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1.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 58(1): 6-6, mar. 2024. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556655

ABSTRACT

Resumen La gastritis autoinmune (GAI) es una afección inflamatoria progresiva de la mucosa oxíntica caracterizada por la destrucción de células parietales, pérdida de factor intrínseco, malabsorción de vitamina B12 (cobalamina), hierro y otros micronutrientes y puede progresar hacia un estado avanzado de anemia megaloblástica conocida como anemia perniciosa (AP). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la deficiencia de vitamina B12 debida a malabsorción utilizando la detección de anticuerpos anti-células parietales gástricas (ACPG) y anti-factor intrínseco (AFI). Se analizaron 2050 sueros de pacientes con un inmunoanálisis quimioluminiscente para vitamina B12 total y 2,8% de éstos con las pruebas de inmunofluorescencia indirecta para ACPG y enzimoinmunoanálisis para AFI. La deficiencia de vitamina B12 (<200 ng/mL) fue del 13,1%. En la detección de anticuerpos se encontró: 2 doble positivos ACPG/AFI, 17 simple positivos ACPG y 4 simple positivos AFI. Todas las muestras ACPG y/o AFI positivas tuvieron valores de vitamina B12 total <200 ng/mL. En 5 pacientes con ACPG positivos se diagnosticó gastritis crónica confirmada por biopsia. En los 6 pacientes AFI positivos se realizó el diagnóstico de AP y en 2 de ellos se confirmó por histopatología. La positividad de ACPG y/o AFI permitió la clasificación de pacientes con sospecha de GAI en candidatos para la examinación histológica y la aplicación de esquemas terapéuticos adecuados. Se destaca la importancia de las pruebas de laboratorio como parte de una estrategia de diagnóstico temprano y vigilancia endoscópica, para evitar las manifestaciones relacionadas con la deficiencia de hierro y vitamina B12 y las complicaciones de la enfermedad avanzada.


Abstract Autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is a progressive inflammatory condition of the oxyntic mucosa, characterised by gastric parietal cell destruction, loss of intrinsic factor, and malabsorption of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), iron and other micronutrients; conditioning progress to a state of megaloblastic anemia known as pernicious anemia (PA). The aim of this study was to determine vitamin B12 deficiency due to malabsorption utilizing anti-parietal cell (APCA) and anti-intrinsic factor (IFA) antibodies detection. 2050 patient serum samples were analised by chemiluminescent immunoassay for vitamin B12. A total of 2.8% of them were tested for APCA by indirect immunofluorescence and for IFA by enzyme immunoessay. Vitamin B12 deficiency (<200 ng/mL) was 13.1%. Regarding antibody detection: 2 APCA/IFA double positives, 17 APCA simple positives and 4 IFA simple positives were found. APCA and/or IFA positive samples had total vitamin B12 values <200 ng/mL. Chronic gastritis confirmed by biopsy was diagnosed in 5 patients with positive ACPG antibodies. All 6 IFA positive patients were diagnosed with PA, while 2 of them also received histopatologic confirmation. APCA and/or IFA confirmation allowed for the classification of patients with suspicion of AIG as possible candidates for histologic examination and application of appropriate therapeutic schemes. Importance of laboratory testing is to be noted; as part of a strategy that enables early diagnosis and adequate endoscopic surveillance, to avoid manifestations related to iron and vitamin B12 deficiency and the complications of advanced disease.


Resumo A gastrite autoimune (GAI) é uma doença inflamatória progressiva da mucosa oxíntica, caracterizada pela destruição das células parietais gástricas, perda do fator intrínseco, má absorção de vitamina B12 (cobalamina), ferro e outros micronutrientes pode progredir para um estado avançado de anemia megaloblástica conhecida como anemia perniciosa (AP). O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a deficiência de vitamina B12 por má absorção usando a detecção de anticorpos anti-células parietais gástricas (ACPG) e anti-fator intrínseco (AFI). Foram analisados 2050 soros de pacientes com um imunoensaio quimioluminiscente para vitamina B12 total, 2,8% deles com testes de imunofluorescência indireta para ACPG e enzimaimunoensaio para AFI. A deficiência de vitamina B12 (<200 ng/mL) foi de 13,1%. Na detecção de anticorpos foram encontrados: 2 duplo positivos ACPG/AFI, 17 simples positivos ACPG e 4 simples positivos AFI. Todas as amostras ACPG e/ou AFI positivas apresentaram valores de vitamina B12 total <200 ng/mL. Gastrite crônica confirmada por biópsia foi diagnosticada em 5 pacientes positivos para ACPG. Nos 6 pacientes AFI positivos o diagnóstico de AP foi feito e em 2 deles foi confirmado por histopatologia. A positividade para ACPG e/ou AFI permitiu a classificação de pacientes com suspeita de GAI em candidatos para exame histológico e a aplicação de esquemas terapêuticos adequados. Destaca-se a importancia dos testes laboratoriais, como parte de uma estratégia de diagnóstico precoce e vigilância endoscópica, para evitar manifestações relacionadas à deficiência de ferro e vitamina B12 e complicações da doença avançada.

2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 126-133, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006277

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo prepare oral nanoemulsions encapsulating essential oil from Alpinia zerumbet fructus(EOFAZ) and to investigate its pro-absorption effect in vitro and distribution in vivo. MethodThe proteoglycan conjugate polysaccharides of vinegar-processed Bupleuri Radix-bovine serum albumin(VBCP-BSA) was prepared by Maillard reaction of VBCP and BSA. Taking VBCP-BSA as emulsifier, vitamin B12(VB12) as absorption enhancer, and medium chain triglycerides mixed with EOFAZ as oil phase, the nanoemulsions loaded with EOFAZ was prepared by high energy emulsification method. The particle size, particle size distribution, surface Zeta potential, EOFAZ content and appearance and morphology of the nanoemulsions were characterized, and fluorescein tracer method was used to investigate the absorption effect of fluorescein-labeled EOFAZ nanoemulsions in vitro and their distribution in vivo. ResultVBCP-BSA was formed by Maillard reaction for 48 h with high grafting rate. Using VBCP-BSA as emulsifier, the homogeneous pink nanoemulsions was prepared and denoted as EOFAZ@VBCP-BSA/VB12. The particle size of the nanoemulsions was less than 100 nm and the particle size distribution was uniform. The surface of the nanoemulsions was a weak negative charge, and the shape was spherical. The encapsulation rate of the nanoemulsions for EOFAZ was greater than 80%, which had a good absorption effect in vitro and could enhance liver accumulation after oral administration. ConclusionThe designed proteoglycan nanoemulsions can effectively load EOFAZ, promote oral absorption and enhance liver distribution, which can provide experimental basis for the development of oral EOFAZ liver protection preparations.

3.
Philippine Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 331-333, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013461

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vitamin B12 is one of the common drugs used by physicians to treat peripheral neuropathy (PN), although many patients have a good response, however, overdose and toxicity aggravate the condition and worsen the patient’s symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to highlight association between Vitamin B12 toxicity and deterioration of PN symptoms.@*Case Summary@#An elder Sudanese man with acute onset of sensory PN, the patient’s symptoms started by tingling sensations and paresthesia affecting both hands and feet. After patient received cobalamin (vitamin B 12) prescribed by his doctor, the patient symptoms were markedly aggravated and his condition worsened to extend that impaired the normal patient ordinary work. No symptoms related to motor system. Other possible etiologies were studied and excluded. Investigations of his condition revealed blood level of B12 was 1900 pg/mL, the patient condition improved dramatically with discontinuation of the drug.@*Conclusion@#Cobalamin toxicity aggravate sensory PN symptoms. Clinicians are advised to adjust the dose and check Cobalamin level before and during treatment to avoid its toxicity.


Subject(s)
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Vitamin B 12
4.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530276

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar la prevalencia del déficit de vitamina B12 en mujeres cursando puerperio inmediato. Material y método: estudio observacional descriptivo de captación prospectiva de la cohorte en estudio. Muestra de 133 mujeres cursando el tercer trimestre de embarazo en la maternidad del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR), Montevideo, Uruguay, entre setiembre de 2021 y octubre de 2022. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre materna en el puerperio inmediato por punción venosa periférica. Estas muestras fueron procesadas mediante inmunoensayo de electroquimioluminiscencia. Además, se aplicó una entrevista para la evaluación de los hábitos nutricionales. Resultados: todas las pacientes reportaron tener una dieta omnívora, excepto una, que manifestó llevar una dieta vegana y recibía suplementación diaria de vitamina B12. El 75,9% de la muestra del estudio presentó un nivel socioeconómico bajo, puntuado según el cuestionario de medición de nivel socioeconómico del INSE (Índice de nivel socioeconómico, 2018 - Cámara de Empresas de Investigación Social y Mercado del Uruguay, CEISMU). Se registró una prevalencia de déficit de vitamina B12 de 39,10% (n: 52). Conclusiones: a pesar de que esta muestra de embarazadas presenta una dieta omnívora, se detectó una elevada prevalencia de déficit de vitamina B12. Dada la importancia de esta vitamina en la salud materna, fetal y neonatal, se deberían considerar políticas de salud pública de prevención de la deficiencia tanto en embarazadas como en madres lactantes.


Objective: To assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in women during the immediate postpartum period. Method: Descriptive observational study with prospective cohort recruitment, involving a sample of 133 women in their third trimester of pregnancy at the Maternity Department of the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center (CHPR) in Montevideo, Uruguay, between September 2021 and October 2022. Maternal blood samples were obtained during the immediate postpartum period through peripheral venous puncture. These samples were processed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay. Additionally, a nutritional interview was conducted to assess dietary habits. Results: All patients reported following an omnivorous diet, except for one who reported following a vegan diet and received daily vitamin B12 supplementation. Seventy-five point nine percent (75.9%) of the study sample exhibited a low socioeconomic status as determined by the Socioeconomic Level Measurement Questionnaire of the INSE (Socioeconomic Level Index, 2018 - CEISMU, Uruguay). Resulting in a vitamin B12 deficiency prevalence of 39.10% (n: 52). Conclusions: Despite the fact that this sample of pregnant women maintains an omnivorous diet, a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was detected. Given the significance of vitamin B12 for maternal, fetal, and neonatal health, public health policies for preventing deficiency should be considered for both pregnant women and lactating mothers.


Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência da deficiência de vitamina B12 em mulheres durante o pós-parto imediato. Métodos: Estudo observacional descritivo de recrutamento prospectivo da coorte em estudo; amostra com 133 mulheres no terceiro trimestre de gravidez na maternidade do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell (CHPR), em Montevidéu Uruguai, entre setembro de 2021 e outubro de 2022. As amostras de sangue materno foram obtidas no pós-parto imediato por punção venosa periférica que foram processadas por imunoensaio eletroquimioluminescente. Além disso, foi realizada uma entrevista nutricional para avaliar hábitos nutricionais. Resultados: Todas as pacientes relataram ter dieta onívora, exceto uma que relatou ter dieta vegana e receber suplementação diária de vitamina B12. 75,9% da amostra apresentou baixo nível socioeconômico de acordo com o Questionário de Medição do Nível Socioeconômico do INSE (Índice de Nível Socioeconômico, 2018 - CEISMU, Uruguai). Uma prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 de 39,10% (n: 52) foi registrada. Conclusões: Embora esta amostra de gestantes tenha dieta onívora, uma alta prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 foi detectada. Dada a importância da vitamina B12 na saúde materna, fetal e neonatal, devem ser consideradas políticas de saúde pública para prevenir a deficiência tanto em mães grávidas como em lactantes.

5.
Medisur ; 21(6)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550556

ABSTRACT

La anemia megaloblástica pertenece al subgrupo de anemias carenciales. Con el objetivo de describir el efecto del déficit de vitaminas B9 y B12 en la génesis de la anemia megaloblástica se realizó la presente investigación. La anemia megaloblástica se presenta cuando los niveles de ácido fólico (Vitamina B9) y cianocobalamina (vitamina B12) son bajos, generando así una disminución en la capacidad celular de sintetizar ácido desoxirribonucleico, lo que ocasiona alteraciones hematológicas en todas las líneas celulares de la médula ósea (eritrocitos y plaquetas), principalmente provocando la generación de hematíes de gran tamaño y con baja concentración de hemoglobina. Las vitaminas B9 y B12 participan en la síntesis normal de ácidos nucleicos, implicándose directamente en la síntesis de purinas y pirimidinas, así como la maduración celular. El déficit de estas vitaminas tiene efecto sobre el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso central.


Megaloblastic anemia belongs to the subgroup of deficiency anemias. With the objective of describing the effect of B9 and B12 vitamins deficiency on the genesis of megaloblastic anemia, this research was carried out. Megaloblastic anemia occurs when the levels of folic acid (Vitamin B9) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) are low, thus generating a decrease in the cellular capacity to synthesize deoxyribonucleic acid, which causes hematological alterations in all cell lines of the marrow bone (erythrocytes and platelets), mainly causing the generation of large red blood cells with low hemoglobin concentration. Vitamins B9 and B12 participate in the normal synthesis of nucleic acids, being directly involved in the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, as well as cell maturation. The deficiency of these vitamins has an effect on the central nervous system functioning.

6.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533515

ABSTRACT

Propósito: La neuropatía periférica tiene un espectro clínico inespecífico y multifactorial, con frecuente subdiagnóstico y terapéutica de eficacia variable. Existe una heterogénea prescripción de vitaminas B, las cuales pueden desempeñar un rol importante en el manejo de diferentes neuropatías; sin embargo, en Colombia no existen guías clínicas al respecto. El propósito de este trabajo es orientar en el reconocimiento temprano de las neuropatías periféricas y generar recomendaciones sobre el uso adecuado de vitaminas B neurotrópicas. Descripción de la metodología: Acuerdo de expertos sobre la neuropatía periférica y el rol terapéutico de las vitaminas B con énfasis en la epidemiología en Colombia, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Contenidos: En Colombia, la prevalencia de neuropatía periférica se estima cercana al 10 %, sin embargo, no hay datos recientes. Dentro de las etiologías más frecuentes se encuentran la neuropatía diabética, infecciosa, inflamatoria, carenciales, toxica y farmacológica. Se recomiendan las siguientes herramientas de tamizaje en población de riesgo: DN4, MNSI, test de monofilamento, test de vibración y valoración de reflejos. Las vitaminas B1, B6 y B12 son seguras, accesibles y pueden ser eficaces en neuropatía periférica, incluso cuando el déficit no ha sido demostrado, pero con requerimientos particulares en su administración conjunta. Conclusiones: Las neuropatías periféricas son un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico que requiere la identificación oportuna para el tratamiento de la etiología subyacente y el control de síntomas. El uso de vitaminas B neurotrópicas es efectivo y seguro en neuropatía periférica carencial, y también parece ser eficaz en el manejo de neuropatías periféricas de diferentes etiologías.


Purpose: Peripheral neuropathy has a nonspecific and multifactorial clinical spectrum, with frequent underdiagnosis and therapeutics of variable efficacy. There is a high but heterogeneous prescription of B vitamins, which can play an important role in the management of different neuropathies; however, in Colombia there are no clinical guidelines in this regard. The purpose of this article is to guide the early recognition of peripheral neuropathy and generate recommendations on the proper use of neurotropic B vitamins. Description of the methodology: Expert agreement on peripheral neuropathy and the therapeutic role of B vitamins with emphasis on epidemiology in Colombia, diagnosis and treatment. Contents: In Colombia, there are no recent data to estimate the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy; the main etiologies are: diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiencies, herpes zoster and neuropathies due to chemotherapy. Given risk factors in the anamnesis, the use of DN4, MNSI, monofilament test, vibration test and assessment of reflexes is recommended. Vitamins B1, B6, and B12 are safe and can be effective in peripheral neuropathy, even when the deficit has not been demonstrated, but with special requirements in their joint administration. Conclusions: peripheral neuropathies are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and require timely identification, for the treatment of the underlying etiology and symptom control. The use of neurotropic B vitamins is effective and safe in deficient peripheral neuropathy, and also appears to be effective in the management of peripheral neuropathies of different etiologies.


Subject(s)
Vitamin B 12 , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Diabetic Neuropathies , Diagnosis , Pyridoxine , Pain Management
7.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 21(3): [1-12], 20230901.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512789

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with hemorrhagic stroke being the deadliest form of acute stroke. Therefore, the cause of the event should be determined to direct the associated therapy and take preventive measures. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been described as a rare etiology of stroke. Although hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with venous thrombotic events, altered endothelial function, and procoagulant states, its clinical role in stroke remains controversial. Case description: We present a case of a 60-year-old male patient with primary autoimmune hypothyroidism who presented with dysarthria, facial paresis, and left upper-limb monoparesis after sexual intercourse. A simple skull computed tomography scan showed hyperintensity in the right basal ganglion, indicating an acute hemorrhagic event. Etiological studies were performed, including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, cerebral angiography, and transthoracic echocardiogram, which ruled out underlying vascular pathology. During follow-up, vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia were detected, without other blood biochemical profile alterations. Supplementation was initiated, and homocysteine levels gradually decreased, without new neurological deficits observed during follow-up. Conclusion: Quantification of homocysteine should be considered in patients with a cerebrovascular disease without apparent cause, as documenting hyperhomocysteinemia and correcting its underlying etiology are essential not only for providing appropriate management but also for preventing future events.


Introducción: el accidente cerebrovascular es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en todo el mundo, y el accidente cerebrovascular hemorrágico es la forma más mortífera de accidente cerebro- vascular agudo. La determinación de la causa del evento es esencial para dirigir la terapia asociada y poder tomar medidas preventivas. La hiperhomocisteinemia se ha descrito como una etiología poco frecuente de accidente cerebrovascular. Aunque esta se ha asociado con eventos trombóticos venosos, disfunción endotelial alterada y estados procoagulantes, sigue siendo controvertido su papel clínico en el accidente cerebrovascular. Descripción del caso: se presenta el caso de un hombre de 60 años con hipotiroidismo autoinmune primario que presentó disartria, paresia facial y monoparesia del miembro superior izquierdo después de un encuentro sexual. Una simple tomografía computarizada de cráneo mostró hipointensidad en la región del ganglio basal derecho, que indicaba un evento hemorrágico agudo. Se realizaron estudios etiológicos, incluyendo monitorización ambulatoria de la presión arterial, angiografía cerebral y ecocardiograma transtorácico, que descartaron patología vascular subyacente. Durante el seguimiento, se detectó deficiencia de vitamina B12 e hiperhomocisteinemia, sin otras alteraciones en el perfil bioquímico sanguíneo. Se inició la suplementación y los niveles de homocisteína disminuyeron gradualmente, sin observar nuevos déficits neurológicos durante el seguimiento. Conclusión: la cuantificación de homocisteína debe ser considerada en casos de enfermedad cerebrovascular sin causa aparente, dado que documentar la hiperhomocisteinemia y corregir su etiología subyacente es esencial no solo para proporcionar un manejo adecuado, sino también para prevenir eventos futuros.


Introdução: o acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) é uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo, sendo o AVC hemorrágico a forma mais letal de AVC agudo. A determinação da causa do evento é essencial para direcionar a terapia associada e poder tomar medidas preventivas. A hiperhomocisteinemia tem sido descrita como uma etiologia rara de acidente vascular cerebral. Embora a hiper-homocisteinemia tenha sido associada a eventos trombóticos venosos, disfunção endotelial alterada e estados pró-coagulantes, seu papel clínico no AVC permanece controverso. Descrição do caso: apresentamos o caso de um homem de 60 anos com hipotireoidismo autoimune primário que apresentou disartria, paresia facial e monoparesia do membro superior esquerdo após relação sexual. A tomografia computadorizada de crânio mostrou hipointensidade na região do gânglio da base direito, indicando evento hemorrágico agudo. Foram realizados estudos etiológicos, incluindo monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial, angiografia cerebral e ecocardiograma transtorácico, que descartaram patologia vascular subjacente. Durante o acompanhamento, foram detectados deficiência de vitamina B12 e hiper-homocistei- nemia, sem outras alterações no perfil bioquímico sanguíneo. A suplementação foi iniciada e os níveis de homocisteína diminuíram gradualmente, sem novos déficits neurológicos observados durante o acompanhamento. Conclusão: a quantificação da homocisteína deve ser considerada em casos de doença vascular cerebral sem causa aparente, pois documentar a hiper-homocisteinemia e corrigir sua etiologia subjacente é essencial não apenas para fornecer manejo adequado, mas também para prevenir eventos futuros.


Subject(s)
Humans
8.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 38(3)sept. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535927

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by decreased vitamin B12, megaloblastic anemia, and proteinuria. Clinical case: A 58-year-old woman with four episodes of generalized tonic movements whose paraclinical findings showed cyanocobalamin deficiency. The presence of gait disturbances and constitutional syndrome was reported upon questioning, which required further investigation. The extension tests confirmed type 1 IGS, so it was decided to continue the cyanocobalamin management and nutrition evaluation, with which an adequate evolution was achieved. The patient was eventually discharged. Conclusion: This pathology is low prevalence and mainly affects the first decade of life. It prefers the female sex and is characterized by a decrease in vitamin B12, which can predispose to other disorders such as ataxia and growth retardation.


Introducción: el síndrome de Imerslund-Gräsbeck es un trastorno congénito infrecuente caracterizado por disminución de la vitamina B12, anemia megaloblástica y proteinuria. Caso clínico: mujer de 58 años de edad con cuatro episodios de movimientos tónicos generalizados cuyos paraclínicos mostraban deficiencia de cianocobalamina, por lo que en el interrogatorio se reportaba la presencia de alteraciones en la marcha y síndrome constitucional que requería ampliar los estudios. Los exámenes de extensión confirmaron el síndrome de Imerslund-Gräsbeck tipo 1, de modo que se decidió continuar el manejo con cianocobalamina y valoración con nutrición, con lo que se obtuvo una adecuada evolución y se decidió dar egreso a la paciente. Conclusión: esta patología tiene una baja prevalencia y afecta principalmente a la primera década de la vida, tiene predilección por el sexo femenino y se caracteriza por una disminución de la vitamina B12, que puede predisponer a otras alteraciones como ataxia y retraso en el crecimiento.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222325

ABSTRACT

Infantile tremor syndrome (ITS) is a very rare disease with an incidence of <0.2% in India. Affecting children are around 1 year of age and characterized by developmental delay, skin pigmentation, and coarse tremors. Studies since 1990 conclude that ITS is caused by nutritional deficiencies, most prominently of Vitamin B12. Since lactating mothers from a poor socioeconomic background in regions where vegetarianism is prevalent because of cultural reasons are most likely to be deficient in Vitamin B12, the syndrome is most likely to affect this segment. The case described herein is unique because it is from Mangalore in India which is a coastal town with very low levels of vegetarianism. A 14-month-old girl presented with fever, vomiting, and loose stools coupled with abnormal movements of eyes, tongue, and hands which were coarse, rhythmic, continuous of low amplitude, present throughout the day, and absent during sleep. Although initial suspicions were of seizures and the patient was administered anti-epileptics, there was no improvement in the condition of the patient. On suspicions of symptoms being of ITS, an MRI-brain was done which showed diffuse mild loss of white matter. Consequently, blood investigations showed macro-to-microcytic hypochromic anemia. Thereafter, the child was started on injectable B12 supplementation and propanolol at 0.5 mg/kg/day for tremors. The child responded well clinically.

10.
Colomb. med ; 54(2)jun. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534282

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Megaloblastic anemias secondary to Vitamin B12 deficiency are a group of pathologies produced by defective nuclear DNA synthesis. Objective: To describe the maturation alterations found in hematopoietic precursors of the bone marrow in a series of patients with megaloblastic anemia. Methods: Were included patients attended at the Regional Hospital of Concepción with bone marrow samples sent for the study of cytopenia by flow cytometry whose final diagnosis was megaloblastic anemia. The immunophenotype was performed with CD45, CD34, CD117, HLA-DR, markers of neutrophil (CD13, CD11b, CD10, CD16) and/or erythroblast (CD105, CD71, CD36) maturation. Results: From the flow cytometry laboratory database, 8 patients with megaloblastic anemia were identified, and myelodysplastic syndromes (n=9) and normal or reactive bone marrow (n=10) were used as controls. 44% were men, with a median age of 58 years. Megaloblastic anemia was associated with a higher proportion of size and complexity of erythroid and myeloid progenitors compared to lymphocytes compared to controls. The total percentage of erythroblasts and the proportion of CD34+ myeloid cells associated with erythroid lineage was higher in megaloblastic anemia, associated with a maturation arrest in the CD105+ precursor stage (69% vs 19% and 23%, p<0.001). The heterogeneity of CD36 and CD71 in megaloblastic anemia was similar to myelodysplastic syndromes. Conclusions: Megaloblastic anemia produces a heterogeneous involvement of hematopoiesis, characterized by a greater size and cellular complexity of precursors of the neutrophil and erythroid series and a maturation arrest of the erythroblasts.


Introducción: Anemias megaloblásticas secundarias a la deficiencia de vitamina B12 son patologías producidas por una síntesis defectuosa del ADN nuclear. Objetivo: Describir las alteraciones madurativas encontradas en precursores hematopoyéticos de la médula ósea de una serie de pacientes con anemia megaloblástica. Métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Regional de Concepción con muestras de médula ósea enviadas para estudio de citopenias por citometría de flujo cuyo diagnóstico fue anemia megaloblástica. El inmunofenotipo se realizó con CD45, CD34, CD117, HLA-DR, marcadores de maduración de serie de neutrófilo (CD13, CD11b, CD10, CD16) y/o eritroblasto (CD105, CD71, CD36). Resultados: Se identificaron 8 pacientes con anemia megaloblástica y como controles se utilizaron síndromes mielodisplásicos (n=9) y médula ósea normal o reactiva (n=10). El 44% eran hombres, con una mediana de edad de 58 años. La anemia megaloblástica se asoció con una mayor proporción de tamaño y complejidad de progenitores eritroides y mieloides con respecto de los linfocitos en comparación a los controles. El porcentaje total de eritroblastos y la proporción de células mieloides CD34+ comprometidas con el linaje eritroide fue mayor en anemia megaloblástica, asociado a una parada madurativa en la etapa de precursor CD105+ (69% vs 19% y 23%, p <0.001). La heterogeneidad de CD36 y CD71 en anemia megaloblástica fue similar a los síndromes mielodisplásicos. Conclusiones: la anemia megaloblástica produce una afectación heterogénea de la hematopoyesis, caracterizada por un mayor tamaño y complejidad celulares de precursores de la serie neutrófilo y eritroide y una detención madurativa de los eritroblastos.

11.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533494

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La degeneración combinada subaguda (DCS) es un trastorno caracterizado por la degeneración difusa de la sustancia blanca a nivel del SNC, que afecta específicamente los cordones posteriores y laterales de la médula espinal, con pérdida de la mielinización periférica y central. De manera frecuente, las manifestaciones clínicas son parestesias y debilidad generalizada causada por deficiencia de vitamina B12. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 79 años, con cuadro clínico de 3 meses de evolución de limitación funcional para la marcha acompañado de desorientación. Al examen físico evidenció desorientación, cuadriparesia e hiporreflexia, con niveles séricos bajos de vitamina B12, RM cervical con focos hiperintensos en el segmento C3/C6 y endoscopia de vías digestivas altas con atrofia de la mucosa gástrica. Presentamos un caso clínico de DCS. Discusión: Este es un caso de DCS que se manifiesta por medio de una alteración neuropsiquiátrica, con una presentación inicial inespecífica que comprende deterioro de la marcha, movimientos anormales con afectación cognitiva y psiquiátrica dada por alucinaciones visuales y desorientación. Su sospecha es importante en pacientes con factores de riesgo por medio del conocimiento de la patología, para una adecuada sospecha diagnóstica y una instauración oportuna de reposición vitamínica, la cual presenta una excelente respuesta. Conclusión: La DCS es un trastorno en el que se evidencia anemia con deficiencia de vitamina B12, des-mielinización del tejido nervioso y en muchos casos signos sugestivos de atrofia gástrica, y para ello es crucial la detección temprana de esta enfermedad por medio de la determinación de niveles séricos de vitamina B12, asociado a síntomas neurológicos, para así lograr su adecuado diagnóstico y tratamiento.


Introduction: Subacute combined degeneration (DCS) is a disorder characterized by diffuse degeneration of white matter at the CNS level, specifically affecting the posterior and lateral cords of the spinal cord, also with loss of peripheral and central myelination, frequently the clinical manifestations are paresthesias and generalized weakness caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. Case presentation: A 79-year-old male patient with a 3-month history of functional limitation for walking accompanied by disorientation. On physical examination, he revealed disorientation, quadriparesis, and hyporeflexia, with low serum levels of vitamin B12, cervical MRI with hyperintense foci in segment C3/C6, and upper digestive tract endoscopy with atrophy of the gastric mucosa. We present a clinical case of DCS. Discussion: This is a case of DCS that manifests itself through neuropsychiatric alteration with a nonspecific initial presentation with gait impairment, abnormal movements with cognitive and psychiatric affectation given by visual hallucinations and disorientation. Its suspicion is important in patients with risk factors. risk through knowledge of the pathology for an adequate diagnostic suspicion and a timely establishment of vitamin replacement for which it presents an excellent response. Conclusion: DCS is a disorder where anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency, demyelination of the nervous tissue and in many cases signs suggestive of gastric atrophy are evident, for which early detection of this disease is crucial through the determination of serum levels of vitamin B12 associated with neurological symptoms, in order to achieve its proper diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Anemia , Methylmalonic Acid , Muscle Weakness , Subacute Combined Degeneration , Intrinsic Factor
12.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442374

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The high prevalence of low vitamin B12 serum levels has been recognized as a public health problem in Latin America; however, the current magnitude of this deficiency in Colombia is uncertain. Low levels of vitamin B12 can induce clinical and subclinical hematological and neurological disorders. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the role of vitamin B12 in insulin resistance has been poorly studied. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin B12 serum levels and biochemical and anthropometric markers related to CVDs and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women from Colombia Caribbean. Methods: Correlational, descriptive study. By convenience sampling, 182 postmenopausal women from the medical consultation service of a health institution were linked. Serum vitamin B12 levels, anthropometric variables (body mass index, abdominal perimeter), and biochemical variables (glycemia, insulin, lipid profile, HOMA IR) were evaluated. Results: The average value of the vitamin B12 serum level was 312.5 ± 122.5 pg/mL (230.6 ± 90.4 pmol/L); 46.7% of the women had less than adequate levels of 300 pg/mL (> 221 pmol/L), and 9. 9% were deficient, with levels of less than 200 pg/mL (148 pmol/L). The women with metabolic syndrome were 63.7%, and according to HOMA IR, 52.7 % had insulin resistance. A significant inverse relationship was shown between serum vitamin B12 levels with basal glycemic (P =0.002) and HOMA-IR (P =0.040). Conclusions: A significant inverse relationship between vitamin B12 levels and basal glycemia and HOMA-IR was observed. These findings highlight vitamin B12 deficiency in postmenopausal women and suggest nutritional supplementation.Keywords: Vitamin B12, Insulin resistance, Diet, Postmenopause, Cardiovascular diseases (AU).


Introdução: A alta prevalência de baixos níveis séricos de vitamina B12 foi reconhecida como um problema de saúde pública na América Latina, mas a magnitude atual dessa deficiência na Colômbia é incerta. Baixos níveis de vitamina B12 podem induzir distúrbios hematológicos e neurológicos clínicos e subclínicos. Na verdade, estudos epidemiológicos demonstram uma relação entre deficiência de vitamina B12 e doenças cardiovasculares (DCVs). No entanto, o papel da vitamina B12 na resistência à insulina tem sido pouco estudado. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 e marcadores bioquímicos e antropométricos relacionados com doenças cardiovasculares e resistência à insulina em mulheres pós-menopáusicas da Colômbia Caribe. Métodos: Estudo correlacional, descritivo. Por amostragem de conveniência, foram vinculadas 182 mulheres na pós-menopausa do serviço de consulta médica de uma instituição de saúde. Níveis séricos de vitamina B12, variáveis antropométricas (índice de massa corporal, perímetro abdominal) e variáveis bioquímicas (glicemia, insulina, perfil lipídico, HOMA IR) foram avaliadas. Resultados: O valor médio do nível sérico de vitamina B12 foi de 312,5 ± 122,5 pg/mL (230,6 ± 90,4 pmol/L); 46,7% das mulheres tinham níveis abaixo do adequado de 300 pg/mL (> 221 pmol/L), e 9,9% eram deficientes, com níveis abaixo de 200 pg/mL (148 pmol/L).As mulheres com síndrome metabólica foram 63,7% e, segundo o HOMA IR, 52,7% apresentavam resistência à insulina. Uma relação inversa significativa entre os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 com glicemia basal (P = 0,002) e HOMA-IR (P = 0,040) foi mostrada. Conclusões: Foi observada uma relação inversa significativa entre os níveis de vitamina B12 e glicemia basal e HOMA-IR. Esses achados destacam a deficiência de vitamina B12 em mulheres na pós-menopausa e sugerem suplementação nutricional (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vitamin B Complex , Insulin Resistance , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Postmenopause , Colombia , Caribbean Region
13.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 159(1): 32-37, ene.-feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448262

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Aún es controversial si la deficiencia de vitamina B12 se asocia a alteraciones cognitivas. Objetivo: Conocer la asociación entre los niveles séricos de vitamina B12 y el desempeño cognitivo. Métodos: Se incluyeron 241 personas ≥ 60 años con medición de niveles séricos de vitamina B12. Se realizó evaluación física y cognitiva y se formaron tres grupos: cognición normal (CN), deterioro cognitivo leve (DCL) y demencia. Los niveles de vitamina B12 se clasificaron en suficiencia (> 400 pg/mL), deficiencia subclínica (201-400 pg/mL) y deficiencia absoluta (≤ 200 pg/mL). Se realizó análisis de regresión lineal multivariado para evaluar la asociación entre función cognitiva y niveles de vitamina B12 después de controlar las variables confusoras. Resultados: La media de edad fue 81.4 ± 8.0 años; 68 % fue del sexo femenino; 17.8 y 39.8 % presentaron deficiencia absoluta y subclínica de vitamina B12; 80 individuos (33 %) cumplieron los criterios de DCL y 70 (29 %), de demencia. Después de ajustar por edad, sexo y escolaridad, los sujetos con DCL y demencia tuvieron niveles más bajos de vitamina B12 comparados con aquellos con CN (p = 0.019). Conclusiones: Se observó asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el desempeño cognitivo global y los niveles bajos de vitamina B12.


Abstract Introduction: Whether vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment remains controversial. Objective: To determine the association between vitamin B12 serum levels and cognitive performance. Methods: Two-hundred and forty-one adults aged ≥ 60 years who had serum vitamin B12 serum levels measurement were included. Physical and cognitive evaluation was carried out, and three groups were formed: normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Vitamin B12 levels were classified as sufficiency (> 400 pg/mL), subclinical deficiency (201-400 pg/mL), and absolute deficiency (≤ 200 pg/mL). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between cognitive function and vitamin B12 levels after controlling for confounding variables. Results: Mean age was 81.4 ± 8.0 years; 68% were females; 17.8 % and 39.8% had absolute and subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency, respectively; 80 individuals (33%) met the criteria for MCI, and 70 (29%), for dementia. Those with MCI and dementia had lower vitamin B12 levels in comparison with those with NC after adjusting for age, gender and educational level (p = 0.019). Conclusions: A statistically significant association was observed between global cognitive performance and levels of vitamin B12.

14.
JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES ; (4): 406-413, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004967

ABSTRACT

Methylmalonic acidemia(MMA) is one of the common diseases in hereditary organic acid metabolism disorder. The disorder is mainly treated by using vitamin B12 which comes in various forms.The use of the methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin in China cannot meet the needs of children with MMA. Parenteral use of hydroxocobalamin of high concentration has significant advantages in the treatment of MMA. But, the accessibility to hydroxocobalamin is challenging now.Through the supervision and adjustment of hydroxocobalamin, we explored the strategy of using the drugs. Meanwhile, we are considering the oral use of the hydroxocobalamin as supplement to treatment. Solving the challenges of the hydrococobalamin is helpful to meet the treatment of MMA and to provide a new possibility for the use of medication for rare diseases. The improvement in policy and supervision measures will facilitate the development, involvement, and production of hydroxocobalamin, so that the patients will have a good chance of access to the treatment.

15.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 319-323, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994834

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestations of subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord (SCD) in children are complex and vary greatly. Due to the fact that some patients with SCD may be complicated with autoimmune diseases, the high early misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis rates are observed. One case of 13-year old female with severe anemia, multiple joint swelling and pain in left limbs and paralysis of bilateral lower limbs with the extremely low level of serum vitamin B12 and poly-glandular involvement as well as a variety of positive auto-antibodies (anti-intrinsic factor antibody, anti-parietal cell antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroid globulin antibody and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody) was retrospectively analyzed. The patient was diagnosed as SCD with autoimmune disease (undifferentiated connective tissue disease and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome). The patient′s condition gradually alleviated after high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, immunoglobulin, naproxen (then changed to hydroxychloroquine 1 month later), vitamin B12 and levothyroxine sodium tablets supplementation, blood transfusion and rehabilitation. SCD with autoimmune diseases is rare in children, and the clinical manifestations vary greatly. Early recognition and early treatment can improve the prognosis of SCD. The clinical data of this child were retrospectively analyzed, so as to improve the understanding of the disease by clinicians.

16.
International Eye Science ; (12): 256-260, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960947

ABSTRACT

AIM: To analyze the changes of serum homocysteine(Hcy), vitamin B12(VitB12)and folic acid in the serum of patients with diabetic retinopathy(DR), and to explore their significance in the occurrence and development of DR.METHODS: A case-control study was designed. A total of 95 patients with DR(DR group), 94 patients with diabetes mellitus(DM group)treated in endgcrinology department and 87 patients with age-related cataract(normal control group)from the ophthalmology department of Shenzhen People's Hospital between July 2021 and January 2022 were selected. Fasting venous blood was collected and serum was separated. The concentration of Hcy in serum was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and chemiluminescence immunoassay was used to detect the concentration of VitB12 and folic acid. Pearson linear correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Hcy and clinical parameters. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the main factors which affect Hcy level. Receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve was designed to analyze the diagnostic value of serum Hcy, VitB12 and folic acid in DR.RESULTS: The concentration of serum Hcy in DR group was 16.52±3.54 μmol/L, which was significantly higher than that in DM group(10.86±3.47 μmol/L)and control group(6.84±1.39 μmol/L; all P&#x0026;#x003C;0.05); The concentration of VitB12 in the serum of the control group was 501.79±108.95 pmol/L, which was higher than that in DM group(478.57±57.85 pmol/L)and DR group(455.88±181.49 pmol/L), but the difference was not statistically significant(P=0.054); The concentration of folic acid in serum of control group was 10.31±2.43 nmol/L, which was higher than that of DM group(9.94±1.90 nmol/L)and DR group(7.27±2.79 nmol/L), and the difference between DR group and DM group was statistically significant(P&#x0026;#x003C;0.05); In DR group, Hcy expression was weakly positively correlated with triglyceride and low density lipoprotein(r=0.208, P=0.043; r=0.240, P=0.019). Multivariate linear regression showed that low density lipoprotein was an important factor which affect the expression of Hcy in DR patients. ROC curve shows that Hcy has important value in the diagnosis of DR.CONCLUSIONS: Hcy, VitB12 and folic acid are differentially expressed in DR group, DM group and normal control group. Hcy may be involved in the pathogenesis of DR, and it has important value in the diagnosis of DR. In addition, low density lipoprotein is also an important factor which affects the expression of Hcy.

17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(11): e20230641, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521482

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to explore the impact of metformin and metformin/gliptin combination therapy on the serum concentrations of vitamin B12, ferritin, and folic acid in individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This study included 118 patients, classified into two groups: 59 patients using only metformin and 59 patients using a combination of metformin/gliptin. Among the latter group, 35 patients used vildagliptin/metformin, and 24 used sitagliptin/metformin. The study recorded the demographic data such as the age and gender of the patients, as well as their initial and 1-year follow-up blood parameters. RESULTS: Folic acid decreased significantly in the metformin group but not in the metformin/gliptin group. Vitamin B12 and ferritin decreased significantly in both groups. The decrease in vitamin B12 and ferritin was not significantly different between the two groups. The decrease in fasting plasma glucose was more significant in the metformin/gliptin group than in the metformin group. CONCLUSION: After 1 year, both groups taking metformin and metformin/gliptin showed low serum ferritin and vitamin B12 levels. Therefore, vitamin B12 levels in patients using these drugs should be closely monitored. Ferritin levels can be used to indicate whether glycemic control has been achieved.

18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(11): 683-688, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529898

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective It is well known that female infertility is multifactorial. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of thyroid dysfunction, vitamin deficiency, and microelement deficiency in fertile and infertile patients. Materials and Methods Between May 1st, 2017, and April 1st, 2019, we conducted a retrospective case-control study with of 380 infertile and 346 pregnant patients (who normally fertile and able to conceive spontaneously). The fertile patients were selected among those who got pregnant spontaneously without treatment, had a term birth, and did not have systemic or obstetric diseases. The levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), vitamin D, vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin, and zinc of both groups were compared. Results There was no difference between patients in the infertile and pregnant groups in terms of low normal and high serum T3 and T4 levels (p = 0.938; p > 0.05) respectively, nor in terms of normal and high anti-TPO levels (p = 0.182; p > 0.05) respectively. There was no significant difference regarding patients with low, insufficient, and sufficient vitamin D levels in the infertile and pregnant groups (p = 0.160; p >0.05) respectively. The levels of folic acid, ferritin, and zinc of the infertile group were significantly lower than those of the pregnant group. Conclusion The serum levels of folic acid, ferritin, and zinc in infertile patients presenting to our outpatient clinic were lower than those o the fertile patients.


Resumo Objetivo Sabe-se que a infertilidade feminina é multifatorial. Portanto, nosso objetivo foi comparar os efeitos da disfunção tireoidiana, deficiência de vitaminas e deficiência de microelementos em pacientes férteis e inférteis. Materiais e Métodos Entre 1° de maio de 2017 e 1° de abril de 2019, realizamos um estudo retrospectivo caso-controle com 380 pacientes inférteis e 346 grávidas (normalmente férteis e capazes de conceber espontaneamente). As pacientes férteis foram selecionadas entre aquelas que engravidaram espontaneamente sem tratamento, tiveram parto a termo e não apresentavam doenças sistêmicas ou obstétricas. Os níveis de hormônio estimulante da tireoide (TSH), triiodotironina (T3), tiroxina (T4), antitireoide peroxidase (anti-TPO), vitamina D, vitamina B12, ácido fólico, ferritina e zinco de ambos os grupos foram comparados. Resultados Não houve diferença entre as pacientes dos grupos inférteis e gestantes em relação aos níveis altos de sérumT3 e T4 normais baixos e altos (p = 0,938; p > 0,05), respectivamente nem aos níveis normais e altos de anti-TPO (p = 0,182; p > 0,05), respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa em relação aos pacientes com níveis baixos, insuficientes e suficientes de vitamina D nos grupos inférteis e gestantes (p = 0,160; p > 0,05), respectivamente. Os níveis de ácido fólico, ferritina e zinco do grupo infértil foram significativamente menores do que os do grupo grávida. Conclusão Os níveis de sérum de ácido fólico, ferritina e zinco nas pacientes inférteis atendidas em nosso ambulatório foram menores do que nas pacientes férteis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Thyroid Hormones , Vitamin B 12 , Vitamin D , Zinc , Ferritins , Folic Acid , Infertility, Female
19.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 25(4): 217-222, 2023. graf./tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437058

ABSTRACT

Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient for cell growth and the development of the central nervous system. Its deficiency can manifest clinically as megaloblastic anemia, peripheral neuropathy, myelopathy and neuropsychiatric disorders. Early detection and treatment are essential as it can cause irreversible neurological sequelae. Diagnosis is often challenging as it is based on clinical and biochemical features. Clinically, the symptoms are nonspecific and equivocal. Biochemically, there is no gold standard to detect Cobalamin deficiency. The available biomarkers do not have a defined cut-off value or are not sensitive or specific enough. This article exposes the different causes of vitamin B12 deficiency, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of biochemical markers and, for the first time, proposes an algorithmic diagnosis using biomarkers and therapeutic tests. The ultimate goal is to alert pediatricians to the difficulties of diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency and strategies are proposed to differentiate between acquired and congenital cobalamin conditions. Finally, the treatment according to the etiology is described in a practical manner, as well as the expected time for improvement of the biochemical parameters.


La vitamina B12 es un micronutriente fundamental para el crecimiento celular y el desarrollo del sistema nervioso central. Su deficiencia puede manifestarse clínicamente como anemia megaloblástica, neuropatía periférica, mielopatía y trastornos neuropsiquiátricos. La detección y el tratamiento tempranos son esenciales, ya que esta deficiencia puede generar secuelas neurológicas irreversibles. El diagnóstico suele ser un desafío, ya que se basa en pilares clínicos y bioquímicos. Clínicamente, los síntomas son inespecíficos y equívocos. Bioquímicamente no existe un gold standard para diagnosticar la deficiencia de cobalamina. Los biomarcadores existentes no presentan un valor de corte definido o no son lo suficientemente sensibles o específicos. Este trabajo expone las diferentes causas de deficiencia de vitamina B12, analiza las ventajas y desventajas de los marcadores bioquímicos y por primera vez se plantea un algoritmo diagnóstico mediante biomarcadores y pruebas terapéuticas. El objetivo último es alertar a los pediatras acerca las dificultades que representa el diagnóstico de deficiencia de vitamina B12 y se proponen estrategias para diferenciar cuadros adquiridos versus congénitos de la deficiencia de cobalamina. Por último, se describe de manera práctica el tratamiento según la etiología así como el tiempo esperado para la mejoría de los parámetros bioquímicos.


Subject(s)
Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Vitamin B 12 , Biomarkers , Child , Malnutrition , Anemia
20.
Clin. biomed. res ; 43(1): 14-20, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435593

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Diabetes Mellitus é doença metabólica, caracterizada pela deficiência absoluta ou relativa de insulina, que acomete cerca de 382 milhões de pessoas em todo mundo, tendo uma das complicações mais comuns a polineuropatia. A Metformina, medicamento amplamente utilizado como tratamento do Diabetes, foi descrita como responsável, em algumas literaturas, por causar ou agravar deficiência de vitamina B12, que está similarmente relacionada ao desenvolvimento de polineuropatia.Métodos: Nesse sentido, foi conduzido um estudo no município de Soledade ­ RS, com objetivo de verificar se essa relação é condizente com a realidade da localidade. Foram escolhidos 58 pacientes, dos quais 30 responderam questionários adaptados baseados na literatura e na Classificação de Neuropatia de Michigan (MNSS-Brasil), então colhidos 5 ml de sangue venoso da fossa antecubital, preparado soro do qual uma alíquota foi separada para determinação bioquímica da vitamina B12.Resultados: Analisando os resultados, a maioria dos pacientes analisados apresentou sintomas de polineuropatia, e 10% deste, deficiência vitamínica.Conclusão: nenhuma variável explicou a correlação do uso crônico da Metformina, dose e gênero com a deficiência da vitamina B12, o que indica que não há evidências fortes o suficiente que sustentem esse fato, de acordo com as particularidades da localidade analisada.


Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease, characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency, which affects about 382 million people, with polyneuropathy being one of the most common complications. Metformin, a drug widely used as a treatment for diabetes, has been described as responsible, in some literature, for causing or aggravating vitamin B12 deficiency, which is similarly related to the development of polyneuropathy.Methods: In this sense, a study was conducted in Soledade ­ RS, in order to verify whether this relationship is consistent with the reality of the locality. Fifty-eight patients were selected, of which 30 answered adapted questionnaires based on the literature and on the Michigan Neuropathy Classification (MNSS-Brazil), then 5 ml of venous blood was collected from the antecubital fossa, serum prepared from which an aliquot was separated for biochemical determination of the vitamin B12.Results: Analyzing the results, most of these patients presented symptoms of polyneuropathy and, 10% of them, vitamin deficiency.Conclusion: no variable explained the correlation of chronic use of Metformin, dose and gender with vitamin B12 deficiency, which indicates that there is not enough evidence to support this fact, according to the particularities of the analyzed locality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetic Neuropathies/complications , Metformin/adverse effects , Vitamin B 12/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
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