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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 260-269, may. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342820

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to undertake a screening experiment on essential oils (EO) of Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum and Lippia alba against six food-spoiling pathogenic bacteria. Seventy-two (72) samples were initially analyzed fo antimicrobial activity based on the agar diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations were determined for the 12 samples which showed greatest antimicrobial potential in this stage. Two samples of L. alba, three samples of M. lundiana and seven samples of O. basilicum showed a MIC of 0.12-125 µL/mL for the six tested bacteria. Of these, the EO of O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita stood out with the lowest MIC and MBC. Thus, a mixture simulating this essential oil was prepared from commercial standards of the compounds (±)-linalool, geraniol and 1,8-cineole. Significantly higher MIC and MBC were detected in the simulation compared to the respective EO, suggesting a synergistic effect between compounds.


El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un experimento de detección en aceites esenciales (AE) de Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum y Lippia alba contra seis bacterias patógenas que estropean los alimentos. Setenta y dos (72) muestras fueron analizadas inicialmente para la actividad antimicrobiana basada en la prueba de difusión en agar. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitoria (CMI) y bactericida (CMB) para las 12 muestras que mostraron el mayor potencial antimicrobiano en esta etapa. Dos muestras de L. alba, tres muestras de M. lundiana y siete muestras de O. basilicum mostraron un CMI de 0.12-125 µL/mL para las seis bacterias analizadas. De estos, el AE de O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita se destacó con el CMI y CMB más bajos. Por lo tanto, se preparó una mezcla que simula este aceite esencial a partir de los estándares comerciales de los compuestos de (±)-linalol, geraniol y 1,8-cineol. Se detectaron CMI y CMB significativamente más altos en la simulación en comparación con el AE respectivo, lo que sugiere un efecto sinérgico entre los compuestos.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
2.
J Biosci ; 2020 Jul; : 1-10
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214262

ABSTRACT

The families Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae comprise several closely related species that possess high morphological synapomorphic traits. Hence, there is a tendency of species misidentification using only the morphological characters. Herein, we evaluated the discriminatory power of the universal DNA barcodes (matKand rbcL) for 53 species spanning the two families. Using these markers, we inferred phylogenetic relationships and conducted species delimitation analysis using four delimitation methods: Automated Barcode GapDiscovery (ABGD), TaxonDNA, Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) and General Mixed Yule Coalescent(GMYC). The phylogenetic reconstruction based on the matK gene resolved the relationships between thefamilies and further suggested the expansion of the Lamiaceae to include some core Verbanaceae genus, e.g.,Gmelina. The rbcL marker using the TaxonDNA method displayed high species delimitation resolutions, whilethe ABGD, GMYC, and bPTP generated different number of Operational Taxonomic Units/genetic clusters.Our results underscored the efficiency of the matK and rbcL genes as reliable markers for resolving phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation of both families, respectively. The current study provides insightsinto the DNA barcode applications in these families, at the same time contributing to the current understandingof genetic divergence patterns in angiosperms.

3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1211-1222, 01-06-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147234

ABSTRACT

The medicinal and aromatic species Lantana camara is a bush that receives a lot of interest regarding ornamental use. However, due to its condition of invasive plant in natural environments, it suffers constant eradication attempts, which causes genetic erosion of the species. To work around this problem, a sample of the genetic variability of L. camara was saved in the Active Germplasm Bank of medicinal and aromatic plants of the Federal University of Sergipe (UFS). This study aimed to evaluate morphoagronomically 22 accessions of L. camara, collected in 15 municipalities in the state of Sergipe. To carry out morphoagronomic characterization, morphological and agronomic traits were analyzed. Phenotypic variability among the accessions of the L. camara collection for all the analyzed morphological quantitative and agronomic characteristics was observed. The means ranged from 4.91 to 6.90 cm for leaf length; from 2.81 to 5.03 cm for leaf width; from 1.32 to 1.87 for the leaf length/width ratio; from 9.59 to 22.98 mm2 for leaf area; from 99.00 to 215.00 cm for crown diameter; from 85.67 to 214.33 for plant height; and from 1.08 to 2.43 cm for stem diameter. Most accessions presented erect form. The mean number of flowers per inflorescence varied from 12 to 38 flowers. For the agronomic traits, we observed that the dry mass ranged from 49.86 to 649.04 g.plant-1. The mean content of essential oil ranged from 0.13 to 0.26% and yield between 0.10 and 1.55 mL.plant-1. The most divergent phenotypic accessions were LAC-001 (São Cristóvão) and LAC-038 (Moita Bonita) and the ones with the lowest divergence were LAC-004 (Itaporanga D'ajuda) and LAC-019 (Siriri). Thus, it was observed that the variables were efficient to differentiate the accessions and suggest the existence of genetic variability among them.


A espécie aromática e medicinal Lantana camara, é um arbusto muito usado para ornamentação. Devido à sua condição de planta invasora em ambientes naturais, sofre com tentativas de erradicação constantes, o que ocasiona erosão genética da espécie. Para contornar essa problemática, uma amostra da variabilidade genética da L. camara está sendo conservada no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma (BAG) de Plantas Medicinais e Aromáticas da Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS). Assim, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar morfoagronomicamente 22 acessos de L. camara, coletados em 15 municípios do estado de Sergipe. Para caracterização morfoagronômica, variáveis morfológicas e agronômicas foram analisadas. Observou-se variabilidade fenotípica entre os acessos da coleção de L. camara para a maioria das características morfológicas quantitivas e agronômicas. A média para comprimento de folha variou de 4,91 e 6,90 cm; largura de folha de 2,81 a 5,03 cm; relação comprimento/largura de 1,32 a 1,87; área folia de 9,59 a 22,98 mm²; diâmetro da copa de 99, 00 a 215,00 cm; altura de planta de 85,67 a 214,33 cm; diâmetro do caule de 1,08 a 2,43 cm; A maioria dos acessos apresentou porte ereto. O número médio de flores por inflorescências variou de 12 a 38. Para as características agronômicas observou-se que a massa seca variou de 49,86 a 649,04 g.planta-¹. A média para teor de óleo essencial variou de 0,13 a 0,26% e o rendimento entre 0,10 a 1,55 mL.planta-¹. Os acessos mais divergentes fenotipicamente foram LAC-001 (São Cristóvão) e LAC-038 (Moita Bonita) e os que apresentaram a menor divergência foram LAC-004 (Itaporanga D'ajuda) e LAC-019 (Siriri). Dessa forma, nota-se que as variáveis foram eficientes para diferenciar os acessos e sugerem a existência de variabilidade genética entre eles.


Subject(s)
Lantana , Seed Bank
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1821-1828, nov./dec. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049130

ABSTRACT

Lippia gracilis, popularly known in Brazil as 'alecrim-de-tabuleiro', is used for many purposes, especially as antimicrobial and antiseptic. The drying process of aromatic and medicinal plants aims to minimize the loss of active principles and slow their deterioration, which may greatly influence the yield and chemical composition of some species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of drying times (0, 2, 4, and 8 days) on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of L. gracilis accessions LGRA-106, LGRA-109, and LGRA-201. The leaves were dried at 40 oC, and essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis was performed by GC/MS. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replications. The accessions of L. gracilis LGRA-106, LGRA-109, and LGRA-201 presented higher essential oil at four days of drying time. The accession LGRA-201 showed the highest essential oil yields at four and eight days of drying, with mean values of 0.038 and 0.029 mL g-1, respectively. The drying time did not influence the contents of thymol, methyl-thymol, γ-terpinene, and carvacrol in the essential oils of L. gracilis, but affected the contents of ß-caryophyllene, p-cymene, and carvacrol acetate. The essential oils of the three accessions analyzed in this study revealed different chemical profiles.


Lippia gracilis, conhecida popularmente como alecrim-de-tabuleiro é usada para muitos efeitos, especialmente como antimicrobiano e antisséptico. O processo de secagem das plantas aromáticas e medicinais visa minimizar a perda de princípios ativos e retardar a sua deterioração os mesmos podem afetar sobremaneira o rendimento e a composição química de algumas plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foiavaliar o efeito de diferentes tempos de secagem (0, 2, 4 e 8 dias) no teor e na composição química do óleo essencial dos acessos LGRA-106, LGRA-109 e LGRA-201 de L. gracilis.As folhas foram secas a 40 oC e a extração do óleo essencial foi por hidrodestilação. A análise química foi feita através CG/EM. O ensaio foi implantado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Os acessos de L. gracilis LGRA-106, LGRA- 109 e LGRA-201 apresentaram maiores rendimentos de óleo essencial no tempo de secagem de quatro dias. O acesso LGRA-201 apresentou os maiores teores de óleo essencial aos quatro e oito dias de secagem, com valores médios de 0,038 e 0,029 mL g-1, respectivamente. O tempo de secagem não influenciou os teores de timol, metil-timol, terpineno e carvacrol nos óleos essenciais de L. gracilis, porém afetou os teores de ß-cariofileno, ρ-cimeno, and acetato de carvacrol. Os óleos essenciais dos três acessos analisados apresentaram perfis químicos diferentes entre si.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Oils, Volatile , Verbenaceae , Lippia , Food Preservation
5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203835

ABSTRACT

Genus Vitex is largely used throughout the world (Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa) for various care such as: anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, hepatocuractive, intestinal troubles. Among the plurality of known Vitex, the most exploited in Burkina Faso are Vitex diversifolia Bak and Vitex doniana Sweet. Then, the aim of this study is to summarize traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of 2 local species of Vitex. The results of this study show that the species of this genus are rich in polyphenolic compounds, minerals and vitamins. These founding can justify the many uses in traditional medicine.

6.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 29(1): 125-135, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-990761

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many people use medicinal plants to relieve disorders related to the central nervous system, such as depression, epilepsy, anxiety and pain, even though the effectiveness of most of them has not yet been proven through scientific studies. Plants of the Lippia genus, Verbenaceae, are widely used in ethnobotany as a food, for seasoning and in antiseptic remedies. They are also marketed and used for the treatment of different types of pain, including stomach ache, abdominal pain and headache, as well as being used as sedatives, anxiolytics and anticonvulsants. Despite their widespread use, there are no reviews on the central nervous system profile of plants of this genus. Therefore, the databases Medline-PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using the terms Lippia and biologic activity. Thirty-five papers were found. Eleven species of Lippia showed central nervous system activity, with leaves and the aerial parts of plants being the most commonly used, especially in aqueous and ethanol extracts or volatile oil. The species are composed mainly of terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, including polyketides, flavonoids and in less quantity some alkaloids. Although several species of Lippia present analgesic activity, most studies have not explored the mechanisms responsible for this effect, however, there is some evidence that volatile oils and constituents of the extracts may be responsible for the relief of some CNS disorders, but the effects on pain modulation seem to be the most exploited so far.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776837

ABSTRACT

Four new 3, 4-seco-labdane diterpenoids, nudiflopenes J-M, were isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa nudiflora along with six known compounds. The structures of these diterpenoids were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-stimulated RPMs and RAW264.7 cells. The results suggest that nudiflopenes J-M and other four known compounds showed significant inhibitory effects against NO production comparable to the positive control dexamethasone.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 98-107, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888842

ABSTRACT

Abstract The family Verbenaceae hosts important species used in traditional medicine of many countries. The taxonomic controversies concerning the specific delimitation of several of its species make it difficult to guarantee the botanical origin of herbal preparations based on species of this family. To contribute to the development of both specific chemomarkers and a quality control tool to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal preparations of Verbenacea species, we determined the foliar HPLC-DAD phenolic profiles and the antioxidant properties of 10 wild species of this family occurring in Mexico. The contents of phenols and flavonoids varied significantly among species. Priva mexicana showed the highest levels of total phenolics (53.4 mg g-1 dry tissue) and Verbena carolina had the highest levels of flavonoids (17.89 mg g-1 dry tissue). Relevant antioxidant properties revealed by antiradical and reducing power were found for the analyzed species. These properties varied significantly in a species-dependent manner. The phenolic compounds accumulated were flavones and phenolic acids. Flavones were the only type of flavonoids found. The results of a cluster analysis showed that the compounds were accumulated in species-specific profiles. The phenolic profiles are proposed as valuable chemomarkers that can become a useful tool for the quality control concerning the botanical origin of herbal medicinal preparations based on the species analyzed. In addition, phenolic profiles could contribute importantly to solve the taxonomic controversies concerning species delimitation in the family Verbenaceae.


Resumo A família Verbenaceae compreende importantes espécies utilizadas na medicina popular de muitos países. As dificuldades taxonômicas relativas à delimitação específica de muitas das suas espécies face difícil a verificar a origem botânico das preparações herbales baseadas nas espécies desta família. Para fazer uma contribuição ao desenvolvimento de indicadores taxonômicos e dum método de controle de qualidade para verificar a origem botânico de preparações herbales das espécies de Verbenaceae, os perfis fenólicos, obtidos pares HPLC-DAD, e as atividades antioxidantes das folhas de 10 espécies selvagens Mexicanas desta família foram determinados. Os conteúdos dos compostos fenólicos totais e dos flavonoides foram significativamente diferentes entre as espécies. Priva mexicana apresentou a maior quantidade de compostos fenólicos totais (53.4 mg g-1 amostra seca) e Verbena carolina apresentou a maior quantidade de flavonoides (17.89 mg g-1 amostra seca). Verifica-se importantes propriedades antioxidantes, como os resultados dos ensaios da capacidade antiradical e do poder redutor indicaram. As propriedades antioxidantes foram significativamente diferentes entre as espécies. Verificou-se que os compostos fenólicos conteúdos nas folhas das espécies analisadas foram só flavonas e ácidos fenólicos. Os resultados das análises de agrupamento provarãn que os perfiles fenólicos foram espécie-específicos. Estes perfis podem ser considerados como indicadores químicos da qualidade relativa à origem botânico de preparações medicinais baseadas nas espécies analisadas e podem fazer importantes contribuições para a delimitação específica na família Verbenaceae.


Subject(s)
Phenols/analysis , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Verbenaceae , Mexico
9.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 181-188, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741620

ABSTRACT

Caryopteris incana (Verbenaceae) has been used to treat cough, arthritis, and eczema in Oriental medicine. The two fractions (CHCl₃- and BuOH fractions) and the essential oil of the plant material were subjected to the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) assay. The IC₅₀ of the CHCl₃ fraction and the essential oil on LPS-induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were 16.4 µg/mL and 23.08 µg/mL, respectively. On gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectroscopy (MS) analysis, twenty-five components representing 85.5% amount of total essential oil were identified. On the chromatogram, three main substances, trans-pinocarveol, cis-citral, and pinocarvone, occupied 18.8%, 13.5% and 18.37% of total peak area. Furthermore, by HPLC-UV analysis, six compounds including one iridoid (8-O-acetylharpagide)- and five phenylethanoid glycosides (caryopteroside, acteoside, phlinoside A, 6-O-caffeoylphlinoside, and leucosceptoside A) isolated from the BuOH fraction were quantified. The content of six compounds were shown as the following order: caryopteroside (162.35 mg/g) > 8-O-acetylharpagide (93.28 mg/g) > 6-O-caffeoylphlinoside (28.15mg/g) > phlinoside (22.60mg/g) > leucosceptoside A (16.87 mg) > acteoside (7.05 mg/g).


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Chromatography, Gas , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cough , Eczema , Glycosides , Macrophages , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide , Plants , Spectrum Analysis , Verbenaceae
10.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1810-1814, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-858160

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical ethyl acetate-soluble constituents of the leaves of Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun. METHODS: The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography using silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and MPLC. The structures of the compounds were identified according to their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic methods. RESULTS: Thirteen compounds were isolated and identified as 5,7,2’,6’-tetrahydroxyflavone(1), 2,3-dehydrosilychristin(2), silychristin A(3), dihydroquercetin(4), syringaresinol(5), medioresinol(6),(7R,8S)-3,5’-dimethoxy-4’,7-epoxy-8,3’-neolignane -5,9,9’-triol(7),(2S,3R)-methyl-7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-carboxylate(8), curcasinlignan B(9), vanillin(10), 19α-hydroxyursolic acid(11), 2α,3β,19α,23-tetrahydroxy-12-ene-28-oleanolic acid(12), and euscaphic acid(13). CONCLUSION: All these compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(1): 41-51, jan./feb. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965866

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro conservation protocol for Lippia alba that involved mineral oil and to study the leaf anatomy of L. alba genotypes in in vitro and ex vitro environments. In vitro conservation involved five genotypes; LA-13 and LA-57 (carvone chemotype); LA-22 (linalool chemotype); and LA-29 and LA-44 (citral chemotype). Each genotype was treated with mineral oil, with water, and a control at 18°C and 23°C. Survival (%), shoot height (cm) and leaf color were assessed at 180 and 270 days. The genotypes with the best in vitro conservation outcomes (LA-13 and LA-57) were used to study the anatomy of the leaves. Midrib thickness, leaf blade thickness, adaxial and abaxial cuticles and the number of glandular and tector trichomes were assessed. A temperature of 18°C was optimal for the conservation of genotypes of the carvone chemotypes. The explants were short and had green leaves. This was especially true for LA-57, whose height did not exceed 2.0 cm. At 270 days, the LA-13 and LA-57 genotypes continued to have green and viable leaves, especially LA-57, which had the lowest mean height. Field plants of the carvone chemotype had thicker midribs, leaf blades, and cuticles and had more trichomes. The LA-57 genotype had the most glandular and tector trichomes.


O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um protocolo de conservação in vitro com óleo mineral e estudar a anatomia foliar de genótipos de L. alba nos ambientes in vitro e ex vitro. A conservação in vitro constou de cinco genótipos LA-13 e LA-57 (quimiotipo carvona); LA-22 (quimiotipo linalol); LA-29 e LA-44 (quimiotipo citral), três tratamentos (com óleo mineral, com água e controle) e duas temperaturas 18 e 23°C. Aos 180 e 270 dias, avaliou-se a sobrevivência (%), altura da parte aérea (cm) e coloração das folhas. Os genótipos com os melhores resultados da conservação in vitro (LA-13 e LA-57) foram utilizados para estudos de anatomia. Avaliou-se espessura da nervura central, espessura do limbo foliar, cutículas adaxial e abaxial e quantidade de tricomas glandulares e tectores. A temperatura a 18°C foi a ideal para a conservação dos genótipos do quimiotipo carvona, com folhas verdes e baixos valores para altura, destacando-se LA-57 cuja altura não ultrapassou 2,0 cm. Aos 270 dias LA-13 e LA-57 permaneceram com folhas verdes e viáveis, com destaque para LA-57 com menores médias de altura. A anatomia do quimiotipo carvona mostrou que as plantas de campo apresentaram maiores espessuras da nervura, limbo e cutículas, e maiores quantidades de tricomas. O genótipo LA-57 obteve a maior quantidade de tricomas glandulares e tectores.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile , Verbenaceae , Lippia/anatomy & histology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338201

ABSTRACT

Ten compounds were isolated from the 95% aqueous EtOH extract of Clerodendrum bungei by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, MCI, ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated as 11,12,16S-trihydroxy-7-oxo-17(15→16),18(4→3)-diabeo-abieta-3,8,11,13-tetraen-18-oic acid (1), 12S*,13R*-dihydroxy-9-oxo-octadeca-10(E)-enoic acid (2), clerodenoside A (3), trichotomoside (4), glycosmisic acid (5), 4'-O-methylscutellarein (6), neroplomacrol (7), butylitaconic acid (8), hexylitaconic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzonic acid (10) by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 are new natural products, while compounds 7-10 were obtained from the genus Clerodendrum for the first time, and compounds 3, 5, 6 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

13.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1983-1987, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-858507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of Callicarpa nudiflora. METHODS: The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and MPLC. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence and compared with those in literature. RESULTS: Nine compounds were isolated and identified as 6-O-caffeoyl ajugol(1), leucosceptoslde A(2), 6-O-caffeoly-β-glucose(3), nudifloside(4), luteolin-7-O-glucoside(5), quercetin 3'-O-β-D-glucoside(6), cistaneside C(7), acteoside(8), and syringalide A 3'-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (9). CONCLUSION: Compounds 1, 2, 6, 7, and 9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

14.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 558-562, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787954

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o potencial do uso do óleo essencial de Aloysia citriodora no controle in vitro de Fusarium sp., isolado de plântulas de beterraba infectadas com o mesmo. O trabalho foi realizado por meio de dois experimentos: um sobre o efeito do óleo essencial no crescimento micelial, e outro sobre o efeito na germinação de conídios do fungo. No primeiro trabalho, avaliou-se em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, o efeito das concentrações 0,0155%; 0,0315%; 0,0625%; 0,125%; 0,250% e 0,500% do óleo essencial de A. citriodora em placas de Petri® com meio de cultivo BDA, mais a testemunha, com meio BDA puro. Cada placa foi considerada uma repetição, as quais foram incubadas a 24ºC±1ºC e submetidas a fotoperíodo de doze horas. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial do patógeno em função do crescimento micelial do patógeno quando este atingia as bordas da primeira placa. No segundo experimento, as mesmas concentrações foram testadas, nas mesmas condições de incubação, no entanto, em lâminas de microscopia com meio BD. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, sendo considerada como unidade experimental cada lâmina utilizada. Avaliou-se 24 horas após a incubação, em microscópio óptico, a germinação dos primeiros vinte conídios visualizados a partir do canto esquerdo superior para o direito. Os resultados do segundo experimento foram expressos em porcentagem de germinação de conídios. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que este óleo essencial possui efeito fungistático e fungicida sobre o crescimento micelial e na germinação de conídios de Fusarium sp.. Além disso este efeito é maior em função do aumento da concentração do óleo essencial.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of Aloysia citriodora essential oilisolated from beet seedlings infected with it. The study was performed by conducting two experiments evaluating the effect of the essential oil on mycelial growth and fungus conidia germination. In the first study, in a completely randomized design, the effect concentrations (0.0155%; 0.0315%; 0.0625%; 0.125%; 0.250% and 0.500%) of essential oil of A. citriodorawas evaluated on Petri® dish with a PDA cultivation medium, plus the control, with half pure PDA. Each plate was taken as a repeat, and incubated at 24°C±1°C and a photoperiod of twelve hours. The radial growth of the pathogen, when the first plate was hit by the mycelial growth of the pathogen on its edges was evaluated. In the second experiment, the same concentrations were tested under the same incubationconditions, however, on microscope slides with half PD medium. The design was used completely randomized, each microscope slide used was considered as one experimental unit. Germination of the first 2 conidia strains, viewed from the upper left to the right was evaluated24 hours after incubation, using an optical microscope. The results of the second experiment were expressed as a percentage of conidia germination. The results obtained showed that this essential oil has fungistatic and fungicidal effect on the mycelial growth and at the conidia germination of Fusarium sp., which has a greater effect with increasing concentrations.


Subject(s)
Fusarium/classification , Lippia/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Beta vulgaris/classification , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Verbenaceae/classification
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 250-255, Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.


Resumo Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) e o parasitoide associado Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) são registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil. Exemplares dessa cochonilha foram coletados sobre ramos e fustes de Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L.f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. e Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), em três municípios do Estado de Roraima. Todas as plantas aqui mencionadas são registradas pela primeira vez como hospedeiras de L. dendrobii. Caracteres morfológicos da cochonilha e sintomas das plantas hospedeiras infestadas por esta praga são incluídos neste trabalho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hemiptera/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Animal Distribution , Brazil , Citrus/growth & development , Hemiptera/growth & development , Hymenoptera/growth & development , Larva/growth & development , Larva/parasitology , Larva/physiology , Ovum/classification , Pupa/growth & development , Pupa/physiology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811881

ABSTRACT

@#A new flavonoid glycoside, named(2R)-naringenin-5-O-β-D- xylopyranosyl(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside(1), together with other eight known compounds(2-9), was isolated and characterized. Compounds 3-5, 7-9 were isolated from the stem barks of Premna fulva for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activities of all the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced nitric oxide(NO)production in RAW 264. 7 macrophages cells. Compounds 2, 6-9 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activities.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811847

ABSTRACT

@#The inhibition effects of the extracts of five Verbenaceae herbs, Clerodendrum fortunatum L. , Clerodendrum japonicum(Thunb. )Sweet, Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer var. simplex Moldenke, Callicarpa longissima(Hemsl. )Merr. and Pygmaeopremna herbacea, were investigated by cell hemolysis model in vitro on classical and alternative complement activation pathways. The water extracts of Pygmaeopremna herbacea, the water extract and the ethanol extract of Clerodendrum fortunatum L. , the water extract and the ethanol extract of Callicarpa longissima(Hemsl. )Merr. , the ethanol extracts of Clerodendrum japonicum(Thunb. )Sweet and Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer var. simplex Moldenke showed inhibition cell hemolysis effects on the classical pathway. Their CH50 values were 0. 092±0. 008, 0. 074±0. 008, 0. 088±0. 006, 0. 134±0. 017, 0. 123±0. 010, 0. 380±0. 080, and 0. 200±0. 015 g/L, respectively. The water extracts of Pygmaeopremna herbacea and Callicarpa longissima(Hemsl. )Merr. and the ethanol extract of Clerodendrum fortunatum L. showed inhibition cell hemolysis effects on alternative pathway. Their AP50 values were 0. 533±0. 033, 0. 758±0. 031, and 0. 362±0. 029 g/L, respectively. Five Verbenaceae herbs appear good anticomplementary effects in vitro. The ethanol extract of Clerodendrum fortunatum L. showed the best inhibitory activity.

18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(1): 33-41, ene.2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795831

ABSTRACT

Nineteen samples from the aerial parts in bloom of Acantholippia seriphioides (Verbenaceae) were collected in three provinces belonging to the Cuyo region of Argentina. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, yielding between 0.57 and 2.46 percent (v/w). On the basis of the 13 main compounds determined by GC-FID-MS, representing the 87.2 and 95.3 percent of the total identified, four chemotypes were determined: carvacrol, thymol, cis and trans-dihydrocarvone and linalool-geraniol. The co-occurrence of different chemotypes in a same population indicates that the sample collection must be carefully done with the aid of an in situ olfactory testing of the plants, since no morphological differences at first sight were observed among them. The results showed in this study suggest that the pattern of variations for this species exists throughout its natural distribution area...


Se colectaron 19 muestras de partes aéreas en floración de Acantholippia seriphioides (Verbenaceae) de tres provincias de la región de Cuyo de la Argentina. Los aceites esenciales fueron obtenidos por hidrodestilación, arrojando rendimientos entre 0.57 y 2.46 por ciento (v/p). A partir de la determinación por GC-FID-MS de los 13 compuestos principales, que representaban entre el 87.2 y 95.3 por ciento del total de los identificados, fueron determinados cuatro quimiotipos: carvacrol, timol, cis y trans-dihidrocarvona, y linalol-geraniol. La co-ocurrencia de diferentes quimiotipos en una misma población indica que la colecta debe ser realizada con la ayuda de un examen olfatorio in situ de la planta, ya que, a primera vista no se observan diferencias morfológicas entre ellas. Los resultados sugieren que el patrón de variación para esta especie existe en toda su área de distribución natural...


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Verbenaceae , Argentina , Biodiversity , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-464810

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to investigate the chemical constituents from the leaves of Vitex negundovar. cannabifolia. Column chromatography including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC were used to separate and purify the chemical constituents, and the structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties, MS and NMR spectroscopic data. As a result, 11 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of V. negundo var. cannabifolia, and identified as apigenin (1), penduletin (2), chrysosplenol-D (3), quercetin (4), 1,4-dihydroxy-3R,5R-dicaffeoyloxy cyclohexane carboxylic acid (5), maeranthoin F (6), capsidiol (7), caryolandiol (8), β-sitosterol (9), p-hydroxybenzonic acid (10), and β-daucosterin (11). It was concluded that compounds 5 8were firstly isolated from the plants of Vitex genus, and compounds 1 and 4 were isolated from V. negundovar. cannabifolia for the first time.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-854118

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the flavonoid glycosides from the leaves of Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia. Methods: Column chromatography including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS was used to separate and purify the chemical constituents, and their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties, MS, and NMR spectroscopic data. Results: Seven flavonoid glycosides were obtained from the ethyl acetate layer of 95% EtOH extract of the leaves of V. negundo var. cannabifolia, and identified as luteolin-4'-O-(6″-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl)-β-D-glucoside (1), luteolin-7-O-(6″-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl)-β-D-glucoside (2), luteolin-6-C-(6″-O-trans-caffeoyl)-β-D-glucoside (3), luteolin-6-C-(2″-O-trans-caffeoyl)-β-D-glucoside (4), perfoliatumin A (5), isovitexin (6), and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (7). Conclusion: Compound 1 is a new compound named cannabifolin G; Compounds 2-4 and 7 are obtained from this plant for the first time; Compound 5 is firstly isolated from the plants in Vitex L.

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