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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1253-1257, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the characteristics of clinical distribution and drug resistance in patients with vancomycin-resistant Enterococci(VRE),and to provide reference for clinical prevention and control of infection. METHODS From May 1,2017 to May 1,2020,a total of 290 patients with Enterococci cultured from the samples submitted by inpatient department of our hospital were included. They were divided into VRE group (24 cases)and vancomycin-sensitive Enterococci (VSE)group(266 cases)according to the results of sensitivity tests. The basic information of patients (gender,age,submitting department,etc.), basic diseases (hypertension,diabetes,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ,etc.), clinical events (catheterization,endotracheal intubation ,deep venous catheterization ,etc.),use of antibiotics (utilization and utilization time of antibiotics before and after detection ),clinical manifestations (abnormal inflammatory indicators ,clinical symptoms ,etc.), clinical outcomes (length of stay ,improvement,etc.),drug sensitivity spectrum were all collected. Clinical distribution and drug resistance were compared and analyzed between 2 groups. RESULTS There were significant differences in the type of Enterococci, mixed infection strains and clinical manifestations between 2 groups(P<0.05). In VRE group ,two natural drug-resistant bacteria were detected in 66.7% and 20.8% of the patients ,i.e. Enterococcus gallinarum and E. casseliflavus . E. faecium was only sensitive to linezolid ,teicoplanin and tegacyclin (the drug resistance rate was 0),and was resistant to other antibiotics (the drug resistance rate was 100%);E. faecalis was not detected. E. faecium and E. faecalis were detected in 51.9% and 44.7% of patients in VSE group. The resistance rates of E. faecium to other antibiotics were more than 55% except linezolid ,teicoplanin and tegacyclin (resistance rate ≤0.72%);the resistance rates of E. faecalis to clindamycin and erythromycin were all more than 60%,and the sensitivity to other antibiotics was more than 60%. CONCLUSIONS The VRE infection strains in our hospital are mainly natural drug-resistant bacteria such as E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus ,and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium is found. The resistance rates of different strains to antibiotics are quite different.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924064

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the clinical pharmacist’s role in drug therapy and monitoring for the patient with postoperative MRSA infection. Methods Clinical pharmacists participated in planning anti-infective treatment, antimicrobial medication selection, identification of high-risk factors for MRSA infection, evaluation of vancomycin efficacy, dosage adjustment using TDM technology, monitoring and management of vancomycin adverse reactions. Results With the pharmaceutical care provided by clinical pharmacists, the patient received effective treatment with minimal vancomycin-related adverse reactions. Conclusion Clinical pharmacists played an important role in accelerating patient recovery by rational and safe medication use.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923502

ABSTRACT

@#The goal of the study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of Artemisia argyi ethanol extract on chemotherapeutic vancomycin (VAN)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI).The acute kidney injury model of male ICR mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection (ip) of VAN.Thirty mice were divided into the blank group, model group, high dose group, middle dose group and low dose group, which were given medicine by gastric perfusion (ig).Serum levels of cystain C (Cys C), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) were measured, which could reflect renal function of mice.Serum oxidative stress and inflammation indices were also determined, including muscular dystrophy association (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and high-sensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP).In addition, hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) was employed for measuring the damage of renal tissues and the content of apoptosis b-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 assaciated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were measured too.All results showed that Artemisia argyi extract exhibits protective effect on chemotherapeutic VAN-induced AKI, whose mechanism could be related to the oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and apoptosis.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923033

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the role of pharmaceutical care in the treatment of patients with pulmonary infection secondary to suppurative thrombophlebitis. Methods The treatment of a patient diagnosed with pulmonary metastatic infection secondary to suppurative thrombophlebitis and the whole process of clinical pharmacists participating in the monitoring were analyzed retrospectively. The use of antibiotics was evaluated, and the experience of coagulation management in suppurative thrombophlebitis was explored. Results Based on the infection site, characteristics of septic thrombus, monitoring of vancomycin blood concentration, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics characteristics of antibiotics, clinical pharmacists provided comprehensive pharmaceutical services for clinicians and patients in terms of anti-infection scheme adjustment, optimization of vancomycin individualized treatment, anticoagulant timing. Patient’s systemic infection and septic thrombus can be effectively controlled and which promotes the treatment of patients with suppurative thrombophlebitis. Conclusion Clinical pharmacists can play an important role in the treatment team of severe patients to improve the rational use of antibiotics.

5.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(2): 89-101, jul.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365897

ABSTRACT

Resumen La vancomicina es un antimicrobiano ampliamente utilizado en unidades de cuidado intensivo para el tratamiento de infecciones por cocos Gram positivos. El principal parámetro PK/PD, predictor de la actividad de la vancomicina, es el AUC/MIC mayor a 400, logrado mediante concentraciones plasmáticas del fármaco de 15 a 20 mg/l en el contexto de un paciente con función renal normal. En los pacientes críticos, se generan cambios en los patrones farmacocinéticos que llevan a dosis sub-terapéuticas del antibiótico y monitoreo constante de las concentraciones plasmáticas. Por tanto, se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura con el objetivo de conocer cuál es el mejor régimen de administración de vancomicina en pacientes críticamente enfermos y establecer los parámetros básicos de prescripción en esta población. Se encontró que la infusión continua de vancomicina se relacionó con mejores resultados, alcanzando más tempranamente los niveles planeados de concentración plasmática. La dosis de carga estuvo en el intervalo de 15 a 30 mg/k y la dosis de mantenimiento se dio en promedio entre 30 a 40 mg/K día. La concentración plasmática meta de vancomicina usada en la mayoría de los estudios oscila entre 15 y 20 mg/l. Como conclusión, se obtiene que la forma de administración en infusión continua, muestra mejor resultado, comparada con la administración intermitente; las dosis altas tanto en carga como en mantenimiento son las más recomendadas y no incrementan el riesgo de nefrotoxicidad; las estrategias PK/PD son útiles para el ajuste de la dosis de los pacientes críticamente enfermos.


Abstract Vancomycin is an antimicrobial used in intensive care units for the treatment of Gram-positive cocci infections. The main PK/PD parameter, predictor of vancomycin activity, is the AUC/MIC greater than 400; this is reached with plasma drug concentrations of 15 to 20 mg/l in the context of a patient with normal renal function. In critically ill patients, there are changes in the pharmacokinetic patterns that lead to sub-therapeutic doses of the antibiotic and a requirement for monitoring the vancomycin levels. There was reviewed literature on this field to determine the best vancomycin administration regimen in critically ill patients, and to establish the basic prescription parameters in this population. It was found that continuous infusion of vancomycin was associated with better results since it reached the necessary plasma concentration levels earlier. The loading dose was in the range of 15 to 30 mg/kg and the maintenance dose averaged between 30 to 40 mg/kg per day. The target plasma concentration of vancomycin used in most of the studies ranged between 15 and 20 mg/l. In conclusion, the continuous administration of vancomycin shows better results compared to intermittent administration. High doses in loading and maintenance are the most recommended since these do not increase the risk of nephrotoxicity. Finally, PK/PD strategies are useful for adjusting the dose of critically ill patients.

6.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e212, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1339132

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la sepsis tardía por estafilococo coagulasa negativo (SCoN) es una causa común de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal. Los SCoN son los microorganismos más frecuentemente involucrados con aproximadamente el 50% de los casos. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la incidencia y las características de los neonatos portadores de sepsis tardía por SCoN. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, retrospectivo. Se utilizaron las bases de datos del laboratorio de microbiología del hospital y las historias clínicas electrónicas para obtener la información. El período de estudio analizado fueron los años 2018 y 2019 en la unidad de cuidados intensivos e intermedios de recién nacidos del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtuvimos una incidencia de 2,5% de los ingresos a cuidados intensivos e intermedios (25 pacientes). La edad gestacional al nacer fue de 28 semanas (25,0-35,0) y la mediana del peso fue de 1.070 g (730,0-2.365,0). La media de edad gestacional posmenstrual al momento del diagnóstico fue de 32,92±7,921 semanas. Por sospecha de sepsis precoz, 17 pacientes habían recibido un curso de antibióticos previo. El signo clínico más frecuentemente observado fue el deterioro del estado general, en 11 pacientes, seguido de distensión abdominal en 6 y fiebre en 5. Dentro de los SCoN, el más frecuentemente aislado fue el Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 pacientes); 22 pacientes recibieron tratamiento, 18 de ellos con vancomicina-meropenem y 4 con monoterapia con vancomicina. Conclusión: estos patógenos representan una causa importante de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal, particularmente en pacientes que presentan mayor gravedad y mayor necesidad de soporte vital. Se necesitan pautas claras de interpretación del rol de estos microorganismos y de abordaje de pacientes con riesgo de sepsis tardía, incluyendo el tratamiento antibiótico empírico.


Introduction: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) late onset sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). CoNS are the most frequently isolated microorganisms and total 50% of cases. The objective of this study is to analyze the incidence and characteristics of newborns carriers of late onset CoNS. Materials and methods: we performed a descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal study. Data was obtained from the hospital's microbiology laboratory database and electronic medical records. Patients included were those admitted to NICU during the period between 2018 and 2019. Results: we obtained an incidence of 2.5% of patients admitted to the NICU (25 patients). Median gestational age at birth was 28 weeks 25.0-35.0 and median birth weight was 1.070 g 730.0-2365.0. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 32.92±7.921 weeks. 17 patients had received an antibiotics course at birth because of early onset sepsis suspicion. The most frequently observed clinical symptom was deterioration of general condition, 11 patients, followed by abdominal distention in 6 and fever in 5. Among CoNS, the most frequently isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 patients). 22 patients received treatment, 18 a combination of vancomycin and meropenem and 4 received vancomycin monotherapy. Conclusion: these pathogens are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn intensive care unit, particularly in patients with more serious conditions and in those who require more advanced life support measures. Clearer interpretation of their role is needed as well as to determine a proper approach to patients at risk of late onset sepsis, including empiric antibiotic treatment.


Sepse tardia para Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCoN) é uma causa comum de morbidade e mortalidade na unidade neonatal. SCoNs são os microrganismos mais frequentemente envolvidos e representam aproximadamente 50% dos casos. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a incidência e as características de neonatos com sepse tardia por SCoN. Materiais e métodos: foi realizado um estudo descritivo, longitudinal e retrospectivo. Usamos os bancos de dados do laboratório de microbiologia e prontuários médicos eletrônicos de nosso hospital para obter as informações. O período de estudo analisado foi de 2018 e 2019 na unidade de terapia intensiva e intermediária para recém-nascidos do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtivemos uma incidência de 2,5% de internações em Terapia Intensiva e Intermediária (25 pacientes). A idade gestacional ao nascer foi de 28 semanas 25,0-35,0 e o peso médio foi de 1070g 730,0-2365,0. A média da idade gestacional pós-menstrual no momento do diagnóstico foi de 32,92 ± 7,921 semanas. 17 pacientes haviam recebido um curso anterior de antibióticos por suspeita de sepse precoce. O sinal clínico mais frequentemente observado foi deterioração do estado geral em 11 pacientes, seguido por distensão abdominal em 6 e febre em 5. Dentre os SCoN, o mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus Epidermidis (13 pacientes). 22 pacientes receberam tratamento, 18 deles com Vancomicina-Meropenem e 4 com Vancomicina em monoterapia. Conclusão: esses patógenos representam uma importante causa de morbimortalidade na unidade neonatal, principalmente em pacientes com maior gravidade e maior necessidade de suporte de vida. Orientações claras são necessárias para interpretar o papel desses microrganismos e para abordar pacientes com risco de sepse tardia, incluindo tratamento com antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Coagulase , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/virology , Staphylococcus hominis/virology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(1): 38-41, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154021

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the cost effectiveness of vancomycin powder in the prophylaxis of posterior lumbar spine instrumentation, seeking potential savings. Methods: A retrospective, observational study was performed to evaluate the cost effectiveness. Data were retrieved from patients' files from March 2016 to April 2017; costs were considered for the procedures, as well as which antibiotic was used. Results: A total of 184 patients were included. Of these, 102 received prophylactic treatment with 1g of cephalothin and 82 received 1g of cephalothin and 1g of vancomycin powder, which was applied to the wound prior to tissue closure. Of the 184 patients, 110 were women (59%) and 74 were men (41%), and the mean age was 55 years (24-77). The participants had a median BMI of 28.9 kg/m2 (19-39). The average cost per hospitalized patient was $3974 USD and the average cost of rehospitalization due to infection was, on average, $7700 USD. The use of vancomycin powder led to cost savings of $75,008.79 USD per 100 posterior spinal fusions performed for degenerative spine. Conclusion: The use of vancomycin powder is a cost-effective option for prophylaxis of surgical site infection in spine fusion. Level of evidence III; Economic and decision analysis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar a relação de custo-eficácia da vancomicina em pó como profilaxia da instrumentação posterior da coluna lombar, buscando possíveis economias. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo e observacional para avaliar a relação custo-eficácia. Os dados foram recuperados dos arquivos dos pacientes de março de 2016 a abril de 2017; foram considerados os custos dos procedimentos, bem como o antibiótico usado. Resultados: Um total de 184 pacientes foi incluído, dos quais 102 receberam tratamento profilático com 1 g de cefalotina e 82 receberam 1 g de cefalotina e 1 g de vancomicina em pó, que foi aplicada na ferida antes do fechamento do tecido. Dos 184 pacientes, 110 eram mulheres (59%) e 74 eram homens (41%), e a média de idade foi de 55 anos (24-77). Os pacientes tinham IMC médio de 28,9 kg m2 (19-39).O custo médio por paciente hospitalizado foi US$ 3.974 e o custo médio de reinternação por infecção foi, em média, US$ 7.700. O uso de vancomicina em pó levou a uma redução de custos de US$ 75.008,79 referentes a 100 fusões que seriam realizadas nos casos de degeneração da coluna. Conclusões: O uso de vancomicina em pó é uma opção de baixo custo para a profilaxia da infecção do sítio cirúrgico na artrodese de coluna. Nível de evidência III; Análise econômica e de decisão.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar la relación de costo-eficacia de la vancomicina en polvo como profilaxis de la instrumentación posterior de la columna lumbar, buscando posibles economías. Métodos: Fue realizado un estudio retrospectivo y observacional para evaluar la relación costo-eficacia. Los datos fueron recuperados de los archivos de los pacientes de marzo de 2016 a abril de 2017; fueron considerados los costos de los procedimientos, bien como el antibiótico usado. Resultados: Fue incluido un total de 184 pacientes, de los cuales 102 recibieron tratamiento profiláctico y 1 g de cefalotina y 82 recibieron 1 g de cefalotina y 1 g de vancomicina en polvo, que fue aplicada en la herida antes del cierre del tejido. De los 184 pacientes, 110 eran mujeres (59%) y 74 eran hombres (41%), y el promedio de edad fue de 55 años (24-77). Los pacientes tenían IMC promedio de 28,9 kg/m2 (19-39). El costo promedio por paciente hospitalizado fue de USD 3.974 y el costo promedio de reinternación por infección fue, en promedio, de USD 7700. El uso de vancomicina en polvo llevó a una reducción de costos de USD 75.008,79 referentes a 100 fusiones que serían realizadas en los casos de degeneración de la columna. Conclusiones: El uso de vancomicina en polvo es una opción de bajo costo para la profilaxis de la infección del sitio quirúrgico en la artrodesis de columna. Nivel de evidencia III; Análisis económico y de decisión.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Fusion , Vancomycin , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Antibiotic Prophylaxis
8.
Rev. colomb. ortop. traumatol ; 35(2): 119-125, 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1378596

ABSTRACT

Introducción La incidencia de infección en cirugía de columna puede ser hasta el 12%; con el uso de vancomicina tópica, previo al cierre, se ha logrado disminuir el riesgo de esta condición. El objetivo del estudio es determinar la incidencia de infección en cirugía de columna a quienes se aplicó vancomicina tópica previo al cierre de incisión en una institución de alta complejidad Materiales y Métodos Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes intervenidos en cirugía de columna con aplicación de vancomicina tópica previa al cierre entre el 2014 al 2018 en una institución de tercer nivel. Los pacientes fueron seguidos desde el momento de la cirugía hasta 3 meses postquirúrgico Se recolectó información sobre edad, comobilidades, índice masa corporal, tiempo quirúrgico, sangrado intraoperatorio, complicaciones, uso de drenajes. Resultados Se incluyeron 130 pacientes, 81 mujeres y 49 hombres con una edad pomedio de 64 años. 95.4% se les realizó vía posterior con laminectomía, artrodesis e instrumentación. El tiempo promedio fue de 207 minutos, con un sangrado de 400mL. Solo un paciente presentó ruptura de duramadre. Cinco pacientes presentaron infección del sitio operatorio para una incidencia de 3.8% (IC95% 1.5% - 8.9%). Discusión El uso de vancomicina parece reducir el riesgo de infección en cirugía de columna según la incidencia de esta infección reportada en la literatura; sin embargo, hacen falta estudios prospectivos o ensayos clínicos controlados que prueben las dosis ideales de esta terapéutica.


Background The incidence of infection in spine surgery can be up to 12%; With the use of topical vancomycin, prior to closure, the risk of this condition has been reduced. The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of infection in spinal surgery to which topical vancomycin was applied prior to the closure of an incision in a highly complex institution. Methods An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted. Patients undergoing spinal surgery with application of topical vancomycin prior to closure between 2014 and 2018 in a third-level institution were included. The patients were followed from the moment of surgery until 3 months post-surgery. Information was collected on age, comorbilities, body mass index, surgical time, intraoperative bleeding, complications, use of drainages. Results 130 patients were included, 81 women and 49 men with an average age of 64 years. 95.4% were performed posteriorly with laminectomy, arthrodesis and instrumentation. The average time was 207minutes, with a bleeding of 400mL. Only one patient presented a dura mater rupture. Five patients presented surgical site infection for an incidence of 3.8% (95% CI 1.5% - 8.9%). Discussion The use of vancomycin seems to reduce the risk of infection in spinal surgery according to the incidence of this infection reported in the literature; however, prospective studies or controlled clinical trials are needed to prove the ideal doses of this therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spine , Infections , Arthrodesis , Vancomycin
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908371

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the vancomycin dose, therapeutic drug monitoring(TDM) situation and therapeutic effect of children after liver transplantation.Methods:A retrospective analysis of the data of 98 children who received intravenous vancomycin treatment after liver transplantation were conducted in the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Beijing Friendship Hospital from January 2017 to June 2019, including demographic data, vancomycin dose, serum trough concentration, drug-related adverse reactions and clinical outcome data.Results:A total of 98 children received intravenous vancomycin treatment and at least one steady-state TDM blood sample was collected.Among them, 53 cases (54.1%) were male, and the median age was 9 months(5 months to 14 years old). The median first daily dose of vancomycin treatment was 50(30-60)mg/(kg·d), and the median duration of treatment was 14(3-54)days.Only 27.5%(27/98)of the children′s initial trough concentration reached the target concentration (10-20 mg/L), while 26 cases(26.5%) did not reach the target after adjusting the treatment.Six children(6.1%)had renal toxicity caused by vancomycin, and two children had skin rash.The effective treatment rate accounted for 51.7%(15/29). The initial trough concentrations of vancomycin in the effective and ineffective groups were(5.92±3.82)mg/L and(10.43±5.37)mg/L, respectively.The difference was statistically significant ( P=0.041). Conclusion:The rate of intravenous vancomycin in children after liver transplantation is low, and the dose needs to be adjusted individually.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908012

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of Vancomycin on immune hemolysis and coagulation in children with non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL), thus providing the basis for the diagnosis and treatment of hemolytic anemia and coagulation dysfunction caused by Vancomycin, and guiding the rational use of drugs in children with NHL.Methods:From January 2018 to January 2019, 31 children with NHL treated with monotherapy of Vancomycin in Beijing Children′s Hospital, Capital Medical University were collected.Plasma samples within 1 week of Vancomycin medication were collected for detecting the anti-Vancomycin antibody by microcolumn gel method.The laboratory diagnostic and coagulation function indexes of hemolytic anemia before and after Vancomycin medication were analyzed using the paired sample t test. Results:Fourteen out of 31 children with NHL were positive for the anti-Vancomycin antibody, and among them, 10 cases had positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). In NHL children with positive anti-Vancomycin antibody, their red blood cell count (RBC)[(2.75±0.07)×10 12/L vs.(3.18±0.07)×10 12/L], platelet count (PLT)[64.29±14.87)×10 9/L vs.(91.36±16.84)×10 9/L] and hematocrit (HCT)[(23.02±0.83)% vs.(29.19±1.98)%] were significantly reduced after Vancomycin medication than those before treatment (all P<0.01). On the contrary, total bilirubin (TB) [(51.96±15.52) μmol/L vs.(39.34±13.40) μmol/L], direct bilirubin (DB)[(31.30±13.98) μmol/L vs.(26.38±12.61) μmol/L], indirect bilirubin (IB)[(21.81±2.89) μmol/L vs.(13.75±1.63) μmol/L] and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)[(208.6±16.85) U/L vs.(60.93±16.00) U/L] in them were significantly enhanced after Vancomycin medication than those before treatment (all P<0.05). Prothrombin time (PT)[(13.94±0.58) s vs.(11.66±0.30) s] and partial thromboplastin time (APTT)[(36.01±2.64) s vs.(28.09±0.98) s] were significantly prolonged in them after vancomycin medication than those before treatment (all P<0.01). A higher international normalized ratio (INR)(1.25±0.05 vs.1.05±0.02) was detected in NHL children with positive anti-Vancomycin antibody after medication ( P<0.000 1). In NHL children with negative anti-Vancomycin antibody, significantly higher PT (12.99±0.35) s vs.(11.82±0.27) s and INR (1.18±0.03 vs.1.07±0.03) were detected after Vancomycin medication (all P<0.000 1), while other indexes were similar before and after treatment. Conclusions:The anti-Vancomycin antibody may cause immune hemolysis and coagulation dysfunction in children with NHL.In order to prevent serious adverse events caused by drug antibodies, comprehensively clinical symptoms should be considered, drug antibodies and laboratory test results should be detected.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921923

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical effect of vancomycin bone cement in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) ruptured Wagner gradeⅡ-Ⅳ.@*METHODS@#From March 2019 to April 2021, 32 patients with Wagner gradeⅡ-Ⅳ diabetic foot were divided into vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) group and bone cement group according to different treatment methods. There were 16 cases in VSD group, 8 males and 8 females;the age ranged from 66 to 81 (70.50±7.20) years, and the course of disease ranged from 8 to 40 (27.56±8.55) months;Wagner gradeⅡin 2 cases, grade Ⅲin 7 cases and grade Ⅳin 7 cases;debridement and VSD were used. There were 16 cases in the bone cement group, 9 males and 7 females;the age ranged from 63 to 79 (69.56±7.29) years, and the course of disease ranged from 11 to 39(22.75±11.43) months;Wagner gradeⅡ in 2 cases, grade Ⅲin 5 cases and grade Ⅳ in 9 cases;vancomycin loaded bone cement was used for treatment. The types of bacteria, negative time of bacterial culture, skin healing time, hospital stay, operation times and complications were observed and compared between two groups.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 3 to 6 (4.00±1.07) months. The bacterial negative time, skin healing time and hospital stay in bone cement group were significantly lower than those in VSD group (@*CONCLUSION@#Vancomycin loaded bone cement is effective in the treatment of Wagner grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ diabetic foot ulceration wounds. It can reduce the length of hospital stay, shorten the healing time of skin and kill pathogens as soon as possible. It is one of the effective methods to treat Wagner gradeⅡ-Ⅳdiabetic foot ulceration.


Subject(s)
Bone Cements/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Treatment Outcome , Vancomycin , Wound Healing
12.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2394-2399, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886923

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of virus in activation treatment of plasma specimen on plasma concentration determination of voriconzole ,linezolid,vancomycin and teicoplanin. METHODS :The remaining plasma of 36 inpatients in our hospital after routine blood concentration examination of voriconazole ,linezolid,vancomycin and teicoplanin were collected as specimen(9 drug-contained plasma specimens for each drug ),and merged into three different concentration levels (low,medium, high)of mixed samples according the results of routine blood test. Then the mixed samples with different concentration levels were divided into inactivated group and non-inactivated group ,with 3 samples in each group. The inactivated plasma samples were heated at 56 ℃ for 30 min in metal bath with constant temperature. Non-inactivated group were not treated. After pretreating plasma sample of 2 groups,2-dimensional liquid chromatography was used to detect plasma concentration of the four drugs ;the difference of detection result between inactivated group and non-inactivated group were analyzed. RESULTS :Plasma samples containing voriconazole,linezolid,vancomycin and teicoplanin were still stable after heating at 56 ℃ for 30 min in metal bath with constant temperature. Compared with non-inactivated group ,relative error of plasma concentration detection result of above 4 drugs were all lower than 15% in low ,medium,high concentration mixed samples of inactivated group. CONCLUSIONS :Plasma samples can be inactivated by heating at 56 ℃ for 30 min in metal bath with constant temperature ,when the plasma concentration of voriconazole,linezolid,vancomycin and teicoplanin are determined by 2-dimensional liquid chromatography.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875681

ABSTRACT

Objective To provide reference for anti-infection treatment and individual pharmaceutical care in patient on peritoneal dialysis. Methods The plasma concentration of vancomycin in patient on peritoneal dialysis was monitored by clinical pharmacists. The anti-infection treatment plan was evaluated and adjusted according to the bacterial culture and drug sensitivity results of the abdominal dialysis fluid. The adverse reactions of pancytopenia induced by vancomycin were documented. Results Infection in the patient on peritoneal dialysis was effectively controlled. The related indicators of pancytopenia were improved. Conclusion A case of pancytopenia induced by vancomycin in the patient on peritoneal dialysis was analyzed to get clinical staff's attention to this adverse reaction and improve the safety of vancomycin administration.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875680

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate clinical utility of the personalized drug delivery decision support system, Smart Dose, applied to the monitoring of therapeutic drugs in Chinese population. Methods Use Smart Dose system to predict the trough concentration of vancomycin in patients, analyze the difference between the predicted value and the measured value of the trough concentration, and to evaluate the prediction performance of the system for vancomycin blood concentration. Results Smart Dose adjusts the difference between the predicted value of concentration and the measured value, the average percentage error, and the average absolute percentage error is less than the difference between the predicted value of initial concentration and the measured value. The difference between the initial concentration prediction value and the measured value of the neurosurgery group was smaller than that of the non-neurosurgery group, and the prediction efficiency was better than that of the non-neurosurgery group. The predicted initial concentration of the high trough concentration group and the low-age group (<59 years old) are closer to the measured value. The predictive performance of different BMI for the initial concentration is similar. Conclusion Smart Dose system is more suitable for predicting the adjusted concentration of vancomycin; When used for initial concentration prediction, the prediction values of neurosurgery group, high trough concentration, and low age group are more accurate. Different BMI has similar performance in predicting initial concentration.

15.
Infectio ; 24(4): 248-254, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114877

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: las infecciones causadas por Enterococcus resistente a Vancomicina (EVR) presentan mayor mortalidad en pacientes críticos, asociado a un aumento gradual en este patrón de resistencia, especialmente en el continente americano, por lo cual la adecuada terapia antimicrobiana empírica es fundamental para mejorar los desenlaces. Objetivo: determinar los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de infección por EVR en pacientes sépticos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) del Hospital San José en Bogotá, Colombia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de casos y controles en pacientes sépticos ingresados a la UCI durante 2016 y 2017. Los casos se definieron como pacientes con infección por EVR y los controles los pacientes con infección por otro germen. Resultados: se incluyeron 32 pacientes con aislamiento de EVR y 96 controles. Los factores de riesgo asociados a infección por EVR fueron: nutrición parenteral (OR 15,7 IC 4,2-71,4), lavado peritoneal (OR 8,9 IC 3,2-24,8), cultivo polimicrobiano (OR 19,9 IC 6,0-83,4). La mortalidad fue 56,2% en casos y 33,3% en controles. Conclusiones: Los factores de riesgo hallados con mayor frecuencia fueron: múltiples lavados peritoneales, nutrición parenteral y cultivos polimicrobianos. Encontramos una correlación significativa en el uso de antibiótico empírico adecuado y la reducción en la mortalidad.


Summary Introduction: infections caused by Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) have higher mortality in critically ill patients, associated with increase in this pattern of resistance, especially in the Americas, which is why adequate empirical antimicrobial therapy is essential to improve outcomes Objective: to determine the risk factors associated with the development of infection by VRE in septic patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of San José Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: Case-control study in septic patients admitted to the ICU during 2016 and 2017. The cases were defined as patients with VRE infection and the controls were patients with infection by another germ. Results: 32 patients with EVR isolation and 96 controls were included. The risk factors associated with infection by EVR were: parenteral nutrition (OR 15.7 IC 4.2-71.4), peritoneal lavage (OR 8.9 IC 3.2-24.8), polymicrobial culture (OR 19,9 IC 6.0-83.4). Mortality was 56.2% in cases and 33.3% in controls. Conclusions: The risk factors found most frequently were: multiple peritoneal lavage, parenteral nutrition and polymicrobial cultures. We found a significant correlation in the use of adequate empirical antibiotic and the reduction in mortality


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vancomycin , Mortality , Enterococcus , Sepsis , Infections , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 490-508, nov. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144243

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los antimicrobianos son los medicamentos más utilizados en los neonatos durante su primer mes de vida cuando se encuentran en unidades neonatales, principalmente por el alto riesgo que presentan de adquirir infecciones graves como la sepsis. La mayoría de estos antimicrobianos se utilizan con dosis extrapoladas en base a las recomendaciones en población adulta y niños mayores, a pesar de que la fisiopatología en los recién nacidos es absolutamente diferente. Lo anterior lleva a un mayor riesgo a que ocurran más efectos adversos los que pueden conducir a una mayor toxicidad y a fallas terapéuticas, entre otros. En la última década se han realizado mayores estudios farmacocinéticos de antimicrobianos en neonatos; esta reciente evidencia ha permitido nuevas recomendaciones de dosificación considerando el peso y la edad gestacional del recién nacido, entre otras variables, de acuerdo al antimicrobiano estudiado. En base a una mayor evidencia sobre el comportamiento farmacocinético de los antimicrobianos en neonatos, se ha elaborado este documento para así facilitar y promover su correcto uso en las unidades neonatales.


Abstract Antibiotics are the most widely used medications in neonates during their first month of life in neonatal units, mainly due to the high risk they present of acquiring serious infections such as sepsis. Most of these antibiotics are used with extrapolated doses based on the suggestions in the adult population and older children, despite the fact that the pathophysiology in newborns is absolutely different. This leads to a higher risk of more adverse effects occurring, which can lead to greater toxicity and therapeutic failures, among others. In the last decade more and more pharmacokinetic studies of antibiotics have been carried out in neonates, this recent evidence has led to new dosage recommendations taking into account the weight and gestational age of the newborn, among other variables, in agreement to the antibiotic studied. Therefore, based on the need to order and summarize the most up-to-date and most evidence-based information on antibiotics in neonates, this document was prepared to facilitate and promote its correct use in neonatal units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Communicable Diseases , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Neonatology , Chile , Advisory Committees
17.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 45(4): 20-23, nov. 11, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255413

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureusmeticilina-resistente (SAMR)es una causa frecuente de bacteriemias intrahospitalarias. Para su tratamiento se utiliza vancomicina y han emergido cepas con sensibilidad disminuida heterogénea (h-VISA) que albergan subpoblaciones con sensibi-lidad reducida a vancomicina. Se comunica un caso de bacteriemia intra-tratamiento con vancomicina por SAMR h-VISA. El aislamiento muestra sensibilidad a vancomicina (CIMvan: 1 µg/mL), sin embargo E-test GRD sugiere h-VISA (CIMvan: 2 µg/mL y CIMtei: 8 µg/mL). El análisis del perfil poblacional - área bajo la curva (PAP-AUC) valida este hallazgo. Se rota a linezolid con resolución clínica.


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SAMR) is a common cause of nosocomial bacteremia. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide, is widely employed for the therapy of SAMR infections. In recent years, heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate strains (h-VISA) have emerged. We report a case of intra-treatment bacteremia caused by SAMR h-VISA. The isolate shows susceptibility to vancomycin (MICvan: 1 µg/mL). But the GRD E-test suggests h-VISA (MICvan: 2 µg/mL and MICtei: 8 µg/mL). The population analysis profile - area under the curve (PAP-AUC) validates SAMR h-VISA. Rotation of antibiotic therapy with linezolid is done, with good clinical outcome.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213910

ABSTRACT

Background:Drug use evaluation is an ongoing systematic process designed to maintain the appropriate medication during & after dispensing in order to assure appropriate therapeutic decision making andpositive patient outcome. Methods:An institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted to analyze drug use of vancomycin by using medication charts and medical note of patients that were admitted in the medical ward of Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Patients who were admitted from medical ward and whose age were≥18years were eligible provided that they take Vancomycin during the study period were included and Patients with medical records of insufficient or illegible information’s were excluded. Structured check list was used for data collection, and the samplesize was 169. Convenience sampling technique was used.Results:Among 169 patients 136(80.5%) had empiric treatments, the remaining 33(19.5%) had specific treatments. Among 169 patients 61(36.1%) hadInfection during his/her stay in hospital of which 47(77%) were hospital acquired pneumonia, 169 patients 39(23.08%) had Vancomycin indication for hospital acquired pneumoniafollowed by 21 (12.4%), 21(12.4%), meningitis and PCP respectively. The finding indicated that only 135(79.9%) were appropriate regarding frequency, 124(73.4%) were appropriate regarding dose, 104(61.6%)were appropriate regarding duration, and the appropriate indication were only 128(75.7%).Conclusions:Vancomycinewas mostly indicated as empiric therapy and only 135(79.9%) were appropriately prescribed with respect to frequency, 128(75.7%) were appropriate regarding indication and 124(73.4%) were appropriate regarding to dose, 104(61.6%) were appropriate regarding to duration. All physicians should prescribe drugs according to the guidelines.

19.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(3): 1-14, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247345

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos: A Monitorização Terapêutica de Fármacos (MTF) é uma importante ferramenta na otimização da terapia com vancomicina, utilizada no tratamento de infecções graves causadas por bactérias Gram-positivas. O objetivo deste estudo foi implementar um protocolo de monitoramento terapêutico de vancomicina em um hospital e descrever as características clínicas, laboratoriais e de uso deste medicamento após sua implementação. Métodos: Para o desenvolvimento do protocolo, foram utilizados os consensos internacionais sobre MTF de vancomicina. Os dados dos pacientes adultos foram coletados dos prontuários e das estimativas do software farmacocinético. Resultados: O protocolo de vancomicina foi implementado na instituição hospitalar e disponibilizado ao corpo clínico. Foram avaliados 49 pacientes. A vancomicina foi indicada principalmente para tratar pneumonia 15 (30,6%). Entre os microrganismos identificados, Staphylococcus aureus foi o mais presente ­ 8 (50%), e 9 (56,3%) das culturas eram resistentes à oxacilina. Média de uso de vancomicina foi 10,6 (± 6,6) dias, e dose de ataque foi administrada em 33 (67,3%) dos pacientes. Apresentaram insuficiência renal aguda 5 (11,1%) pacientes. O monitoramento das concentrações mínimas no vale (Cmin) de vancomicina ocorreu em 43 (87,8%) pacientes. Na primeira medição, 16 deles (37,2%) apresentaram Cmin inferiores a 10 mcg/dL, e 11 (25,6%), superiores a 20 mcg/dL, dados considerados fora da faixa terapêutica. Conclusão: A elaboração de um protocolo de MTF para a vancomicina orienta o uso racional e seguro desse antibiótico. Formação continuada em recursos humanos e investimento em softwares farmacocinéticos para ajustes de doses podem contribuir para a otimização da terapia com vancomicina.(AU)


Background and objectives: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is an important tool in optimizing vancomycin therapy, a drug used to treat serious infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. The aim of this study was to implement a protocol for the therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin in hospitals and to describe the clinical, laboratory and use characteristics of this drug after its implementation. Methods: The international consensus on vancomycin TDM was used for protocol development. Patient data were collected from medical records and pharmacokinetic software estimates. Results: The vancomycin protocol was implemented at a hospital and made available to the clinical staff. We evaluated 49 patients. Vancomycin was prescribed mainly to treat pneumonia 15 (30.6%). Among the identified microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common with 8 cases (50%), and 9 (56.3%) patients were resistant to oxacillin. The average use of vancomycin was 10.6 (± 6.6) days and the loading dose was administered in 33 (67.3%) patients. A total of 5 (11.1%) patients had acute renal failure. Monitoring of Minimal Concentrations in the vancomycin valley (Cmin) occurred in 43 (87.8%) patients. In the first measurement, 16 of them (37.2%) presented Cmin below 10 mcg/dL and 11 (25.6%) above 20 mcg/dL, data considered outside the therapeutic range. Conclusion: The elaboration of an MTF protocol for vancomycin guides the rational and safe use of this antibiotic. Continued training in human resources and investment in dose-adjusting pharmacokinetic software may contribute to the optimization of vancomycin therapy.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: La monitorización terapéutica de medicamentos (MTF) es una importante herramienta para optimizar la terapia con vancomicina, utilizada para tratar infecciones graves causadas por bacterias grampositivas. El objetivo de este estudio fue implementar un protocolo de MTF de vancomicina en el hospital y describir las características clínicas, de laboratorio y de uso de vancomicina después de su implementación. Métodos: El consenso internacional sobre vancomicina MTF se utilizó para el desarrollo del protocolo. Los datos de los pacientes adultos se obtuvieron de los registros médicos y las estimaciones del software farmacocinético. Resultados: El protocolo se implementó en el hospital y se puso a disposición al personal clínico. Se evaluaron 49 pacientes. La vancomicina fue indicada para pneumonía 15 (30,6%). Entre los microorganismos identificados, Staphylococcus aureus fue el más presente 8 (50%) y 9 (56,3%) de los cultivos fueron resistentes a oxacilina. El promedio del uso de vancomicina fue de 10,6 (± 6,6) días, y la dosis de ataque se administró en 33 (67,3%) pacientes. La insuficiencia renal aguda se encontró en 5 (11,1%) pacientes. El monitoreo de concentraciones mínimas en el valle de vancomicina (Cmin) ocurrió en 43 (87,8%) pacientes. En la primera medición, 16 de ellos (37,2%) presentaron Cmin por debajo de 10 mcg/dL, y 11 (25,6%), por encima de 20 mcg/dL, datos considerados fuera del rango terapéutico. Conclusión: La elaboración de un protocolo de MTF para vancomicina guía el uso racional y seguro de ese antibiótico. La capacitación continua en recursos humanos y la inversión en softwares farmacocinéticos de ajuste de dosis pueden contribuir a la optimización de la terapia con vancomicina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin , Clinical Protocols , Drug Monitoring , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
20.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 391-397, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138519

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a efetividade da vancomicina contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L em pacientes pediátricos com base na razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima > 400. Métodos: População de 22 pacientes pediátricos (13 meninos) internados no centro de terapia intensiva pediátrica, com função renal preservada, que foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G1 < 7 anos e G2 ≥ 7 anos). Após a quarta dose de vancomicina (10 - 15mg/kg a cada 6 horas), duas amostras de sangue foram colhidas (terceira e quinta horas), seguidas da dosagem sérica por imunoensaios para investigação da farmacocinética e da cobertura do antimicrobiano. Resultados: Não se registrou diferença entre os grupos com relação à dose, ao nível de vale ou ainda na área sob a curva. A cobertura contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L ocorreu em apenas 46% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos. A farmacocinética se mostrou alterada nos dois grupos diante dos valores de referência, mas a diferença entre grupos foi registrada pelo aumento da depuração total corporal e pelo encurtamento da meia-vida biológica, mais pronunciados nos pacientes mais novos. Conclusão: A dose empírica mínima de 60mg/kg ao dia deve ser prescrita ao paciente pediátrico de unidade de terapia intensiva com função renal preservada. A utilização da razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima na avaliação da cobertura da vancomicina é recomendada para se atingir o desfecho desejado, uma vez que a farmacocinética está alterada nesses pacientes, podendo impactar na efetividade do antimicrobiano.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the vancomycin effectiveness against gram-positive pathogens with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L in pediatric patients based on the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration ratio > 400. Methods: A population of 22 pediatric patients (13 boys) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with preserved renal function was stratified in two groups (G1 < 7 years and G2 ≥ 7 years). After the fourth dose administered of vancomycin (10 - 15mg/kg every 6 hours) was administered, two blood samples were collected (third and fifth hours), followed by serum measurement by immunoassays to investigate the pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial coverage. Results: There was no difference between the groups regarding dose, trough level or area under the curve. Coverage against gram-positive pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L occurred in only 46% of patients in both groups. The pharmacokinetics in both groups were altered relative to the reference values, and the groups differed in regard to increased total body clearance and shortening of the biological half-life, which were more pronounced in younger patients. Conclusion: A minimum empirical dose of 60mg/kg per day should be prescribed for pediatric patients in intensive care units with preserved renal function. The use of the ratio between the area under the curve and minimum inhibitory concentration in the evaluation of vancomycin coverage is recommended to achieve the desired outcome, since the pharmacokinetics are altered in these patients, which may impact the effectiveness of the antimicrobial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pilot Projects , Age Factors , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Half-Life
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