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Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 267-282, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364971


Abstract In 1907, Carlos Chagas was designated to fight paludism in the Rio das Velhas region along the Central do Brasil railroad. During his field research, Chagas discovered a hematophagous insect ( Panstrongylus megitus ) carrying a new trypanosomatide, which he named Trypanosoma cruzi . On April 14th, 1909, he found the same parasite in the blood of a febrile child, submitting the announcement of his discoveries to the Brasil Médico scientific journal. Here, we discuss the early stages in the establishment of a new human morbid entity during the first decades after its discovery with a definite influence from its discoverer, Carlos Chagas, as well the first collaborators. Moreover, we cover the importance of the Center for the Study and Prophylaxis of Chagas Disease in Bambuí (MG), unraveling the most advanced developments in research within the disease's habitat and the widening perspectives for modern research that have emerged after the 1960s and continue to improve to this day. In this revisitation to the history of Chagas disease, we begin at Manguinhos (RJ ), making our way to Lassance (MG), where the discovery took place. Then, we travel back to Rio de Janeiro in the beginning of the twentieth century and Brazilian republic until the current day, revealing milestone publications that settled Chagas disease both as a source of pride for Brazilian medicine and as a challenge with important aspects that remain to be clarified. Any similarities to our country's politics and economy in the twentieth century are not mere coincidences.

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e210386, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365150


Chagas disease (CD) is an old neglected problem that affects more than 6 million people through 21 endemic countries in Latin America. Despite being responsible for more than 12 thousand deaths per year, the disease disposes basically of two drugs for its treatment, the nitroimidazole benznidazole and the nitrofuran nifurtimox. However, these drugs have innumerous limitations that greatly reduce the chances of cure. In Brazil, for example, only benznidazole is available to treat CD patients. Therefore, some proof-of-concept phase II clinical trials focused on improving the current treatment with benznidazole, also comparing it with repositioned drugs or combining them. Indeed, repositioning already marketed drugs in view of combating neglected tropical diseases is a very interesting approach in the context of decreased time for approval, better treatment options and low cost for development and implementation. After the introduction of human immunodeficiency virus aspartyl peptidase inhibitors (HIV-PIs) in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the prevalence and incidence of parasitic, fungal and bacterial co-infections suffered a marked reduction, making these HIV-PIs attractive for drug repositioning. In this line, the present perspective presents the promising and beneficial data concerning the effects of HIV-PIs on the clinically relevant forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (i.e., trypomastigotes and amastigotes) and also highlights the ultrastructural and physiological targets for the HIV-PIs on this parasite. Therefore, we raise the possibility that HIV-PIs could be considered as alternative treatment options in the struggle against CD.

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220001, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365151


Translational research (TR) is an interdisciplinary branch of the biomedical field that seeks to connect its three supporting pillars: basic research on the bench, the hospital beds and other health system services, and the delivery of products for the well-being and health of the community. Here, we review the five transition stages of the TR spectrum, registering the lessons learned during > 20 years leading to the first clinical trial designed and performed in Brazil for testing a complementary treatment for Chagas disease (CD): the selenium trial (STCC). Lessons learned were: (1) to consider all the TR spectrum since the beginning of the project; (2) to start simultaneously animal studies and translation to humans; (3) to ensure a harmonious interaction between clinical and basic research teams; (4) to include MSc and PhD students only in pre-clinical and basic studies (TR0) or vertical clinical studies using retrospective samples and data (TR1); (5) to identify potential suppliers in the national commercial market for a future final treatment since the pre-clinical stage; (6) to keep an international network of experts as permanent advisers on the project. In the whole process, some perspectives were created: a complementary clinical trial for the opened questions and the construction of a Brazilian clinical CD platform.

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220004, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365152


Chagas disease (CD), a neglected tropical illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects more than 6 million people mostly in poor areas of Latin America. CD has two phases: an acute, short phase mainly oligosymptomatic followed to the chronic phase, a long-lasting stage that may trigger cardiac and/or digestive disorders and death. Only two old drugs are available and both present low efficacy in the chronic stage, display side effects and are inactive against parasite strains naturally resistant to these nitroderivatives. These shortcomings justify the search for novel therapeutic options considering the target product profile for CD that will be presently reviewed besides briefly revisiting the data on phosphodiesterase inhibitors upon T. cruzi.

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e210401, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365153


Chagas disease and leishmaniasis are neglected tropical diseases caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., respectively. They are among the most important parasitic diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide, being a considerable global challenge. However, there is no human vaccine available against T. cruzi and Leishmania infections, and their control is based mainly on chemotherapy. Treatments for Chagas disease and leishmaniasis have multiple limitations, mainly due to the high toxicity of the available drugs, long-term treatment protocols, and the occurrence of drug-resistant parasite strains. In the case of Chagas disease, there is still the problem of low cure rates in the chronic stage of the disease. Therefore, new therapeutic agents and novel targets for drug development are urgently needed. Antioxidant defence in Trypanosomatidae is a potential target for chemotherapy because the organisms present a unique mechanism for trypanothione-dependent detoxification of peroxides, which differs from that found in vertebrates. Cellular thiol redox homeostasis is maintained by the biosynthesis and reduction of trypanothione, involving different enzymes that act in concert. This study provides an overview of the antioxidant defence focusing on iron superoxide dismutase A, tryparedoxin peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase and how the enzymes play an important role in the defence against oxidative stress and their involvement in drug resistance mechanisms in T. cruzi and Leishmania spp.

Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 410-416, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350825


ABSTRACT Background: The screening of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected blood donors using two serological techniques frequently leads to conflicting results. This fact prompted us to evaluate the diagnostic performance of four "in-house" immunodiagnostic tests and two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Material and Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine blood donors, whose screening for Chagas disease was doubtful, underwent three in-house ELISAs, one in-house immunoblotting test (TESA-blot), and two commercial ELISAs (bioMérieux and Wiener) in an attempt to define the presence or absence of infection. Simultaneously, 29 donors with previous positive results from three conventional serological tests and 30 donors with constant negative results were evaluated. Results: The ELISA-Wiener showed the highest rate in sensitivity (98.92%) and the ELISA-bioMérieux, the highest specificity (99.45%), followed by the TESA-blot, which showed superior performance, with lower false-negative (2.18%) and false-positive (1.12%) rates. In series, the combination composed of the TESA-blot and ELISA-bioMérieux showed slightly superior performance, with trifunctional protein deficiency (TFP) = 0.01%. Conclusion: Our study confirms the high sensitivity and specificity of commercial kits. To confirm the presence or absence of T. cruzi infection, the combination of TESA-blot and ELISA-bioMérieux may be suggested as the best alternative. Individually, the TESA-blot performed the closest to the gold standard; however, it is not commercially available.

Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi , Immunologic Tests , Chagas Disease , Blood Donors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoblotting
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 387-391, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353470


La enfermedad de Chagas es una zoonosis producida por la infección del Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) (1), cuya principal vía de transmisión es vectorial (2). Esta enfermedad se caracteriza por ser una infección crónica que puede ocasionar daños cardiacos, digestivos y neurológicos irreversibles (3). En el departamento del Putumayo, de acuerdo con los datos del Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SIVIGILA), entre el año 2015 y el 2020, se han notificado 19 casos de Chagas crónico y 4 casos de Chagas agudos (4). Por este motivo resulta de gran interés compartir con los lectores de la revista MedUNAB la actualización de la distribución geográfica de los triatominos, vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas, y establecer el riesgo epidemiológico que representan para la población Putumayense, donde hay hallazgos de gran importancia porque se identifican especies en municipios y localidades donde antes no se conocían. Palabras claves: Triatominae; Enfermedad de Chagas; Infección por Trypanosoma cruzi; Infecciones; Insectos Vectores; Colombia.

Chagas Disease is a zoonotic disease produced by infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) (1), whose main route of transmission is vectorial (2). This disease is characterized by being a chronic infection that can cause irreversible cardiac, digestive, and neurological damage (3). In the department of Putumayo, according to data from the epidemiological surveillance system (SIVIGILA, for the Spanish original), between 2015 and 2020, 19 chronic cases and 4 acute cases of Chagas were reported (4). For this reason, it is important to share with the readers of the MedUNAB journal the update to the geographical distribution of triatomines, vectors of Chagas Disease, and to establish the epidemiological risk that they represent for the population of Putumayo, where there are findings of great importance as species are identified in municipalities and localities where they were not previously found. Keywords: Triatominae; Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi; Infections; Insect Vectors; Colombia.

A doença de Chagas é uma zoonose causada por infecção com Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) (1), cujo principal modo de transmissão é vetorial (2). Esta doença é uma infecção crônica que pode causar danos cardíacos, digestivos e neurológicos irreversíveis (3). No Departamento de Putumayo, de acordo com dados do Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica (SIVIGILA), entre 2015 e 2020, foram notificados 19 casos de Chagas crônica e quatro casos de Chagas aguda (4). Por esta razão, é de grande interesse compartilhar com os leitores da revista MedUNAB a atualização da distribuição geográfica dos triatomíneos, vetores da doença de Chagas, e estabelecer o risco epidemiológico que representam para a população de Putumayo, onde há descobertas de grande importância, pois são identificadas espécies em municípios e localidades onde antes eram desconhecidas. Palavras-chave: Triatominae; Doença de Chagas; Infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi; Infecções; Insetos Vetores; Colômbia.

Chagas Disease , Triatominae , Colombia , Infections , Insect Vectors
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 934-941, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350016


Resumo Fundamento: A doença de Chagas leva à redução da capacidade funcional. Entretanto, o estágio em que o comprometimento funcional é detectável permanece obscuro. Objetivos: O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a capacidade funcional de pacientes em diferentes estágios da doença de Chagas e de indivíduos saudáveis e verificar os determinantes do consumo de oxigênio de pico (VO2pico). Métodos: Em um estudo transversal, foram selecionados 160 indivíduos, 35 saudáveis e 125 com doença de Chagas. No grupo chagásico, 61 (49%) estavam na forma indeterminada da doença, 45 (36%) com cardiomiopatia chagásica (CC) e função cardíaca preservada e 19 (15%) com disfunção cardíaca e CC dilatada. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise de regressão univariada e multivariada. A significância estatística foi fixada em 5%. Resultados: Pacientes na forma indeterminada da doença apresentaram capacidade funcional semelhante a indivíduos saudáveis (p> 0,05). Pacientes com ChC e função cardíaca preservada apresentaram VO2pico menor que os pacientes na forma indeterminada (p <0,05), mas apresentaram valores de VO2pico semelhantes ao ChC dilatado (p = 0,46). A idade, sexo masculino, classe funcional da NYHA, pressão arterial diastólica, razão entre a velocidade do fluxo transmitral diastólico precoce e a velocidade anular mitral diastólica precoce, a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) e o diâmetro diastólico final do ventrículo esquerdo foram associados à capacidade funcional. Porém, apenas idade, sexo masculino, FEVE e classe funcional da NYHA permaneceram associados ao VO2pico no modelo final (R2 ajustado = 0,60). Conclusão: Pacientes com CC apresentam menor capacidade funcional do que pacientes na forma indeterminada. FEVE, idade, sexo masculino e classe funcional da NYHA foram determinantes do VO2pico em pacientes com doença de Chagas.

Abstract Background: Chagas disease leads to reduced functional capacity. However, the stage at which functional impairment is detectable remains unclear. Objectives: The present study was addressed to compare the functional capacity of patients at different stages of Chagas disease and healthy individuals and to verify the determinants of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 160 individuals were selected, 35 healthy and 125 with Chagas disease. In the Chagasic group, 61 (49%) were in the indeterminate form of the disease, 45 (36%) with Chagas cardiomyopathy (ChC) and preserved cardiac function and 19 (15%) with cardiac dysfunction and dilated ChC. The data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: Patients in the indeterminate form of disease showed similar functional capacity to healthy individuals (p>0.05). Patients with ChC and preserved cardiac function had lower VO2peak than patients in the indeterminate form (p<0.05), but showed similar VO2peak values than dilated ChC (p=0.46). The age, male sex, NYHA functional class, diastolic blood pressure, ratio of the early diastolic transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter were associated with functional capacity. However, only age, male sex, LVEF and NYHA functional class, remained associated with VO2peak in the final model (adjusted R2=0.60). Conclusion: Patients with ChC had lower functional capacity than patients in the indeterminate form. LVEF, age, male sex and NYHA functional class were determinants with VO2peak in patients with Chagas disease.

Humans , Male , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Chagas Disease , Stroke Volume , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Diastole
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 665-673, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153396


Abstract Educational interventions may trigger actions that contribute to prevent parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease (CD). This study aimed at investigating the impact of an instructional video named "Documentary on Chagas Disease" on knowledge about CD and its vectors displayed by a population that lives in an endemic area in Brazil, so as to validate it as an educational tool. The video was shown to 226 subjects, divided into two groups. Group 1 was composed of users of Basic Health Units (BHU) in Pelotas and Pinheiro Machado, cities located in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, Brazil, where CD is endemic. Group 2 consisted of students who attend three public schools located in the rural area in Pinheiro Machado, RS. Two questionnaires with questions about their knowledge about triatomines and CD were applied, before and after the documentary was shown. After the video was shown, there was significant increase in individuals' knowledge (in both groups) about "kissing bugs", their notification, the disease and its prevention. Besides, watchers considered that the quality of the material was satisfactory. Since the "Documentary on CD" can be easily accessed on the internet and was effective in teaching the population that lives in endemic areas, its use should be encouraged in places and meetings connected to health that aim at fighting against triatominae and at exposing an updated view of CD.

Resumo Intervenções educacionais podem desencadear ações que contribuam para a prevenção de doenças parasitárias, como a doença de Chagas (DC). Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o impacto de um vídeo instrucional denominado "Documentário Doença de Chagas" no conhecimento sobre DC e seus vetores exibidos a uma população que vive em área endêmica no Brasil, para validá-lo como uma ferramenta educacional. O vídeo foi exibido para 226 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos. O grupo 1 foi composto por usuários das Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS) de Pelotas e Pinheiro Machado, cidades do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil, onde a DC é endêmica. O grupo 2 foi formado por estudantes que frequentam três escolas públicas localizadas na zona rural de Pinheiro Machado, RS. Dois questionários com perguntas sobre conhecimentos sobre triatomíneos e DC foram aplicados, antes e depois da exibição do documentário. Após a exibição do vídeo, houve um aumento significativo no conhecimento dos indivíduos (em ambos os grupos) sobre "triatomíneos", sua notificação, a doença e sua prevenção. Além disso, os observadores consideraram que a qualidade do material era satisfatória. Como o "Documentário DC" pode ser facilmente acessado na Internet e ser eficaz no ensino à população que vive em áreas endêmicas, seu uso deve ser incentivado em locais e reuniões relacionadas à saúde, que visam combater os triatomíneos e exibir uma informação atualizada sobre a DC.

Humans , Animals , Triatoma , Triatominae , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Insect Vectors
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1,supl.1): 1-7, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1285251
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 28-34, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280490


Resumen Introducción: La Enfermedad de Chagas también conocida como Tripanosomiasis americana es un problema de salud pública. Se calcula que en el mundo hay entre 6 y 7 millones de personas infectadas por Trypanosoma cruzi, la mayoría de ellas en América Latina. Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en donantes de un banco de sangre del departamento de Boyacá 2016-2018. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo realizado en 25.920 donantes de sangre del departamento de Boyacá. La fuente de información fue secundaria. Se determinó la prevalencia de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi y se compararon según sexo, grupo etario y tipo de donante a través de análisis de frecuencias. Resultados: Se evaluaron 9187 donantes durante el año 2016; 8517 en el 2017 y 8216 en el 2018, de los cuales 56,1% eran de sexo femenino y 43,9% masculino. La prevalencia de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi fue 0,17 % en la tamización y 0,08 % con las pruebas confirmatorias de las cuales el 70,0% eran mujeres, el 85,0% donantes voluntarios por primera vez, el rango de edad en el que se presentó mayor prevalencia de este marcador serológico fue de 41 a 50 y de 51 a 65 años con un 35,0% cada uno . La prevalencia de la infección de Chagas presentó asociación estadísticamente significativa con la edad (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Los bancos de sangre resultan ser una de las fuentes de información disponibles para monitorear el comportamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas y evaluar la toma de decisiones en salud pública, teniendo en cuenta que la enfermedad se caracteriza de manera asintomática y sin compromiso clínico en la mayoría de los casos.

Abstract Introduction: Chagas Disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is a public health problem. It is estimated that in the world there are between 6 and 7 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, most of them in Latin America. Objectives: To identify the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in donors from a blood bank in the department of Boyacá 2016-2018. Materials and methods: Retrospective-descriptive study carried out in 25,920 blood donors from the department of Boyacá (Colombia). The source of information was secondary. The prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection was determined and compared according to sex, age group and type of donor through frequency analysis. Results: 9187 donors were evaluated during 2016; 8,517 in 2017 and 8,216 in 2018, of which 56.1% were female and 43.9% male. The prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection was 0.17% in screening and 0.08% with confirmatory tests of which 70.0% were women, 85.0% first-time volunteer donors, the range of The age at which the highest prevalence of this serological marker was found was 41 to 50 and 51 to 65 years with 35.0% each. The prevalence of Chagas infection showed a statistically significant association with age (p <0.05). Conclusions: Blood banks turn out to be one of the sources of information available to monitor the behavior of Chagas disease and evaluate decision-making in public health, taking into account the characteristics of the disease in which the majority of cases they are asymptomatic and without clinical compromise.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Trypanosoma cruzi , Blood Banks , Blood Donors , Chagas Disease , Tissue Donors , Volunteers , Blood , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Infections
Insuf. card ; 16(2): 52-59, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340000


La enfermedad de Chagas es una enfermedad parasitaria (Trypanosoma cruzi), endémica en 21 países de América y que las migraciones la han dispersado en distintos continentes. Una de las manifestaciones más precoces de esta enfermedad son las alteraciones disautonómicas o disfunción autonómica. La severidad de este inadecuado funcionamiento del sistema nervioso autónomo resulta mensurable, de modo que la evolución y/o progresión de la enfermedad puede constatarse mediante la alteración de estudios clínicos y detección de anticuerpos antimuscarínicos. Estos anticuerpos están presentes en un 30% de los infectados y aparecen muy precozmente una vez instalada la parasitosis; además otros estudios, como la dispersión del QT (>65 mseg) y la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca (<100 mseg) presentan valores anormales. La utilización de nuevos paradigmas de atención, diagnóstico y tratamientos adecuados son imprescindibles para prevenir el desarrollo de esta cardiopatía.

Chagas disease is a parasitic disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), endemic in 21 countries of America and that migrations have dispersed it in different continents. One of the earliest manifestations of this disease is dysautonomic alterations or autonomic dysfunction. The severity of this inadequate functioning of the autonomic nervous system is measurable, so that the evolution and/or progression of the disease can be verified by altering clinical studies and detecting antimuscarinic antibodies. These antibodies are present in 30% of those infected and appear very early once the parasitosis is installed; In addition, other studies, such as QT dispersion (> 65 ms) and heart rate variability (<100 ms) show abnormal values. The use of new paradigms of care, diagnosis and appropriate treatments are essential to prevent the development of this heart disease.

A doença de Chagas é uma doença parasitária (Trypanosoma cruzi), endêmica em 21 países da América e que as migrações a dispersaram em diferentes continentes. Uma das primeiras manifestações desta doença são as alterações disautonômicas ou disfunção autonômica. A gravidade desse funcionamento inadequado do sistema nervoso autônomo é mensurável, de modo que a evolução e/ou progressão da doença pode ser verificada alterando os estudos clínicos e detectando anticorpos antimuscarínicos. Esses anticorpos estão presentes em 30% dos infectados e aparecem muito cedo, uma vez instalada a parasitose; Além disso, outros estudos, como a dispersão do QT (> 65 mseg) e a variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca (<100 mseg), mostram valores anormais. A utilização de novos paradigmas de atendimento, diagnóstico e tratamentos adequados são essenciais para prevenir o desenvolvimento desta doença cardíaca.

Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(1,supl.1): 154-162, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248594


RESUMEN La enfermedad de chagas (tripanosomiasis americana) es una zoonosis potencialmente mortal causada por el parásito Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitido por vectores encontrados principalmente en territorio latinoamericano, aunque tiene otras vías de transmisión menos comunes. La fase aguda puede ser asintomática, presentarse con síntomas generales inespecíficos o con complicaciones como miocarditis o meningoencefalitis; adicionalmente, se presentan formas crónicas que incluyen cardiomegalia y sus complicaciones, enfermedad gastrointestinal y neuropatía periférica. Los eventos tromboembólicos son frecuentes, siendo el infarto cerebral el más común. El tratamiento específico antitripanosómico tiene mayor impacto en las formas agudas; las formas crónicas deberán tratarse de acuerdo con sus complicaciones, excepto en casos seleccionados. A continuación se detalla la fisiopatología, las manifestaciones clínicas, así como el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de acuerdo con sus diferentes formas de presentación.

SUMMARY Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a potentially fatal zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted by vectors found mainly in Latin American territory, although it has other less common transmission routes. The acute phase may be asymptomatic, present with nonspecific general symptoms or with complications such as myocarditis or meningoencephalitis; additionally there are chronic forms including cardiomegaly and its complications, gastrointestinal disease and peripheral neuropathy. Thromboembolic events are frequent, with cerebral infarction being the most common. Specific anti-trypanosomal treatment has a greater impact on the acute forms. Chronic forms should be treated according to their complications, except in selected cases. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, as well as the diagnosis and treatment, are according to the presentation of the disease.

Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 47-59, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285449


Abstract | Introduction: Chagas' disease is the leading cause of infectious myocarditis worldwide. This infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is usually life-long and asymptomatic; however, the third part of infected people can develop severe or even fatal cardiomyopathy. As the parasitemia in the chronic phase is both low-grade and intermittent, T. cruzi infection is principally detected by serology, although this method has sensitivity and specificity limitations. Objective: To determine the level of agreement between serologicand molecular tests in 658 voluntary blood donors from six provinces in the Colombian department of Santander. Materials and methods: We evaluated an array of diagnostic technologies by cross-section sampling performing a serological double diagnostic test for T. cruzi antibody detection (Chagas III ELISA™, BiosChile Group, and ARCHITECT Chagas CMIA™, Abbott) , and DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We collected the demographic, clinical, and epidemiological information of participants. The sample size was calculated using Epidat™ and the statistical analysis was done with Stata 12.1™. Results: PCR was six times more sensitive in detecting T. cruzi infection than ELISA/CMIA with prevalence values of 1.8% (12/658) and 0.3% (2/658), respectively, and kappa=0.28 (95%CI: -0.03 - 0.59). In contrast, serology showed a sensitivity of 16.7% (95%CI: 2.09 - 48.4) and a specificity of 100% (95%CI: 99.4 - 100). All seropositive samples were found to be positive by PCR. Conclusions: The implementation of PCR as a complementary method for screening donors could reduce the probability of false negative and the consequent risk of transfusional-transmission of Chagas' disease, especially in endemic regions.

Resumen | Introducción. La enfermedad de Chagas constituye la principal causa de miocarditis infecciosa en el mundo. Causada por Trypanosoma cruzi,la infección puede persistir toda la vida de manera asintomática y silenciosa, pero un tercio de los infectados desarrolla cardiomiopatía grave. Debido a que la parasitemia en la fase crónica es baja e intermitente, el diagnóstico se hace principalmente mediante la detección de anticuerpos (serología), método que tiene limitaciones de sensibilidad y especificidad. Objetivo. Determinar la concordancia entre el diagnóstico serológico y molecular de T. cruzien 658 donantes voluntarios de sangre del departamento de Santander, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de evaluación de tecnologías diagnósticas con muestreo transversal, utilizando un doble diagnóstico serológico para la detección de anticuerpos anti-T. cruzi (Chagas III ELISA™, BiosChile Group, y ARCHITECT ChagasCMIA™, Abbott) y la de ADN por PCR. Se recolectó la información demográfica, clínica y epidemiológica de los participantes. El tamaño de la muestra se estimó utilizando Epidat™ y el análisis estadístico se hizo mediante Stata 12.1™. Resultados. La sensibilidad de la PCR fue seis veces mayor que la de las pruebas de ELISA/CMIA, con prevalencias de 1,8 % (12/658) y 0,3 % (2/658), respectivamente, y kappa de 0,28 (IC95% -0,03 - 0,59). La sensibilidad serológica fue de 16,7 % (IC95% 2,09 - 48,4) y la especificidad de 100 % (IC95% 99,4 - 100). Todas las muestras seropositivas fueron positivas también en la PCR. Conclusiones. El uso de la PCR como método complementario para la tamización de donantes podría reducir el riesgo de falsos negativos y disminuir los casos de transmisión transfusional de la enfermedad de Chagas, especialmente en regiones endémicas.

Trypanosoma cruzi , Blood Donors , Serology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chagas Disease
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 113-120, mayo 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285453


Resumen | Introducción. La mayoría de las personas con enfermedad de Chagas desarrolla anticuerpos específicos contra Trypanosoma cruzi. En la infección temprana se producen anticuerpos IgM contra T. cruzi que son reemplazados por IgG durante el curso de la enfermedad. Los primeros síntomas de la enfermedad suelen ser muy leves y atípicos, por lo que a menudo no se detecta en la fase aguda. Objetivos. Evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad clínica y analítica, la precisión y la eficacia del UMELISA CHAGAS® con la incorporación de nuevos péptidos sintéticos en la fase sólida representativos de la proteína SAPA (Shed Acute Phase Antigen) y del antígeno TSA (Trypomastigote Surface Antigen). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó un panel de desempeño de título mixto anti-I cruzi y uno de seroconversión de Chagas, así como muestras de suero positivas y negativas provenientes de zonas endémicas de la enfermedad y muestras positivas de otras enfermedades que podían interferir con la prueba. Las pruebas Bioelisa CHAGAS, Chagatest ELISA recombinante v. 4.0, Chagatest HAI y SD BIOLINE CHAGAS Ab Rapid, se emplearon como referencia. Resultados. Los porcentajes de sensibilidad y especificidad clínica fueron de 97,73 % (IC95% 96,23-99,24) y 99,33 % (IC95% 98,88-99,78), respectivamente. Se obtuvo un 98,96 % de eficacia y una buena precisión. Conclusiones. Los resultados demuestran que la nueva fase sólida del UMELISA CHAGAS® puede utilizarse para el inmunodiagnóstico, la certificación de sangre y la vigilancia epidemiológica en países endémicos y no endémicos con población de alto riesgo.

Abstract | Introduction: Most people with Chagas disease develop specific antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. In early infection, IgM antibodies against T. cruzi are produced and later replaced for IgG antibodies during the course of the disease. The first symptoms of the infection may be very mild and atypical, which is why the disease is often not detected in the acute phase. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and analytical sensitivity, and specificity, accuracy, and efficacy of UMELISA CHAGAS™ with the addition of new synthetic peptides in the solid phase representative of the shed acute phase antigen protein (SAPA) and the trypomastigote surface antigen (TSA). Materials and methods: We evaluated a mixed anti-T. cruzi titer performance panel and a Chagas seroconversion one, as well as positive and negative serum samples from endemic areas of the disease and positive samples for other diseases that may interfere with the assay. The Bioelisa CHAGAS assay, Chaga test recombinant ELISA v.4.0, Chagatest HAI, and SD BIOLINE CHAGAS Ab Rapid were used as reference tests. Results: The sensitivity of the assay was 97.73% (95% CI: 96,23-99,24) and the clinical specificity, 99.33% (95% CI: 98,88-99,78) while the efficacy and the accuracy were 98.96%. Conclusions: Our results show that the new solid phase of UMELISA CHAGAS® can be used for immunodiagnostic, blood certification, and epidemiological surveillance in endemic and non-endemic countries with high-risk populations.

Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Peptides , Trypanosoma cruzi , Antibodies
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 131-140, mayo 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285455


Abstract | Introduction: Bats have been reported as hosts of the Trypanosoma cruzi protozoan, the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis, an endemic zoonotic disease in México. Objective: To describe T. cruzi infection in bats from the states of Campeche and Yucatán, México. Materials and methods: Captures were made from March to November, 2017 at three sites in Yucatán and one in Campeche. Up to four mist nets on two consecutive nights were used for the capture. The bats' species were identified and euthanasia was performed to collect kidney and heart samples for total DNA extraction. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected by conventional PCR with the amplification of a fragment belonging to the T. cruzi DNA nuclear. Results: Eighty-six bats belonging to five families (Vespertilionidae, Noctilionidae, Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, and Molossidae) and 13 species (Rhogeessa aeneus, Noctilio leporinus, Pteronotus davyi, P. parnellii, Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Glossophaga soricina, Carollia sowelli, Chiroderma villosum, Uroderma bilobatum, Sturnira parvidens, and Molossus rufus) were captured. Infection frequency by PCR was 30,2% (26/86) detected only in the renal tissue. The infected species were P. parnellii, G. soricina, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, S. parvidens, C. villosum, and R. aeneus. Conclusions: Our results confirmed the participation of several bat species as hosts in the T. cruzi transmission cycle in the region. Further studies are necessary to establish the importance of these animals in the zoonotic transmission of T. cruzi.

Resumen | Introducción. Los murciélagos se han reportado como huéspedes del protozoario Trypanosoma cruzi, agente etiológico de la tripanosomiasis americana, enfermedad zoonótica endémica en México. Objetivo. Describir la infección con T. cruzi en murciélagos capturados en los estados de Campeche y Yucatán, México. Materiales y métodos. Se realizaron capturas de marzo a noviembre de 2017 en tres sitios de Yucatán y uno de Campeche. Para la captura se emplearon hasta cuatro redes de niebla por dos noches consecutivas. Se identificó la especie de los murciélagos capturados y se les practicó la eutanasia para recolectar muestras de riñón y corazón, utilizadas posteriormente en la extracción de ADN total. La infección con T. cruzi se detectó por la amplificación con PCR convencional de un fragmento perteneciente al ADN nuclear de T. cruzi. Resultados. Se capturaron 86 murciélagos pertenecientes a cinco familias (Vespertilionidae, Noctilionidae, Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Molossidae) y 13 especies (Rhogeessa aeneus, Noctilio leporinus, Pteronotus davyi, P. parnellii, Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Glossophaga soricina, Carollia sowelli, Chiroderma villosum, Uroderma bilobatum, Sturnira parvidens y Molossus rufus). La PCR mostró una frecuencia de infección de 30,2 % (26/86), detectada únicamente en tejido renal. Las especies infectadas fueron P. parnellii, G. soricina, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, S. parvidens, C. villosum y R. aeneus. Conclusiones. Los resultados confirmaron la participación de varias especies de murciélagos como huéspedes en el ciclo de transmisión de T. cruzi en la región. Es necesario realizar más estudios para determinar la importancia de estos animales en la transmisión zoonótica de T. cruzi.

Trypanosoma cruzi , Chiroptera , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Infections , Mexico
Univ. salud ; 23(2): 144-150, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1252318


Introducción: En Colombia la enfermedad de Chagas ocasionada por el protozoo Trypanosoma cruzi, es considerada un problema de salud pública, que requiere una línea base para que las comunidades puedan enfrentar esta patología. Objetivo: Determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los habitantes del municipio de Aguazul-Casanare frente a la enfermedad de Chagas. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, se encuestaron a 389 familias del municipio; se indagó sobre factores sociodemográficos, epidemiológicos, conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas. Resultados: Participaron 221 mujeres (56,8%) y 168 hombres (43,2%). El 31,4% de los participantes tienen conocimientos óptimos, 31,6% buenos. Se observó actitudes óptimas en el 85,9%; el 56,3% tiene malas prácticas y el 43,3% entre prácticas buenas y regulares. Conclusiones: Se determinó que a pesar de que la comunidad tiene buenas actitudes frente a la prevención de la infección, existe un bajo porcentaje en conocimiento óptimo, que se refleja en malas prácticas. Por ello, resulta importante establecer acciones de educación encaminadas al fortalecimiento de conocimientos relacionados con la patología que impacte en la reducción de la endemia.

Introduction: Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is considered a public health problem in Colombia that requires a baseline to face this pathology. Objective: To identify knowledge, attitudes and practices of the inhabitants of the municipality of Aguazul-Casanare to handle Chagas disease. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 389 families of the municipality. Sociodemographic and epidemiologic factors as well as knowledge, attitudes and practices were investigated. Results: 221 women (56.8%) and 168 men (43.2) participated in the study. 31.4% and 31.6% of participants have optimal and appropriate knowledge, respectively. Optimal attitudes were observed in 85.9% of people, whereas 56.3% show improper practices, and 43.3% have good and regular practices. Conclusions: Even though, the community has positive attitudes towards prevention of the infection, there is a reduced percentage of people showing optimal knowledge, which is reflected in unhealthy practices. Thus, it is important to establish educational actions aimed at strengthening knowledge related to the Chagas that have an impact on the reduction of this endemic disease.

Trypanosoma cruzi , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Chagas Disease , Disease Transmission, Infectious
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(1): 127-130, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152676


RESUMEN La búsqueda continua de triatominos forma parte de los programas de vigilancia de la enfermedad de Chagas en zonas con características ecológicas apropiadas para la presencia del vector, permitiendo priorizar y definir las acciones de intervención. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la presencia y estado de infección de triatominos en viviendas del municipio de Inírida (Guainía). El estudio se realizó entre 2018 y 2019 mediante vigilancia comunitaria y búsqueda activa. Los vectores se identificaron y evaluaron por PCR. Se recolectaron cinco triatominos (un Panstrongylus lignarius y cuatro P. geniculatus). Se evidenció la infección natural en ambas especies. La genotipificación mostró la presencia de TcI Dom. Se actualiza así la presencia e infección P. lignarius, así como la infección de P. geniculatus para Inírida.

ABSTRACT The continuous search and characterization of triatomine bugs is essential for Chagas disease surveillance programs in areas with ideal ecological conditions for the distribution of these vectors. These activities are necessary to define and optimize intervention strategies. The objective of this work was to determine the presence of triatomine and its infection status in households located in the municipality of Inírida (Guainía). Between 2018 and 2019, we developed a community participation strategy where an active search was essential for the capturing of triatomine bugs. The collected bugs were evaluated by PCR allowing to identify one as Panstrongylus lignarius and four as P. geniculatus. Genotyping showed the presence of TcI Dom confirming infection in both species. Thus, this study presents an update of the infection status of P. geniculatus and the presence of infected P. lignarius in the Guainía region in Colombia.

Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 179-186, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249070


Resumen | Introducción. Belminus ferroae es un triatomino de comportamiento entomófago, sin embargo, puede alimentarse de vertebrados ocasionalmente. No se ha demostrado infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi en esta especie, como tampoco la metaciclogénesis del parásito. Objetivo. Examinar la metaciclogénesis de T. cruzi en B. ferroae y la capacidad infectiva de las heces o sus contenidos intestinales en roedores. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron las heces y la orina expulsadas espontáneamente por los insectos o mediante compresión abdominal o extracción del contenido intestinal a los 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 y 60 días. Se cuantificó la carga parasitaria de T. cruzi y sus formas evolutivas se identificaron con tinción de Giemsa. Asimismo, se evaluó en ratones albinos la capacidad infectiva de los tripomastigotes metacíclicos de T. cruzi obtenidos de las heces o contenidos intestinales de los especímenes infectados. Resultados. El análisis parasitológico reveló tres (15 %) insectos infectados con T.cruzi a los 30 (n=1), 40 (n=1) y 50 (n=1) días después de la infección con cargas parasitarias de hasta 1,62 x 105 tripanosomas/mm3 y porcentajes de metaciclogénesis entre el 3,5 y el 6,78 %. Conclusiones. Se demuestra por primera vez, en una especie del género Belminus, la metaciclogenésis de T. cruzi en condiciones de laboratorio y la capacidad infectiva de las heces para un huésped vertebrado.

Abstract | Introduction: Belminus ferroae is a triatominae with entomophagous behavior. However, it may occasionally feed on vertebrates. Currently, there is no evidence of natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi or the occurrence of metacyclogenesis in this species. Objective: To test T. cruzi metacyclogenesis in B. ferroae and the infectivity of their feces or intestinal contents in rodents under laboratory conditions. Materials and methods: Twenty nymphs of B. ferroae were infected with an autochthonous strain of T. cruzi (M/HOM/VE/09/P6). Fecal and urine samples were collected from spontaneous droppings or by compressing the bugs' abdomens and, eventually, by removing their gut contents, and then examined at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days. We quantified T. cruzi parasitic load, as well as the evolutionary forms in feces, urine, and intestinal contents by Giemsa staining. Similarly, we evaluated the infectivity of T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes in albino mice. Results: The parasitological analysis showed three insects (15%) infected with T. cruzi at 30 (n=1), 40 (n=1), and 50 (n=1) days post-infection. We observed parasitic loads of up to 1.62 x 105 trypanosomes/mm3 and metacyclogenesis percentages between 3.5% and 6.78%. Conclusions: This is the first time that T. cruzi metacyclogenesis is reported in a species of the genus Belminus under laboratory conditions and the infectivity of Belminus' feces is demonstrated on a vertebrate host.

Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosomiasis , Triatominae , Chagas Disease