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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247071, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285609


Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.

Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos hipoglicêmicos do pó de kumquat (Ku) em ratos diabéticos alimentados com uma dieta rica em gordura e colesterol (HFHC). As atividades antioxidantes foram avaliadas usando o método de eliminação de radicais livres de 1,1-difenil 2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico) radical cátion (ABTS) e antioxidante redutor férrico potência (FRAP). O conteúdo fenólico total foi (51,85 mg GAE / g) e o conteúdo total de flavonoides foi (0,24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE / g). Os valores de DPPH e ABTS foram 3,32 e 3,98 mg equivalente de Trolox (TE) / g, em que o valor de FRAP foi de 3,00 mM Fe2 + / kg de material seco. Um total de 90 ratos albinos foi usado ​​no presente estudo. O grupo dos ratos foi o seguinte: dieta normal: tratados normais (2, 4 e 6% Ku.), ratos diabéticos (não tratados), diabéticos + dieta HFHC (não tratados), HFHC (não tratados), diabéticos (tratados), HFHC (tratados) e diabéticos + HFHC (tratados). As dietas foram seguidas por 8 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas ao final do experimento. A glicose sérica foi registrada e os hormônios tireoidianos (T4, Tiroxina e T3, Triiodotironina) foram conduzidos. A dieta suplementada com kumquat em diferentes concentrações tem um efeito hipoglicêmico e melhora os hormônios tireoidianos tanto de ratos diabéticos quanto de ratos diabéticos com HFHC.

Animals , Rats , Rutaceae , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Powders , Thyroid Hormones , Blood Glucose , Fruit
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 29(3): 373-380, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020578


ABSTRACT The excessive sun exposure, coupled with lack of sun protection represents one of the biggest risks to the occurrence of skin cancer and photoaging. Recent strategies for photoprotection have included the incorporation of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, into sunscreens, and the oral administration of natural antioxidant extracts. In this work, we use Brazilian red propolis extract because its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this work was to evaluate the sun protection factor and antioxidant activity of different hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis (70% and 75%) prepared from lyophilized red propolis at room and high temperatures. The sun protection factor in vitro was determined by a spectrophotometric method developed by Mansur. The hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis incorporated with Filter UVA-UVB 5% Gel Permulem TR-1 presented absorption in the UVB region. Also, the in vitro capacity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis to increase photoprotective activity of Filter UVA-UVB 5% Gel was evaluated. The hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis incorporated presented higher values of sun protection factor and showed synergism in the photoprotective activity of Filter UVA-UVB 5% Gel Permulem TR-1. The antioxidant activity and sun protection factor are correlated with total phenolics content of the extracts and the hydroalcoholic extract of red propolis 75% at room temperature was choosen. The formulation developed with Filter UVA-UVB 5% Gel Permulem TR-1 with this hydroalcoholic extract of red propolis showed safe to be applied on the skin according HET-CAM test. Suggests indication of hydroalcoholic extract of red propolis (75% - room temperature) associated to photoprotective formulations for use in photoprotective products.

European J Med Plants ; 2019 May; 28(1): 1-6
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-189493


Aims: To establish the most suitable extraction method for sweet lupine seeds and to determine minerals, phenolic content, flavonoids, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activities. Study Design: Known and standard experimental procedures are employed. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Bethlehem University- Palestine, from January 2019 to March 2019. Methodology: Seeds were ground and extracted by Soxhlet extractor using ethanol with different percentages (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 95%). Sodium, potassium and ferrous ion content were determined. Resistance to bacteria was performed against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, while antioxidant activity was determined by FRAP method. Two types of flavonoids were measured: Flavonones and dihydroflavonols via the reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: 50% ethanol resulted in the highest extract residue (18.6%) while 70% and 60% showed the lowest content (10.0% for both). 80% ethanol extracted sample showed the highest content for sodium (56.51 mg Na/g extract), while 60% and 50% ethanol extracts showed the highest content of potassium (2.25 and 2.33 mg K/g extract, respectively). The maximum concentration of ferrous ion was obtained with 70% ethanol (6.854 mg Fe+2/g extract). 95% ethanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (20.24 mg FeSO4/g extract). Similar results were obtained for total phenolic content and flavonoids: 24.60 mg gallic acid/g extract for phenolics and 116.02 mg rutin/g extract for flavonoids. Extracts showed no bacterial activity against both types of bacteria used. Conclusion: 95% ethanol extracted samples showed the highest antioxidant activity and the highest flavonoids and phenolic content. Sweet lupine extract did not perform any antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777506


As a rare endangered medical plant that newly cultivated,little experimental information is available for growth and metabolites of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum in response to nitrogen( N). The effects of different levels of N on growth of T. hemsleyanum and the content of phytochemicals( polysaccharide,total flavonoids and phenolics) and antioxidant activity( ABTS and FRAP) in stems and leaves were investigated in this study. A certain amount of N had positive effects on most of biological traits,and excessive dose of N went against growth of T. hemsleyanum. With N levels decreased,the polysaccharide content in stems and leaves had no significant change,while the total flavonoid and phenolic content,and antioxidant activities increased steadily. Antioxidant activities and total flavonoid and phenolic content had significant positive correlation. Excessive N fertilizer should be avoided by cultivation.

Antioxidants , Flavonoids , Nitrogen , Phenols , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves , Vitaceae
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 28(6): 631-639, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-977755


ABSTRACT Fadogia agrestis Schweinf. ex Hiern (Vangueria agrestis (Schweinf. ex Hiern) Lantz), Rubiaceae, is an African traditional medicinal plant also used as a dietary supplement in the US. The present paper is the first report of the pharmacognostic study of the leaf, stem and root of F. agrestis by microscopy, HPTLC and total phenolic/flavonoid content analyses. Noteworthy microscopic features that can help in identification and quality control are septate and lignified non-glandular trichomes on leaf and stem epidermises, paracytic stomata on leaf abaxial epidermis, numerous cells containing yellow substances of presumably phenolic compounds in leaf and stem, calcium oxalate druses and prismatic crystals in leaf and styloids in stem, primary phloem fibers in stem, brachysclereids in stem and root, spherical starch grains in root, and vessels with vestured pits and simple perforated end walls. In addition to microscopy, a total phenolic/flavonoid content determination and an HPTLC method were also developed for rapid chemical fingerprint analyses of Fadogia samples and dietary supplements.

Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 68(3): 268-279, sept. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1016085


Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a plant in the family of Lamiaceae. In Mexican traditional medicine it is used to alleviate gastrointestinal and hepatic problems. Studies carried out mainly in ethanolic and methanolic extracts, have revealed the presence of diverse compounds to which those medicinal properties are attributed. The objective of this research work was to extract in aqueous solution the antioxidants present in lemon balm and identify them through HPLC-MS. A Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the physical conditions of antioxidant extraction, where the analyzed variables were time, temperature and sample quantity. The antioxidant activity was determined through methodologies of DPPH*, FRAP and total phenolics. The aqueous solution with the highest antioxidant activity was analyzed through HPLC-MS. The results showed that the interaction temperature-time has a positive influence on the liberation of antioxidants. The best condition for a conventional extraction of antioxidants was 90°C, 15 min and 2 g of sample. Higher correlations were observed at r2>0.6 between determined antioxidant activity by DPPH* (or FRAP) vs Total phenolics; this would indicate that such activity could be attributed to phenolic compounds whose presence was confirmed through an analysis by HPLC-MS(AU)

El toronjil (Melissa officinalis) es una planta de la familia Lamiaceae. En la medicina tradicional mexicana es utilizado para aliviar problemas gastrointestinales y hepáticos. Algunos estudios realizados con extractos etanólicos y metanólicos de dicha planta, han revelado la presencia de diversos compuestos a los que se les atribuye sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue extraer en solución acuosa los antioxidantes presentes en el toronjil e identificarlos a través de HPLC-MS. Para ello, se aplicó un diseño de experimentos Box-Behnken a fin de determinar las condiciones físicas de extracción de antioxidantes; las variables analizadas fueron tiempo, temperatura y cantidad de muestra. La actividad antioxidante fue determinada a través de las metodologías de DPPH*, FRAP y fenoles totales. El extracto acuoso con la mayor actividad antioxidante fue analizado mediante HPLCMS. Los resultados mostraron que la interacción tiempotemperatura tuvo una influencia positiva en la liberación de antioxidantes. La mejor condición para la extracción de antioxidantes presentes en el toronjil fue 90°C, 15 min y 2 g de muestra. Correlaciones superiores a r2>0.6 fueron determinadas entre la actividad antioxidante medida por DPPH* (o FRAP) vs Fenoles totales; esto podría indicar que la actividad antioxidante encontrada podría atribuirse a compuestos de tipo fenólico cuya presencia fue confirmada por el análisis en HPLC-MS(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Basic Homeopathic Research , Melissa , Antioxidants , Therapeutics , Gastrointestinal Diseases
Ciênc. agrotec., (Impr.) ; 41(4): 447-458, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-890633


ABSTRACT Bee pollen results from the mixture of pollen and floral nectar with the salivary substances of bees and has increasingly been used as a food with therapeutic properties. In this study, 30 samples of bee pollen from Apis mellifera apiaries in three mesoregions of Alagoas (Brazil) - Mata Atlântica, South Coast and Caatinga, were collected during the dry season of 2008/09 and analysed. Mata Atlântica and Caatinga had good production of bee pollen. In the same season, Mata Atlântica contained a higher diversity of pollen types for feeding bees with a predominance of herbaceous pollen (63%), whereas the Caatinga samples contained monofloral pollen. Physicochemical data were analysed with the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis statistical test. The Caatinga samples were analysed to determine their contents of total phenolic compounds (25.85 ± 10.80 mg gallic acid eq/g) and flavonoids (45.62 ± 32.19 mg quercetin eq/g) and their antioxidant activity (for instance, 70.62 ± 4.50% in the DPPH test), which were possibly affected by the environmental conditions of this biome.

RESUMO O pólen apícola resulta da mistura de pólen e néctar floral com substâncias salivares da abelha, e emerge como um alimento com propriedades terapêuticas. Neste trabalho foram analisadas 30 amostras desse material de apiários (Apis mellifera), coletadas durante a estação seca de 2008/09 em três mesorregiões de Alagoas - Mata Atlântica, Costa Sul e Caatinga. A Mata Atlântica e a Caatinga foram regiões boas produtoras de pólen apícola. Na mesma época, a Mata Atlântica apresentou a maior diversidade de tipos de pólen para alimentar abelhas, com predominância de herbáceas (63%), enquanto as amostras de Caatinga foram monoflorais. Os dados físico-químicos foram analisados pelo teste estatístico não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. As amostras da Caatinga se destacaram quanto ao teor de fenóis (25,85 ± 10,80 eq. mg Ácido Gálico/g), flavonoides totais (45,62 ± 32,19 eq. mg Quercetin/g), e atividade antioxidante (através do teste do DPPH, por exemplo, 70,62 ± 4,50%), provavelmente devido à condição ambiental deste bioma.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-667507


Objective: To investigate phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Kedrostis africana(K.africana). Methods: Dried tubers of K.africana were extracted in acetone,water and ethanol.The total phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and tannin contents were determined spectro-metrically. The antioxidant activity was examined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide assays.The antimicrobial activity was determined by agar dilution method using minimum inhibitory concentration against 3 g positive and three gram negative strains while four fungal strains were also investigated. Results: Total phenol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidin and tannin contents ranged from (5.32 ± 0.01) to (10.51 ± 0.01) mg GAE/g; (42.58 ± 0.02) to (529.23 ± 0.01) mg QE/g;(15.05 ± 0.00) to (585.64 ± 0.00)mg CE/g and (0.301 ± 0.010) to (0.937 ± 0.000)mg TAE/g, respectively. The IC50values of the ethanol extract for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)and hydrogen peroxide were 0.054 and 0.057 mg/mL, respectively,aqueous extract had an IC50value of 0.135 7 mg/mL for nitric oxide while the acetone extract had an IC50value of 0.300 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The ethanol extract demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic species with minimum inhibitory concentrations values ranging from 2.5–5.0 mg/mL for bacteria and(0.312 5–5.000 0)mg/mL for fungi, respectively. Conclusions: The tuber of K. africana showed potent free radical scavenging property and antimicrobial activity.

Ciênc. rural ; 46(8): 1498-1504, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-784204


ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine and correlate the extraction yields, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products. The β-carotene/linoleic acid autoxidation system and scavenging capacity for DPPH and ABTS free radicals assays were used. The results were expressed in terms of lyophilized sample or dry extract. Mango bagasse exhibited the highest extraction yield (37.07%) followed by peanut skin (15.17%) and grape marc (7.92%). In terms of lyophilized sample, total phenolics did not vary significantly among the residues evaluated (average of 60.33mg EAG g-1); however, when they were expressed as dry extract grape marc exhibited the highest total phenolic (768.56±116.35mg GAE g-1), followed by peanut skin (404.40±13.22mg GAE g-1) and mango bagasse (160.25±4.52mg GAE g-1), Peanut skin exhibited the highest content of total flavonoids (2.44mg QE g-1), while grape marc (1.76mg QE g-1) and mango bagasse (1.70 mg QE g-1) showed no significant differences. The extraction yield showed strong negative linear correlation with total phenolic and total flavonoid. This study showed that peanut skin was the sample with the highest antioxidant activity and it was strongly influenced by total flavonoids. All extracts of byproducts showed antioxidant activity comparable to α-tocopherol, and they can be a source of natural compounds with potential to replace synthetic antioxidants such as BHT.

RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar e correlacionar os rendimentos de extração, atividade antioxidante, compostos fenólicos totais e flavonoides de subprodutos agroindustriais de uva, manga e amendoim. A autoxidação do sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoleico e a capacidade de sequestro dos radicais DPPH e ABTS foram os ensaios antioxidantes utilizados. Os resultados foram expressos com base na amostra liofilizada ou no extrato seco. O bagaço de manga apresentou o maior rendimento de extração (37,07%) seguido da película de amendoim (15,17%) e bagaço de uva (7,92%). Em termos de amostra liofilizada, o teor de fenólicos totais não variou significativamente entre os resíduos avaliados (média de 60,33mg EAG g-1), entretanto, quando foi expresso com base no extrato seco, o bagaço de uva exibiu o maior teor de fenólicos totais (768,56±116,35mg EAG g-1), seguido da película de amendoim (404,40±13,22mg EAG g-1) e bagaço de manga (160,25±4,52 mg EAG g-1). Apelícula de amendoim apresentou o maior conteúdo de flavonoides totais (2,44mg EQ g-1), enquanto os bagaços de uva (1,76mg EQ g-1) e de manga (1,70mg EQ g-1) não mostraram diferenças significativas. O rendimento de extração mostrou fortes correlações lineares negativas como teor de fenólicos totais e flavonoides totais. Este estudo mostrou que a películade amendoim foi o material que apresentou a maior atividade antioxidante e isso foi fortemente influenciado por flavonoides totais. Os extratos avaliados mostraram atividade antioxidante comparável à do α-tocoferol, com potencial para substituir antioxidantes sintéticos, tais como o BHT.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-176982


Rotula aquatica Lour is a small branched shrub that grows characteristically among rocks and trailing over gravel in stream beds. It belongs to the family Boraginaceae and widely distributed throughout India. It is commonly called as Pasanabheda. The present study was aimed to evaluate the total phenolics and in vitro antioxidant activity in root and leaf extracts of Rotula aquatica Lour. The dried roots and leaves were subjected to soxhlet extraction utilizing chloroform and methanol followed by preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis. Total phenolic content was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu method and in vitro antioxidant assays were performed using various radical scavenging activities viz. DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, hydroxyl and iron chelating activities at different concentrations. The results of the total phenolic content estimation was expressed in terms of equivalence with standard and the antioxidant potentiality of various scavenging and chelating activity were expressed in terms of IC50 values. The results showed that both root and leaves possess significant antioxidant activity even though the former was found to be superior than the latter in terms of parameters assessed. Further the methanol extracts were proved to be an ideal for the materials subjected to investigation.

Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 66(1): 66-73, mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1023548


The industrialization of potato and tomato produces large amount of wastes. Previous studies have demonstrated that these by-products are rich in antioxidant compounds. In this study, the composition and antioxidant efficacy of extracts from potato and tomato by-products were determined in order to evaluate their potential as food additives. Potato and tomato wastes showed to be good sources of fiber, protein and antioxidants. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic, carotenoid and lycopene contents were determined in methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts of the residues. Methanol was the best solvent for the extraction of phenolics while acetone was the best in the extraction of carotenoids in both residues. The greatest antioxidant activity (14.10 µmol Trolox/g) resulted when potato peels were extracted with ethanol. The oxidative stability of canola oil containing either ethanol extracts of potato and tomato wastes (200 and 400 mg/kg) or the synthetic antioxidant BHT (200 mg/kg), compared to oil without antioxidants, was evaluated by measuring their peroxide values, conjugated dienes and p-anisidine value after 72 and 144 h storage at 65 °C. The order of antioxidant efficacy was as follows: potato peels > BHT > tomato residues. The results showed that ethanol extracts of potato and tomato waste could be used as natural antioxidant additives in the protection of vegetable oils(AU)

La industrialización de la papa y el jitomate genera grandes cantidades de desechos. Estudios previos han demostrado que estos subproductos son ricos en compuestos antioxidantes. En este trabajo se determinaron la composición y la eficacia antioxidante de subproductos de papa y jitomate con el fin de evaluar su potencial como aditivos alimentarios. Los desechos de papa y jitomate demostraron ser buenas fuentes de fibra, proteína y antioxidantes. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante y el contenido de compuestos fenólicos, carotenoides y licopeno en extractos metanólicos, etanólicos y acetónicos de los residuos. El mejor disolvente para la extracción de compuestos fenólicos fue el metanol mientras que la acetona fue el mejor disolvente para extraer los carotenoides. La mayor actividad antioxidante (14.10 µmol Trolox/g) se obtuvo cuando las cáscaras de papa se extrajeron con etanol. La estabilidad oxidativa de aceite de canola adicionado con los extractos etanólicos de desechos de papa o jitomate (200 y 400 mg/kg) o con el antioxidante sintético BHT (200 mg/kg), comparándolos con aceite sin antioxidantes, se evaluó mediante la medición de su índice de peróxidos, dienos conjugados e índice de anisidina, después de almacenarlo a 65°C durante 72 y 144 h. El orden de eficacia antioxidante fue como sigue: cáscara de papa > BHT > residuos de jitomate. Los resultados demostraron que los extractos etanólicos de los desperdicios de papa y jitomate podrían ser usados como aditivos antioxidantes naturales en la protección de aceites vegetales(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Solanum tuberosum/physiology , Solanum lycopersicum/physiology , Food Additives , Antioxidants , Plant Oils , Food Handling , Nutritive Value
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 59: e16160223, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-951331


ABSTRACT This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrodistillated essential oil and various extracts obtained from Premna integrifolia Linn. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil was resulted in determination 29 different compounds, representing 95.73% of total oil. Antioxidant activities of the essential oil and organic extracts of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were determined by three different test systems namely DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays. The essential oil and methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity among all the tested samples. Furthermore, the amount of total phenolic compounds was determined and its content in methanol extract was the highest as compared to other samples. The results indicate that the essential oil and extracts of Premna integrifolia could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for using in the pharmaceutical industries.

Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195327


PURPOSE: This study was performed to compare total phenolic contents, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and reduction effect of Korean food groups on ex vivo DNA damage in human cells and analyze correlations between each indicator. METHODS: Vegetable foods in the Korean diet based the results of the KNHANES V-2 (2011) were classified into 10 food groups: cereals, fruits, vegetables, nuts, kimchi, seaweeds, potatoes, mushrooms, legumes, and oils. Eighty-four foods constituted more than 1% of the total intake in each food group and finally designated as vegetable foods in the Korean diet. Total phenolic content of each food group was measured. Further, in vitro antioxidant capacity was measured based on DPPH radical scavenging assay, TEAC assay, and ORAC(ROO)• assay. Ex vivo DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed using comet assay. RESULTS: Total phenolic contents of food groups of the Korean diet increased in the order of mushrooms, fruits, vegetables, seaweeds, and kimchi. Meanwhile, antioxidant rankings of food groups as mean values from the three in vitro test methods increased in the order of mushrooms, seaweeds, vegetables, kimchi, and fruits. Protection against ex vivo DNA damage in human lymphocytes was highest in mushrooms, followed by vegetables, fruits, seaweeds, and kimchi. The rankings of the food groups for total phenolic content, in vitro DAC, and ex vivo DNA protection activity were similar, and correlations between each indicator were significantly high. CONCLUSION: Mushrooms, fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds among the tested food groups in the Korean diet showed high total phenolic contents, in vitro antioxidant capacities, and protection against DNA damage. Correlations between each indicator in terms of total phenolic content, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and ex vivo DNA protection between each food group were found to be particularly high.

Agaricales , Comet Assay , Diet , DNA Damage , DNA , Edible Grain , Fabaceae , Fruit , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lymphocytes , Nuts , Oils , Phenol , Solanum tuberosum , Vegetables
China Pharmacy ; (12): 3399-3402,3403, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-605178


OBJECTIVE:To establish a method for the content determination of chlorogenic acid,protocatechuic acid and total phenolics in Chaenomeles sinensis,compare the content of total phenolics and 2 phenolic acids from different areas. METHODS:Wavelength switching HPLC method was conducted to determine the chlorogenic acid and protocatechuic acid. The column was Shim-pack CLC-ODS(M)with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phoephoric acid(15∶85,V/V),the detection wavelength was 259 nm(for protocatechuic acid)and 325 nm(for chlorogenic acid)and the switching time was 14 min. With the index of proto-catechuic acid,Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method was conducted to determine the total phenolics. RESULTS:The 2 methods of quantitative analysis showed that the precision,repeatability,recoveries and standard curves were all validated by methodology. The mass fraction of total phenolics was 0.87%-3.77% with the average of 2.16%;the chlorogenic acid was 0.053%-0.387% with the average of 0.192% and the protocatechuic acid was 0.024%-0.541% with the average of 0.087%. The order of total phenolics content in C. sinensis from different areas was Yunnan>Anhui Xuancheng>Sichuan>Hubei and the order of total amount of chlo-rogenic acid and protocatechuic acid from different areas was the same as the total phenolics. There were differences among the con-tents of C. sinensis from different areas,however,the positive correlation was found between the content of total phenolics and the total amount of chlorogenic acid and protocatechuic acid with the pearson correlation coefficient of 0.719(P<0.01).CONCLU-SIONS:The established method is simple,accurate and reproducible and can be used for the content determination of chlorogenic acid,protocatechuic acid and total phenolics in chaenomelis fructus.

Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 125-128, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-461158


Objective To investigate the chemical constituents of the ethanol extract of Daphne altaica Pall (DA-Et), to determine total phenolic content in DA-Et and to study the effect of DA-Et on cell apoptosis in Eca-109 cells. Meth?ods Different chemical assays were performed to detect chemical constituents of DA-Et. The content of total phenolics ,ex?pressed as gallic acid equivalents,was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay; Cell apoptosis induced by DA-Et was detected by AnnexinV-FITC/PI flow cytometry. Results Flavonoids,coumarins,sugars,alkaloids and phenolics in DA-Et. The contents of total phenolics in DA-Et was quantified as 159.78 mg/g. Average recovery rate of this method ranged from 99.4% to 108.3% and the precision relative standard deviation was 2.04%. Apoptosis rate of Esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109 induced by DA-Et was detected as 29.633%±1.779%(n=3). Conclusion Our study provide guidance for the im?provement of DA-Et quality, its appropriate application and further research of its activity.

Rev. colomb. quím. (Bogotá) ; 43(2): 41-46, mayo 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-762742


Se estudiaron las hojas de las especies Meriania speciosa y Meriania nobilis, obteniendo extractos de diferente polaridad, a los que se les realizaron diversas pruebas cualitativas. Se determinó el contenido de fenoles totales y se evaluó la actividad captadora de radicales con DPPH (FRS50: capacidad captadora de radicales que reduce en un 50% al radical DPPH) en microplacas de 96 pozos. Este estudio determinó que las dos especies presentan una buena actividad antioxidante. Los extractos que mayor actividad antioxidante mostraron fueron: butanol con FRS50 de 7,6 ± 0,8 y 23,4 ± 2,4; acuoso con FRS50 de 28,5 ± 2,9 y 63,0 ± 2,6 y hexano 2 con FRS50 de 17,0 ± 2,6 y 18,2 ± 2,5 mg/L, para las especies M. speciosa y M. nobilis respectivamente. Los extractos que presentaron un alto contenido de fenoles totales fueron: metanol 2 con valor de 0,47 ± 0,06 y 0,40 ± 0,03 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico (EAG)/g extracto seco (ES) y el extracto acuoso: 0,16 ± 0,06 y 0,12 ± 0,03 mg EAG/g ES para las especies M. speciosa y M. nobilis respectivamente. El extracto butanólico de la especie M. speciosa mostró la mayor actividad antioxidante con un FRS50 de 7,6 mg/L ± 0,8, este valor es comparable con el valor hallado para la quercetina FRS50: 4,2 mg/L ± 0,4, lo que indica que este extracto es promisorio en el contenido de metabolitos secundarios que exhiben actividad antioxidante y para la fabricación de productos agroquímicos, cosméticos y farmacéuticos.

The leaves of two species, Meriania speciosa and Meriania nobilis were studied, obtaining extracts of different polarity, which were submitted to tests for their DPPH antioxidant activity (FRS50: free radical scavenging capacity to reduce in 50% the DPPH) and total phenolics in a 96 wells format. This study determined that the two species have good antioxidant activity. The extracts that showed higher antioxidant activity were butanolic FRS50 of 7.6 ± 0.8 and 23,4 ± 2.4; aqueous FRS50 of 28.5 ± 2.9 y 63.0 ± 2.6; and hexane 2 FRS50 17.0 ± 2.6 and 18.2 ± 2.5 mg/L, for M. speciosa and M. nobilis, respectively; the extracts that showed a higher content of total phenolics were methanol 2 with a value of 0.47 ± 0.06 and 0.40 ± 0.03 and aqueous extract with a value of 0.16 ± 0.06 and 0.12 ± 0.03 mg EqAG/g ES for M. speciosa and M. nobilis, respectively. The extract showing better activity between the two species, was the butanolic of M. speciosa, with FRS50 7.6 mg/L ± 0.8, this value is comparable with the positive control, quercetine FRS50: 4.2 mg/L ± 0.4, which indicates that the butanolic extract is promissory in the content of secondary metabolites with antioxidant activity and for the production of agrochemicals, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Duas espécies, Meriania speciosa e nobilis Meriania foram estudados, a obtenção de extratos de polaridade diferente, que foram submetidos a testes para a sua atividade antioxidante DPPH (FRS50: livre capacidade de eliminação de radicais para reduzir em 50% o DPPH) e fenóis totais em formato de 96 poços. Este estudo permitiu determinar que as duas espécies têm boa atividade antioxidante em extratos iniciais. Os extratos que apresentaram maior atividade antioxidante foram butanólico FRS50 de 7,6 ± 0,8 e 23,4 ± 2,4; FRS50 aquosa de 28,5 ± 2,9; 63,0 ± 2,6 y; e hexano 2 FRS50 17,0 ± 2,6 e 18,2 ± 2,5 mg/L; os extratos apresentaram maior teor de fenólicos totais foram metanol 2 valor de 0,47 ± 0,06 e 0,40 ± 0,03 e aquosa extrair valor de 0,16 ± 0,06 e 0,12 ± 0,03 mg EqAG / g ES para M. speciosa e M. nobilis, respectivamente. O extracto que mostra uma melhor actividade entre as duas espécies, foi o de M. butanólica speciosa, com FRS50 7,6 mg / L ± 0,8, este valor é comparável ao do controlo positivo, quercetine FRS50: 4,2 mg / L ± 0,4, o que indica butanólica extrato é promissória no conteúdo de metabólitos secundários com atividade antioxidante e para a produção de agroquímicos, cosméticos e farmacêuticos.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-152091


In this study, we examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and tested the antioxidant potential of the oil and leaf extracts of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. The chemical compositions of the oil were analysed by GCMS. Twenty-four compounds representing 92.4% of the total oil was identified. The antioxidative potential was evaluated using two separate methods, inhibition of free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals scavenging activities assay. In the first case, the IC50 value of the oil was 14.8 ± 2.2. Among the extracts, the strongest activity was exhibited by the ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 17.56 ± 1.6 μg/ml). In the superoxide radicals scavenging activities assay, ethyl acetate extract was superior to all other extracts (IC50 = 23.47 ± 1.2 μg/ml). Furthermore, the amount of total phenolic compounds was also determined as gallic acid equivalent. Thus, the natural products produced from C. zedoaria may be used in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Biosci. j. (Online) ; 30(5 Supplement 2): 629-638, 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-947952


Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a atividade alelopática, antioxidante e o conteúdo de fenóis e flavonóides totais no extrato metanólico de quatro plantas medicinais: Hibiscus sabdariffa, Ocimum gratissimum, Palicourea crocea e Trichilia silvatica. Para isso, folhas, flores e caules de Trichilia silvatica, folhas de Palicourea crocea, cálice e folhas de Hibiscus sabdariffa e folhas de Ocimum gratissimum foram utilizados. A avaliação da atividade alelopática foi realizada pelo ensaio de germinação e crescimento inicial de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa), com três repetições de 50 sementes em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelo método fotocolorimétrico in vitro do radical livre estável 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila (DPPH). O crescimento das plântulas de alface foi mais sensível à ação dos aleloquímicos presentes nos extratos metanólicos do que a germinação das sementes, e evidenciaram o efeito inibitório dos extratos metanólicos do cálice e folhas de H. sabdariffa e das folhas de O. gratissimum e P. crocea. Os extratos metanólicos obtidos das folhas, flores e casca de T. silvatica apresentaram maior capacidade de sequestrar radicais livres com valores de IC50 de 62,36; 19,4 18,38 µg mL-1, no ensaio com DPPH e maior teor de compostos fenólicos 520,80; 545,27 e 546,56 mg de ácido gálico g de amostra-1, respectivamente, avaliado pelo ensaio de Folin-Ciocalteau.

The aim of this work was to evaluate allelopathic and antioxidant activity and total flavonoids and phenols content in methanolic extract of four medicinal plants: Hibiscus sabdariffa, Ocimum gratissimum, Palicourea crocea and Trichilia silvatica. Leaves (TSFo), flowers (TSFl) and stems (TSCa) of T. silvatica; leaves (PCFo) of P. crocea; chalice (HSCa) and leaves (HSFo) of H. sabdariffa and leaves of O. gratissimum (OGFo) were used in experiment. The evaluation of allelopathic activity was carried out by test of seed germination and initial growth of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa), with three replications of 50 seeds in completely randomized design. The antioxidant activity was determined by method photo colorimetric in vitro of stable free radical 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The growth of lettuce seedlings was more sensitive to the action of allelochemicals in methanolic extracts than seeds germination, and showed the inhibitory effect of methanolic extracts from leaves and chalice of H. sabdariffa and leaves of O. gratissimum and P. crocea. Methanolic extracts obtained from the leaves (TSFo), flowers (TSFl) and bark (TSCa) of T. silvatica showed higher ability to scavenging free radical with IC50 values of 62.36; 19.4 18.38 µg mL-1, in assay with DPPH and highest content of phenolics, 520.80; 545.27 546.56 mg gallic acid per g of sample, respectively, evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay.

Phenols , Plants, Medicinal , Flavonoids , Allelopathy , Antioxidants
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-500422


To perform phytochemical screening, estimate total phenolics, flavonoids and to evaluate antioxidant potential of Moringa peregrina (M. peregrina) leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of M. peregrina (150 g) were extracted exhaustively by Soxhlet with ethanol and then fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethy alacetate and methanol. All the prepared extracts were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the crude extracts. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. Hydrogen peroxide and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were used to determine in vitro antioxidant activity. Results: Phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results revealed presence of 19 phytoconstituents in hexane extract, 6 in ethyl acetate and 7 compounds in methanolic extract. Methanol extract was found to contain the highest phenolic content and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activities of all crude extracts were significant and comparable with the standard ascorbic acid. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the leaves of M. peregrina are the rich source of phenolic compounds that can play an important role in preventing the progression of many diseases.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-628457


Introduction: Increased interest in phenolic compounds is largely due to findings of their association with antioxidant, antimutagenic, antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities with reduced risk of free radicals related diseases. Local vegetables of Thailand were examined for antioxidant activity, total phenolics and isoflavone contents. Methods: Thirty edible leaf and 13 other-parts of vegetable plants were collected from the markets in Northern Thailand for analysis of antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS assays), total phenolics, and isoflavones. Results: The antioxidant activity for DPPH assay and total phenolics of edible leaf vegetables (EC50 = 541.2+498.9 jug/ mL and 2438.7+3342.7 pg GAE/g dry extract respectively) were significantly higher than those of the other edible plant parts (EC50 =1315.5±1303.4 pg/mL and 1263.3+3281.7 pg GAE/ g dry extract respectively). Ten types of edible leaf vegetables and only one example of plant part, namely ginger, exhibited high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities for DPPH and ABTS assays were associated with total phenolics concentration. Conclusion: Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of Thai edible leaf vegetables were higher than those of other edible plant parts. The Thai copper pod showed the highest levels of total phenolics and isoflavones, and strong antioxidant activity. Further investigation should be undertaken to examine the active mechanisms of these properties in relations to health benefits.