Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.282
Filter
1.
Univ. salud ; 24(2): 108-116, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377459

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las vacunas representan una solución prometedora para mitigar la COVID-19; sin embargo, esta estrategia tiene importantes retos, uno de ellos la actitud hacia el nuevo biológico. Objetivo: Conocer la actitud de los habitantes del Estado de Guerrero (México), ante la vacuna para controlar la COVID-19. Materiales y métodos: Investigación cuantitativa no experimental de corte transversal descriptivo, a través de un muestreo tipo conglomerados, la muestra se conformó de 296 personas de las diferentes regiones del Estado de Guerrero; se incluyeron personas mayores de 18 años y que desearan participar del estudio a través de consentimiento informado. La recolección de datos fue a través de cuestionarios de Google. Se utilizó la escala para determinar la actitud frente a la vacuna contra COVID-19, compuesta por 2 secciones: Datos sociodemográficos, Actitud ante la Vacuna, esta última sección se estructura de tres subsecciones; Dimensión cognitiva, Dimensión subjetiva y Dimensión conductual, que integra las dos dimensiones. El instrumento tiene 25 ítems con opciones de respuestas cerradas en una escala tipo Likert. Resultados: La actitud hacia la vacuna contra SARS-CoV-2 es predominantemente negativa (52,7%) en la población guerrerense. Conclusión: La dimensión conductual podría considerarse un predictor de aceptación hacia la vacuna contra la COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: Vaccines have become a promising solution to mitigate COVID-19. However, it faces important challenges, including people's attitude towards this new therapeutic. Objective: To determine the attitude of the inhabitants of the Guerrero State (Mexico) towards the vaccine to mitigate COVID-19. Materials and methods: Quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive, and cross-sectional research was conducted using a conglomerate-type sampling method. The sample included 296 people from the different regions of the State. The study included participants who were older than 18 years of age and expressed their desire to participate through the informed consent. Questionnaires in Google were used for data collection. The scale to determine the attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine contained two sections: sociodemographic data and attitude towards the vaccine. The last section was subdivided into cognitive, subjective, and behavioral (which includes cognitive and subjective) dimensions. The instrument had 25 items with closed answer options on a Likert-type scale. Results: The attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccine is predominantly negative (52.70%) in the population from Guerrero. Conclusions: The behavioral dimension could be considered a predictor of acceptance towards the COVID-19 vaccine.

2.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(2): 201-207, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395055

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo fue describir la percepción sobre las vacunas y el nivel de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas hacia la COVID-19 en adultos mayores que acuden a un hospital en Lima, Perú. Estudio descriptivo y transversal de marzo a noviembre del 2021. Se adaptó y validó un instrumento para medir el nivel de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas, y se evaluó la percepción sobre vacunas con un cuestionario exploratorio. Se encuestaron a 83 adultos mayores, la media de edad fue 74,0 años y el 62,7% fueron mujeres. La mayoría conoce la causa y síntomas, y el 50,6% cree que puede transmitirse por alimentos contaminados. El 61,7% usa medicina tradicional para prevenirla, y el 65,4% considera insuficiente el nivel de conciencia social. El 91,5% se vacunó contra la COVID-19, y el 65,4% considera que estas vacunas son seguras. En conclusión, la mayoría de los adultos mayores presenta un alto nivel de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas y una percepción positiva sobre la vacuna contra la COVID-19.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the perception about vaccines and the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 in older adults from a hospital in Lima, Peru. Descriptive and cross-sectional study carried out from March to November 2021. An instrument was adapted and validated to measure the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices; the perception about vaccines was evaluated with an exploratory questionnaire. Eighty-three older adults were surveyed, the mean age was 74.0 years and 62.7% were women. Most of the participants knew the cause and symptoms, and 50.6% believed that it could be transmitted by contaminated food. Additionally, 61.7% used traditional medicine to prevent it, and 65.4% considered that the level of social awareness was insufficient; 91.5% were vaccinated against COVID-19, and 65.4% considered these vaccines to be safe. In conclusion, most older adults showed a high level of knowledge, attitudes and practices and a positive perception about the vaccine against COVID-19.

3.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 79(3): 152-160, may.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394019

ABSTRACT

Resumen La tos ferina es una enfermedad causada por Bordetella pertussis. Aunque es altamente contagiosa, puede ser prevenible por vacunación. Existen dos tipos de vacunas: las de células enteras y las acelulares. La tos ferina ha resurgido en algunos países debido a que su control a escala mundial es heterogéneo. Esta reemergencia se ha relacionado con diversos factores: mayor sensibilidad hacia la infección, mejor detección de la enfermedad, problemas para obtener adecuadas coberturas de vacunación, incremento en los sujetos susceptibles (especialmente menores de 6 meses), pérdida de la inmunidad en los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, y probables cambios genéticos y adaptativos de B. pertussis. En este documento se analizan las características, las ventajas y las desventajas de las vacunas de células enteras y de las vacunas acelulares. Se presentan las recomendaciones internacionales y se ofrece el posicionamiento de los participantes con respecto a la influencia del uso de vacunas acelulares y las desventajas potenciales de volver a utilizar vacunas de células enteras, en especial por su reactogenicidad. Por último, se analizan las estrategias para lograr un mejor control de la tos ferina en México.


Abstract Pertussis is a highly contagious disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, which may be preventable by vaccination. There are two types of vaccines: whole-cell vaccines and acellular vaccines. Since pertussis control worldwide is heterogeneous, re-emergence of whooping cough has been observed in some countries. This re-emergence has been related to several factors: increased susceptibility to infection, better detection of disease, problems in obtaining adequate vaccination coverage, increase in susceptible subjects (mainly under 6 months of age), loss of immunity in adolescents and young adults, and likely genetic and adaptive B. pertussis changes. This paper discusses whole-cell and acellular vaccines' characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages. International recommendations are presented, and the participants' position is offered regarding the influence of the use of acellular vaccines and the potential disadvantages of reintroducing whole-cell vaccines, mainly due to their reactogenicity. Finally, strategies to achieve better control of pertussis in Mexico are discussed.

4.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 22(39): 54-63, junio 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1380372

ABSTRACT

Describir e identificar las razones por las cuales los padres o tutores no completaron el calendario de vacunación infantil en un Centro de Atención Primaria de Salud de la Ciudad de Corrientes en el año 2021. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Población: padres o tutores de niños con esquemas incompletos. Recolección de datos mediante encuesta validada en prueba piloto. Los datos plasmados en una matriz fueron sometidos a análisis descriptivos. Se contó con aval del Comité de Ética. Resultados: La muestra se integró con 53 unidades de análisis. Edad media 28 años; 79% eran las madres; 62% ya tenían dos o más hijos; 74% eran soltero/as; 47% no había concluido el secundario o la primaria; la mayoría eran desempleados o percibían planes sociales. El 66% pensaba que las vacunas curaban enfermedades;89% que las prevenían y 89% pensaban que eran seguras. Fuentes de información: el equipo médico y enfermería, 17% de familiares o amigos, 30% en internet o medios de comunicación. En motivosde incumplimiento, lo más frecuente falta de vacunas (31%), horarios de trabajo de padres o tutor (15%), enfermedades del infante (10%). Conclusión: La información sobre vacunas era brindada por equipo de salud, familias y medios de comunicación. Aunque afirmaban que prevenían enfermedades y eran seguras muchos sostenían que curaban enfermedades. Se señalaron como motivos del incumplimiento falta de vacunas, horarios laborales de los entrevistados y enfermedades del menor, restricciones horariasdel vacunatorio y por la pandemia[AU]


Describe and identify the reasons why parents or guardians did not complete the childhood vaccination schedule in a Primary Health Care Center of the City of Corrientes in the year 2021. Methodology: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Population: parents or guardians of children with incomplete schemes. Data collection through a survey validated in a pilot test. The data captured in a matrix were subjected to descriptive analysis. It was endorsed by the Ethics Committee. Results: The sample was integrated with 53 units of analysis. Mean age 28 years; 79% were mothers; 62% already had two or more children; 74% were single; 47% had not completed secondary or primary school; most were unemployed or received social plans. 66% thought that vaccines cured diseases; 89% prevented them and 89% thought they were safe. Sources of information: the medical and nursing team, 17% from family or friends, 30% on the internet or the media. In non-compliance reasons, the most frequent lack of vaccines (31%), parent or guardian work schedules (15%), infant diseases (10%). Conclusion: The information on vaccines was provided by the health team, families and the media. Although they claimed that they prevented diseases and were safe, many maintained that they cured diseases. Reasons for non-compliance were noted as lack of vaccines, work schedules of the interviewees and illnesses of the minor, time restrictions of the vaccination and those given by the pandemic[AU]


Descrever e identificar os motivos pelos quais os pais ou responsáveis não completaram o calendário de vacinação infantil em um Centro de Atenção Primária à Saúde da Cidade de Corrientes no ano de 2021. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo, transversal. População: pais ou responsáveis de crianças com esquemas incompletos. Coleta de dados por meio de questionário validado em teste piloto. Os dados capturados em uma matriz foram submetidos à análise descritiva. Foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética. Resultados: A amostra foi integrada com 53 unidades de análise. Idade média 28 anos; 79% eram mães; 62% já tinham dois ou mais filhos; 74% eram solteiros; 47% não concluíram o ensino médio ou fundamental; a maioria estava desempregada ou recebia planos sociais. 66% achavam que as vacinas curavam doenças; 89% os preveniram e 89% acharam que eram seguros. Fontes de informação: equipe médica e de enfermagem, 17% de familiares ou amigos, 30% na internet ou na mídia. Nos motivos de não conformidade, a falta de vacinas mais frequente (31%), horários de trabalho dos pais ou responsáveis (15%), doenças infantis (10%). Conclusão: As informações sobre vacinas foram fornecidas pela equipe de saúde, famílias e mídia. Embora afirmassem que preveniam doenças e eram seguros, muitos sustentavam que curavam doenças. Os motivos da não adesão foram apontados como falta de vacinas, horários de trabalho dos entrevistados e doenças do menor, restrições de horário da vacinação e as dadas pela pandemia[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Attitude to Health , Parenting , Immunization Programs , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 349-355, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377377

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a type of cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between awareness of cervical cancer and HPV infection and attitudes towards HPV vaccine among women aged 15-49 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at Karabük Training and Research Hospital, Turkey. METHODS: 500 women who visited the gynecology outpatient clinic of a public hospital between July 15 and December 31, 2019, were selected through random sampling. Data were collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire comprising nine questions (created by the researchers), the HPV and Cervical Cancer Awareness Questionnaire and the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale. RESULTS: The relationship between the awareness questionnaire and the beliefs scale was explained through simple effect modeling of a structural equation. The women's knowledge score regarding cervical cancer and HPV infection was 4.69 ± 4.02 out of 15. Women were afraid of being diagnosed with cervical cancer and HPV infection, but they did not have sufficient information. They had poor information about the HPV vaccine, did not know how to obtain the vaccine and did not have enough information about its benefits and harmful effects. Women who were afraid of getting cervical cancer, and who thought that they were at risk, had more information about the HPV vaccine. CONCLUSION: Women need information about cervical cancer, HPV infection and the HPV vaccine. Midwives, nurses and physicians who provide healthcare services in gynecological follow-ups should provide information to women about the HPV vaccine and cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 11(2): 139-154, abr.-jun.2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377967

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: discutir as implicações da autonomia na obrigatoriedade da vacina contra a COVID-19 a partir de decisão do Supremo Tribunal Federal, correlacionando-as com a ética baseada em princípios. Metodologia: trata-se de uma pesquisa documental, pautada por decisões recentes do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) e bibliográfica, utilizando bases de dados científicas. Resultados: observou-se que a vacinação compulsória no Brasil vem sendo aplicada em vários períodos da história e configura uma medida que assegura os direitos fundamentais, como o direito à saúde. Em um cenário pandêmico, a autonomia do indivíduo perde o protagonismo frente às necessidades coletivas, já que o direito à saúde é individual e coletivo. Concomitantemente, a suposta restrição da liberdade individual respalda-se no fundamento do interesse coletivo à saúde e à dignidade da pessoa humana. Conclusão: a imunização da população brasileira deve ser abordada de forma segura e eficaz para o controle dessa crise sanitária.


Objective: to discuss the implications of autonomy in the mandatory vaccine against COVID-19 from a decision of the Federal Supreme Court correlated with ethics based on principles. Methods: this is a document analysis research, guided by recent decisions of the Supreme Court (STF) and bibliographic, using scientific databases. Results: compulsory vaccination in Brazil has been applied in various periods of history and configures a measure that ensures fundamental rights, such as the right to health. Even because, in a pandemic scenario, the autonomy of the individual loses its protagonism in the face of collective needs, since the right to health is individual and collective. Concomitantly, the alleged restriction of individual freedom is supported by the foundation of the collective interest in health and human dignity. Conclusion: the immunization of the Brazilian population must be approached in a safe and effective way to control this health crisis.


Objetivo: el estudio tuvo como objetivo discutir las implicaciones de la autonomía en la vacuna obligatoria contra el COVID-19 a partir de las decisiones del Supremo Tribunal Federal correlacionada con la ética basada en principios. Metodología: se trata de una investigación documental, guiada por decisiones recientes del Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) y bibliográfica, utilizando bases de datos científicas. Resultados: se observó que la vacunación obligatoria en Brasil se ha aplicado en varios períodos de la historia y configura una medida que garantiza derechos fundamentales, como el derecho a la salud. Además, en un entorno pandémico, la autonomía del individuo pierde el protagonismo frente a las necesidades colectivas, ya que el derecho a la salud es individual y colectivo. Concomitantemente, la supuesta restricción de la libertad individual se apoya en el fundamento del interés colectivo a la salud y la dignidad humana. Conclusión: la inmunización de la población brasileña debe ser abordada de forma segura y eficaz para controlar esta crisis sanitaria.

7.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-12, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393169

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic situation made the pharmaceutical companies develop the vaccine with different formulations in a short period. Objectives: The main objective of the review is to focus on different types of vaccine formulations available globally and the importance of technology transfer in vaccine development associated with potential risks. Results: Research on vaccine development led to various types of vaccines, such as Inactivated vaccines, Live Attenuated vaccines, Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccines, viral vector vaccines, and Protein Subunit Vaccines for COVID-19. But the process of vaccine development and technology transfer is lined with various risks and challenges. Through risk assessment, we found some major potential risks involved in product development; this leads to a smoother and more efficient method to develop safe vaccines available for public health. Conclusions: This review will explain the significance of technology collaboration for the faster development of various formulations of vaccines globally


Antecedentes: La situación de pandemia de COVID-19 hizo que las empresas farmacéuticas desarrollaran la vacuna con diferentes formulaciones en un corto período. Objetivos: El objetivo principal de la revisión es centrarse en los diferentes tipos de formulaciones de vacunas disponibles a nivel mundial y la importancia de la transferencia de tecnología en el desarrollo de vacunas asociado con los riesgos potenciales. Resultados: La investigación sobre el desarrollo de vacunas condujo al desarrollo de varios tipos de vacunas, como vacunas inactivadas, vacunas vivas atenuadas, vacunas de ácido ribonucleico (ARN) y ácido desoxirribonucleico (ADN), vacunas de vectores virales y vacunas de subunidades de proteínas para COVID-19. Pero el proceso de desarrollo de vacunas y transferencia de tecnología está lleno de varios riesgos y desafíos. A través de la evaluación de riesgos, encontramos algunos riesgos potenciales importantes involucrados en el desarrollo de productos, lo que conduce a un método más fluido y eficiente para desarrollar vacunas seguras disponibles para la salud pública. Conclusiones: Esta revisión dará una idea de la importancia de la colaboración tecnológica para el desarrollo más rápido de varias formulaciones de vacunas a nivel mundial


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccine Development , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(5): 2057-2070, maio 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374952

ABSTRACT

Resumo No Brasil, a despeito da hesitação vacinal ser um problema reconhecido, sua mensuração ainda é um desafio. Por outro lado, sabe-se que identificar pais com hesitação às vacinas é condição fundamental para a implementação de programas eficientes de educação em saúde. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a adaptação transcultural e a validação do Parent Attitudes About Childhood Vaccine (PACV) para o português brasileiro. Trata-se, portanto, de um estudo de adaptação transcultural que envolveu as seguintes etapas: tradução, síntese, retrotradução, avaliação da qualidade, comitê de especialistas, pré-teste, avaliação da confiabilidade e, por fim, submissão e aprovação. Após a realização dessas etapas, foi observado que, na avaliação do Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC), nenhuma questão do PACV obteve IVC<0,80 nas dimensões de equivalência semântica, idiomática, conceitual e cultural. No IVC global, a versão brasileira do PACV alcançou 0,91, indicando boa concordância interavaliador e evidência de validade baseada no conteúdo. O alfa de Cronbach para o instrumento foi de 0,91. O PACV foi adaptado para o Português do Brasil, dando origem ao PAVC-Brasil, versão que apresentou evidências de validade baseada no conteúdo, além de boa consistência interna.


Abstract Despite vaccine hesitancy being a recognized problem in Brazil, the extent of the problem is still a challenge. However, it is acknowledged that identifying parents who are hesitant about vaccines is a fundamental condition for the implementation of efficient health communication programs. Thus, the scope of this work was to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Parent Attitudes About Childhood Vaccine (PACV) questionnaire in Brazilian Portuguese. It is a cross-cultural adaptation study with the following steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, quality assessment, expert committee, pre-test, reliability assessment and, finally, submission and approval. After carrying out these steps, it was observed that, in the evaluation of the Content Validity Index (CVI), no PACV question obtained CVI<0.80 in the dimensions of semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalence. In the global IVC, the Brazilian version of the PACV reached 0.91, indicating good interappraiser agreement and evidence of content-based validity. Cronbach's alpha for the instrument was 0.91. The PACV was adapted to Brazilian Portuguese, giving rise to the PAVC-Brasil version, which presented evidence of content-based validity, in addition to good internal consistency.

9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(5): 1849-1858, maio 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374973

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo apresenta a evolução das notícias falsas disseminadas a respeito das vacinas e do vírus Sars-CoV-2 e os impactos negativos desse fenômeno sobre a crise sanitária que o Brasil atravessa. Trata-se de um estudo empírico quantitativo, realizado a partir das notificações recebidas pelo aplicativo Eu Fiscalizo, por meio do qual foi identificado o predomínio das plataformas Instagram, Facebook, Twitter e WhatsApp como os principais meios de difusão e compartilhamento de boatos e desinformações acerca da COVID-19. Foi observada a circulação em escala de fake news sobre vacinas, diretamente relacionadas à polarização política brasileira, tornando-se prevalente quatro meses depois de ser registrado o primeiro caso de COVID-19 no Brasil. Conclui-se que o fenômeno colaborou para desestimular a adesão de parcelas da população brasileira às campanhas de isolamento social e de vacinação.


Abstract This paper presents the evolution of fake news disseminated about vaccines and the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its adverse impacts on the current Brazilian health crisis. This quantitative, empirical study is based on the notifications received by the Eu Fiscalizo app, through which the Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp platforms were identified as the principal means for disseminating and sharing rumors and misinformation about COVID-19. We observed large-scale circulation of fake news about vaccines directly related to the Brazilian political polarization, which became prevalent four months after the first COVID-19 case was recorded in the country. We can conclude that this phenomenon was crucial in discouraging the adherence of segments of the Brazilian population to social distancing and vaccination campaigns.

10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5,supl.1): 53-59, May 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393947

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) consists of partial or complete occlusion of a sinus or a cerebral vein. CVT represents 0.5-1% of all strokes and is more frequent in young women. This review discusses particular aspects of CVT diagnosis and management: decompressive craniectomy (DC), anticoagulation with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), CVT after coronavirus-disease 19 (COVID-19) and Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT).


RESUMO A trombose venosa cerebral (TVC) consiste na oclusão parcial ou completa de um seio ou de uma veia cerebral. A TVC representa 0,5-1% das doenças cerebrovasculares e é mais frequente em mulheres jovens. Esta revisão discute aspectos específicos do diagnóstico e do manejo da TVC: craniectomia descompressiva (DC), anticoagulação com anticoagulantes orais diretos (DOACs), TVC após infecção por coronavírus (COVID-19) e Trombocitopenia Trombótica Imune Induzida por Vacina (VITT).

11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5,supl.1): 173-181, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393957

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Infections are among the main causes of death in patients with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNSDD). Vaccines are effective methods in reducing hospitalization and death from infectious diseases, but they are challenging in patients with CNSDD because of autoimmunity and immunosuppression. Objectives: To summarize the pathophysiological rationale and main evidence for vaccine recommendations in patients with CNSDD. Methods: Specialists with different backgrounds on the subject: a neurologist specialized in demyelinating diseases, an infectious diseases specialist and an immunologist, presented a critical narrative review of vaccination literature in patients with CNSDD, highlighting which vaccines should or should not be administered and the best time for it. Results: Patients with DDSNC are at increased risk of vaccine-preventable viral and bacterial infections. Vaccines can prevent herpes zoster, hepatitis B reactivation, HPV-associated warts and tumors, viral and bacterial pneumonia, and meningitis. Live attenuated virus vaccines should not be used when the patient is on immunosuppression. Vaccines should be avoided during relapses. The greatest vaccine efficacy is given before treatment or at the end of medication. Conclusion: Patients with DDSNC need differentiated immunization in relation to additional vaccines, contraindicated vaccines and timing of vaccination.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Infecções estão entre as principais causas de morte de pacientes com doenças desmielinizantes do sistema nervoso central (DDSNC). Vacinas são métodos eficazes para reduzir internação e morte por doenças infecciosas, porém são desafiadoras em pacientes com DDSNC tanto pela autoimunidade quanto pela imunossupressão. Objetivos: Resumir o racional fisiopatológico e as principais evidências para as recomendações de vacinas em pacientes com DDSNC. Métodos: Especialistas com diferentes formações no tema: um neurologista especialista em doenças desmielinizantes, um infectologista e um imunologista, apresentam uma revisão crítica narrativa da Literatura de vacinação em pacientes com DDSNC, com destaque a quais vacinas devem ou não ser administradas e o melhor momento para isso. Resultados: Pacientes com DDSNC têm risco aumentado para infecções imunopreveníveis virais e bacterianas. Vacinas podem prevenir herpes zooster, reativação de hepatite B, verrugas e tumores associados ao HPV, pneumonias virais e bacterianas, além de meningites. Vacinas de vírus vivos atenuados não devem ser usadas quando o paciente está em uso de imunossupressão. Vacinas devem ser evitadas durante surtos. A maior eficácia vacinal é dada antes do tratamento ou ao final de doses de medicações. Conclusão: Os pacientes com DDSNC necessitam de imunização diferenciada em relação a vacinas adicionais, vacinas contraindicadas e melhor momento de vacinação.

12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(4): 1679-1694, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374923

ABSTRACT

Resumo É observada a queda nos percentuais de cobertura vacinal no Brasil, num cenário de crescimento progressivo da cobertura da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS), locus onde grande parte das ações de vacinação ocorre. Investigou-se as diferenças nos perfis de acesso e qualidade da APS entre municípios que atingiram ou não as metas de cobertura vacinal para influenza em 2019. Neste estudo ecológico, comparou-se variáveis potencialmente preditoras do alcance da meta de cobertura vacinal para influenza, considerando as dimensões de acesso, qualidade e características do município. Para todos os grupos, o conjunto de municípios que atingiu a cobertura preconizada tinha maiores coberturas de APS e de Estratégia de Saúde da Família e maior número de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde por mil habitantes. Também realizavam mais busca ativa de crianças com calendário vacinal atrasado, registravam a vacinação em dia das gestantes, o horário de funcionamento da unidade atendia às expectativas do usuário, havia maior satisfação do usuário com o cuidado recebido e maior percentual da população com acesso à coleta de lixo. As variáveis podem servir de apoio para a tomada de decisão quanto à organização dos serviços de APS na busca de ampliar as coberturas vacinais para influenza.


Abstract A drop in the percentages of vaccination coverage in Brazil has been detected in a scenario where there is progressive growth in the coverage of Primary Health Care (PHC), namely the location where most of the vaccination actions occur. This article investigated the differences in PHC access and quality profiles among municipalities that attained or failed to attain coverage targets for influenza in 2019, stratified by vaccination priority groups. In this ecological study, we compared predictors of reaching the goal of vaccination coverage for influenza, considering access, quality, and characteristics of the municipality. For all groups, the set of municipalities that reached the targets had greater PHC and Family Health Strategy coverage and a greater number of Community Health Agents per thousand inhabitants. They also carried out more active searches for children with delayed vaccination schedules, registered the vaccination of pregnant women on the same day, had unit opening hours that met user expectations, showed greater user satisfaction with the care received and had a higher percentage of the population with access to garbage collection. The variables may support decision-making about the organization of PHC services with the purpose of expanding vaccine coverage for influenza.

13.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 158(2): 81-85, mar.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375532

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El estudio de anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 permite identificar individuos asintomáticos con COVID-19 y evaluar la inmunidad posinfección y posvacunación. Objetivo: Conocer el comportamiento de los anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 pre y posvacunación en trabajadores de un centro oncológico. Métodos: Antes de aplicar la vacuna se analizaron los anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 (n = 171) con la evaluación de IgG anti-N; después de la segunda dosis se evaluó IgG anti-S (n = 60). Resultados: Prevacunación, los anticuerpos IgG estaban presentes en 18.71 % de los participantes; se detectaron en 65.22 % de aquellos con antecedente de diagnóstico de COVID-19 y en 11.49 % de aquellos sin antecedentes. Los profesiones con mayor prevalencia fueron enfermeros (28.26 %), paramédicos (27.59 %) y administrativos (27.78 %), p < 0.01. La anosmia, ageusia y opresión en el pecho se asociaron a la presencia de IgG (p < 0.05). Posvacunación, todos los participantes desarrollaron IgG; las personas con diagnóstico previo de COVID-19 presentaron mayores títulos: 10 277 versus 6819 UA/mL, p < 0.001. Conclusiones: El estudio de anticuerpos IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 permitió identificar a trabajadores de salud asintomáticos. Un alto porcentaje de los participantes con diagnóstico previo de COVID-19 presentó anticuerpos. Todos los participantes desarrollaron anticuerpos IgG posvacunación; las personas con infección previa presentaron una cuantificación más alta de títulos.


Abstract Introduction: The study of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies allows asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19 to be identified, and post-infection and post-vaccination immunity status to be evaluated. Objective: To know the behavior of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies before and after vaccination in workers of a cancer center. Methods: Prior to the application of the vaccine, the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies (n = 171) was analyzed by evaluating anti-N IgG antibodies; post-vaccination, after receiving the second dose, anti-S IgG antibodies were evaluated (n = 60). Results: Prior to vaccination, IgG antibodies were present in 18.71% of participants; they were detected in 65.22% of those with prior history of COVID-19 diagnosis and in 11.49% of those without it. The positions with the highest prevalence were nurses (28.26%), paramedics (27.59%) and administrative workers (27.78%), p < 0.01. Anosmia, ageusia and chest tightness were associated with the presence of IgG (p < 0.05). Post-vaccination, all participants developed IgG antibodies; people with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis had higher titers: 10,277 vs. 6,819 AU/mL, p < 0.001. Conclusions: The study of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG allowed asymptomatic health workers to be identified. A high percentage of participants with prior COVID-19 diagnosis had antibodies. All participants developed IgG after vaccination, with higher titers being identified in those with previous infection.

14.
Saúde debate ; 46(132): 13-29, jan.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361157

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Na pandemia da Covid-19, os laboratórios farmacêuticos públicos adquiriram maior visibilidade em consequência de suas iniciativas para enfrentamento da doença e manutenção dos diversos programas da assistência farmacêutica. O artigo objetivou analisar as atividades cotidianas desses laboratórios durante a pandemia, a fim de compreender seu caráter estratégico para o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), destacando os Institutos Butantan, Bio-Manguinhos e Farmanguinhos, haja vista o protagonismo em relação a vacinas e medicamentos. Mediante estudo de caso múltiplo, com abordagem qualitativa-descritiva, apresentou dados que indicam a mudança de perfil que vêm demonstrando nas últimas décadas. Identificaram-se as ações de maior relevância no enfrentamento da pandemia, tendo, como data de corte, julho de 2021. Como resultados, trouxe informações atuais sobre suas atividades e produtos, estágio das Parcerias para Desenvolvimento Produtivo, quadro funcional, fragilidades (internas e externas) e desafios atuais. Conclui-se pela importância dessas instituições do Estado para a garantia do acesso universal do SUS e desenvolvimento e produção de medicamentos e produtos de saúde essenciais, envolvendo desde os mais básicos até os de maior complexidade e valor agregado. Destarte, identifica-se a necessidade de uma agenda de mudanças, visando sustentabilidade em longo prazo e ampliação da contribuição para fortalecimento do Complexo Econômico-Industrial da Saúde.


ABSTRACT In the Covid-19 pandemic, public pharmaceutical laboratories gained greater visibility because of their initiatives to fight the disease and maintain the various pharmaceutical assistance programs. The article aimed to analyze their daily activities during the pandemic, to understand their strategic character for the Unified Health System (SUS), highlighting the Butantan, Bio-Manguinhos, and Farmanguinhos Institutes, given their leading role in relation to vaccines and medicines, respectively. Through a multiple case study, with a qualitative-descriptive approach, it presented data that indicate the change in profile that has been demonstrated in recent decades. The most relevant actions in combating the pandemic were identified, with the cut-off date of July 2021. As a result, it brought current information about its activities and products, stage of the Partnerships for Productive Development, staff, weaknesses (internal and external), and current challenges. It is concluded that these State Institutions are important to guarantee universal access to the SUS and the development and production of essential medicines and health products, ranging from the most basic to those with greater complexity and added value. Thus, the need for an agenda of changes is identified, aiming at long-term sustainability and expanding the contribution to strengthen the Economic-Industrial Health Complex.

15.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390279

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino con púrpura trombocitopénica inmunológica que ocurre 10 días después de la aplicación de la vacuna contra la COVID-19. Se descartaron con estudios complementarios todas las causas secundarias. Con pulsos de corticoides presentó mejoría clínica y laboratorial, evolucionando favorablemente. Asumiendo la relación temporal con dicha vacuna, se presume que esta plaquetopenia fue una reacción adversa a la misma. En el país no se han notificado casos de púrpura trombocitopénica inmunológica hasta el último boletín informativo de reacciones adversas relacionadas a esta vacuna.


ABSTRACT We present the case of a male patient with immunological thrombocytopenic purpura that occurs 10 days after the application of the COVID-19 vaccine. All secondary causes were ruled out with complementary studies. With corticosteroid pulses, he presented clinical and laboratory improvement, progressing favorably. Assuming the temporal relationship with the vaccine, it is presumed that this thrombocytopenia was an adverse reaction to it. No cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura have been reported in the country until the last bulletin of adverse reactions related to this vaccine.

16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 49-53, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360079

ABSTRACT

Abstract Erythema nodosum leprosum is a severe immune reaction that complicates the usual course of multibacillary leprosy. There is increased activation of T-cells in erythema nodosum leprosum. Treatment modalities available to date for the management are systemic steroids, thalidomide, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, minocycline, and apremilast but none of them is promising and safe. Mycobacterium indicus pranii is an atypical mycobacterium possessing strong immunomodulatory properties. The vaccine for this mycobacterium has been shown to have both immunotherapeutic and immunoprophylactic effects in multibacillary leprosy patients. We report a case of chronic recalcitrant erythema nodosum Leprosum which responded to Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine without any adverse effects, thereby suggesting its role as a novel therapeutic option in this reaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines , Leprosy, Lepromatous/drug therapy , Erythema Nodosum/drug therapy , Leprosy, Multibacillary , Mycobacterium
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 125-130, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389613

ABSTRACT

We report a 50-year-old woman with a history of celiac disease, who presented with lumbar pain and progressive flaccid tetraparesis 48 hours after the inoculation of the first dose of CoronaVac inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. CSF was normal and electrodiagnostic studies showed an axonal motor polyneuropathy. No other triggers were identified, and other etiologies were ruled out. The presentation was compatible with the AMAN (Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy) subtype of GBS, and intravenous immunoglobulin halted the progression of symptoms. Intensive neurorehabilitation was performed. The patient was discharged five weeks after admission, walking with poles and climbing stairs with minimal assistance. To date no cases of inactivated SARSCoV-2 vaccine related GBS have been reported. Thus, description of its clinical presentation is relevant. We discuss the current evidence relating GBS with vaccines, highlighting that vaccine associated GBS is a controversial entity and causality must be interpreted cautiously given the actual COVID-19 pandemic context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369092

ABSTRACT

ABSTRAC: The frequency of people hesitating to get vaccinated is increasing worldwide and regarding the covid-19 pandemic, this phenomenon has been increasingly noticed at a national level. This article exposes a brief presentation of the historical factors of this phenomenon, approaches its main determinants and conceptual model, in addition to presenting a set of communication strategies in vaccine health that can be implemented to face this problem to raise the credibility and adherence to immunizations. (AU)


RESUMO: A frequência da hesitação vacinal está aumentando em todo o mundo e, no contexto da pandemia da Covid-19, esse fenômeno vem sendo cada vez mais percebido no âmbito nacional. No presente trabalho, realizamos uma breve apresentação de fatores históricos desse fenômeno, abordamos seus principais determinantes e modelo conceitual, além de apresentar um conjunto de estratégias de (edu)comunicação em saúde vacinal que podem ser implementadas para enfrentamento dessa problemática com vista a elevar a credibilidade e a adesão às imunizações. (AU)


Subject(s)
Vaccination Coverage , Vaccination Refusal , Anti-Vaccination Movement , COVID-19
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e200314, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375908

ABSTRACT

This review does not intend to convey detailed experimental or bibliographic data. Instead, it expresses the informal authors' personal views on topics that range from basic research on antigens and experimental models for Trypanosoma cruzi infection to vaccine prospects and vaccine production. The review also includes general aspects of Chagas' disease control and international and national policies on the subject. The authors contributed equally to the paper.

20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55: e0274, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376360

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: French Guiana (FG) is an ultra-peripheral European region in the Amazon, and the COVID-19 epidemic has had very different kinetics from both its giant neighbors, Brazil or mainland France. Methods: This study summarized the epidemics of COVID-19 in FG. Results: The tropical climate, multiethnicity, and remoteness of the population forced healthcare providers to accordingly adapt the management of the epidemic. Incidence and mortality have been lower than that in Europe and Latin America due to a combination of prevalence of the youth in the population and highly developed healthcare system. Conclusions: Currently, vaccine hesitancy hinders the rapid expansion of vaccine coverage.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL