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Indian J Pediatr ; 2023 Aug; 90(8): 817–825
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223766


Although vaccines are one of the most rigorously tested biological products, the safety concerns persist globally. The vaccine safety concerns linked to measles, pentavalent and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have affected the vaccine coverage significantly in past. While surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is part of the national immunization program mandate, it suffers from challenges and biases related to reporting, completeness, and quality. Some conditions of concern, termed as adverse events of special interest (AESI) following vaccination, mandated specialised studies to prove/disprove the association. The AEFIs/AESIs are usually caused by one of the four pathophysiologic mechanisms, but for several AEFIs/AESIs, the exact pathophysiology remains elusive. For the causality assessment of AEFIs, a systematic process with checklists and algorithm are followed to classify into one of the four causal association categories. While the causal association primarily banks on epidemiological observations for several AEFIs, the emerging evidences indicate roles of underlying genetic, gender, age and other pro-inflammatory risk factors for AEFIs and AESIs. The emerging evidences suggest role of antigenic mimicry, autoantibody(ies) and underlying genetic susceptibility for the AEFIs/AESIs. The uncertainty about the frequency, profile, interval, and severity of AEFIs/AESIs and variations across the population, ambiguity about the exact pathophysiology mechanism, absence of definite markers, suggest a possible black box effect of the vaccines. Unless these unanswered questions concerning the AEFIs/AESIs are addressed appropriately and communicated to the stakeholders (professionals, care providers, beneficiaries, general public and media), the anti-vaccine movement shall keep challenging the vaccine and vaccination program.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218913


Background- COVID-19 is the Pandemic disease caused by the SARS-COV-2 virus. There are many myths regarding COVID-19 vaccine spread by community people at rural area. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge about myths of COVID-19, Bhopal Ratua (M.P). The World Health Organization (WHO) is working closely with global experts, governments, and partners to rapidly expand scientific knowledge on this new virus, to track the spread and virulence of the virus, and to provide advice to countries and individuals on measures to protect health and prevent the spread. The urban people have poor attitude regarding myths about Covid- 19 vaccination. Materials & Methods- A Study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Covid Vaccination among rural community people. 30 rural community people from a selected rural community were included in the study. A questionnaire consisting of 40 questions was used. Results- Almost all had some pre-test knowledge regarding the myths surrounding Covid-19. Whereas the knowledge was increased post-test. Conclusion- We concluded that such awareness programs may have a positive impact on increasing the knowledge of rural people. After that the vaccine needs to go through a review by the National Regulatory Authority, who will decide if the vaccine is safe and effective.

Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202757, jun. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1436138


Los niños cursan mayormente la infección por el virus SARS-CoV-2 en forma leve. Sin embargo, de forma muy infrecuente algunos pueden desarrollar una patología con marcada gravedad denominada síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico en niños relacionado temporalmente con COVID-19 (SIM-C). Dado su reciente surgimiento, aún hay aspectos de su fisiopatología que se desconocen. La posibilidad de recidiva en caso de reinfección o ante la vacunación contra SARS-CoV-2 son nuevos interrogantes a los que nos enfrentamos. Reportamos una serie de casos de 4 pacientes adolescentes que cursaron SIM-C y meses después han sido vacunados contra SARS-CoV-2 con plataformas ARN mensajero (ARNm) sin presentar recurrencia de la enfermedad ni efectos adversos cardiológicos

In most cases, children with SARS-CoV-2 have a mild infection. However, very rarely, some children may develop a severe disease called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children temporally associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C). Given its recent emergence, some aspects of its pathophysiology are still unknown. The possibility of recurrence in case of reinfection or SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are new questions we are facing. Here we report a case series of 4 adolescent patients who developed MIS-C and, months later, received the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with messenger RNA (mRNA) platforms without disease recurrence or cardiac adverse events.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines/administration & dosage
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop ; 18(1)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449259


Las vacunas previenen millones de muertes cada año y su eficacia y seguridad han sido ampliamente establecidas. En términos económicos, la vacunación es una de las intervenciones sanitarias más costo efectivas, generando un importante ahorro y crecimiento económico que supone a largo plazo. Se ha demostrado que la vacunación de adultos disminuye la morbilidad y la mortalidad asociadas a enfermedades infecciosas prevenibles, reduciendo las complicaciones y las hospitalizaciones, incluidos los ingresos a las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Hemos elaborado este documento de consenso con el objeto de diseñar un esquema de vacunación pragmático, accesible y estandarizado del adulto, según categoría de riesgo y edad, sobre la base de la evidencia disponible de vacunas accesibles y nuevas vacunas habiendo utilizado el Tercer Consenso de la Sociedad Paraguaya de Infectología del 2019 como base para las recomendaciones finales.

SUMMARY Vaccines prevent millions of deaths each year, and their efficacy and safety have been widely established. In economic terms, vaccination is one of the most cost-effective health interventions, generating significant savings and long-term economic growth. Adult vaccination has been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with preventable Infectious diseases, reducing complications and hospitalizations, including admissions to intensive care units. We have prepared this consensus document in order to design a pragmatic, accessible and standardized vaccination scheme for adults, according to risk category and age, based on the available evidence of available vaccines and new vaccines, having used the third consensus of the Paraguayan Infectious Diseases Society of 2019 as a basis for the final recommendations.

Acta bioeth ; 29(1): 91-100, jun. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439083


O presente estudo trata-se de uma análise na literatura sobre o aspecto bioético da autonomia em relação a imunização contra Hepatite B e HPV na adolescência. Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica baseada no método prisma onde foram incluídos artigos em português e inglês os quais foram pesquisados nas plataformas Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) e National Library of Medicine (PUBMED), utilizando os seguintes descritores Hepatitis B Vaccines, bioethics, Humans. Os resultados demostraram a eficiência dos profissionais de saúde no contato com o indivíduo e o convencimento deste através de um diálogo aberto e criação de vínculos. Evidenciou-se ainda o estudo evidenciou o direito a autonomia progressiva do paciente, no qual este ganha o direito a algumas escolhas como as imunizações de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, como é o caso da Hepatite B e HPV, no entanto é necessário que o adolescente seja instruído sobre a imunização. Assim sendo, reconhece-se o direito a autonomia progressiva do adolescente, referente a escolha das imunizações contra a Hepatite B e HPV, entretanto, deve-se considerar que estes indivíduos sejam instruídos sobre os benefícios individuais e/ou coletivos da vacinação, contemplados por atividades de educação em saúde por profissionais qualificados, objetivando ampliar a cobertura global de imunização com doenças que caracterizam problemas de saúde pública.

El presente estudio es un análisis de la literatura sobre el aspecto bioético de la autonomía en relación con la inmunización contra la Hepatitis B y el VPH en la adolescencia. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica basada en el método del prisma, que incluyó artículos en portugués e inglés que fueron buscados en la Biblioteca Científica Electrónica en Línea (SciELO), Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) y la Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina (PUBMED), utilizando los siguientes descriptores Vacunas Hepatitis B, bioética, Humanos. Los resultados demostraron la eficiencia de los profesionales de la salud en contactar al individuo y convencerlo a través de un diálogo abierto y creación de vínculos. También se evidenció que el estudio evidenció el derecho del paciente a la autonomía progresiva, en la que adquiere el derecho a algunas opciones como las inmunizaciones de enfermedades de transmisión sexual, como la Hepatitis B y el VPH, sin embargo, es necesario que el adolescente sea educado sobre la inmunización. Por lo tanto, se reconoce el derecho del adolescente a la autonomía progresiva, en cuanto a la elección de las vacunas contra la Hepatitis B y el VPH, sin embargo, se debe considerar que estos individuos sean educados sobre los beneficios individuales y/o colectivos de la vacunación, contemplados por las actividades de educación en salud por profesionales calificados, con el objetivo de ampliar la cobertura mundial de inmunización con enfermedades que caracterizan los problemas de salud pública.

The present study is an analysis of the literature on the bioethical aspect of autonomy in relation to immunization against Hepatitis B and HPV in adolescence. A bibliographic review was carried out based on the prism method, which included articles in Portuguese and English which were searched on the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) and the National Library of Medicine (PUBMED), using the following descriptors Hepatitis B Vaccines, bioethics, Humans. The results demonstrated the efficiency of health professionals in contacting the individual and convincing him/her through an open dialogue and creation of bonds. It was also evidenced the study evidenced the patient's right to progressive autonomy, in which he gains the right to some choices such as immunizations of sexually transmitted diseases, such as Hepatitis B and HPV, however it is necessary for the adolescent to be educated about immunization. Therefore, the adolescent's right to progressive autonomy is recognized, regarding the choice of immunizations against Hepatitis B and HPV, however, it must be considered that these individuals are instructed on the individual and/or collective benefits of vaccination, contemplated by health education activities by qualified professionals, aiming to expand the global coverage of immunization with diseases that characterize public health problems.

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 99(supl.1): S62-S69, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430723


Abstract Objective: To present an updated review of recommendations for the vaccination of children with immune-mediated diseases, with an emphasis on rheumatic and inflammatory diseases. Source of data: Studies published in the PubMed and Scielo databases between 2002 and 2022, Guidelines of Brazilian Scientific Societies, Manuals and Technical Notes of the Ministry of Health of Brazil, on current immunization schedules for special populations. Data synthesis: Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents reduce the immunogenicity of vaccines and favor susceptibility to infections. The safety and efficacy of immunogens are important points for vaccination in children with immune-mediated diseases. The safety threshold of a vaccine applied to immunocompromised individuals can be reduced when compared to healthy individuals. Very often, the recommendations for the immunization of children with immunemediated diseases follow the recommendations for immunocompromised patients. Vaccination against COVID-19, on the other hand, should ideally occur when the disease is stabilized and in the absence of a low degree of immunosuppression. The patients should be informed about the possibility that the immunization may fail during treatment with immunosuppressants. Specific vaccination schedules should be considered to ensure better protection. Conclusions: Recent studies have allowed updating the recommendations on the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination in children with immune-mediated diseases, especially for live attenuated vaccines. There is a scarcity of data on the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in patients, particularly pediatric patients, with rheumatic diseases. The completion of ongoing studies is expected to help guide recommendations on COVID-19 vaccines in this group of patients.

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 99(supl.1): S37-S45, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430724


Abstract Objective: To identify and describe learnings from past pandemics and to suggest a framework for vaccine development as part of epi/pandemic readiness. Source of data: Articles/ reviews/letters on pandemic preparedness/ vaccines published between 2005 and 2022 in PubMed, MEDLINE, MedRxiv, BioRxiv, Research Square, Gates Open Research; who. int,,,, websites; press releases. Summary of findings: Disease pandemics caused by emerging pathogens impacted the social development, health and wealth of most societies in human history. In an outbreak, the first months determine its course. To block an exponential spread and the development of an epi/ pandemic early, vaccine availability in sufficient quantities is of paramount importance. It is inevitable that new human viruses will emerge. Any future pandemic will come likely from RNA viruses through zoonotic or vector transmission, but we cannot predict when or where "Disease X" will strike. Public health, scientific and societal readiness plans need to include: continuous identification of new viruses in common mammalian reservoir hosts; continuous epidemiological surveillance, including wastewater sampling; establishment of prototype vaccine libraries against various virus families sharing functional and structural properties; testing of various and innovative vaccine platforms including mRNA, vector, nasal or oral vaccines for suitability by virus family; functional clinical trial sites and laboratory networks in various geographies; more efficient phasing of preclinical and clinical activities; global harmonization and streamlining of regulatory requirements including pre-established protocols; and societal preparedness including combating any pandemic of misinformation. Conclusions: "Outbreaks are unavoidable, pandemics are optional".

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 99(supl.1): S4-S11, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430725


Abstract Objectives: Despite the global impact of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection in children, only one monoclonal antibody (Palivizumab) has been approved for clinical use. However, advances in the knowledge of RSV immunology may enable the development of safe and effective new vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in a few years. The purpose of this review is to summarize available data on approved and developing passive and active immunizations against RSV in childhood and pregnancy. Data source: A non-systematic review of RSV immunoprophylaxis in childhood and pregnancy was carried out in PubMed, and clinical trial registries, without language restrictions, up to September 2022. Data synthesis: Three monoclonal antibodies and 17 active immunization candidates are under development in phase 1 to 3 clinical studies. Regarding the first group, Nirsevimab is a monoclonal antibody with a prolonged half-life whose approval for clinical use is expected in the next months. Among the vaccines under development, six techniques are being used: protein subunit, viral particles, live attenuated virus, recombinant viral vector, chimeric, and mRNA. The first two approaches are being tested primarily in pregnancy, while the others are being developed for the pediatric population. Conclusion: The approval of extended half-life monoclonal antibodies is the next expected advance in RSV prevention, although the costs may be a barrier to the implementation. Regarding active immunizations, maternal and infant vaccination are complementary strategies and there are many promising candidates in clinical studies using different platforms.

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 99(supl.1): S57-S61, Mar.-Apr. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430727


Abstract Objectives: Prophylactic HPV vaccines are a fundamental tool to reduce infections and tumors caused by the most prevalent types of these viruses, as this review points out. Several countries have adopted immunization programs that recommend vaccination against HPV for girls and adolescents between 9 and 14 years of age and, in some of them, also for boys. The programs also contemplate the immunization of adults, particularly in the case of individuals with different immunodeficiencies. Sources of data: The available vaccines are recommended for the prevention of tumors of the uterine cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, and anal canal. Moreover, two of the vaccines prevent the occurrence of genital warts, having been recently indicated for the prevention of oropharyngeal cancer. Data synthesis: Based on the evidence that antibody responses in girls were non-inferior after two doses when compared to three doses, several countries have decided to reduce the vaccination schedule for girls and boys up to 14 years of age from three to two doses, with an interval of six months between them. Recently, knowledge has been accumulating about the immunogenicity, duration of protection, and efficacy of a single-dose HPV vaccine regimen in girls and young women. Conclusion: Single-dose HPV vaccination could substantially reduce the incidence of pre-cancer and cervical cancer attributable to HPV, with reduced costs for vaccine delivery and simplified implementation, allowing more countries to introduce HPV vaccination or increase the adherence of the target population.

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 99(supl.1): S28-S36, Mar.-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430728


Abstract Objective: Covid-19 had a direct impact on children's health. The aim of this review was to analyze epidemiological and clinical data, the consequences of the pandemic, and vaccination aspects in this group. Sources of data: The searches were carried out from January 2020 to November 2022, in the MEDLINE databases (PubMed) and publications of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. Summary of findings: Covid-19 has a mild presentation in most children; however, the infection can progress to the severe form and, in some cases, to MIS-C. The prevalence of the so-called long Covid in children was 25.24%. Moreover, several indirect impacts occurred on the health of children and adolescents. Vaccination played a crucial role in enabling the reduction of severe disease and mortality rates. Children and adolescents, as a special population, were excluded from the initial clinical trials and, therefore, vaccination was introduced later in this group. Despite its importance, there have been difficulties in the efficient implementation of vaccination in the pediatric population. The CoronaVac vaccines are authorized in Brazil for children over three years of age and the pediatric presentations of the Pfizer vaccine have shown significant effectiveness and safety. Conclusions: Covid-19 in the pediatric age group was responsible for the illness and deaths of a significant number of children. For successful immunization, major barriers have to be overcome. Real-world data on the safety and efficacy of several pediatric vaccines is emphasized, and the authors need a uniform message about the importance of immunization for all children.

An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 56(1): 25-31, 20230401.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426661


Objetivos: Determinar la predisposición a recibir esta vacuna contra SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos: Se aplicó un diseño observacional de corte transversal en la población adulta del Paraguay entre mayo y octubre 2022. se aplicó el cuestionario de Kotta et al previamente validado, el cual fue difundido por redes sociales. Resultados: Se incluyeron 303 encuestados, con edad media 34 ± 12 años y predominio del sexo femenino (64,0%). En la muestra, 51,8% padeció COVID-19 y 97,3% ya recibió al menos una dosis de la vacuna. Se detectó que 58,4% aceptada la vacuna, 17,8% vacilaba en recibirla y 23,7% la rechazaba. La aceptación fue más frecuente en los varones (p 0,05). Conclusión: En el momento epidemiológico de disponibilidad universal de la vacuna y habiendo aún sujetos afectados por COVID-19, el rechazo a la misma fue 23,7%.

Objectives: To determine the predisposition to receive this vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Materials and methods: An observational cross-sectional design was applied in the adult population of Paraguay between May and October 2022. The previously validated questionnaire of Kotta et al was applied, which was disseminated through social networks. Results: 303 respondents were included, with a mean age of 34 ± 12 years and predominance of the female sex (64.0%). In the sample, 51.8% suffered from COVID-19 and 97.3% have already received at least one dose of the vaccine. It was detected that 58.4% accepted the vaccine, 17.8% hesitated to receive it and 23.7% rejected it. Acceptance was more frequent in males (p 0.05). Conclusion: At the epidemiological moment of universal availability of the vaccine and with subjects still affected by COVID-19, rejection of it was 23.7%.

SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dosage , Goals , Methods
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442373


OBJETIVO: Analisar a situação vacinal contra o papilomavírus humano entre estudantes da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal, que visa identificar e analisar as características e variáveis que se relacionam com a situação vacinal contra o papilomavírus humano de discentes da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionários online padronizados. RESULTADOS: Entre os participantes, 176 (49,2%) alegaram serem vacinados contra o vírus e receberam, no mínimo, uma dose da vacina. Dentre os pesquisados, 74 (20,7%) estudantes declararam terem tomado 3 doses, enquanto 89 (24,9%) tomaram 2 e 13 (3,6%) tomaram apenas 1 dose. Com relação aos vacinados na faixa etária abrangida pela rede pública, 62 (17,3%) são do sexo feminino (9-14 anos) e 12 (3,4%) são do sexo masculino (11-14 anos). Sobre os discentes que já apresentaram alguma lesão pelo vírus, 66,66% não foram vacinados. CONCLUSÃO:Com o presente estudo, foi possível evidenciar que, assim como ocorre com a população brasileira em geral, a situação vacinal contra o papilomavírus humano entre estudantes da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora está aquém do esperado. O principal motivo relatado para a não vacinação foi não fazer parte da faixa etária incluída na vacinação da rede pública. Constatou-se também que a prevalência de lesão por Papilomavírus Humano em vacinados foi menor que nos não vacinados, enfatizando a necessidade da vacina para prevenção de lesões causadas pelo vírus (AU).

OBJECTIVE: Analyze the vaccination status against the human papillomavirus among students at the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. METHODS: It is an observational cross-sectional study that aims to identify and analyze the characteristics and variables that relate to the vaccination status against the human papillomavirus of students at the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. The data were collected using standardized online questionnaires. RESULTS: Among the participants, 176 (49.2%) claimed to have been vaccinated against the virus and had received at least one dose of the vaccine. Among those surveyed, 74 (20.7%) students reported having taken 3 doses, while 89 (24.9%) took 2 and 13 (3.6%) took only 1 dose. Regarding the vaccinated in the age group covered by the public network, 62 (17.3%) are female (9-14 years old) and 12 (3.4%) are male (11-14 years old). A total of 66.66% of the students who have already had some injury by the virus, were not vaccinated. CONCLUSION: This study showed that, as with the Brazilian population in general, the vaccination status against human papillomavirus among students at the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora is below expectations. The main reason reported for non-vaccination was not being part of the age group included in the vaccination of the public network. It was also found that the prevalence of lesions by Human Papillomavirus in vaccinated was lower than in non-vaccinated, emphasizing the need for the vaccine to prevent lesions caused by the virus (AU).

Humans , Students, Medical , Papillomavirus Infections , Vaccination Coverage , Papillomavirus Vaccines
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216079


Monkeypox is a self-limiting zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus belonging to the genus of orthopox viruses. Initially considered an ‘African disease’, this infection has crossed the boundaries to affect other continents and it has raised tremendous concerns among the general public as well as the medical fraternity all over the world, particularly because of the lack of specific vaccinations and drugs for the management of the illness. Epidemiological evaluation of the current infection has reported that it is mainly transmitted through sexual contact in bisexual men, mostly whites, and in those with pre-existing human immunodeficiency virus infection. The most common presentations were skin rash, anogenital lesions, or mucosal lesions along with systemic symptoms. It has been established that the vaccines and drugs approved for the management of smallpox could be used for the management of the current monkeypox outbreak. Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG) and vaccines like JYNNEOS and ACAM2000 and antiviral drugs like tecovirimat, cidofovir (CDV), and brincidofovir are being considered for those patients with serious diseases. It is imperative for physicians to understand the pharmacological aspects of these drugs for delivering better care to patients with monkeypox, which is eventually essential for the containment of this infection. This review covers updates on vaccines as well as drugs for the prevention and management of monkeypox.

An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 84(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439171


Introducción. La vacunación contra el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) en recién nacidos es crucial para la prevención de la transmisión perinatal. Objetivo. Determinar factores individuales e institucionales asociados a la vacunación contra el VHB en las 12 y 24 primeras horas de vida. Métodos. Se diseñó un estudio transversal y multicéntrico. Los datos sobre la vacunación fueron recogidos de los padres y de la revisión de reportes. Los datos de los variables individuales de los recién nacidos y madres fueron recogidos de las historias clínicas. Los datos institucionales fueron recogidos de registros de atención inmediata y directamente del personal de inmunizaciones. Resultados. Se incluyó 777 recién nacidos en 10 establecimientos. En el análisis multinivel resultó favorable a la vacunación en las primeras 12 horas, el mayor tiempo de atención en los servicios de inmunizaciones (RP: 1,0; IC95%: 0,99 - 1,01). Para la vacunación dentro de las 24 horas de vida fue favorable la mayor cantidad de personal de enfermería en los servicios de vacunación (RP: 1,02; IC95%: 1,01 - 1,03) y desfavorable la mayor cantidad de partos al día de los establecimientos (RP: 0,99; IC95%: 0,99 - 0,997). No se identificó factores individuales. Conclusión. Factores institucionales, como el tiempo de atención, la cantidad de personal de enfermería y la cantidad de partos, estuvieron asociados con la vacunación contra el VHB en recién nacidos. Se requiere estrategias de mejora como la introducción de la vacunación en la atención inmediata del neonato para la prevención de la transmisión perinatal del VHB.

Introduction. Vaccination against hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in newborns is crucial for the prevention of perinatal transmission. Objective. To determine the individual and institutional factors associated with vaccine for HBV in newborns in the first 12 hours and 24 hours of life. Methods. A cross-sectional, multicenter-design study was conducted in high level public and private hospitals in Lima Metropolitana and Callao. Information on vaccination was obtained through consultations with parents and review of health service reports. Individual variables of the newborns and their mothers were obtained from the medical records of the newborns. Institutional data were collected from immediate care records and from health personnel responsible for the immunization program. Results. The study was conducted in 10 health facilities, including 777 newborns. In the multilevel analysis, the longest care time in the vaccination service was favorable for vaccination within 12 hours of life (PR: 1,0; 95% CI: 0,9995-1,01); while for vaccination within 24 hours of life was favorable the greater number of nursing personnel (RP: 1,02; IC95%: 1,01-1,03) and unfavorable the greater number of deliveries per day in the institution (RP:0,99; IC95%: 0,99-0,997). No individual factors related to vaccination were identified. Conclusions. Institutional factors, such as length of care, number of nursing staff, and number of deliveries, were associated with newborn HBV vaccination. Improvement strategies are required, such as the introduction of vaccination in the immediate care of the newborn for the prevention of perinatal transmission of HBV.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222011


Background: Countries around the world are now racing to vaccinate people against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The Government of India also rolled out its vaccination drive from 16th January ‘2021. Aims: To estimate the antibody response of the COVID-19 vaccine in the form of SARS-COV-2 IgG antibodies in vaccinated healthcare workers. Methods: Prospective follow-up was study conducted on healthcare workers (HCWs) of a Medical college in Dehradun, Uttarakhand. Healthcare workers who have been vaccinated for COVID-19 were tested for SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies at regular intervals i.e at 4 weeks after the 1st dose and then again at 4 weeks after the 2nd dose. The third sample was taken 6 months after the 2nd dose. Results: A total of 302 HCWs were enrolled in the study who gave their samples for IgG antibody estimation after the Covishield vaccine. After 4 weeks of completion of both doses, 96% HCWs formed SARS-COV-2 IgG antibodies, whereas 4% didn’t. Then after 6 months of follow-up, 14% HCWs have become negative for antibodies and better immunity is seen in people who also got infected with COVID-19 during this time. Conclusion: This study concludes that the immunity gained after vaccination is waning off in around 6 months and there is a need for a booster dose, especially for people at high risk. The infection control practices still play a crucial role in the prevention of this deadly disease.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222009


Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 has been spread almost all over the world in the last two years, including in India. Vaccines are a critical tool in the battle against COVID-19, and India has flagged the largest vaccination drive on 16 January 2021. Although public acceptance was varying, which can lead to non-acceptance. Aim & Objective: To estimate an acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and its associated factors. Settings and Design: An analytical cross-sectional study among health care workers in India Methods & Material: It was conducted using a validated, self-administrated online survey questionnaire, and data were analyzed using SPSS 23 version. The outcome variable was healthcare workers’ acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Results: A total of 450 HCWs participated, including 205(45.6%) women and 245(54.4%) men. A total of 270 (60%) subjects will accept vaccines, while 33.3% were unwilling to accept and wait for vaccines. Male gender (OR=3.14), being married and experienced (OR=11.49), vaccine effectiveness (OR=6.4), vaccine safety (OR=3.4), and past history (OR=2.28) were significantly associated. On applying logistic regression for associated factors, gender (B= -1.145, S.E.= 0.200, Wald 32.748), being married (B= -1.482, S.E.= 0.216, Wald 46.937), for experienced (B= -0.865, S.E.= 0.200, effectiveness (B= -1.856, S.E.= 0.245, wald 57.431), Safety (B= -1.224, S.E.= 0.202, Wald 36.633) and past history (B= -0.357, S.E.= 0.248, Wald 2.071) found significant. Recommendation: Proper information is crucial and healthcare workers’ attitudes about vaccines are an important factor for acceptance and recommendation of the vaccine to the public for population-wide coverage.

Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 16(1): e-11424, jan.-mar. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1438112


Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o número de casos e óbitos por Covid-19 em relação a gênero e idade, quantidade total de vacinas aplicadas e relação entre a aplicação das vacinas e número de mortes, de janeiro a novembro de 2021, na cidade e região de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os dados foram fornecidos pelo Setor de Vigilância Epidemiológica do município e pelos boletins diários da prefeitura. Em média, houve mais de mil casos de infectados/mês de janeiro a julho, a maior parte adultos do gênero feminino. A mortalidade também foi maior entre as mulheres. Foi registrada queda do número de casos e de mortes coincidente com a aplicação da primeira dose de vacina em pessoas sem comorbidades e com início de aplicação da segunda dose nos grupos prioritários. Tal achado indica a importância da imunização coletiva no controle da pandemia.

This study aimed to analyze the number of cases and deaths from Covid-19 in relation to gender and age, the total vaccines applied, and the relationship between the vaccine application and the number of deaths between January and November 2021, in the municipality and region of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais. Data were provided by the Epidemiological Surveillance Sector of the municipality of Viçosa and by the Daily Bulletins, published by the city hall. On average, there were more than 1,000 cases per month from January to July, mostly female adults. Mortality was also higher for females. There was a drop in the number of cases and deaths, coincident with the application of the first dose of vaccine in people without comorbidities and the initial period of application of the second dose in priority groups, indicating the importance of collective immunization to control the pandemic.

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432172


Introducción: el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) es el patógeno causante del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana (SIDA). Su importancia radica en que durante el año 2020 en el mundo 37,6 millones de personas vivían con VIH, y 1,5 millones contrajeron la enfermedad, no existe una vacuna para prevenir su infección. Objetivo: estudiar las publicaciones sobre el desarrollo de las vacunas a nivel mundial usando estadística bibliométrica en el tema VIH y su progresión en los últimos 20 años, haciendo énfasis en el periodo de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: se realizó un análisis estadístico bibliométrico, usando la base de datos PubMed (Medline). Para el análisis cualitativo se utilizó la base SCImago. Resultados: se observó un aumento en las publicaciones desde el año 2001, alcanzando un máximo el año 2016. Se consideraron las publicaciones en revistas del primer cuartil, con autores(as) con elevado índice H, con importantes interacciones entre ellos. Desde el año 2017 a la fecha se observa una disminución en el número de artículos publicados. Con este método no es factible, por ahora, determinar que la instalación de la pandemia impacto negativamente en la publicación de artículos de dicho tema. Conclusión: el VIH debería instaurarse como un ítem prioritario en el área científica/médica, esta metodología ofrece amplias posibilidades para profundizar y comprender cómo se está abordando la ciencia y el desarrollo de esta, en particular en cuestión cruciales como es la investigación en vacunas y el VIH.

Introduction: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the pathogen that causes human immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Its importance lies in the fact that during the year 2020 in the world 37.6 million people lived with HIV, 1.5 million contracted the disease, and there is no vaccine to prevent their infection. Objective: To study the publications on the development of vaccines worldwide using bibliometric statistics on the subject of HIV and its progression in the last 20 years, emphasizing the period of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods: A bibliometric statistical analysis was performed using the PubMed (Medline) database. For the qualitative analysis, the SCImago database was used. Results: An increase in publications was observed since 2001, reaching a maximum in 2016. Publications in first quartile journals were considered, with authors with a high H index, with important interactions between them. From 2017 to date, there has been a decrease in the number of articles published. With this method, it is not feasible, for now, to determine that the installation of the pandemic had a negative impact on the publication of articles on this topic. Conclusion: HIV should be established as a priority item in the scientific/medical area, this methodology offers ample possibilities to deepen and understand how science and its development are being approached, particularly in crucial issues such as vaccine research and the HIV.

Medisur ; 21(1)feb. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440633


El proceso de vacunación contra la COVID-19 en Cuba está sustentado en fundamentos epistemológicos de la Medicina y las Ciencias biomédicas que permitieron la ejecución de los ensayos clínicos con vacunas de producción nacional, así como el desarrollo de otros candidatos vacunales durante el periodo de emergencia epidemiológica. El objetivo de este artículo es fundamentar los conocimientos en relación a la estrategia de intervención con el candidato vacunal Abdala en trabajadores de la Salud en Santiago de Cuba. Mediante una revisión bibliográfica realizada desde el 1ro. de marzo hasta el 31 de mayo de 2021, se analizaron artículos científicos, datos publicados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y libros de textos, todo lo cual facilitó la recuperación y valoración de la información sistematizada. La estrategia de intervención con el candidato vacunal Abdala en trabajadores de la salud en Santiago de Cuba demandó una gestión transdisciplinaria, intersectorial y participativa. La aplicación de los procedimientos del método clínico-epidemiológico reveló la necesidad de amplificar una cultura de inmunización con sustentos epistemológicos mediante la sistematización del proceso asistencial.

The vaccination process against COVID-19 in Cuba is based on epistemological foundations of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences that allowed the execution of clinical trials with nationally produced vaccines, as well as the development of other vaccine candidates during the epidemiological emergency period. The objective of this article is to base the knowledge in relation to the intervention strategy with the vaccine candidate Abdala in Health workers in Santiago de Cuba. Through a bibliographical review carried out from the 1st. From March to May 31st, 2021, scientific articles, data published by the World Health Organization, and textbooks were analyzed, all of which facilitated the recovery and evaluation of systematized information. The intervention strategy with the vaccine candidate Abdala in health workers in Santiago de Cuba demanded a transdisciplinary, intersectoral and participatory management. The application of the procedures of the clinical-epidemiological method revealed the need to amplify an immunization culture with epistemological supports through the systematization of the care process.