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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 432-437, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346481

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (ETVs) continúan siendo un desafío para los esfuerzos de agencias de salud pública, ya que mantienen o están aumentando su impacto sobre la salud de las comunidades afectadas. La característica común de las ETVs es que la única manera de prevenir exito samente nuevas infecciones es evitar el contacto entre vectores y humanos. No existen vacunas y no existirán en un futuro previsible para las principales ETVs que afectan la salud pública en Argentina. Aunque las epide mias de dengue desde 2009 atrajeron la atención mediática, otras ETVs, tales como Chagas o leishmaniasis, afectan la salud pública en Argentina desde hace décadas. Sobre ellas, y otras que potencialmente podrían instalarse en el territorio nacional (West Nile, Lyme, etc) hay repetidas referencias mediáticas que explican su recrudecimiento por el cambio climático. El argumento se basa en que la "tropicalización" del clima en regiones templadas promueve la instalación de ETVs en áreas previamente no favorables para ellas. Aunque existen muchas evidencias de que el clima está cambiando, son pocas las evidencias de que sea el clima el principal factor que promueve el recrudecimiento de las ETVs en Argentina. En este artículo, se discute la situación de los vectores de enfermedades en Argentina (con énfasis en triatominos), su vinculación con el llamado cambio climático y las actividades de control de vectores implementados por agencias gubernamentales de salud pública.


Abstract Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to pose a challenge to the efforts of public health agencies by increasing their impact on the health of the affected communities. The common feature of VBDs is that the only way of preventing them is by avoid ing the contact between vectors and humans. There are no vaccines, and they will not be available shortly as tools for prevention and control in Argentina. Although dengue outbreaks attracted the attention of mass media from 2009, other VBDs have been affecting public health in Argentina for many decades, as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Over these, and others that could potentially settle in the national territory (West Nile, Lyme, etc.), there are repeated mass media claims and political declarations justifying their increase because of climate changes. The argument asserts that the "tropicalization" of the climate in temperate regions promotes the instal lation of VBDs in areas previously unfavorable for them. Although much evidence exists showing that the climate is changing, there is very little evidence that the climate is the main factor promoting the increase of VBDs. In this article, the influence of the so-called climate change on the situation of disease vectors in Argentina (with emphasis on triatomines) and vector control activities implemented by governmental public health agencies are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Vector Borne Diseases , Argentina/epidemiology , Public Health , Disease Vectors
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 121-130, mayo 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285454

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La malaria representa uno de los mayores desafíos de salud pública, principalmente en los países pobres. Ciertas características sociales de Colombia, como la migración, el trabajo informal y la escasez económica, favorecen la minería ilegal. El análisis de la situación de la malaria en estas áreas permite establecer una guía para la prevención, el control y el tratamiento de la enfermedad en los programas de salud pública existentes. Objetivo. Describir la situación de la malaria en las poblaciones mineras colombianas entre el 2012 y el 2018. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo que incluyó la creación de gráficos y mapas. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizaron la correlación de Pearson y el índice de Moran. Resultados. Entre el 2012 y el 2018, se notificaron 44.032 casos de malaria en la población minera, 43.900 de malaria no complicada y 132 de malaria complicada, así como tres muertes, dos por Plasmodium vivax y una por infección mixta. Hubo una disminución del 44,7 % de los casos en el período evaluado. La tasa de riesgo en el 2012 fue de 2,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes; el 87,3 % de los casos se presentó en hombres y el 37,9 % en personas entre los 20 y los 29 años, en tanto que el 46,7 % de la población estudiada estaba conformada por afrocolombianos. Se encontró una posible correlación lineal positiva moderada entre mayor la actividad minera, mayor el número de casos de malaria en mineros. El índice de Moran global evidenció una agrupación espacial significativa de los casos de malaria en zonas con industria minera en los municipios del Pacífico colombiano. Conclusiones. La disminución en la notificación de casos durante el período evaluado podría atribuirse a un subregistro del Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública (Sivigila), ya que la mayoría de los mineros no tienen trabajos formales, lo que dificulta su acceso a los servicios de salud. Se recomienda un estudio de cohorte en áreas endémicas para establecer una relación directa entre la explotación minera y la presencia de casos de malaria.


Abstract | Introduction: Malaria represents one of the biggest public health challenges, mainly in poor countries. Colombia has social characteristics such as migration, informal work, and economic shortages that favor illegal mining activities. The study of the malaria situation in these areas would allow establishing the bases for its prevention, control, and treatment in the existing public health programs. Objective: To describe the malaria situation in Colombian mining populations between 2012 and 2018. Materials and methods. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study with graphs and maps. For the statistical analysis, we used Pearson's correlation and Moran's index. Results. From 2012 to 2018, 44,032 cases of malaria were reported in the mining population, 43,900 of uncomplicated malaria and 132 of complicated malaria, and three deaths, two due to Plasmodium vivax and one due to mixed infection. During this period, there was a decrease of 44.7% in cases. The risk rate in 2012 was 2.5 cases x 1000 inhabitants; 87.3% of cases were in men, and 37.9% corresponded to the 20 to 29-year-old age group while 46.7% were AfroColombians. We found a possible moderate positive linear correlation: The greater the mining activity, the greater the number of malaria cases. The global Moran index indicated a significant spatial grouping of cases in mining activities in Colombian Pacific municipalities. Conclusions. The case notification decrease during this period could be attributed to an underreporting of the public health surveillance system (Sivigila) system, as most miners do not have formal jobs, which prevents them from accessing health services. A cohort study is recommended in endemic areas to establish a direct relationship between mining exploitation and the occurrence of malaria cases.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Mining , Colombia , Public Health Surveillance , Vector Borne Diseases
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 153-160, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249067

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. El programa de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores en México tiene una red establecida de ovitrampas para la vigilancia entomológica de Aedes spp. Los servicios de salud del estado de Yucatán, en respuesta a reportes de Aedes albopictus en la periferia de Mérida, capital del estado, incrementaron la especificidad de dicha vigilancia. Objetivo. Describir la presencia y distribución de Ae. albopictus en Mérida y su abundancia relativa comparada con Aedes aegypti, en ovitrampas del programa de control de vectores. Materiales y métodos. Durante octubre de 2019, se seleccionaron al azar 91 ovitrampas en 31 barrios de Mérida. Los mosquitos adultos se obtuvieron del insectario de la Unidad Colaborativa para Bioensayos Entomológicos de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán a partir de huevos recolectados en campo. Se determinó la abundancia relativa de individuos adultos de cada especie identificada y por barrios evaluados. Resultados. En el 32 % de los barrios muestreados, se detectó Ae. albopictus y, en todos ellos, Ae. aegypti. Se recolectaron 28 adultos de Ae. albopictus (10 hembras y 18 machos) en las ovitrampas. No se observó correlación entre la abundancia de adultos ni de hembras Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus por barrio (p>0,05). Conclusiones. Los resultados confirmaron que Ae. albopictus estaba coexistiendo con Ae.aegypti en Mérida en el momento del estudio. La baja abundancia relativa sugiere que Ae.albopictus se encontraba en la fase inicial de invasión.


Abstract | Introduction:The vector-borne diseases program in México has an established network of ovitraps for entomological surveillance of Aedes spp. In response to reports of Aedes albopictus in the periphery of Mérida, the state capital of Yucatán, the Ministry of Health increased the specificity of this surveillance. Objective: To describe the presence and distribution of Ae. albopictus in Mérida and its relative abundance compared to Aedesaegypti in ovitraps of the vector control program. Materials and methods: During October, 2019, 91 ovitraps were randomly selected from 31 neighborhoods of Mérida. Mosquitoes were reared at the insectary of the Collaborative Unit for Entomological Bioassays of the Autonomous University of Yucatán from eggs collected in the field. Relative abundance was determined for adult individuals of each identified species and neighborhood. Results: 32 % of the neighborhoods were positive for Ae. albopictus and 100 % for Ae. aegypti. A total of 28 adults of Ae. albopictus (10 females and 18 males) were obtained from ovitraps. No correlation was observed between the abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for both adults and females (p>0.05) at the neighborhood level. Conclusions: The results confirm that Ae. albopictus coexisted with Ae. aegypti in Mérida at the time of the study. The low relative abundance suggests that Ae. albopictus was in the initial phase of invasion.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Mexico , Vector Control , Mosquito Vectors , Vector Borne Diseases
4.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(1): 70-76, ene-mar 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280548

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los casos de la enfermedad de Chagas aguda (ECA) se reportan en forma esporádica en el Perú. En este artículo se describe las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de ocho nuevos casos de ECA detectados por el sistema de vigilancia en la cuenca amazónica, entre 2009 y 2016. La media de la edad fue 12,7 ± 13,7 años, rango de 1 a 44 años y 4/8 casos fueron varones. Un caso se asoció a enfermedad diarreica aguda, otro a leptospirosis y dos a infección del tracto urinario. La tasa de letalidad global fue 12,5% (1/8). La detección tardía es una característica frecuente relacionada a una escasa sospecha diagnóstica en pacientes con historial de fiebre. Se identificó el linaje TcI y TcIV del agente etiológico de la enfermedad de Chagas. Se reporta ocho nuevos casos de ECA, de los cuales siete fueron menores de edad.


ABSTRACT Acute Chagas disease (ACD) cases are reported sporadically in Peru. In this report we describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of eight new ACD cases detected by the surveillance system in the Amazon basin, between 2009 and 2016. The average age was 12,7 ±13.7 years, range between 1 to 44 years and 4/8 cases were men. One case was associated with acute diarrheal disease, another with Leptospirosis, and two with urinary tract infection. The global case fatality-rate was 12.5% ​​(1/8). Late detection is a frequent characteristic related with low diagnostic suspicion in patients with a history of fever. The TcI and TcIV lineage was identified as the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Eight new cases of ACDs are reported, of which seven were children.

5.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(1): 70-76, ene-mar 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280583

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los casos de la enfermedad de Chagas aguda (ECA) se reportan en forma esporádica en el Perú. En este artículo se describe las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de ocho nuevos casos de ECA detectados por el sistema de vigilancia en la cuenca amazónica, entre 2009 y 2016. La media de la edad fue 12,7 ± 13,7 años, rango de 1 a 44 años y 4/8 casos fueron varones. Un caso se asoció a enfermedad diarreica aguda, otro a leptospirosis y dos a infección del tracto urinario. La tasa de letalidad global fue 12,5% (1/8). La detección tardía es una característica frecuente relacionada a una escasa sospecha diagnóstica en pacientes con historial de fiebre. Se identificó el linaje TcI y TcIV del agente etiológico de la enfermedad de Chagas. Se reporta ocho nuevos casos de ECA, de los cuales siete fueron menores de edad.


ABSTRACT Acute Chagas disease (ACD) cases are reported sporadically in Peru. In this report we describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of eight new ACD cases detected by the surveillance system in the Amazon basin, between 2009 and 2016. The average age was 12,7 ±13.7 years, range between 1 to 44 years and 4/8 cases were men. One case was associated with acute diarrheal disease, another with Leptospirosis, and two with urinary tract infection. The global case fatality-rate was 12.5% ​​(1/8). Late detection is a frequent characteristic related with low diagnostic suspicion in patients with a history of fever. The TcI and TcIV lineage was identified as the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Eight new cases of ACDs are reported, of which seven were children.

6.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1081-1085, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905045

ABSTRACT

@#Began from the investigation of the hosts and vectors of plague, epidemic haemorrhagic fever and leptospirosis, mosquitoes, and flies, Zhejiang Province gradually implemented the ecological surveillance of mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, rats, ticks and bed bugs, the drug resistance surveillance of mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches, the pathogenic surveillance of rats, mosquitoes and ticks. We carried out the comprehensive surveillance research into rats, mosquitoes, ticks and so on, and should further strengthen the analysis and utilization of surveillance data through the development of surveillance on ecological, drug-resistant, pathogenic and epidemic characteristics. We thoroughly implemented the concept of vector sustainable control, actively carried out the analysis and risk warning research of surveillance, to escort vector-borne diseases prevention and control, National Health City construction, and public health protection for big events; explored the technology of vector surveillance in rural areas, to serve for vector sustainable control for the rural revitalization strategy and beautiful countryside construction. This paper reviewed the progress of vector surveillance and related research in Zhejiang Province since 1930s, summarized the experience, and put forward to strengthen the technical areas of weakness and personnel training, to promote scientific and technological innovation, and to accelerate the construction of a information integrated system for vector surveillance of the new era in Zhejiang Province.

7.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 388-395, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249936

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Ciudad de México no tiene presencia endémica de Aedes aegypti, por lo que está libre de enfermedades transmitidas por vector como dengue, Zika y chikunguña. Sin embargo, existe evidencia de la presencia de huevecillos en la urbe desde 2015. Objetivo: Reportar la presencia constante y en aumento de huevecillos de Aedes aegypti en la Ciudad de México de 2015 a 2018. Método: Se realizó vigilancia a través de ovitrampas; se contabilizaron y eclosionaron huevecillos para determinar la especie. Resultados: De 2015 a 2018 fueron identificados 378 organismos como Aedes aegypti. En total fueron colectadas 76 ovitrampas positivas a Aedes aegypti en 50 sitios distintos de 11 alcaldías. El noreste de la Ciudad de México fue el área con mayor positividad. Conclusiones: Los resultados pueden estar indicando un periodo de colonización incipiente y la probable la existencia de colonias crípticas del mosquito, por lo que la Ciudad de México podría estar en riesgo de presentar epidemias de enfermedades transmitidas por vector.


Abstract Introduction: Mexico City has no endemic presence of Aedes aegypti, and it is therefore free of vector-borne diseases, such as dengue fever, Zika and chikungunya. However, evidence has shown the presence of Aedes aegypti eggs in the city since 2015. Objective: To report the constant and increasing presence of Aedes aegypti eggs in Mexico City from 2015 to 2018. Methods: Surveillance was carried out using ovitraps. Eggs were counted and hatched in order to determine the species. Results: From 2015 to 2018, 378 organisms were identified as Ae. aegypti. In total, 76 Aedes aegypti-positive ovitraps were collected at 50 different places in 11 boroughs of the city. Northeastern Mexico City was the area with the highest number of positive traps. Conclusions: The results may be indicating a period of early colonization and the probable existence of cryptic colonies of the mosquito, and Mexico City could be therefore at risk of experiencing vector-borne epidemics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/classification , Dengue , Eggs , Mosquito Vectors , Species Specificity , Cities , Aedes/growth & development , Larva/classification , Larva/growth & development , Mexico
8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215901

ABSTRACT

Vector borne diseases account for more than 17% of other contagious diseases and can be caused either by parasites, bacteria or viruses. Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by female Anopheles mosquitoes. It causes millions of cases globally and most deaths occur in children. Dengue is another vector disease caused by Aedes mosquito and also affects millions of people, also causing more deaths. Other vector diseases may include yellow fever, zika fever, west nile fever, chikungunya, elephantiasis etc.  The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and awareness about the mode of transmission of vector borne disease among the general public and also to analyse the correlation between gender and the level of awareness about vector borne disease among them. A cross sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among people in the region of Chennai. A set of 15 questions including questions on knowledge and awareness on the mode of transmission of vector borne diseases among the general population. It included questions like examples of vector borne diseases, mode of transmission of disease, preventive measures etc. The people of age group between 25-45 years were involved in the survey. There were 100 responses to the survey. The duration of the study was about 7 days. It is clear that the population was aware about the vector borne diseases but not very clear about the preventive measures to be taken to prevent the spread of vector borne diseases.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209624

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the composition of municipal solid waste in Uyo and vector-borne diseases associated with municipal solid waste within the vicinity of the dumping site (less than 1km) and controlled site (above 1km).The compositions of municipal solid waste were determined using samples obtained from Uyo village road waste dumping site. The dumpsite receives solid waste from all the communities in Uyo local government area. In order to assess the public perception of vector-borne diseases associated with municipal solid waste, sample survey method was adopted, which involved the administration of 500 questionnaires of which 250 were administered to the residents who lived less than 1km from the boundary of the waste dumpsite and 250 Original Research Article questionnaires were also administered to the communities living further away. The compositions and percentages constituent by mass revealed the following: Organic waste component constitute 53.86% and inorganic constituted a waste portion of 46.14%. For vector-borne diseases associated with municipal solid waste, the results indicated that 70.8% of the respondents attended tertiary education (OND/NCE and above), so the issues associated with municipal solid waste may not be strange to them. A significant number of respondents are aware that the origin of municipal solid waste is residential, commercial, industrial, market, street sweeping and industrial sectors. Respondents are more aware that rats, flies, mosquitoes, birds, pigs and cockroaches are vector-borne diseases associated with municipal solid waste. The findings in this study will be useful in a comprehensive solid waste management program which encompasses sweeping, storage, collectionand disposal of solid waste. However, the waste can be best treated if any of these techniques are utilized composting, gasification and energy recovery in future for further reduction of waste.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204203

ABSTRACT

Background: The two most common vector borne diseases in the world are malaria and dengue. Co-infection infection is not unusual in a geographical region such as India, wherein both the vectors coexist. This study aimed to determine whether simultaneous malaria and dengue infection is serious in children than mono infection alone.Methods: In this study all children with fever of less than 7 days duration were included in the study. Clinical inspection and laboratory analysis were performed in all instances, following a detailed history. Children were categorized under 3 categories, malaria (M), dengue (D) and coinfection (DM). For any statistical difference between groups, their clinical as well as hematological parameters were analyzed. SPSS software was used for the statistical studies.Results: Malarial chills fever was also found in a substantial percentage of children with dengue. Superficial as well as profound bleeding were seen more often in the coinfected DM groups than D or M alone. In M group alone, jaundice and diarrhea were noted. In the segregated M and DM groups, the neurological indication, neurological involvement such as altered sensorium and seizure was noted at the same rate, whereas, there had been no occurrence in D group. Anemia was reported in all children, but M group showed the highest drop.Conclusions: Severity criteria, neurological involvement such as altered sensorium and seizures were reported at same rate both in malaria and coinfection, whereas, none of the patients with dengue showed signs of seizure. Anemia relative to hematologic parameters, was considerably more prevalent in the malaria patients. Presence of bleeding in malaria and jaundice in dengue patients, should be considerably investigated for a coinfection.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-201346

ABSTRACT

Background: Vector-borne diseases (VBD) remain a major public health challenge, in India. Knowledge about VBD, social, demographic and environmental factors strongly influence the vector transmission and results in major outbreaks. Hence this study was conducted to assess knowledge and practice along with environmental conditions prevailing in both rural and urban areas.Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted in rural and urban field practice area of Sri Muthukumaran Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, during June 2018 to December 2018. A total of 472 participants with 236 participants from each urban and rural area were included. Data was collected using proforma and analysis was done using SPSS 16.Results: Knowledge about VBD like dengue was 63.6% and 76.7% among rural and urban population, respectively. Similarly malaria was known by knows 59.3% and 68.2% of rural and urban participants. Japanese Encephalitis was the least known mosquito borne disease in both the groups. (p=0.0136). Common breeding sites addressed by the rural population were artificial collected water (36.9%) and urban population was dirty water (42.8%).Conclusions: Knowledge and practice of preventing vector borne disease is still lacking among both rural and urban participants. Spreading knowledge about VBD is a part in effective vector borne disease control which can be achieved by community education alone rather than insecticides and sprays.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-201117

ABSTRACT

Background:National vector borne disease control programme(NVBDCP) was launched to control the prevalence of vector borne diseases like malaria, filaria, Japanese encephalitis (JE), Dengue/DHF, chikungunya, lymphatic filariasis and Kala Azar. The present study was done to assess the activities of NVBDCP in state of Karnatakaand to analyze selective qualitative and quantitative indicators related to the activities.Methods:Quantitatively retrospective data was collected from Directorate office Department of Health and Family Welfare, NVBDCP section from April 2016 to March 2017. Qualitatively questionnaire based protocol was made and interviews were conducted with District programme officer, PHC medical officer and grass root level health workers like ANM, ASHA with reference to one each of selected least performing districts and good performing districts in the state. The collected data was analysed by using Microsoft Excel 2010 version.Results:The highest prevalent districts in Karnataka areDakshina Kannada for malaria, Udupi for dengue, Tumakurufor chikungunya andBidar for lymphatic filariasis. Major factors related to poor outcome in some districts were rigid attitude of the community, poor support of local panchayats and less human resources.Conclusion:The result of this investigation revealed that Dakshina Kannada has got highest number of cases with greater proposition and high prevalence rate of vector borne diseases due to lack of sufficient human resources and geographical factors. Strengthening the surveillance activities along with integrated vector control programmes will improves the outcome of the programme

13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180133, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041574

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dogs play an epidemiological role in several vector-borne diseases that affect human and animal health worldwide. We aimed to identify rickettsial circulation among dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) from a region endemic for both diseases. METHODS: CVL-seropositive dogs were screened for spotted fever group rickettsiae using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Among the CVL-positive dogs, anti-Rickettsia rickettsii antibodies were identified in one asymptomatic and one oligosymptomatic dog. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows low circulation of antibodies to R. rickettsii in CVL-seropositive dogs. It is recommended that surveillance studies in dogs should continue in order to monitor this scenario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/veterinary , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/diagnosis , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Endemic Diseases/veterinary , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
14.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 70(3): 1-9, set.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991100

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Aedes aegypti es vector de virus dengue, chikungunya y Zika en Costa Rica. Su alta incidencia y carencia de vacunas hacen del control vectorial, incluyendo el químico, la única alternativa para disminuir su transmisión. El uso reiterativo de insecticidas propicia su resistencia. Objetivo: Determinar la resistencia y mecanismos de detoxificación enzimática a temefós e insecticidas piretroides en cepas de Ae. aegypti de tres distritos de la Región Pacífico Central de Costa Rica. Métodos: La resistencia a temefós, deltametrina y cipermetrina fue determinada en tres cepas de Barranca, Jacó y Quepos mediante bioensayos en larvas. Para cada insecticida se calculó la concentración letal 50 por ciento (CL50) y un factor de resistencia 50 por ciento(FR50), empleando la cepa Rockefeller como control. Ante la ocurrencia de resistencia, se repitieron los bioensayos utilizando butóxido de piperonilo, S,S,S, tributilfosforotritioato y ácido etacrínico que inhiben monooxigenasas, esterasas y glutatión S transferasa, respectivamente. Resultados: Ninguna cepa mostró resistencia a temefós. Las cepas Barranca y Jacó fueron resistentes a deltametrina (FR50= 7,38; 28,23, respectivamente). La cepa Jacó mostró, adicionalmente, resistencia a cipermetrina (FR50= 7,70). La cepa Quepos no mostró resistencia a ningún piretroide. Solo la cepa Barranca mostró disminución de resistencia a deltametrina asociada al butóxido de piperonilo denotando vinculación con monooxigenasas (FR50: 10,10). Para los otros casos de resistencia, ninguno de los sinergistas disminuyó la resistencia. Conclusiones: Las larvas de Ae. aegypti de las localidades evaluadas no mostraron resistencia a temefós. Respecto a piretroides se evidenció la aparición de resistencia que posiblemente no es mediada por detoxificación enzimática(AU)


Introduction: Aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses in Costa Rica. The high incidence and the lack of vaccines make vector control, including chemical control, the only measure to prevent transmission. The repetitive use of insecticides may induce resistance. Objective: To determine resistance and enzymatic detoxifying mechanisms to temephos and pyrethroids insecticides in strains of Ae. aegypti from three districts of the Central Pacific Region of Costa Rica. Methods: Resistance to temephos, deltamethrin, and cypermethrin was determined in three strains of Barranca, Jacó, and Quepos by larval bioassays. In each test, the lethal concentration 50 percent (LC50) and a factor of resistance 50 percent (FR50) were calculated, using the Rockefeller strain as control. When resistance was observed, the bioassays were repeated using piperonyl butoxide, S,S,S, tributylphosphorotritioate, and ethacrynic acid, that inhibit monoxygenases, esterases, and glutathione S- transfererase, respectively. Results: None of the strains were resistant to temephos. Resistance to deltamethrin (FR50= 7.38 and FR50= 28.23, respectively) was determined in the strains from Barranca and Jacó, while resistance to cypermethrin was detected only in Jacó (FR50= 7.70). The Quepos strain was not resistant to any pyrethroid. Only the Barranca strain showed a decrease in the resistance to deltamethrin when piperonyl butoxide was used, linking the resistance to monooxygenase enzymes (FR50: 10.10). For the other cases, none of the synergists decreased the resistance. Conclusions: Larvae of Ae. aegypti from the localities evaluated were not resistant to temephos. With respect to pyrethroids, results show an emergence of resistance that may not be mediated by enzymatic detoxification(AU)


Subject(s)
Vector Control , Pyrethrins/standards , Aedes/pathogenicity , Costa Rica , Vector Control
15.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 24(2): 108-114, jul.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-985680

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Ante la presencia de un probable brote asociado a IRAG Inusitado -2 casos de mortalidad notificados el 17-05-17 procedentes del área rural de San Luis de Palenque- o a enfermedad de Chagas agudo según los signos/síntomas manifestados, la Secretaría de Salud de Casanare, como parte de las acciones de investigación de brote de evento desconocido, aplicó una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) frente a las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (ETV). Métodos. Estudio descriptivo de encuesta transversal; variables a estudio: características sociodemográficas, conocimiento de las ETV, signos/síntomas, conocimiento y utilización de medidas de control vectorial (MCV), acciones de prevención. Análisis mediante el uso de estadística descriptiva con el programa EPi-Info®7.1.2. Resultados. El 86,8% (33/43) de las viviendas estaba habitada, en cada una de ellas se aplicó la CAP, eran hombres 17(51,5%), mediana de edad 48(±15,1; r=20-69) y tiempo de residencia 21(±18,7) años; agricultores 11(33,3%), profesionales 2(6,1%) y trabajadores no calificados 8(24,2%); trabajan actualmente 15(45,5%). Conocen: Chikungunya 6(18,2%), Zika y fiebre amarilla 5(15,2%), Chagas y dengue 3(9,1%), encefalitis equina 2(6,1%), malaria y leishmaniasis 1(3,0%) respectivamente. En promedio, conocen signos/síntomas 37,1%(r=15-71), MCV 43,9%(r=15-85), usan MCV 18,4%(r=3-30); todos somos responsables del control vectorial 21(63,6%); principal responsabilidad de la autoridad en salud, fumigar 19(57,6%). Conclusiones. Se evidencia un leve conocimiento de las ETV, de signos y síntomas, medidas de control y muy Bajo uso de las mismas, a pesar de asumir como responsabilidad de todos, el control de vectores. Se recomienda fortalecer las medidas de información, comunicación y educación orientadas a la comunidad.


Abstract. Introduction. Due to a probable outbreak related to Acute Grave Respiratory Disease (AGRD) - 2 fatalities reported on 2017-05-17 from a rural zone of San Luis de Palenque- or Chagas disease, Secretary of Health Casanare applied a survey of Knowledges, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) on Vector-Borne diseases (VBD), as part of its investigation on an outbreak of unknown origin. Methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional study, with study variables: sociodemographic features, awareness of VBD, symptoms/signs, use of vector control measures (VCM) and preventive actions. Analysis was done with Epi Info® 7.1.2 using descriptive statistics. Results. KAP was applied on 86,8% (33/43) inhabited houses. KAP was answered by 17 men (51,5%), median age 48 yr-old (r=20-69), mean dwelling time 21-yr ± 18,7. By job, there were 11 farmers (33,3%), 2 professionals (6,1%), 8 non-qualified workers (24,2%), 15 employed (45,5%). On awareness of VBD: Chikungungya 6 (18,2%), Zika & Yellow Fever 5 (15,2%), Chagas & Dengue 3 (9,1%), equine encephalitis 2 (6,1%), malaria & leishmaniasis 1 (3,0%), respectively. On average, dwellers knew about symptoms/signs 37,1% (r=15-71) or VCM 43,9% (r=15-85), use VCM 18,4% (r=3-30); "all of us are responsible of vector control" 21 (63,6%); "main responsibility of health authorities is fumigation" 19 (57,6%). Conclusions. A fair knowledge on VBD, symptoms/signs, VCM is evident; there is very low use of the latter, in spite of assuming it as common responsibility. It is recommended to strengthen measures of Information-Education-Communication (IEC) directed towards the community.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Rural Areas , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vector Control , Farmers , Vector Borne Diseases , Signs and Symptoms , Yellow Fever , Leishmaniasis , Fumigation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Chagas Disease , Colombia , Encephalomyelitis, Equine , Control , Chikungunya Fever , Health Authorities , Malaria
16.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 70(1): 0-0, ene.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-960606

ABSTRACT

El mosquito Aedes aegypti presenta características biológicas que lo convierten en un vector importante en el ciclo de transmisión de diferentes patógenos, en especial arbovirus. Durante la última década, la carga de dengue y otras enfermedades tales como la fiebre del zika o fiebre chikungunya se han incrementado, y nueva información acerca del papel de Ae. aegypti en la transmisión de estas enfermedades ha sido publicada. Este trabajo se enfocó en revisar mediante una estrategia de búsqueda sistemática de la información, el conocimiento actual de la historia evolutiva y otros aspectos biológicos de Ae. aegypti relacionados con la dinámica de transmisión de los principales arbovirus de importancia médica. Factores intrínsecos de Ae. aegypti y extrínsecos han contribuido a la emergencia o reemergencia y expansión mundial de patógenos en el ciclo urbano. El diseño de estrategias costo-efectivas para controlar Ae. aegypti es requerido para interrumpir los ciclos de transmisión de los patógenos y prevenir la aparición de nuevas epidemias(AU)


Due to its biological characteristics, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector in the transmission cycle of various pathogens, especially of arboviruses. The burden of dengue and other diseases such as Zika virus infection or chikungunya fever has increased in the last decade, and new information has been published about the role of A. aegypti in the transmission of these diseases. Applying a strategy for systematic search of information, the study focused on reviewing current knowledge about the evolutionary history and other biological aspects of A. aegypti associated with the dynamics of transmission of the main arboviruses of medical importance. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to A. aegypti have contributed to the emergence or re-emergence and worldwide spread of pathogens in the urban cycle. Cost-effective A. aegypti control strategies should be designed to interrupt the transmission cycles of pathogens and prevent the emergence of new epidemics(AU)


Subject(s)
Aedes/pathogenicity , Disease Vectors , Mosquito Control/methods
17.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(1): 86-96, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903847

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To design and analyze the efficacy of an Ecohealth competency-based course on the prevention and control of vector-borne-diseases for specific stakeholders. Materials and methods: Multiple stakeholders and sectors of the region were consulted to identify Ecohealth group-specific competencies using an adjusted analysis matrix. Eight courses based on the competencies were implemented to train EA tutors. The effectiveness of the course was evaluated through the use of paired- t-tests by intervention group. Results: Strategic, tactical, academia and community stakeholder groups and their competencies were identified. An overall gain of 43 percentage points (p<0.001) was observed in terms of competencies score in trained tutors, which further trained 1 033 people. Conclusion: The identification of the stakeholders and their competencies proved to be useful to guide training courses to significantly improve the initial competencies and create a critical mass to further advance the EA in the region.


Resumen: Objetivo: Diseñar y analizar la eficacia de un curso basado en competencias de Eco-Salud para la prevención y control de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, para actores específicos. Material y métodos: Se consultaron múltiples actores y sectores de la región para identificar las competencias específicas del enfoque de Ecosalud, que deberían de tener los grupos clave utilizando un análisis de matriz ajustado. Se implementaron cursos de capacitación utilizando las competencias para capacitar a tutores en el enfoque. La efectividad del curso se evaluó mediante el uso de pruebas t pareadas por grupo de intervención. Resultados: Se identificaron los grupos clave para la prevención y control de las ETVs: estratégico, táctico, académico y comunitario, así como sus competencias. Se capacitaron tutores y se obtuvo un incremento en relación con las competencias iniciales de 43 puntos porcentuales (p <0.001). Conclusión: La identificación de los grupos clave y sus competencias demostró ser útil en el diseño de un curso para incrementar el nivel inicial de competencias y crear una masa crítica para Ecosalud en la región.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infection Control/methods , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Dengue/prevention & control , Ecology/education , Infectious Disease Medicine/education , Malaria/prevention & control , Program Evaluation , Chagas Disease/transmission , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Curriculum , Teacher Training , Stakeholder Participation , Insect Vectors , Latin America/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825838

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the largest outbreak of dengue in Argentina in the municipality of Tigre during 2016, through detailed spatial analyses of the occurrence of cases in relation to demographic factors and vector control actions.Methods:Detailed and georreferenced data on dengue cases with laboratory results (NS1 or IgM) were analyzed. The occurrences of imported and autochthonous cases by census tract were modeled using demographic variables (population by age class, proportion of foreigners, proportion with university grade, proportion of males), dwelling variables (number of homes, proportion of dwellings with latrine, number of dwellings, proportion of houses, proportion of flats, proportion of slums) and census tract area as explanatory variables. The probability of occurrence of autochthonous and imported cases was modeled separately. The spatio-temporal occurrence of cases was studied in relation to focal and perifocal control actions (involving education campaigns, removal of Aedes aegypti breeding sites and exhaustive insecticide spraying) to assess the efficiency in stopping autochthonous cases spreading.Results:All autochthonous cases occurred in the urban environment with no sylvan cases. The majority of the imported cases registered came from Paraguay and Northeastern Argentina. The age structure of imported and autochthonous cases did not differ from the age structure of the municipality, while that of the negative cases did. When studied spatially, the occurrence of imported cases by census tract was mildly associated with a higher proportion of foreign population and more people at active age, while occurrence of autochthonous cases was not significantly associated with any of the studied variables. For census tracts with laboratory confirmed results, the models showed higher probability of autochthonous cases related to higher population density and population age structure. The clustering of autochthonous cases was generally mild, with prevailing isolated cases and a weak spread inside the municipality. The biggest outbreak focus was associated with a delay in the focal vector control.Conclusions:Results confirmed the virus pressure coming from neighboring countries and related to population movement by workers. All autochthonous cases occurred in the urban environment with no sylvan cases. The susceptibility of residents to dengue may be similar among age classes and the laboratory tests were performed more frequently in the younger. Autochthonous cases incidence was low and spatio-temporal clustering of cases weak, suggesting that control measures were effective when no delay occurred in their application.

19.
Rev. Fac. Med. UNAM ; 60(6): 51-55, nov.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041173

ABSTRACT

Resumen Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), 17% de las enfermedades infecciosas reportadas en el mundo son transmitidas por vectores artrópodos. Una alternativa para bloquear la transmisión es infectar a los vectores con una bacteria endocelular llamada Wolbachia. Diferentes investigaciones han demostrado que Wolbachia acorta la vida del mosquito, aumenta su resistencia ante la infección de algunos virus como dengue, Zika y Chikungunya, y provoca incompatibilidad citoplasmática, por lo que al liberar mosquitos machos infectados con Wolbachia en una población de hembras no infectadas los productos no son viables, disminuyendo drásticamente la población total. En el presente artículo se incluye una descripción general de las enfermedades infecciosas más comunes transmitidas por vectores así como una revisión del uso de Wolbachia como una posible herramienta para controlar su propagación.


Abstract According to the World and Health Organization (WHO), 17% of the worldwide reported infectious diseases are vector-borne. One alternative for blocking the transmission of these infectious agents is to infect the vectors with the endocellular bacterium Wolbachia. Several studies have shown that Wolbachia shortens mosquitos' lifespan and increases their resistance to some virus like Dengue, Zika or Chikungunya. Wolbachia also causes cytoplasmic incompatibility, so, when Wolbachia-infected male mosquitoes are released among an uninfected female population, the production of an offspring is not viable and the mosquito population decreases drastically. This article includes an overview of the most common vector-borne infectious diseases as well as a review of the use of Wolbachia as a possible tool for controlling the spread of vector-borne diseases.

20.
Acta méd. costarric ; 59(4): 130-133, oct.-dic. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886386

ABSTRACT

ResumenWolbachia es un género de bacterias perteneciente al orden Rickettsiales, que participa en diversas relaciones simbióticas con varios organismos, principalmente artrópodos y nematodos.Debido a su capacidad para inducir ciertos fenotipos reproductivos en sus hospederos, constituye un atractivo candidato para su uso como control biológico de plagas y vectores. Con el fin de proporcionar información sobre esta bacteria y sus posibles aplicaciones de control en la lucha contra el dengue y otras enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, se realizó una revisión utilizando las bases de datos de Pubmed y BINASS. Como metodología se incluyeron artículos en lengua inglesa, referentes a Wolbachia y su uso como control biológico, entre 2001 y 2017, hallados bajo las palabras clave: Wolbachia, control biológico, dengue, zika, chikungunya. Se puede resaltar que la aplicación de esta estrategia de control biológico en Costa Rica constituye un reto que involucraría el apoyo de autoridades políticas, trabajando en conjunto con los sectores académico y comunitario.


AbstractWolbachia is a genus of bacteria belonging to the order Rickettsiales that participates in diverse symbiotic relationships with several organisms, mainly arthropods and nematodes. Due to its ability to induce certain reproductive phenotypes in its hosts, it is an attractive candidate for its use as a biological agent to control of pests and vectors. In order to provide information on this bacterium and its potential control applications in the fight against dengue and other vector-borne diseases, a review was performed using Pubmed and BINASS databases. Articles in English referring to Wolbachia and its use as biological control between 2001 and 2017 where included in the search; and were found under the key words: Wolbachia, biological control, dengue, zika, chikungunya.It can be emphasized that the implementation of this biological control strategy in Costa Rica constitutes a challenge that would involve the support of the political authorities working along with the academic and community sector.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya virus , Dengue/prevention & control , Vector Control , Wolbachia , Zika Virus , Costa Rica , Symbiosis
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