 1,705; IC 95%: 1,232-2.362; p = 0,0013) com a SG. Na análise multivariada, a razão wbTLG/tuTLG associou-se independentemente com a SG (HR = 1,660; IC 95%: 1,193-2,310; p = 0,0027). Conclusão: A razão wbTLG/tuTLG é um indicador prognóstico independente de SG em CPCNP avançado.

14.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 283-288, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340579

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To report the computed tomography (CT) features of acute cerebrovascular complications in severely ill patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the intensive care unit. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 29 intensive care unit patients with confirmed COVID-19 who underwent CT of the brain. We describe the CT features of the cerebrovascular complications of COVID-19, as well the demographic characteristics and clinical features, together with the results of laboratory tests, such as complete blood cell count, coagulation testing, renal function testing, and C-reactive protein assay. Results: Two patients were excluded because of brain death. Among the remaining 27 patients, CT revealed acute cerebrovascular complications in six (three men and three women; 49-81 years of age), whereas no such complications were seen in 21 (15 men and six women; 36-82 years of age). Conclusion: Radiologists should be aware of the risks of cerebrovascular complications of COVID-19 and the potential underlying etiologies. COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is likely multifactorial and may increase the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic infarction.


Resumo Objetivo: Relatar as características da tomografia computadorizada (TC) das complicações cerebrovasculares agudas em pacientes com doença do coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) grave, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. Materiais e Métodos: Foi realizada análise retrospectiva de 29 pacientes com COVID-19 confirmada, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, que realizaram TC de crânio. Descrevemos as alterações tomográficas das complicações cerebrovasculares, bem como as características demográficas, clínicas e exames laboratoriais, tais como hemograma completo, teste de coagulação, função renal e proteína C reativa desses pacientes. Resultados: Seis pacientes (três homens e três mulheres; faixa etária de 49-81 anos) apresentaram alterações cerebrovasculares reveladas por TC e 21 pacientes (15 homens e 6 mulheres; faixa etária de 36-82 anos) não apresentaram complicações cerebrovasculares agudas. Dois pacientes foram excluídos por morte encefálica. Conclusão: Os radiologistas devem estar cientes dos riscos de complicações cerebrovasculares da COVID-19 e das possíveis etiologias subjacentes. A coagulopatia relacionada à COVID-19 é provavelmente multifatorial e pode aumentar os riscos de infarto isquêmico e hemorrágico.

15.
Acta ortop. bras ; 29(3): 153-158, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278217

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and compare anatomical measurements of C7, T1 and T2 vertebrae in children from 3 to 12 years of age to provide useful epidemiological data for determining the safe anatomical margin for transpedicular and translaminar fixation with screws in this population. Methods: This observational retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated 76 computed tomography scans obtained over 6 months, analyzing the following parameters: the angle of attack, length, thickness and diameter of the pedicle; and the angle of attack, length and thickness of the lamina. Results: The lamina length and thickness, as well as pedicle length varied in size according to age. Although the angle of attack was similar across different ages, age-dependent variation occurred in the T1 vertebra. Conclusion: Screws with a 3.5 mm diameter are safe to use in the C7 and T2 pedicles, while the T1 pedicle allows the introduction of larger screws ranging from 3.5-4.5 mm in diameter. In the lamina, 3.5 mm screws are safe for use only in children older than 7 years. However, each case should be analyzed individually, with the present study not aiming to replace the preoperative use of CT. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective comparative study.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar as medidas anatômicas das vértebras C7, T1 e T2 em crianças de 3 a 12 anos de modo a determinar margens seguras para fixação transpedicular e translaminar com parafusos nessa população. Métodos: Estudo transversal retrospectivo observacional. Um total de 76 tomografias computadorizadas foram analisadas em um período de 6 meses. Os seguintes parâmetros foram analisados: ângulo de ataque, comprimento, espessura e diâmetro do pedículo, comprimento e espessura da lâmina. Resultados: O comprimento e espessura da lâmina bem como o comprimento do pedículo aumenta em tamanho conforme a idade. Enquanto o ângulo de ataque permanece estável conforme variação de idade; variação dependente da idade ocorre somente na vértebra T1. Conclusão: Parafusos com diâmetro de 3.5mm podem ser inseridos de maneira segura nos pedículos de C7 e T2. Já no pedículo de T1 pode-se inserir parafusos com medidas de 3.5 a 4.5mm de diâmetro de maneira segura. Na lâmina, parafusos de 3.5mm podem ser usados de maneira segura somente em crianças maiores de 7 anos. No entanto, cada caso deve ser analisado de maneira individualizada, e o presente estudo não objetivo substituir o uso de tomografia computadorizada no pré-operatório. Nível de Evidência III, Estudo Comparativo Retrospectivo.

16.
Radiol. bras ; 54(4): 265-269, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287743

ABSTRACT

Abstract Radiotherapy plays a central role in the palliative and curative treatment of neoplasms of the chest wall or intrathoracic structures. However, despite technical advances, radiotherapy can alter previously normal organs and tissues, those alterations presenting as various types of imaging findings. Post-radiation alterations must be promptly recognized by radiologists, in order to avoid confusion between complications of radiotherapy and the recurrence of a tumor. This pictorial essay aims to illustrate different thoracic changes after radiotherapy.


Resumo A radioterapia tem papel fundamental no tratamento curativo ou paliativo de neoplasias da parede torácica ou intratorácicas. No entanto, mesmo com o avanço das técnicas, órgãos e tecidos vizinhos podem ser acometidos e apresentar alterações que devem ser reconhecidas pelos radiologistas, de maneira a evitar confusão com recidiva das lesões inicialmente tratadas, ou mesmo com outras complicações do tratamento oncológico. O objetivo deste ensaio iconográfico é ilustrar as diferentes consequências torácicas da radioterapia.

17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(4): 388-397, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) accounts for 13% of all radiological examinations in the United States and 40-70% of the radiation that patients receive. Even with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT continues to be the gold standard for diagnosing bone fractures. There is uncertainty as to whether CT with a low radiation dose has a fracture detection rate similar to that of standard-dose CT. OBJECTIVE: To determine the detection rate of low-dose radiation CT and standard-dose radiation CT for fractures, in patients with suspected fractures. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of comparative studies on diagnostic accuracy within the evidence-based health program at a federal university in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: We searched the electronic databases Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS up to June 29, 2020, for studies evaluating the detection rates of low-dose CT and standard-dose CT for diagnosing bone fractures. The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) item bank tool was used for methodological quality evaluation. RESULTS: The fracture detection rate according to the number of bones evaluated, using CT with low-dose radiation was 20.3%, while with standard-dose radiation it was 19.2%, and the difference between the methods was not significant. The fracture detection rate according to the number of patients, using CT with low-dose radiation was 56.0%, while with standard-dose radiation it was 58.7%, and this difference between the methods was not significant, either. CONCLUSION: CT with low-dose radiation presented detection rates similar to those of CT with standard-dose radiation, regardless of the bones evaluated. REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019148491 at the PROSPERO database.

18.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 89(4): 340-344, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356900

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El score de calcio coronario (SCC) es una herramienta de prevención subutilizada, en parte debido a su elevado costo, que no debería diferir del de una tomografía computarizada (TC) de tórax. El SCC puede ser evaluado mediante una TC de tórax convencional, generalmente utilizando escalas visuales o semicuantitativas, y con valor pronóstico similar al gatillado. Material y métodos: En este estudio observacional retrospectivo, incluimos pacientes (n = 35) en quienes se realizó dentro de la misma internación una TC de tórax no gatillada de baja dosis y un SCC gatillado. Resultados: Identificamos una buena concordancia entre los métodos tanto en su valoración cualitativa como cuantitativa, con una media de 3,86 ± 0,7 segmentos con calcificaciones arteriales coronarias mediante SCC gatillado, comparado con 3,79 ± 0,6 segmentos mediante TC de tórax no gatillada de baja dosis (coeficiente de correlación de concordancia 0,98 [IC 95% 0,95-0,99]) y una subestimación del SCC evaluado mediante unidades Agatston del 9,8 %. Conclusión: En este estudio, demostramos que el SCC podría ser evaluado con precisión de forma tanto cualitativa como cuantitativa mediante estudios de TC de tórax no gatillada de baja dosis.


ABSTRACT Background: Coronary calcium scoring (CCS) is an underused prevention tool, possibly due to its high cost, which should not differ from a chest computed tomography (CT) scan. CCS can be assessed using conventional chest CT, generally through a visual or semiquantitative approach, and with a similar prognostic value compared to ECG-gated CCS. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, we included patients (n = 35) who underwent a low-dose non-gated chest CT (LDCT) and an ECG-gated CCS within the same hospitalization. Results: We identified a good agreement between techniques both in their qualitative and quantitative assessment, with a mean of 3.86 ± 0.7 segments with calcifications by ECG-gated compared to 3.79 ± 0.6 segments by LDCT (concordance correlation coefficient 0.98 (95% CI 0.95-0.99), and a 9.8% underestimation of the Agatston score. Conclusions: In this study, we showed that the CCS might be accurately assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively by LDCT studies.

19.
Colomb. med ; 52(2): e4124776, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278946

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rectal trauma is uncommon, but it is usually associated with injuries in adjacent pelvic or abdominal organs. Recent studies have changed the paradigm behind military rectal trauma management, showing better morbidity and mortality. However, damage control techniques in rectal trauma remain controversial. This article aims to present an algorithm for the treatment of rectal trauma in a patient with hemodynamic instability, according to damage control surgery principles. We propose to manage intraperitoneal rectal injuries in the same way as colon injuries. The treatment of extraperitoneal rectum injuries will depend on the percentage of the circumference involved. For injuries involving more than 25% of the circumference, a colostomy is indicated. While injuries involving less than 25% of the circumference can be managed through a conservative approach or primary repair. In rectal trauma, knowing when to do or not to do it makes the difference.


Resumen El trauma de recto es poco frecuente, pero generalmente se asocia a lesiones de órganos adyacentes en la región pélvica y abdominal. Estudios recientes han cambiado los paradigmas del manejo tradicional derivados del trauma militar, mostrando mejores resultados en la morbilidad y mortalidad. Sin embargo, las técnicas de control de daños en el trauma rectal aún son controvertidas. El objetivo de este articulo es proponer el algoritmo de manejo del paciente con trauma rectal e inestabilidad hemodinámica, según los principios de la cirugía de control de daños. Se propone que las lesiones del recto en su porción intraperitoneal sean manejadas de la misma manera que las lesiones del colon. Mientras que el manejo de las lesiones extraperitoneales del recto dependerá del compromiso de la circunferencia rectal. Si es mayor del 25% se recomienda realizar una colostomía. Si es menor, se propone optar por el manejo conservador o el reparo primario. Saber que hacer o que no hacer en el trauma de recto marca la diferencia.

20.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 69(2): e203, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287985

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Diaphragmatic injuries are a common finding in patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma. Their diagnosis requires exploration through open or laparoscopic surgery. However, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) emerges as a useful noninvasive tool for this purpose. Objective: To determine the diagnostic performance of MSCT for detecting diaphragmatic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma. Materials and methods: Prospective study conducted on 119 patients treated at the Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia, between March 2012 and June 2015. In order to evaluate the diagnostic performance of MSCT, the results obtained through this test were compared with those reported in the reference test (open surgery). Two readings of the imaging studies were performed by 2 radiologists. Intra- and interobserver agreement on the MSCT readings were analyzed using the Fleiss' Kappa coefficient. Results: MSCT had sensitivity and specificity of 94.4% and 46.8%, respectively. Its positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 44.7% and 94.8%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratio (LR+) was 1.7765, and the negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was 0.1186. Regarding interobserver agreement, Fleiss' Kappa coefficient between the first reading of both radiologists was 0.4425. Conclusions: MSCT specificity for diagnosing diaphragmatic injuries found in this study differs considerably from that reported in the literature. Considering the sensitivity, PPV and LR- values obtained in the present study, MSCT could be an important tool for the management of these patients since conservative treatment may be used in patients whose diaphragmatic injuries are not detected with this type of scan.


Resumen Introducción. Las heridas diafragmáticas son un hallazgo común en pacientes con trauma toracoabdominal penetrante. Su diagnóstico requiere exploración mediante cirugía abierta o laparoscópica. Sin embargo, la tomografía computarizada multidetector (TCMD) surge como una herramienta no invasiva útil para este propósito. Objetivo. Determinar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la TCMD en la identificación de heridas diafragmáticas en pacientes con trauma toracoabdominal penetrante hemodinámicamente estables. Materiales y métodos. Estudio prospectivo realizado en 119 pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia, entre marzo de 2012 y junio de 2015. Para evaluar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la TCMD, los resultados obtenidos mediante esta prueba fueron comparados con los reportados por el test de referencia (cirugía abierta). Se realizaron 2 lecturas de los estudios de imagen por 2 radiólogos. La concordancia intra e interobservador respecto a la lectura de las TCMD se analizó mediante el coeficiente Kappa de Fleiss. Resultados. La TCDM tuvo una sensibilidad y especificidad de 94.4% y 46.8%, respectivamente. Sus valores predictivos positivo (VPP) y negativo (VPN) fueron 44.7% y 94.8%, respectivamente. La razón de verosimilitud positiva (LR+) fue 1.7765, y la razón de verisimilitud negativa (LR-), 0.1186. Respecto a la concordancia interobservador, el coeficiente Kappa de Fleiss entre la primera lectura de ambos radiólogos fue de 0.4425. Conclusiones. La especificidad de la TCMD para el diagnóstico de heridas diafragmáticas encontrada en el presente estudio difiere considerablemente de lo reportado en la literatura. Teniendo en cuenta la sensibilidad, el VPN y la LR- obtenidos en el presente estudio, la TCMD podría constituir una herramienta importante en el manejo de estos pacientes, ya que en aquellos en los que no se detecte herida diafragmática mediante este tipo de tomografía podría considerarse un manejo conservador.

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