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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1163-1185, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929376

ABSTRACT

Cancer immunotherapy has become a new generation of anti-tumor treatment, but its indications still focus on several types of tumors that are sensitive to the immune system. Therefore, effective strategies that can expand its indications and enhance its efficiency become the key element for the further development of cancer immunotherapy. Natural products are reported to have this effect on cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, immune-check points inhibitors, and adoptive immune-cells therapy. And the mechanism of that is mainly attributed to the remodeling of the tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment, which is the key factor that assists tumor to avoid the recognition and attack from immune system and cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, this review summarizes and concludes the natural products that reportedly improve cancer immunotherapy and investigates the mechanism. And we found that saponins, polysaccharides, and flavonoids are mainly three categories of natural products, which reflected significant effects combined with cancer immunotherapy through reversing the tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment. Besides, this review also collected the studies about nano-technology used to improve the disadvantages of natural products. All of these studies showed the great potential of natural products in cancer immunotherapy.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1148-1157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881190

ABSTRACT

As one of the most lethal diseases, pancreatic cancer shows a dismal overall prognosis and high resistance to most treatment modalities. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer escapes early detection during the curable period because early symptoms rarely emerge and specific markers for this disease have not been found. Although combinations of new drugs, multimodal therapies, and adjuvants prolong survival, most patients still relapse after surgery and eventually die. Consequently, the search for more effective treatments for pancreatic cancer is highly relevant and justified. As a newly re-discovered mediator of gasotransmission, hydrogen sulfide (H

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 609-620, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881159

ABSTRACT

The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway plays important roles in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment (TME). Aberrant HH signaling activation may accelerate the growth of gastrointestinal tumors and lead to tumor immune tolerance and drug resistance. The interaction between HH signaling and the TME is intimately involved in these processes, for example, tumor growth, tumor immune tolerance, inflammation, and drug resistance. Evidence indicates that inflammatory factors in the TME, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interferon-

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2306-2325, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888864

ABSTRACT

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) strictly controls matter exchange between blood and brain, and severely limits brain penetration of systemically administered drugs, resulting in ineffective drug therapy of brain diseases. However, during the onset and progression of brain diseases, BBB alterations evolve inevitably. In this review, we focus on nanoscale brain-targeting drug delivery strategies designed based on BBB evolutions and related applications in various brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury and brain tumor. The advances on optimization of small molecules for BBB crossing and non-systemic administration routes (

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2344-2361, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888806

ABSTRACT

Recent infectious disease outbreaks, such as COVID-19 and Ebola, have highlighted the need for rapid and accurate diagnosis to initiate treatment and curb transmission. Successful diagnostic strategies critically depend on the efficiency of biological sampling and timely analysis. However, current diagnostic techniques are invasive/intrusive and present a severe bottleneck by requiring specialist equipment and trained personnel. Moreover, centralised test facilities are poorly accessible and the requirement to travel may increase disease transmission. Self-administrable, point-of-care (PoC) microneedle diagnostic devices could provide a viable solution to these problems. These miniature needle arrays can detect biomarkers in/from the skin in a minimally invasive manner to provide (near-) real-time diagnosis. Few microneedle devices have been developed specifically for infectious disease diagnosis, though similar technologies are well established in other fields and generally adaptable for infectious disease diagnosis. These include microneedles for biofluid extraction, microneedle sensors and analyte-capturing microneedles, or combinations thereof. Analyte sampling/detection from both blood and dermal interstitial fluid is possible. These technologies are in their early stages of development for infectious disease diagnostics, and there is a vast scope for further development. In this review, we discuss the utility and future outlook of these microneedle technologies in infectious disease diagnosis.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2075-2109, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881100

ABSTRACT

In many ways, cancer cells are different from healthy cells. A lot of tactical nano-based drug delivery systems are based on the difference between cancer and healthy cells. Currently, nanotechnology-based delivery systems are the most promising tool to deliver DNA-based products to cancer cells. This review aims to highlight the latest development in the lipids and polymeric nanocarrier for siRNA delivery to the cancer cells. It also provides the necessary information about siRNA development and its mechanism of action. Overall, this review gives us a clear picture of lipid and polymer-based drug delivery systems, which in the future could form the base to translate the basic siRNA biology into siRNA-based cancer therapies.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 734-745, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828846

ABSTRACT

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is a transcriptional coactivator that binds to a diverse range of transcription factors. PPAR coactivator 1 (PGC-1) coactivators possess an extensive range of biological effects in different tissues, and play a key part in the regulation of the oxidative metabolism, consequently modulating the production of reactive oxygen species, autophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis. Owing to these findings, a large body of studies, aiming to establish the role of PGC-1 in the neuromuscular system, has shown that PGC-1 could be a promising target for therapies targeting neuromuscular diseases. Among these, some evidence has shown that various signaling pathways linked to PGC-1 are deregulated in muscular dystrophy, leading to a reduced capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In the light of these results, any intervention aimed at activating PGC-1 could contribute towards ameliorating the progression of muscular dystrophies. PGC-1 is influenced by different patho-physiological/pharmacological stimuli. Natural products have been reported to display modulatory effects on PPAR activation with fewer side effects in comparison to synthetic drugs. Taken together, this review summarizes the current knowledge on Duchenne muscular dystrophy, focusing on the potential effects of natural compounds, acting as regulators of PGC-1.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1397-1413, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828800

ABSTRACT

Pyroptosis is a form of programmed cell death, and recently described as a new molecular mechanism of chemotherapy drugs in the treatment of tumors. Miltirone, a derivative of phenanthrene-quinone isolated from the root of Bunge, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities. Here, we found that miltirone inhibited the cell viability of either HepG2 or Hepa1-6 cells, and induced the proteolytic cleavage of gasdermin E (GSDME) in each hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line, with concomitant cleavage of caspase 3. Knocking out switched miltirone-induced cell death from pyroptosis to apoptosis. Additionally, the induction effects of miltirone on GSDME-dependent pyroptosis were attenuated by siRNA-mediated caspase three silencing and the specific caspase three inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK, respectively. Miltirone effectively elicited intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suppressed phosphorylation of mitogen-activated and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) for pyroptosis induction. Moreover, miltirone significantly inhibited tumor growth and induced pyroptosis in the Hepa1-6 mouse HCC syngeneic model. These results provide a new insight that miltirone is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC GSDME-dependent pyroptosis.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1453-1475, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828796

ABSTRACT

Angiokinases, such as vascular endothelial-, fibroblast- and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (VEGFRs, FGFRs and PDGFRs) play crucial roles in tumor angiogenesis. Anti-angiogenesis therapy using multi-angiokinase inhibitor has achieved great success in recent years. In this study, we presented the design, synthesis, target identification, molecular mechanism, pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) research of a novel triple-angiokinase inhibitor WXFL-152. WXFL-152, identified from a series of 4-oxyquinoline derivatives based on a structure-activity relationship study, inhibited the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes by blocking the angiokinase signals VEGF/VEGFR2, FGF/FGFRs and PDGF/PDGFR simultaneously . Significant anticancer effects of WXFL-152 were confirmed in multiple preclinical tumor xenograft models, including a patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) model. Pharmacokinetic studies of WXFL-152 demonstrated high favourable bioavailability with single-dose and continuous multi-dose by oral administration in rats and beagles. In conclusion, WXFL-152, which is currently in phase Ib clinical trials, is a novel and effective triple-angiokinase inhibitor with clear PD and PK in tumor therapy.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 61-78, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781550

ABSTRACT

Solute carrier (SLC) transporters meditate many essential physiological functions, including nutrient uptake, ion influx/efflux, and waste disposal. In its protective role against tumors and infections, the mammalian immune system coordinates complex signals to support the proliferation, differentiation, and effector function of individual cell subsets. Recent research in this area has yielded surprising findings on the roles of solute carrier transporters, which were discovered to regulate lymphocyte signaling and control their differentiation, function, and fate by modulating diverse metabolic pathways and balanced levels of different metabolites. In this review, we present current information mainly on glucose transporters, amino-acid transporters, and metal ion transporters, which are critically important for mediating immune cell homeostasis in many different pathological conditions.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 203-219, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774989

ABSTRACT

Tumor cells along with a small proportion of cancer stem cells exist in a stromal microenvironment consisting of vasculature, cancer-associated fibroblasts, immune cells and extracellular components. Recent epidemiological and clinical studies strongly support that vitamin D supplementation is associated with reduced cancer risk and favorable prognosis. Experimental results suggest that vitamin D not only suppresses cancer cells, but also regulates tumor microenvironment to facilitate tumor repression. In this review, we have outlined the current knowledge on epidemiological studies and clinical trials of vitamin D. Notably, we summarized and discussed the anticancer action of vitamin D in cancer cells, cancer stem cells and stroma cells in tumor microenvironment, providing a better understanding of the role of vitamin D in cancer. We presently re-propose vitamin D to be a novel and economical anticancer agent.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 440-448, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690895

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Traditional chemotherapy causes serious toxicity due to the wide bodily distribution of these drugs. Curcumin is a potential anticancer agent but its low water solubility, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism significantly limits clinical applications. Here we developed a liposomal curcumin dry powder inhaler (LCD) for inhalation treatment of primary lung cancer. LCDs were obtained from curcumin liposomes after freeze-drying. The LCDs had a mass mean aerodynamic diameter of 5.81 μm and a fine particle fraction of 46.71%, suitable for pulmonary delivery. The uptake of curcumin liposomes by human lung cancer A549 cells was markedly greater and faster than that of free curcumin. The high cytotoxicity on A549 cells and the low cytotoxicity of curcumin liposomes on normal human bronchial BEAS-2B epithelial cells yielded a high selection index partly due to increased cell apoptosis. Curcumin powders, LCDs and gemcitabine were directly sprayed into the lungs of rats with lung cancer through the trachea. LCDs showed higher anticancer effects than the other two medications with regard to pathology and the expression of many cancer-related markers including VEGF, malondialdehyde, TNF-, caspase-3 and BCL-2. LCDs are a promising medication for inhalation treatment of lung cancer with high therapeutic efficiency.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 34-50, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771138

ABSTRACT

Natural biomacromolecules have attracted increased attention as carriers in biomedicine in recent years because of their inherent biochemical and biophysical properties including renewability, nontoxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, long blood circulation time and targeting ability. Recent advances in our understanding of the biological functions of natural-origin biomacromolecules and the progress in the study of biological drug carriers indicate that such carriers may have advantages over synthetic material-based carriers in terms of half-life, stability, safety and ease of manufacture. In this review, we give a brief introduction to the biochemical properties of the widely used biomacromolecule-based carriers such as albumin, lipoproteins and polysaccharides. Then examples from the clinic and in recent laboratory development are summarized. Finally the current challenges and future prospects of present biological carriers are discussed.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329699

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB) disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 378-389, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310013

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has been recognized as an important cancer drug target. Many recent studies have provided convincing evidences of strong correlation between elevated levels of HIF-1 and tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, poor patient prognosis as well as tumor resistance therapy. It was found that hypoxia (low O2 levels) is a common character in many types of solid tumors. As an adaptive response to hypoxic stress, hypoxic tumor cells activate several survival pathways to carry out their essential biological processes in different ways compared with normal cells. Recent advances in cancer biology at the cellular and molecular levels highlighted the HIF-1α pathway as a crucial survival pathway for which novel strategies of cancer therapy could be developed. However, targeting the HIF-1α pathway has been a challenging but promising progresses have been made in the past twenty years. This review summarizes the role and regulation of the HIF-1α in cancer, and recent therapeutic approaches targeting this important pathway.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 390-401, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310012

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is driven by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs, e.g., gefitinib and elrotinib) have been effectively used for clinical treatment. However, patients eventually develop drug resistance. Resistance to EGFR-TKIs is inevitable due to various mechanisms, such as the secondary mutation (T790M), activation of alternative pathways (c-Met, HGF, AXL), aberrance of the downstream pathways (K-RAS mutations, loss of PTEN), impairment of the EGFR-TKIs-mediated apoptosis pathway (BCL2-like 11/BIM deletion polymorphism), histologic transformation, ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter effusion, etc. Here we review and summarize the known resistant mechanisms to EGFR-TKIs and provide potential targets for development of new therapeutic strategies.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 402-418, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310011

ABSTRACT

Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality, and accounts for about 90% of cancer deaths. Although cancer survival rate has been significantly improved over the years, the improvement is primarily due to early diagnosis and cancer growth inhibition. Limited progress has been made in the treatment of cancer metastasis due to various factors. Current treatments for cancer metastasis are mainly chemotherapy and radiotherapy, though the new generation anti-cancer drugs (predominantly neutralizing antibodies for growth factors and small molecule kinase inhibitors) do have the effects on cancer metastasis in addition to their effects on cancer growth. Cancer metastasis begins with detachment of metastatic cells from the primary tumor, travel of the cells to different sites through blood/lymphatic vessels, settlement and growth of the cells at a distal site. During the process, metastatic cells go through detachment, migration, invasion and adhesion. These four essential, metastatic steps are inter-related and affected by multi-biochemical events and parameters. Additionally, it is known that tumor microenvironment (such as extracellular matrix structure, growth factors, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases) plays a significant role in cancer metastasis. The biochemical events and parameters involved in the metastatic process and tumor microenvironment have been targeted or can be potential targets for metastasis prevention and inhibition. This review provides an overview of these metastasis essential steps, related biochemical factors, and targets for intervention.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 554-563, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309996

ABSTRACT

The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5-80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π-π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 173-181, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329738

ABSTRACT

Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-596094

ABSTRACT

Angiogenesis is of great importance to a variety of normal physiological processes and pathological disorders.It is tightly regulated by many mechanisms, among which vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) is one of the most potent promoters.VEGF binds and activates its specific receptor tyrosine kinases, especially vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2(VEGFR-2).VEGFR-2 mediates the key functional and biochemical effects of VEGF in endothelial cells including proliferation, migration, survival, and permeability.Following its binding to VEGF, VEGFR-2 dimerizes and undergoes autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues within its cytoplasmic portion.This creates docking sites for adapter molecules to be recruited through their Src homology domain-2(SH2).These adapter molecules can then initiate the activation of downstream signaling cascades.Further down-stream effector molecules are activated, and regulate the biological effects of endothelial cells.It is also foound that VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling pathway may negatively regulate the function of human monocyte-derived mature dendritic cells(DCs) as well as the maturation of immature-DCs.Advances in the understanding of the VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling pathway may contribute to the discovery of kinds of pharmaceutical agents.

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