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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907408

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the research on gold nanoparticles has made great progress. Gold nanoparticles with different morphologies have good application prospects in drug delivery and tumor treatment. Some gold nanoparticles have entered the stage of clinical trials. Gold nanorods have become important research objects due to their special optical properties and photothermal treatment potential. In this paper, the optical properties and main applications of gold nanorods were reviewed. Gold nanorods have good surface modifiable properties and can be modified through surface ligand exchange to improve their biocompatibility. The photothermal properties of gold nanorods can be improved by adjusting the aspect ratio to adjust the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak to achieve near-infrared light excitation. These characteristics make gold nanorods show good application prospects in the detection of biological macromolecules, real-time imaging in vivo, and early diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Using gold nanorods as a carrier and modified with different targeting molecules can improve the targeting of its drug delivery system and reduce damage to normal cells, so as to realize the combined application of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy, and finally achieve a better therapeutic effect. Combining gold nanorods with stem cells or certain specific biomolecules can form a hybrid gold nanorod system which provides new ideas for further improving the efficiency of tumor treatment.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2785-2792, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862277

ABSTRACT

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) affects intracellular redox balance and induces post-translational modification of proteins. Moreover, RNS, as the signal molecule, participates in the transduction of cellular signals under physiological conditions. However, excessive RNS can induce nitrosative stress and then damage cells, and thereby may play a role in the tumor initiation and progression. Thus, we discussed the role of RNS under physiological conditions and the tumor microenvironment, which may provide some novel ideas for the development of new drugs and the treatment of diseases.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799559

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) has become a public health emergency in China. Chinese authorities and health agencies had devoted great efforts to control this disease. As surgeons specialized in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors, we should always be aware of the prevention for NCP and incorporate this awareness into every detail of clinical practice. For the patients with gastrointestinal tumors, pre-admission screening should be done in order to rule out NCP. Real-time RT-PCR panel and chest CT scan should be conducted for patients with fever (>37.3℃), travel history to Hubei Province within 14 days, or contact history with residents from Wuhan district within 14 days. Prevention measures for both medical staffs and the screen-negative admitted patients should also be enhanced because false negative is possible. Medical instruments should be properly discarded or disinfected according to standardized procedures established by the local center for disease control and prevention (CDC). Surgical operation should be reduced at a minimal level to prevent cross infection in this special period.Surgical intervention for benign tumor should be postponed. For malignant tumor, multidisciplinary therapy (MDT) is recommended and non-surgical anti-tumor therapy should be selected with higher priority. Neoadjuvant therapy is highly recommended for gastrointestinal cancer at advanced stages that meet the indications of NCCN guideline (gastric cancer T stage ≥ 2/rectal cancer T stage ≥ 3/unresectable colon cancer). Gastric or esophagogastricjunction (EGJ) malignant tumor with obstruction can be managed with gastric tube decompression or stent placement to relieve the symptoms. Transnasal enteral feeding tube intubation/percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy could be adopted to ensure enteral nutrition supply. For colorectal malignancy with simple intestinal obstruction, stent placement can achieve a high success rate, which not only helps avoid emergency surgery, but also creates a better condition for subsequent surgery. Transcatheter arterial embolization for hemostasis is an alternative choice for gastrointestinal tumor with bleeding. However, emergency operation still must be performed for patients with acute uncontrolled bleeding, obstruction or after other alternative treatment measures fail. All cases with suspicious or confirmed with NCP must be reported to the local CDC department. All invasive intervention must be performed in a designated isolation area. Tertiary prevention measure must be adopted for all anesthetists with additional face mask or medical goggle protection to prevent respiratory droplet transmission. Preventive enterostomy is preferable in lower digestive tract surgery. Thoroughly disinfecting the operating room after surgery is necessary. Fever after surgery must be carefully differentiated whether it's caused by post-surgery abdominal infection/inflammation or NCP. Single-room isolation and related examinations should be performed according to the standard procedures. We believe that with the unprecedentedly joint efforts of doctors and patients, we will eventually win this war against NCP.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2156-2170, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881103

ABSTRACT

Macrophages have a leading position in the tumor microenvironment (TME) which paves the way to carcinogenesis. Initially, monocytes and macrophages are recruited to the sites where the tumor develops. Under the guidance of different microenvironmental signals, macrophages would polarize into two functional phenotypes, named as classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2). Contrary to the anti-tumor effect of M1, M2 exerts anti-inflammatory and tumorigenic characters. In progressive tumor, M2 tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are in the majority, being vital regulators reacting upon TME. This review elaborates on the role of TAMs in tumor progression. Furthermore, prospective macrophage-focused therapeutic strategies, including drugs not only in clinical trials but also at primary research stages, are summarized followed by a discussion about their clinical application values. Nanoparticulate systems with efficient drug delivery and improved antitumor effect are also summed up in this article.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2110-2124, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881101

ABSTRACT

The complex tumor microenvironment is a most important factor in cancer development. The biological microenvironment is composed of a variety of barriers including the extracellular matrix and associated cells such as endothelia cells, pericytes, and cancer-associated fibroblasts. Different strategies can be utilized to enhance nanoparticle-based drug delivery and distribution into tumor tissues addressing the extracellular matrix or cellular components. In addition to the biological microenvironment, the immunological conditions around the tumor tissue can be very complicated and cancer cells have various ways of evading immune surveillance. Nanoparticle drug delivery systems can enhance cancer immunotherapy by tuning the immunological response and memory of various immune cells such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In this review, the main components in the tumor biological and immunological environment are discussed. The focus is on recent advances in nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems towards targets within the tumor microenvironment to improve cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851543

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the preparation technology of celastrol/sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate-coloaded liposome (Cel/STS-CL) and verify the synergistic anti-breast cancer effects in vitro. Methods The optimal ratio of celastrol to sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate for synergistic anti-breast cancer effect was explored by MTT assay. The liposome was prepared by conventional film dispersion method. The physiochemical properties and morphology were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), HPLC, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Meanwhile, the in vitro synergistic anti-breast cancer effect of liposome was investigated by cellular uptake, antiproliferative assay, and cell apoptosis induction using MCF-7 cells as model. Results Hydrophilic sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate and hydrophobic celastrol were simultaneously encapsulated into liposomes by film dispersion method. The liposome had a nearly spherical shape with a clear bilayer, as well exhibited the particle sizes of (104.7 ± 2.1) nm, narrow polydispersion index (PDI) of (0.217 ± 0.002), and zeta potential of (-48.8 ± 2.3) mV. The encapsulation efficiency of celastrol and tanshinone IIA sulfonate were (82.2 ± 2.7)% and (66.2 ± 2.3)%, respectively. In cellular studies, the cellular uptake of liposome was 30 times higher than that of control group; The half proliferation inhibitory concentration (IC50) was (1.42 ± 0.12) μmol/L against MCF-7 cells with a combined index as 0.81. Besides, 80% of MCF-7 cells were induced to apoptosis by Cel/STS-CL, which was 0.1 time higher than Cel-Lip. Conclusion The preparation of Cel/STS-CL was feasible and efficiently, and promising for the in vitro synergistic anti-breast cancer effect, as well in the further studies.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-501531

ABSTRACT

Vaccinia virus ( VACV) has been widely used in humans for the eradication of small-pox. Since its natural ability of selective infection and replication in tumor cells without harming the normal tissue, VACV becomes a promising candidate in cancer therapy. In recent years, a variety of strategies have been successfully applied to further enhance the tumor selectivity and anti-tumor efficacy of VACV. These engineered VACVs, such as JX-594, have shown promising results in cancer treatment and have made re-markable progress in clinical trials. This review first briefly introduces the oncolytic VACV, and then focuses on the strategies applied in VACV engineering. We also discuss the main challenges and the future directions in the development of oncolytic VACV.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-479212

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in men and related studies have achieved great breakthrough in recent years.But because of the lack of effective in vivo animal models, the process to translate basic research into clinical application has been severely hampered.Patient derived prostate tumor xenograft ( PDPTX) model is an ideal animal model in which freshly isolated tumor tissues from patients were inoculated into immunodeficient mice.This model can duplicate the heterogeneity of primary tumor in a better way and keep the tumor complexity at molecular, genetic and pathological levels.Particularly, the PDPTX model, in which the isolated tumor tissue is inoculated under the renal capsule, is even better, because it solves the clrawbacks of traditional subcutaneous inoculation model.In traditional mod-els, the success rate is low, it’s not easy for lower grade tumor to form xenograft, and it’s not easy to reconstruct metasta-sis, etc.PDPTX provides a more ideal in vivo model for prostate cancer studies.It has irreplaceable advantages, especially in target therapy, new drug screening and individualized tumor treatment.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-464606

ABSTRACT

Irreversible electroporation, known as nano-knife, is a newly-developed technology, which can effectively ablate tumor tissues. This technology uses electric pulse to permanently destroy the double phospholipid layer of the cell membrane in the target area, resulting in tumor cell death. Its tumor ablation effect has already been confirmed in animal experiment as well as in clinical study. As this technology has no thermal effect, the adjacent connective tissue matrix such as blood vessels, nerves and biliary ducts will not be damaged. This article aims to make a brief review about its technical principle and apparatus, and its advantages, disadvantages as well as the recent progress in clinical research will also be discussed.

10.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1827-1831, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860152

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of biological activity of tumstatin 7 peptide (CNYYSNS) on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of B16 melanoma cell. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of tumstatin 7 peptide on the proliferation of B16 cell was observed by MTT and cell growth curves. The influence of tumstatin 7 peptide on morphology of B16 cell was perceived by TUNEL, HE staining and the transmission electron microscope(TEM). Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (ECV304) as control cell was detected that tumstatin 7 peptide affected the proliferation of non-tumor cells. RESULTS: Tumstatin 7 peptide can significantly inhibit the proliferation of B16 cell in dose-and time-dependent manner. Its IC50 was 8.53 × 10-5 mol·L-1. The mophology of B16 cell was obviously changed by means of TUNEL assay, HE staining and TEM. They appeared karyopyknosis and apoptotic bodies. The apoptosis rate of B16 cell was 68.45%. The effect of 7peptide on human endothelial cell was weak, its IC50 was 5.78 × 10-4mol·L-1. CONCLUSION: Tumstatin 7 peptide can inhibit the proliferation of B16 cell and promote B16 cell apoptosis. It has little effect on endothelial cell, which revealed 7 peptide having a certain specificity of anti-tumor. It will be of great potential value to melanoma treatment.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : S99-S104, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12326

ABSTRACT

Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel tumor ablation technique using a non-thermal energy to create innumerable permanent nanopores in the cell membrane to disrupt cellular homeostasis. This disruption of cellular homeostasis initiates apoptosis which leads to permanent cell death. In our translational research, we have demonstrated that IRE can be a safe, fast and powerful method of tumor treatment. In this review, we present an overview of IRE ablation including a brief history of IRE, advantages and disadvantages of IRE and clinical and research implications of IRE.


Subject(s)
Ablation Techniques , Apoptosis , Cell Death , Cell Membrane , Electroporation , Homeostasis , Nanopores , Translational Medical Research
12.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 9(2): 67-72, abr.-jun. 2009. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-526731

ABSTRACT

Os odontomas são tumores formados a partir de tecidos dentários. São divididos em dois grupos: complexos e compostos. Geralmente, apresentam-se com dimensões pequenas e são assintomáticos. Em raras ocasiões, um odontoma complexo gigante pode se desenvolver e provocar sinais e sintomas clínicos importantes. Neste artigo, faz-se uma revisão de literatura sobre os odontomas, seguida de um relato de caso sobre odontoma complexo gigante, envolvendo a região posterior da mandíbula. Também foram abordados os aspectos clínicos, radiográficos e cirúrgicos desse tipo de tumor.


Odontomas are tumors that start in the tooth tissues. They are divided into two groups: complex and compound. They are usually small in size and are asymptomatic. On rare occasions a giant complex odontoma can develop and cause major clinical signs and symptoms. This article includes a review of the literature on odontomas, followed by a case report of a giant complex odontoma involving the posterior region of the jaw. The clinical, radiological and surgical features of this type of tumor are also addressed.


Subject(s)
Mandibular Neoplasms , Mandible/pathology , Odontoma/surgery
13.
Article in Vietnamese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6083

ABSTRACT

Both benign and malignant tumors in adrenal glands could make hypersecretion syndrom arised. Benign tumor usually has small size, homogenous intensity on cross-section. Opening surgery to remove the adrenal gland remains a safe and effective operation. However, a well trained surgeons can remove the tumors by endoscopy. It is an invasive interference with a short term hospitalisation with very low rate of complications.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Rest Tumor , Therapeutics , Neoplasms , General Surgery , Therapeutics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-542438

ABSTRACT

Objective By studying Chinese herbal medicine's application in shanxi tumor hospital, the knowledge of its function in tumor treatment was got, and thus provide a reference for clinical and hospital dispensary's work. Methods The prescription data of our hospital from September 2004 to January 2005 were collected for tabulation and analysis. Results Drugs applied are mostly in the category of "regulating and replenishing the vital qi, improving digestion and removing stagnation". Conclusion The application of Chinese herbal medicine in tumor treatment will have a prosperous future.

15.
China Oncology ; (12)1998.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-675070

ABSTRACT

The endothelial cells activated by tumor cells are genetically stable and regress easily. Moreover, at the surface there are specific markers, which are easily accessible by system administration. This report review the studies of tumor treatment targeting at the activated endothelial cells.

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