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1.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(suple. 2): 2-8, may. - ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396069

ABSTRACT

La metformina es el agente antidiabético oral más utilizado para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y se ha descrito la asociación de su uso con el déficit de vitamina B12. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de estudios para conocer la evidencia de dicha asociación, y las recomendaciones para su pesquisa, prevención y tratamiento. La prevalencia informada del déficit de vitamina B12 en los pacientes tratados con metformina osciló entre el 5,8% y el 52% en las diferentes series. Los pacientes de mayor edad, aquellos que reciben metformina a altas dosis y por más tiempo, y los que no consumen alimentos de origen animal, son quienes presentan mayor riesgo de padecer este déficit. Se recomienda la determinación de vitamina B12 cada año en pacientes con DM2 tratados con metformina y la eventual reposición en caso de déficit. Si bien existe consenso sobre el tratamiento del déficit, aún falta evidencia que permita realizar la recomendación sobre el tratamiento preventivo.


Metformin is the most widely used oral antidiabetic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the association of the use of this drug with vitamin B12 deficiency has been described. A review of studies was carried out to find out the evidence of this association and the recommendations for its detection, prevention and treatment. The reported prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients treated with metformin ranged from 5.8% to 52% in the different series. Older patients, those who received metformin at high doses and for a longer time, and those who do not consume food of animal origin, are those who are at greater risk of suffering from this deficit. The determination of vitamin B12 every 1 year is recommended in patients with T2D treated with metformin, and the eventual replacement in case of deficiency. Although there is consensus on the treatment of the deficit, there is still a lack of evidence to make recommendations on a preventive treatment


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Vitamin B 12 , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Metformin
2.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e204, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383644

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en los últimos años el incremento de vegetarianos es considerable. Se debe tener cautela al incorporar este tipo de dietas en la población pediátrica. No son contempladas en las actuales guías de nutrición nacionales, generando incertidumbre al realizar recomendaciones. Objetivo: describir los conocimientos sobre dietas vegetarianas en niños por parte de médicos pediatras, posgrados y residentes socios de la Sociedad Uruguaya de Pediatría en el período de junio-setiembre 2020. Determinar la necesidad de incorporar dietas vegetarianas a las guías uruguayas de nutrición pediátrica por parte de los encuestados. Material y método: estudio observacional descriptivo, tipo encuesta transversal, en el período entre junio y setiembre de 2020. Los criterios de inclusión fueron médicos residentes/posgrados en pediatría y pediatras de la Sociedad Uruguaya de Pediatría, de Montevideo y el interior del país. La fuente de datos fue una encuesta online anónima. El análisis de datos fueron frecuencias relativas y absolutas para variables cualitativas. Resultados: se enviaron 1.080 encuestas online, de las que se incluyeron 119. Sobre la autopercepción en el conocimiento de los encuestados, el 58,0% se calificó dentro del rango medio. Acerca del concepto de dieta ovolactovegetariana, 63,9% seleccionó la opción correcta. Más de 50,0% respondió correctamente acerca de conocimientos sobre nutrientes en la mayoría de los ítems. Iniciar estas dietas en la alimentación complementaria fue desaconsejado por el 58% de los socios. Un 79,8% pretende adquirir más conocimientos del tema. Conclusiones: más de la mitad de los profesionales tiene los conocimientos correctos acerca de la correcta planificación y suplementación de dietas vegetarianas en niños. Se destaca la necesidad de incluir dietas vegetarianas en las guías de alimentación pediátrica en territorio uruguayo.


Introduction: the number of vegetarian people has increased considerably in recent years. Caution is suggested when incorporating this type of diet to the pediatric population. This diet has not been contemplated in the current national nutritional guidelines, generating uncertainty among pediatricians when making recommendations. Objective: describe the knowledge Pediatric Physicians and graduate / resident members of the Uruguayan Society of Pediatrics have regarding vegetarian diets in children during the period June-September 2020. Determine the need of the participants of the survey to incorporate vegetarian diet information into the Uruguayan Pediatric Nutritional Guidelines. Materials and methods: descriptive observational study, cross-sectional survey carried out from June to September 2020. The inclusion criteria included resident doctors / postgraduate pediatricians and pediatricians from the Uruguayan Society of Pediatrics of Montevideo and the interior of the country. The data source was an anonymous online survey. The data analyses were relative and absolute frequencies of qualitative variables. Results: 1.080 online surveys were sent and 119 were included. Regarding the respondents' self-perception of knowledge, 58.0% were rated within the medium range. Regarding the concept of lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, 63.9% selected the correct option. Regarding knowledge about nutrients, we obtained more than 50.0% of correct answers in most of the items. Starting these diets as supplementary food was discouraged by 58% of the participants. 79.8% expressed the intention to acquire more knowledge regarding the subject. Conclusions: more than half of the professionals have the correct knowledge about the correct planning and supplementation of vegetarian diets in children. They stressed the need to include vegetarian diets in pediatric food guidelines in Uruguay.


Introdução: nos últimos anos, o aumento das pessoas vegetarianas tem sido considerável. Deve-se ter cuidado ao incorporar esse tipo de dieta na população pediátrica. Ela não está incluída nas atuais diretrizes nacionais de nutrição, gerando incerteza nos pediatras no momento de fazer recomendações. Objetivo: descrever o conhecimento sobre dietas vegetarianas em crianças dos Pediatras e pós-graduados/residentes da Sociedade Uruguaia de Pediatria no período de junho a setembro de 2020 para poder determinar a necessidade de incorporar dietas vegetarianas às diretrizes nutricionais pediátricas uruguaias. Material e métodos: estudo observacional descritivo, tipo de pesquisa transversal realizada no período de junho a setembro de 2020. Os critérios de inclusão foram médicos residentes/pós-graduados em pediatria e pediatras da Sociedade Uruguaia de Pediatria, Montevidéu e interior do país. A fonte de dados foi uma pesquisa on-line anônima sobre a necessidade de incorporar dietas vegetarianas às diretrizes uruguaias para nutrição pediátrica. As análises dos dados foram frequências relativas e absolutas de variáveis qualitativas. Resultados: 1.080 pesquisas online foram enviadas e 119 foram incluídas. Quanto à autopercepção de conhecimento dos entrevistados, 58,0% foram avaliados dentro da faixa média. Quanto ao conceito de dieta lacto-ovo-vegetariana, 63,9% selecionaram a opção correta. Quanto ao conhecimento sobre nutrientes, obtivemos mais de 50,0% das respostas corretas na maioria dos itens. O início dessas dietas como alimentos suplementares foi desencorajado por 58% dos participantes. 79,8% expressaram a intenção de adquirir mais conhecimento sobre o assunto. Conclusões: mais da metade dos profissionais têm o conhecimento correto sobre o planejamento correto e suplementação de dietas vegetarianas em crianças. Eles enfatizaram a necessidade de incluir dietas vegetarianas nas diretrizes de alimentos pediátricos no Uruguai.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Diet, Vegetarian/methods , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Pediatricians/education , Vitamin B 12 , Diet Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Iron, Dietary , Dietary Supplements , Eating , Child Nutrition
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e326-e329, agosto 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281753

ABSTRACT

La seudomicroangiopatía trombótica o síndrome de Moschcowitz es una manifestación infrecuente del déficit de vitamina B12. Se caracteriza por anemia hemolítica con características microangiopáticas, reticulocitos e índices hematimétricos normales o con ligera megaloblastosis, asociados a manifestaciones neurológicas. La vitamina B12 está presente en alimentos proteicos de origen animal. La lactancia materna es una fuente adecuada para los niños cuando los niveles maternos son normales. Se presenta a una paciente de 16 meses que se internó por anemia hemolítica con requerimiento transfusional, plaquetopenia, mal progreso pondoestatural y retraso neuromadurativo. Durante su internación se arribó al diagnóstico de seudomicroangiopatía trombótica secundaria a déficit de vitamina B12.


Pseudo-thrombotic microangiopathy, or Moschcowitz syndrome, is a rare manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. It is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, reticulocytes, and hematimetric indices that can be normal or that might present a mild megaloblastosis, and which are associated with neurological manifestations. Vitamin B12 can be found in animal-based protein foods. Breastfeeding is an adequate source of this vitamin for children, when maternal serum levels are normal. The case of a 16-month-old infant is presented. She was admitted for hemolytic anemia with transfusion requirement, thrombocytopenia, failure to thrive and developmental delay. During her hospitalization, she was diagnosed with pseudothrombotic microangiopathy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/complications , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/therapy , Anemia, Hemolytic/blood
4.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(2): 69-74, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284920

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La ganglionopatía sensitiva es una rara complicación del déficit de vitamina B12, la cual da origen a un espectro de síntomas neurológicos que incluyen alteración de la sensibilidad vibratoria, propiocepción, ataxia y, con menor frecuencia, trastornos del movimiento. La pseudoatetosis es una presentación muy inusual. CASO CLÍNICO: Un paciente masculino de 73 años se presenta con parestesias y torpeza de las cuatro extremidades, dolor tipo urente en plantas de pies y manos, inestabilidad postural y limitación para la marcha. En la exploración neurológica se encuentra hipoestesia y ataxia sensitiva de las cuatro extremidades, con presencia de pseudoatetosis de los miembros superiores como consecuencia de ganglionopatía por déficit de vitamina B12 demostrada por la imagen típica de "V" invertida, debido a compromiso de las proyecciones centrales las neuronas sensitivas mielinizadas en RMN de columna cervicotoráccica. A los cuatro meses se reporta mejoría del déficit propioceptivo y corrección del trastorno de movimiento gracias a la reposición de la cianocobalamina intramuscular. Hasta el momento no se presenta patología neoplásica, autoinmune o infecciosa. CONCLUSIONES: La ganglionopatía sensitiva por déficit de vitamina B12 es una condición potencialmente reversible y subdiagnosticada que puede manifestarse ocasionalmente con trastornos del movimiento. Debe sospecharse en pacientes con déficits sensitivos por compromiso de fibra gruesa. Su pronóstico es favorable si la causa del déficit se documenta tempranamente y se hace reposición de dicha vitamina.


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Sensory ganglionopathy is a rare complication of vitamin B12 deficiency, causing an spectrum of neurologic symptoms such as abnormal vibratory sensitivity, proprioception, gait disturbance and rarely movement disorders like pseudoatetosis and dystonia. CLINICAL CASE: A73-year-old man was admitted with numbness and clumsiness of his extremities, burning pain on palms and soles, postural instability and impaired walking. Neurological examination demonstrated hypesthesia and sensory ataxia of four limbs with associated pseudo athetoid movements of the upper limbs as a consequence of ganglionopathy by vitamin B12 deficiency, showing typical MRI inverted "V" sign due to degeneration of central projections from large sensory neurons, which was successfully treated with IM cyanocobalamin 4 months later. CONCLUSIONS: Sensory ganglionopathy in B12 deficit is a potentially reversible and underdiagnosed condition, which occasionally can present with movement disorders. Must be suspected in patiens presenting with sensory deficits depending on richly myelinated axons. Usually with good prognosis after identifying the deficit's cause and giving propper treatment.

5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): e536-e539, dic 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146212

ABSTRACT

El déficit de vitamina B12 es una de las complicaciones más importantes que puede producir el vegetarianismo. Los lactantes hijos de madres vegetarianas tienen riesgo aumentado de deficiencia y de presentar compromiso neurológico irreversible si esta no se identifica y corrige adecuadamente.Se describe el caso de un lactante de un mes y veinte días que consultó por episodios paroxísticos de mecanismo epileptógeno, en el cual los estudios complementarios permitieron identificar un déficit de vitamina B12 como causa de estos. Tras la confirmación diagnóstica, se instauró el tratamiento con vitamina B12 intramuscular, con remisión completa de los síntomas, buena evolución posterior y desarrollo psicomotor sin alteraciones.Teniendo en cuenta las tendencias alimentarias actuales, es necesario incorporar, en la práctica clínica habitual, la anamnesis nutricional materna detallada para detectar precozmente el riesgo de déficit de esta vitamina y prevenirlo


Vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the main complications of vegetarianism. Infants of vegetarian mothers have greater risk of deficiency and irreversible neurological compromise if deficiency is not identified and treated. We describe the case of a 1 month 20 days-old infant who consulted due to paroxysmal episodes of epileptogenic mechanism; laboratory tests identified a deficiency in vitamin B12 as the cause. After confirmation of diagnosis, treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 was established with full remission of symptoms, good evolution and psychomotor development without alterations.Considering current alimentary trends, it is necessary to include a detailed maternal nutritional anamnesis in regular clinical practice, in order to detect the risk of this vitamin deficiency at an early stage and to prevent it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Pediatrics , Diet, Vegetarian/adverse effects , Vegetarians , Mothers
6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212439

ABSTRACT

Long-term usage of Metformin is associated with lower serum vitamin B12 levels. The lower than normal levels could worsen neurological complications of diabetes, including diabetic neuropathy and poor cognition. Guidelines advise periodic monitoring of vitamin B12 but do not specify frequency, treatment targets or treatment modality. This commentary aims to review the prevalence and the severity of the presentation and to provide evidence-based answers to those clinical questions not answered by current guidelines.

7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204736

ABSTRACT

A 3 month old infant exclusively breast fed presented with vomiting and poor weight gain with purpuric and echymotic patches all over the body. The child also had hyperpigmentation over knuckles and icterus. Laboratory investigations revealed severe dimorphic anemia with thrombocytopenia, elevated bilirubin and LDH levels and severe vitamin B12 deficiency. Following vitamin B12 supplementation there was improvement in well-being including feed tolerance, icterus resolved and in follow up lab studies there was improvement in hemoglobin and platelet counts along with reduced bilirubin levels. Through this case report we want to emphasize the possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as hemolytic anemia and psuedothrombotic microangiopathy.

8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(6): 818-823, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136279

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Celiac disease (CeD) is an autoimmune disease that can be delayed in diagnosis due to the presence of atypical and asymptomatic cases in adulthood. Herein we aimed to study the frequency of CeD and evaluate whether magnified endoscopy and magnified/FICE (flexible spectral imaging color enhancement) techniques contribute to the diagnosis in patients with serum iron and vitamin B12 deficiency. METHODS We evaluated 50 adult patients (10 males and 40 females) who had serum iron and vitamin B12 deficiency, prospectively. All the patients had undergone upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy by the same endoscopist. The second part of the duodenum was evaluated with white light, magnified, and magnified/FICE endoscopy. Biopsy specimens were evaluated by the same pathologist. The specimens diagnosed as CeD were classified according to the Modified Marsh-Oberhuber criteria. RESULTS 10 of 50 patients (20%) were diagnosed as CeD. The average age was 41±11 years (20-67 years). Thirty percent of CeD diagnosed patients had typical CeD symptoms. Six of 10 patients (60%) who were diagnosed as CeD had typical endoscopic images under white lighted endoscopy. All of these 10 patients (100%) showed villous irregularity, partial villous atrophy, or total villous atrophy consistent with CeD with magnified and magnified/FICE endoscopy. CONCLUSION The practical use of magnified/FICE endoscopy allows us to differentiate mucosal abnormalities of the duodenum and minimize false-negative results that indicate normal mucosal findings with conventional endoscopy.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO A doença celíaca (DC) é uma doença autoimune que pode ter seu diagnóstico atrasado devido à presença de casos atípicos e assintomáticos na idade adulta. Neste trabalho, objetivamos estudar a frequência de DC e avaliar se as técnicas de endoscopia magnificada e magnificada/Fice (flexible spectral imaging color enhancement) contribuem para o diagnóstico em pacientes com deficiência sérica de ferro e vitamina B12. MÉTODO Foram avaliados prospectivamente 50 pacientes adultos (10 homens e 40 mulheres) com deficiência sérica de ferro e vitamina B12. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a endoscopia digestiva alta pelo mesmo endoscopista. A segunda parte do duodeno foi avaliada com endoscopia com luz branca, magnificada e magnificada/Fice. As amostras de biópsia foram avaliadas pelo mesmo patologista. Os espécimes diagnosticados como DC foram classificados de acordo com os critérios de Marsh-Oberhuber modificado. RESULTADOS Dez dos 50 pacientes (% 20) foram diagnosticados como DC. A idade média foi de 41±11 anos (20-67 anos). Trinta por cento dos pacientes diagnosticados com DC apresentaram sintomas típicos de DC. Seis dos dez pacientes (60%) diagnosticados com DC tinham imagens endoscópicas típicas sob endoscopia de luz branca. Todos esses dez pacientes (% 100) apresentaram irregularidade das vilosidades, atrofia das vilosidades parciais ou atrofia das vilosidades totais consistentes com a DC com endoscopia magnificada e magnificada/Fice. CONCLUSÃO O uso prático da endoscopia magnificada/Fice permite diferenciar anormalidades mucosas do duodeno e minimizar os resultados falso-negativos que apresentam achados mucosais normais com a endoscopia convencional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Celiac Disease , Image Enhancement , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Endoscopy , Iron , Middle Aged
9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212357

ABSTRACT

Intraoral pigmentations range from innocuous physiologic pigments to life-threatening malignant conditions. It is at the discretion of the observing clinician to identify the abnormal clinical manifestations and provide necessary intervention. There are controversies about delineating the definite etiology of the pigmentation such as race, exposure to ultra-violet radiation, drug-induced pigmentation post-inflammatory pigments of the oral cavity.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204569

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute malnutrition is the important health issue children affected in India. It is often associated with Iron, Vitamin B12 and Folic acid and other micronutrient deficiencies. These reports of declining trend of Iron and folic acid deficiency with implementation of national anemia control programme. Estimation of Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 levels in SAM children aged 6-60 months with anemia was the objective of the study.Methods: A hospital based observational study on 80 children admitted to nutritional rehabilitation center were suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in the age group of 6-60 months enrolled in the study during the period November 2018 to May 2019 .Data was collected using a predesigned and pretested Proforma, containing details of feeding, socio-economic and development history. Blood samples were sent for measurement of plasma vitamin B12 and serum folate levels. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0.Results: Out of 80 children, majority were between the age group of 24-60 months and majority were boys (53.8%). Mean Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels being 384.61 and 8.95 respectively. 45% and 3.8% had vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies respectively. Majority of neurological changes and developmental delays were noted in B12 deficient group. Of the 36, B12 deficient children, majority had moderate anaemia (40.2%), normal total count (41.7%), 60% had neutropenia, 44.4% had lymphocytosis, majority had normocytic (30.9%) anemia.Conclusions: There was a moderate to high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among malnourished children. Folate deficiency was found only in few. Efforts should be directed to prevent its deficiency in pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants with special attention on malnourished children.B12 and folate deficiency shall be considered in all cases with SAM irrespective of blood indices. Treatment will have impact on prognosis of child.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212230

ABSTRACT

Background: Metformin is first line of treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been reported to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency with variable results in various studies. The aim of our study is to correlate metformin use and vitamin B12 levels in patients of T2DM with high prevalence in Sub-Himalyan region of north India.Methods: The study was conducted from August 2017 to July 2018 enrolling 124 patients, aged 18 years and above with T2DM taking metformin treatment for >4 months. Vitamin B12 levels were estimated and the levels <200, 200-300 and >300 pg/ml were defined as having definite deficiency, borderline deficiency and normal levels respectively.Results: A total of 124 patients included 66 (53.2%) male and 58 (46.8%) female patients with T2DM on metformin treatment. The mean vitamin B12 level was found significantly low, 176.23±60.96 pg/ml and 18 (14.5%) patients were found to have significant vitamin B12 deficiency and 8(6.5%) patients, borderline deficiency in longer duration of metformin use for >10 years (p<0.001). Vitamin B12 deficiency was found significantly more in 14 (11.3%) patients taking lower doses ≤1000 mg/day of metformin compared to higher doses, a negative correlation. Peripheral neuropathy was significantly present in 15.3% of patients in metformin induced vitamin B12deficiency.Conclusions: Vitamin B12 deficiency was found to be significantly correlated to longer duration of metformin treatment and neuropathy in T2DM but negatively correlated to higher doses of metformin. Therefore, we recommend the assessment and supplementation of vitamin B12 in metformin use in T2DM, compromising financial burden but not the outcome of its deficiency.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212229

ABSTRACT

Background: Micronutrient deficiency is pandemic proportions among pregnant women in India, but there is scarcity of searchable data on  coexistence vitamin D status  and Vitamin B 12 in pregnant women in Jammu and Kashmir, hence we have assessed the vitamin D as well as Vitamin B12 status in pregnant women attending outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital Jammu.Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Biochemistry Government Medical College Jammu during June 2019 to February, 2020 and after obtaining informed consent, a total of 150 pregnant women, attending SMGS Hospital Jammu were screened for their vitamin D (25 OH-D) and vitamin B12 status by using Abbott architect chemiluminescent micro particle immunoassay.Results: A total of 150 pregnant women were  screened in the study , 129 (86%) were found to be having insufficient vitamin D levels in their blood (<30 ngm/dl) and 105 ( 70%)  women showed severe deficiency with vitamin D levels below 20 ngm/dl.108 (72%) pregnant women had vitamin B12 deficiency with levels below 200 pgm/ml.Conclusions: The study revealed a high prevalence of coexistence of Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 deficiency in pregnant women, despite of abundant sunshine throughout the year and also with the consideration that people of this region are well off economically and can afford good nutrition.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-194664

ABSTRACT

Background: Objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Isolated B12deficient dementia in patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital. The MMSE was much lower in B12 deficiency compared to irreversible causes Thus, shorter duration, severe dementia, focal neurological signs, and a vegetarian diet were significantly associated with the development of B12 deficiency.Methods: Based on exclusion and inclusion criteria 100 patients were included in this study, a detailed history of the patient were taken with respect to duration of dementia and its symptoms, type and treatment. Study in terms of the correlation of the clinical features with investigations and diet. Estimation of the prevalence of dementia with reference to B12 deficiency. Mean MMSE analysis, assessment of the improvement in MMSE after treatment with B12 injections after a6-8 wks period.Results: In this study most of our patients were in the 60-69 age groups across all causes of dementia, 22out of 26, B12 deficient patients were vegetarians. This value was in keeping with the known fact that a vegetarian diet predisposes a person to develop B12 deficiency. The association between B12 deficiency, high MCV and megaloblastic blood picture in peripheral blood smear was significant. The MMSE scores were significantly lower 13.42 in patients with B12 deficiency as compared to those with Alzheimer's 14.3 means and those with multi-infarct state 17.3 means.Conclusions: The duration of the presentation in B12 deficiency was10-12months averagely. There was a significant improvement in MMSE after treatment in pureB12 deficient patients (by 9 points) if they presented within one year of symptoms. Except for myelopathy, there was an improvement in other neurological symptoms and signs. Early diagnosis and proper treatment can make improvements in a patient's memory and quality of life.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-194638

ABSTRACT

Background: Pancytopenia is reduction of all the three cellular components which includes anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Pancytopenia is striking feature of many serious and life threatening illness ranging from simple drug induced bone marrow hypoplasia, megaloblastic marrow to fatal bone marrow aplasia and leukemias. Pancytopenia has variety of etiologies but most common and reversible is Vitamin B12 deficiency, so early and accurate diagnosis may be lifesaving.Methods: Study conducted prospectively in 50 patients of pancytopenia with age >12 years, who were admitted to department of medicine in Dr. M.K. Shah Medical College between 2018 to 2020. A complete clinical history and examination was carried out. They were evaluated for complete blood count with peripheral smear, liver function test, renal function test, vitamin B12 level, radiological imaging and bone marrow examination in selected patients.Results: The etiological causes of pancytopenia were recorded as vitamin B12 deficiency (n 30,60%), Infections (n11,22%),Hypersplenism (n 4;8%), aplastic anemia (n 3; 6%), Drug induced (n 1; 2%) and SLE (n1; 2%). Presenting symptoms in these patients were lethargy, malaise, generalized weakness, dyspnoea on exertion and fever while signs were pallor, splenomegaly and hyperpigmentation. All patients of megaloblastic anemia had macrocytic picture in peripheral smear and all of them were improved after treatment with vitamin B12 supplement.Conclusions: Pancytopenia is not an uncommon clinical entity and has various etiologies. Most common cause of pancytopenia was B12 deficiency and most common symptoms and signs were generalized weakness and pallor respectively. Most of the etiological causes could be diagnosed with laboratory analysis and radiological imaging without the need of a bone marrow examination.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-211967

ABSTRACT

Background: Study aimed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin B12 and acute cerebral stroke in this study.Methods: Blood samples drawn within 24 hours after the stroke from hospitalized patients (n=100) and from 100 control cases matched for age, sex and other modifiable risk factors of stroke were analyzed. With a competitive, ECLIA, serum levels of vitamin B12 were measured. The quantitative data of the groups was compared using Analysis of Varience and Tukeys HSD post hoc test for comparison. Chi-square tests were used.Results: Median serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 188.71 and 256.25 pg/ml respectively (p=0.0001). This difference was independent from other risk factors. The mean age in case group was 62.49 (SD: 12.45 years) and 56.62 (SD: 13.05 years) in control group with p=0.001. Therefore, prevalence of stroke is more between 6th and 7th decade of life. Mean serum vitamin B12 levels were lower in males (201.8pg/ml) than the females (268.pg/ml) in the case group.Conclusions: Low vitamin B12 is associated with an increased risk of stroke, and its relationship is independent from the other known modifiable stroke risk factors.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204422

ABSTRACT

Background: Infections and nutritional deficiencies are the most common causes of the leucopenia and neutropenia. In this study, we aimed to find the incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with leukopenia and neutropenia secondary to infection.Methods: Between September 2018 and December 2018, patients who were referred to Diyarbak?r Children Hospital's Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Clinic for leukopenia and/ or neutropenia were thought to develop secondary to infection retrospectively evaluated.Results: Of the 60 patients that evaluated, 23(38.3%) were female and 37(61.7%) were male. The mean age'SD was 4.75'4.5 years. Severe neutropenia was detected in 5(8.3%), moderate neutropenia in 31(51.7%) and mild neutropenia in 17(28.3%) patients. Neutrophil counts were within normal limits in 7(11.7%) patients. When vitamin B12 levels were examined, 17(28.3%) patients had B12 deficiency.Conclusions: Investigation and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with leukopenia and neutropenia may shorten the duration of cytopenia and prevent the development of secondary complications.

17.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 91(6): 348-358, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142217

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la deficiencia de vitamina B12 es infrecuente en la edad pediátrica. Puede producir síntomas neurológicos y hematológicos de diferente severidad. Si no se diagnostica y trata oportunamente, puede determinar secuelas neurológicas permanentes. Objetivos: presentar una serie de casos clínicos de encefalopatía secundaria a déficit materno de vitamina B12, discutir su potencial severidad y resaltar la importancia de las medidas de prevención. Metodología: estudio observacional basado en la revisión de las historias clínicas de lactantes con criterios clínicos y de laboratorio compatibles con encefalopatía por deficiencia de vitamina B12 materna. Resultados: se incluyeron cuatro casos clínicos, con edades entre 7 y 15 meses, que presentaron una encefalopatía subaguda por deficiencia de vitamina B12 secundaria a déficit materno luego de un período libre de síntomas, con rechazo del alimento, detención del crecimiento, adelgazamiento, irritabilidad, apatía, regresión del desarrollo, movimientos extrapiramidales y desaceleración de la velocidad del crecimiento del perímetro craneano. Los exámenes complementarios revelaron anemia megaloblástica, niveles bajos de vitamina B12 en el suero, hiperhomocisteinemia y aciduria metilmalónica. Se realizó tratamiento con vitamina B12 con buena evolución posterior. Discusión: la deficiencia de vitamina B12 debe considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial de lactantes con regresión del desarrollo, movimientos involuntarios de inicio agudo o subagudo, convulsiones y apatía, especialmente si se asocian a anemia megaloblástica. Dado que la sintomatología es relativamente inespecífica, se requiere un alto grado de sospecha para realizar el diagnóstico precoz. El tratamiento es sencillo y eficaz y, de ser precoz, puede prevenir el daño cerebral permanente o la muerte.


Summary: Introduction: cobalamin or vitamin B12 deficiency is unusual in childhood. It may cause neurologic and hematologic symptoms of diverse severity. If not diagnosed and treated on time, it can lead to a severe clinical case of permanent neurological sequelae. The purpose of this study is to report four clinical cases of infants with subacute encephalopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency after a maternal deficit, discuss its potential severity and emphasize the importance of preventive measures. Methods: observational study based on a review of clinical records of infants that showed clinical and laboratory criteria compatible with encephalopathy secondary to maternal vitamin B12 deficiency. Results: four infants between 7 and 15 months of age were included. They were diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to a maternal deficit. Clinically, they had had a symptom-free period followed by rejection of food, growth arrest, failure to thrive, irritability, apathy, regression of development, extrapyramidal movements and deceleration of cranial perimeter growth. They showed megaloblastic anemia, low serum B12 vitamin levels, hyperhomocysteinemia, and methylmalonic aciduria. They were treated with parenteral B12 vitamin and showed a favorable evolution. Discussion: vitamin B12 deficiency should always be analyzed in the differential diagnosis of infants with developmental regression, involuntary acute onset movements, seizures and apathy, especially associated with megaloblastic anemia. Due to its fairly unspecific clinical features, it high levels of suspicion and an early diagnosis are required. Treatment is simple and effective and can prevent permanent brain damage if started early.


Resumo: Introdução: a deficiência de vitamina B12 é pouco frequente na idade pediátrica. Pode produzir sintomas neurológicos e hematológicos de diferentes níveis de gravidade. Se não for diagnosticada e tratada prontamente, pode determinar sequelas neurológicas permanentes. Objetivos: apresentar uma série de casos clínicos de encefalopatia devida à deficiência materna de vitamina B12, discutir sua potencial gravidade e destacar a importância de medidas preventivas. Metodologia: estudo observacional baseado na revisão de prontuários de lactentes com critérios clínicos e laboratoriais compatíveis com encefalopatia por deficiência materna de vitamina B12. Resultados: foram incluídos 4 casos clínicos, com idades entre 7 e 15 meses, que apresentaram encefalopatia subaguda por deficiência de vitamina B12 devida à deficiência materna após período livre de sintomas, com rejeição alimentar, parada de crescimento, perda de peso, irritabilidade, apatia, regressão do desenvolvimento, movimentos extrapiramidais e desaceleração da taxa de crescimento do perímetro cefálico. Os exames complementares revelaram anemia megaloblástica, baixos níveis séricos de vitamina B12, hiper-homocisteinemia e acidúria metilmalônica. O tratamento com vitamina B12 foi realizado com boa evolução subsequente. Discussão: a deficiência de vitamina B12 deve ser avaliada no diagnóstico diferencial de lactentes com regressão do desenvolvimento, movimentos involuntários de início agudo ou subagudo, convulsões e apatia, principalmente se estiverem associados à anemia megaloblástica. Como os sintomas são relativamente inespecíficos, é necessário um alto grau de suspeição para poder realizar o diagnóstico precoce. O tratamento é simples e eficaz e, se realizado precocemente, pode prevenir danos cerebrais permanentes ou morte.

18.
Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol. (Online) ; 23(2): e200022, 2020000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144149

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a frequência de deficiência de vitamina B12 e fatores associados em idosos institucionalizados. Método Analisamos 65 idosos, com idade média de 80±9 anos (61-113), de uma instituição geriátrica filantrópica de longa permanência. A dosagem sérica de vitamina B12 foi analisada e classificada em: normal (≥299 pg/mL), limítrofe (200-298 pg/mL) e deficiência (<200 pg/mL). Foi analisada a associação com tempo de permanência na instituição, declínio cognitivo e funcional, uso regular de biguanidas e inibidores de bomba de prótons, considerados fatores de risco para hipovitaminose B12, utilizando os testes de análise bivariada (paramétrica e não paramétrica) e regressão de Poisson. Resultados A deficiência de vitamina B12 estava presente em 21,5% e valores limítrofes em 32,3% da amostra. Dentre os idosos, 52,9% apresentavam demência de causas diversas, 49,2% hipertensão arterial, 29,2% com anemia (21,5% normocítica, 4,6% microcítica e 3,1% macrocítica), 18,5% diabéticos; 27,7% faziam uso de polifarmácia, com 12,3% em uso de metformina e 16,9% com inibidores de bomba de prótons. No modelo multivariado não houve associação entre a deficiência de vitamina B12 com as variáveis estudadas. Conclusão Observamos uma frequência importante de valores limítrofes e baixos de vitamina B12 nos pacientes dessa instuição geriátrica de cuidados permanentes, porém sem associação com os fatores de risco para sua deficiência estudado, o que torna importante a inclusão da dosagem sérica dessa vitamina na rotina de exames laboratoriais desse grupo.


Abstract Objective To assess the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency and associated factors in institutionalized old people. Method We analyzed 65 old people, with an average age of 80±9 years (61-113), from a long-term philanthropic geriatric institution. The serum dosage of vitamin B12 was analyzed and classified as: normal (≥299 pg/mL), borderline (200-298 pg/mL) and deficiency (<200 pg/mL). The association with length of stay in the institution, cognitive and functional decline, regular use of biguanides and proton pump inhibitors, considered risk factors for B12 hypovitaminosis, was analyzed using the bivariate analysis tests (parametric and non-parametric) and Poisson regression. Results Vitamin B12 deficiency was present in 21.5% and borderline values in 32.3% of the sample. Among the old people, 52.9% had dementia of different causes, 49.2% had arterial hypertension, 29.2% with anemia (21.5% normocytic, 4.6% microcytic and 3.1% macrocytic), 18.5 % diabetics; 27.7% used polypharmacy, with 12.3% using metformin and 16.9% using proton pump inhibitors. In the multivariate model, there was no association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the variables studied. Conclusion We observed an important frequency of borderline and low values of vitamin B12 in the patients of this geriatric institution of permanent care, but without association with the risk factors for their deficiency studied, which makes it important to include the serum dosage of this vitamin in the laboratory tests routine of that group.

19.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 23(6): 536-542, nov.-dic. 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1051424

ABSTRACT

Cobalamin C (CblC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the MMACHC gene that results in impaired synthesis of the methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin co-factors. This brings an impaired conversion of dietary cobalamin and therefore dysfunction of two key enzymes generating hyperhomocysteinemia, hypometionimemia and methylmalonic aciduria. It is the most common intracellular metabolism disorder of cobalamin. The early clinical form is the most frequent disorder and appears as a multisystemic disease with developmental delay, failure to thrive, and ocular, renal and hematological involvement during the first year of life. The thromboembolic events are associated with small vessel involvement, generating thrombotic microangiopathy responsible for renal involvement and pulmonary thromboembolism. The late-onset form is characterized by leukoencephalopathy, psychiatric disorders, subacute degeneration of the spinal cord, and thromboembolic events of medium to large vessels. The treatment currently available increases the survival of the patient and improves growth, neurological manifestations, biochemical, hematological profile and hydrocephalus. We present the neonatal debut of a case of CblC deficiency that appeared as a multisystem disease with initial neurological, ocular and hematological manifestations. The onset of symptoms was acute, a characteristic that is not frequent in CblC. The patient started treatment early, but in an unsatisfactory fashion, which led to increased neurological deterioration. Due to MRI images performed during the evolution of his condition, a superior and transverse sagittal sinus thrombosis, a rare manifestation of the disease, was observed.


La deficiencia de cobalamina C (CblC) es un defecto autosómico recesivo causado por la mutación del gen MMACHC, que resulta en la síntesis alterada de los cofactores metilcobalamina y adenosilcobalamina. Esto trae aparejado una disfunción de dos enzimas claves, lo cual genera hiperhomocisteinemia, hipometionimemia y aciduria metilmalónica. La presentación clínica de la deficiencia de CblC es heterogénea, y varía desde las formas de inicio temprano graves y potencialmente mortales, hasta los fenotipos más leves de inicio tardío. La forma clínica temprana es la más frecuente y se manifiesta como una enfermedad multisistémica, con restricción del desarrollo, restricción del crecimiento y alteraciones oculares, renales y hematológicas durante el primer año de vida. Las manifestaciones tromboembólicas están asociadas con el compromiso de pequeños vasos, lo que causa microangiopatía trombótica, responsable de compromiso renal y de tromboembolismo pulmonar. La forma tardía se caracteriza por leucoencefalopatía, trastornos psiquiátricos, degeneración subaguda de la médula espinal y eventos tromboembólicos de medianos o grandes vasos. El tratamiento disponible actualmente aumenta la supervivencia de la enfermedad y mejora el crecimiento, las manifestaciones neurológicas, el perfil bioquímico y hematológico y la hidrocefalia. Presentamos el debut neonatal de un caso de deficiencia de CblC que se manifestó con compromiso inicial neurológico, ocular y hematológico. El comienzo de los síntomas fue agudo, característica que no es frecuente en la deficiencia de CblC. El tratamiento se inició tempranamente, pero en forma insatisfactoria, con evolución de deterioro neurológico. En la evolución de su enfermedad en las imágenes de resonancia magnética, se puso de manifiesto trombosis de los senos sagital superior y transversos, una rara manifestación de la deficiencia de CblC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Vitamin B 12 , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Venous Thrombosis , Hyperhomocysteinemia , Pediatrics
20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204320

ABSTRACT

Background: About half of the under five children are malnourished in India and so is morbidity associated with it. Malnutrition is also associated with multiple vitamin deficiency one of which is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA, RNA and protein synthesis; and for myelination of brain during the early childhood period. Deficiency of vitamin B12 can lead to megaloblastic anemia and neurological problems. So, authors aimed to look prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and; its hematological and neurological effects in severe acute malnourished children.Methods: it was an observational case control study, in which severe acute malnourished (SAM) children aged 0- 59 months who were admitted in Nutritional Rehabilitation Centre (NRC) were enrolled. Vitamin B12 levels were estimated and levels <200 pg/ml, 200-350 pg/ml, and >350 pg/ml were considered deficient, insufficiency and sufficient. Complete blood count was done for hematological effects and; developmental assessment was done to look for neurological effects.Results: Vitamin B12 was deficient, insufficient, normal in 15(16.3%), 25 (27.5%) and 52 (56.5%) children respectively. Vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with hyperpigmentation and glossitis. Infant and young child feeding practices were not associated vitamin B12 deficiency. Macrocytic anemia was found in 23.4% SAM children and macrocytosis was not significantly associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.' Developmental delay was found in 55.3 % children and was not significantly associated with severe acute malnutrition.'Conclusions: There is high prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency and insufficiency in children with severe acute malnourished children. Macrocytic anemia and developmental delay are not significantly associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

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