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1.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e87, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289871

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O Plano Global de Eliminação da Filariose Linfática, lançado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde em 2000, propõe o uso de testes de detecção de antígeno circulante filarial como ferramenta diagnóstica para avaliação e monitoramento das ações de controle da parasitose. Entretanto, esses testes, apesar de apresentarem alta sensibilidade, não conseguem detectar com eficiência a infecção em seu estágio inicial, quando ainda não existe a presença de helmintos adultos. Considerando essa limitação, a pesquisa de anticorpos antifilariais tem sido apontada como uma alternativa, uma vez que os anticorpos produzidos contra as larvas infectantes do parasito são detectados antes da presença de antígeno circulante filarial. O objetivo deste estudo foi definir o ponto de corte e avaliar a acurácia do kit Filaria Detect™ IgG4 produzido com o antígeno recombinante Wb123 para diagnóstico da filariose linfática no Brasil. Para isso, foi realizado um estudo de avaliação de teste diagnóstico, no qual foram utilizadas 256 amostras de soro: 79 (30,9%) obtidas de indivíduos microfilarêmicos e 177 (60,1%), de indivíduos amicrofilarêmicos e que testaram negativo para os testes imunológicos Bm14 CELISA e Og4C3 ELISA. A definição do ponto de corte ideal, bem como da acurácia do kit Filaria Detect™ IgG4, foi obtida através da construção de curvas ROC, sendo a densidade óptica de 0,239 aquela na qual o teste obteve melhor desempenho, com sensibilidade de 81,0% e especificidade de 96,6%. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o kit Filaria Detect™ IgG4 é uma ferramenta promissora para investigação e monitoramento de áreas submetidas ao tratamento em massa para filariose linfática.


ABSTRACT The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, launched by the World Health Organization in the year 2000, proposes the use of circulating filarial antigen tests as a diagnostic tool to assess and monitor initiatives to control filarial infection. However, despite a high sensitivity, these tests are not efficient to detect infection at early stages, before worms have reached the adult stage. Considering this limitation, anti-filarial antibody testing has been suggested as an alternative, given that the antibodies produced against the larvae are detectable before the presence of circulating filarial antigen. The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic cut-off and the accuracy of the Filaria Detect™ IgG4 kit employing recombinant Wb123 antigen for diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis in Brazil. For that, we performed a diagnostic evaluation study in which 256 serum samples were analyzed: 79 (30.9%) obtained from microfilaremic individuals and 177 (60.1%) from amicrofilaremic individuals who tested negative with the Bm14 CELISA and Og4C3 ELISA immunologic tests. The ideal cutoff as well as the Filaria Detect™ IgG4 kit accuracy were determined based on ROC curve analyses, with an optical density of 0.239 identified as the cutoff with the best performance, with 81.0% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity. The results show that the Filaria Detect™ IgG4 kit is a promising tool for investigation and monitoring of areas undergoing mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis.


RESUMEN En el programa mundial de eliminación de la filariasis linfática, puesto en marcha por la Organización Mundial de la Salud en el año 2000, se propone el uso de pruebas de detección del antígeno filárico circulante como instrumento de diagnóstico para la evaluación y el seguimiento de las medidas de control de la parasitosis. Sin embargo, esas pruebas, a pesar de tener un alto grado de sensibilidad, no permiten detectar con eficiencia la infección en su fase inicial, cuando todavía no existen helmintos adultos. En vista de esa limitación, se ha señalado como una opción el estudio de anticuerpos antifiláricos, puesto que los anticuerpos producidos contra las larvas infectantes del parásito se detectan antes de la existencia de antígeno filárico circulante. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir el punto de corte y evaluar la exactitud del estuche Detect™ para pruebas de anticuerpos antifiláricos IgG4, fabricado con el antígeno recombinante Wb123, para el diagnóstico de la filariasis linfática en Brasil. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de evaluación de la prueba diagnóstica, en el cual se utilizaron 256 muestras de suero, a saber, 79 (30,9%) obtenidas de personas microfilarémicas y 177 (60,1%) de personas amicrofilarémicas, que arrojaron resultados seronegativos en las pruebas inmunológicas CELISA Bm14 y ELISA Og4C3. La definición del punto de corte ideal y de la exactitud del estuche Detect™ se obtuvo con la construcción de curvas de la característica operativa del receptor (ROC); una densidad óptica de 0,239 marcó el mejor nivel de desempeño de la prueba, con una sensibilidad de 81,0% y una especificidad de 96,6%. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el estuche Detect™ es un instrumento prometedor para la investigación y el seguimiento de las regiones donde se realiza un tratamiento masivo de la filariasis linfática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Antigens/immunology , Brazil , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e1, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252013

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To confirm the absence of Wuchereria bancrofti autochthonous cases in Manaus, a former focus of lymphatic filariasis in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methods. A field survey was carried out in 2016 using immunochromatographic rapid tests (ICT card) for the detection of circulating filarial antigens in blood. The sample included a group of 3 000 schoolchildren aged 6 to 10 years enrolled in schools from different urban areas of Manaus (including the former lymphatic filariasis focus in the city) and a group of 709 adolescents and adults, between the ages of 11 and 85 years, born and raised in different areas of Manaus. Results. All of the individuals tested negative for W. bancrofti antigen. Conclusions. Although Manaus was once considered endemic, this focus no longer seems to be active for lymphatic filariasis transmission. The results of this study could support the certification by the World Health Organization of the lymphatic filariasis transmission elimination exercise in Brazil.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Confirmar la ausencia de casos autóctonos de Wuchereria bancrofti en Manaos, anteriormente un foco de filariasis linfática en la Amazonia occidental de Brasil. Métodos. En el 2016 se llevó a cabo una encuesta en el terreno con pruebas rápidas inmunocromatográficas (tiras inmunocromatográficas) para detectar antígenos filáricos circulantes en sangre. La muestra constó de un grupo de 3 000 escolares de 6 a 10 años matriculados en escuelas de diferentes zonas urbanas de Manaos (incluida la zona que anteriormente era el foco de filariasis linfática en la ciudad) y de un grupo de 709 adolescentes y adultos, de edades comprendidas entre 11 y 85 años, nacidos y criados en diferentes áreas de Manaos. Resultados. Todas las personas dieron negativo en la prueba de antígeno de Wuchereria bancrofti. Conclusiones. Aunque hubo un tiempo en que Manaos se consideraba zona endémica, parece que este foco de transmisión de la filariasis linfática ya no está activo. Los resultados de este estudio podrían brindar apoyo a la certificación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud respecto de los esfuerzos realizados en Brasil para eliminar la transmisión de la filariasis linfática.


RESUMO Objetivo. Confirmar a ausência de casos autóctones de Wuchereria bancrofti em Manaus, anteriormente um foco da filariose linfática na parte leste da Amazônia brasileira. Métodos. Uma pesquisa de campo foi realizada em 2016 com o uso de teste rápido por imunocromatografia (cartão ICT) para detecção de antígenos de microfilárias circulantes no sangue. A amostra estudada consistiu de um grupo de 3 000 crianças escolares entre 6 e 10 anos de idade matriculados em escolas de diferentes áreas da zona urbana de Manaus (englobando a área anteriormente com o foco de filariose linfática) e um grupo de 709 adolescentes e adultos entre 11 e 85 anos de idade nascidos e crescidos em diferentes áreas de Manaus. Resultados. Todos os indivíduos pesquisados tiveram teste negativo para o antígeno da W. bancrofti. Conclusões. Apesar de Manaus ter sido anteriormente uma área endêmica, parece que não existe mais foco ativo de transmissão da filariose linfática na cidade. Os resultados deste estudo podem servir para embasar a certificação pela Organização Mundial da Saúde da eliminação da transmissão da filariose linfática no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Wuchereria bancrofti/parasitology , Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood , Elephantiasis, Filarial/transmission , Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Rev. patol. trop ; 47(4): 217-224, dez. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-996634

ABSTRACT

Cases of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) have been notified since 1959 in the municipality of Paulista, yet it is still considered an LF-free area. The purpose of this study was to describe the situation of Paulista Health Department. The data were gathered via antigenic surveys carried out in the town, using POC-ICT-AD12 tests. A total of 1,000 individuals, aged 10 and over, were examined in the neighborhoods of Mirueira, Engenho Maranguape, Janga and Maranguape II (250 individuals in each district). Among the individuals evaluated, seven (0,7%) tested positive for antigens using CFA POC-ICT-AD12, 5 out of 250 (2.0%) in the Engenho Maranguape neighborhood and 2 out of 250 (0.8%) in Janga. In this group, one particular individual presented microfilaremia, quantified at 5 Mf/mL. These results suggest that the municipality of Paulista might be a "silent" source of LF continuous transmission, fact that could impact negatively on the goals of the GPELF program meant to provide certification of parasitic disease control and elimination by the year 2022


Subject(s)
Humans , Parasitic Diseases , Elephantiasis, Filarial , Microfilariae , Epitopes
4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-184822

ABSTRACT

Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common parasite causing lymphatic filariasis. Microfilariae are dem­onstrated in the peripheral blood, body fluids, fine needle aspirates and in onchial ushings but it is an uncommon finding in the bone marrow. We report a case of a 45-year old male who presented with pyrexia of unknown origin and on peripheral blood and bone marrow examination found to have pan­cytopaenia with megaloblastoid changes in the bone marrow and W. bancrofti microfilariae.

5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170435, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease caused mainly by the Wuchereria bancrofti worm and that affects up to 120 million people worldwide. LF is the second cause of chronic global deformity, responsible for 15 million people with lymphedema (elephantiasis) and 25 million men with scrotal hydrocele. Its diagnosis is still associated with numerous difficulties, such as the sample collection periods (microfilaria nocturnal periodicity) and limited diagnostic kits. OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was to evaluate two recombinant antigens (Wb14 and WbT) as part of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based antibody capture tests for LF. METHODS The recombinant antigens rWb14 and rWbT were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and an antibody capture ELISA was performed. For this, sera were used from microfilaremic individuals with W. bancrofti (MF), chronic pathology (CP), individuals infected with Strongyloides (SP) and healthy controls from endemic (EN) and non-endemic (NE) areas. FINDINGS Both tests showed similar results, with 90% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity. In comparison with the BM14 ELISA commercial test, the Wb14 and WbT antigens performed with identical sensitivity but greater specificity. Reduced positivity with the CP suggested a potential to monitor cure. This was not confirmed, however, when sera from individuals up to seven years after treatment were assayed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The Wb14 and WbT ELISAs were considered efficient and promising diagnostic tests. Due to the importance of antibody capture analysis to evaluate the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), the tests proposed here appear as great alternatives to the available commercial system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wuchereria bancrofti , Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Antigens, Helminth/immunology
6.
Rev. patol. trop ; 45(4): 339-348, dez. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-913297

ABSTRACT

A filariose linfática é uma parasitose que afeta regiões tropicais e subtropicais. No Brasil, apenas a região metropolitana de Recife (Recife, Olinda, Jaboatão dos Guararapes e Paulista) ainda é considerada como foco ativo de transmissão da parasitose. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o histórico das atividades de controle da parasitose em OlindaPE, área que por muito tempo apresentou número significativo de casos, evidenciando as principais ações desenvolvidas desde o ano de 1987. Ao longo de aproximadamente 30 anos, muitos estudos clínico-laboratoriais e epidemiológicos foram desenvolvidos no município. Recentemente, mais de cinco ciclos de tratamento em massa com citrato de dietilcarbamazina foram realizados na área, com uma adesão de mais de 65% de toda a população, o que contribuiu para a redução da microfilaremia local a taxas inferiores a 1%. Esse fato viabilizou a implantação da pesquisa de avaliação da transmissão, etapa decisiva para definição da situação atual da filariose linfática e de novas estratégias de controle e vigilância.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Wuchereria bancrofti , Filariasis
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-176439

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Different developmental stages of Wuchereria bancrofti, the major causal organism of lymphatic filariasis (LF), are difficult to obtain. Beside this limitation, to obtain complete coding sequence (CDS) of a gene one has to isolate mRNA and perform subsequent cDNA synthesis which is laborious and not successful at times. In this study, an alternative strategy employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized and validated, to generate CDS of Macrophage migration Inhibitory Factor-2 (wbMIF-2), a gene expressed in the transition stage between L3 to L4. Methods: The genomic DNA of W. bancrofti microfilariae was extracted and used to amplify the full length wbMIF-2 gene (4.275 kb). This amplified product was used as a template for amplifying the exons separately, using the overlapping primers, which were then assembled through another round of PCR. Results: A simple strategy was developed based on PCR, which is used routinely in molecular biology laboratories. The amplified CDS of 363 bp of wbMIF-2 generated using genomic DNA splicing technique was devoid of any intronic sequence. Interpretation & conclusions: The cDNA of wbMIF-2 gene was successfully amplified from genomic DNA of microfilarial stage of W. bancrofti thus circumventing the use of inaccessible L3-L4 transitional stage of this parasite. This strategy is useful for generating CDS of genes from parasites that have restricted availability.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820287

ABSTRACT

There are two species of filarial parasites with sheathless microfilariae known to commonly cause parasitaemias in humans: Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi. In most contemporary accounts of the distribution of these parasites, neither is usually considered to occur anywhere in the Eastern Hemisphere. However, Sir Patrick Manson, who first described both parasite species, recorded the existence of sheathless sharp-tailed Mansonella ozzardi-like parasites occurring in the blood of natives from New Guinea in each and every version of his manual for tropical disease that he wrote before his death in 1922. Manson's reports were based on his own identifications and were made from at least two independent blood sample collections that were taken from the island. Pacific region Mansonella perstans parasitaemias were also later (in 1923) reported to occur in New Guinea and once before this (in 1905) in Fiji. Although Mansonella-parasitaemias are generally regarded as benign, they are thought to be of public health importance because they can affect the epidemiological monitoring of other filarial diseases. In this article, we reviewed the historic literature concerning Pacific-origin Mansonella-parasitaemias in an attempt to explain how, despite repeated reports of Pacific-region Mansonella-parasitaemias, by as early as the 1970s, the WHO had arrived at the present-day view that Wuchereria bancrofti is the only cause of filarial parasitaemias in Papua New Guinea. We have also evaluated the evidence supporting the contemporary existence of Pacific-area parasitaemia-causing Mansonella parasites and assessed the relevance such parasites could have for present-day lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts in the region.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166331

ABSTRACT

Wolbachia is an obligatory intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium, present in over 20% of all insects altering insect reproductive capabilities and in a wide range of filarial worms which is essential for worm survival and reproduction. In Egypt, no available data were found about Wolbachia searching for it in either mosquitoes or filarial worms. Thus, we aimed to identify the possible concurrent presence of Wolbachia within different mosquitoes and filarial parasites, in Assiut Governorate, Egypt using multiplex PCR. Initially, 6 pools were detected positive for Wolbachia by single PCR. The simultaneous detection of Wolbachia and filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) by multiplex PCR was spotted in 5 out of 6 pools, with an overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) of 0.24%. Unexpectedly, the highest ERI (0.53%) was for Anopheles pharoensis with related Wolbachia and W. bancrofti, followed by Aedes (0.42%) and Culex (0.26%). We also observed that Wolbachia altered Culex spp. as a primary vector for W. bancrofti to be replaced by Anopheles sp. Wolbachia within filaria-infected mosquitoes in our locality gives a hope to use bacteria as a new control trend simultaneously targeting the vector and filarial parasites.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Anopheles , Bacteria , Culex , Culicidae , Dirofilaria , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria repens , Egypt , Hope , Insecta , Larva , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Parasites , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproduction , Wolbachia , Wuchereria bancrofti
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-170217

ABSTRACT

In India diurnally subperiodic filariasis (DspWB) is prevalent only in the Nicobar district of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Studies undertaken at different points of time indicate that this form of filariasis is restricted to a small region in Nancowry group of islands where it is transmitted by mosquito Downsiomyia nivea, a day biting mosquito. Studies on prevalence, distribution, and assessment of endemicity status, vector incrimination, bioecology, host seeking behaviour, population dynamics of the vector, transmission dynamics and clinical epidemiology indicate the prevalence and persistence of this infection in the Nancowry group of islands with perennial transmission. There was no control programme in these islands, until the National programme to eliminate filariasis was launched in 2004. Eight rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) + albendazole have been completed. Despite this, microfilaria prevalence remains at above one per cent, the level identified for initiating transmission assessment survey to decide on continuation of MDA further. This necessitates adjunct measures to the ongoing MDA programme in these islands. The vector control options could be an adjunct measure, but the vector is a forest dweller with a unique bio-ecology, therefore, not a technically feasible option. Use of DEC fortified salt for six months to one year could hasten the process of elimination. Although administration of DEC-fortified salt is simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective, challenges are to be tackled for evolving operationally realistic strategy. Such a strategy requires commitment of all sections of the society, a distribution mechanism that ensures the use of DEC-fortified salt in the Nancowry islands. Here we discuss the plan of action to serve the indigenous communities and operationalizing DEC fortified salt strategy through an inter-sectoral approach involving multiple stakeholders.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-186014

ABSTRACT

Filariasis is a major public health disease in India especially at coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. Microfilaria is some time seen as an incidental finding during fine needle aspiration cytology smear (FNAC). But it is very rare to find microfilaria in cytological smears of parotid lesions. This is unique finding not reported till to date at our institute. Microfilaria is seen mainly in peripheral blood smear. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common parasite which causes lymphatic filariasis in India. Here we reported a case in which microfilaria is seen in cytological smears of parotid lesion, first time at our institute of Gandhi Medical College, Telangana, India.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130562

ABSTRACT

Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles genera. Screening by vector dissection is a tiresome technique. We aimed to screen filarial parasites in their vectors by single and multiplex PCR and evaluate the usefulness of multiplex PCR as a rapid xenomonitoring and simultaneous differentiation tool, in area where 3 filarial parasites are coexisting. Female mosquitoes were collected from 7 localities in Assiut Governorate, were microscopically identified and divided into pools according to their species and collection site. Detection of W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens using single PCR was reached followed by multiplex PCR. Usefulness of multiplex PCR was evaluated by testing mosquito pools to know which genera and species are used by filarial parasites as a vector. An overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) in mosquitoes was 0.6%; the highest was Culex spp. (0.47%). W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens could be simultaneously and differentially detected in infected vectors by using multiplex PCR. Out of 100 mosquito pools, 8 were positive for W. bancrofti (ERI of 0.33%) and 3 pools each were positive for D. immitis and D. repens (ERI 0.12%). The technique showed 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity. El-Nikhila, El-Matiaa villages, and Sahel Seleem district in Assiut Governorate, Egypt are still endemic foci for filarial parasites. Multiplex PCR offers a reliable procedure for molecular xenomonitoring of filariasis within their respective vectors in endemic areas. Therefore, it is recommended for evaluation of mosquito infection after lymphatic filariasis eradication programs.


Subject(s)
Aedes/parasitology , Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Culex/parasitology , Dirofilaria immitis/genetics , Dirofilaria repens/genetics , Egypt , Entomology/methods , Female , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Parasitology/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Wuchereria bancrofti/genetics
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130555

ABSTRACT

Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles genera. Screening by vector dissection is a tiresome technique. We aimed to screen filarial parasites in their vectors by single and multiplex PCR and evaluate the usefulness of multiplex PCR as a rapid xenomonitoring and simultaneous differentiation tool, in area where 3 filarial parasites are coexisting. Female mosquitoes were collected from 7 localities in Assiut Governorate, were microscopically identified and divided into pools according to their species and collection site. Detection of W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens using single PCR was reached followed by multiplex PCR. Usefulness of multiplex PCR was evaluated by testing mosquito pools to know which genera and species are used by filarial parasites as a vector. An overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) in mosquitoes was 0.6%; the highest was Culex spp. (0.47%). W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens could be simultaneously and differentially detected in infected vectors by using multiplex PCR. Out of 100 mosquito pools, 8 were positive for W. bancrofti (ERI of 0.33%) and 3 pools each were positive for D. immitis and D. repens (ERI 0.12%). The technique showed 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity. El-Nikhila, El-Matiaa villages, and Sahel Seleem district in Assiut Governorate, Egypt are still endemic foci for filarial parasites. Multiplex PCR offers a reliable procedure for molecular xenomonitoring of filariasis within their respective vectors in endemic areas. Therefore, it is recommended for evaluation of mosquito infection after lymphatic filariasis eradication programs.


Subject(s)
Aedes/parasitology , Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Culex/parasitology , Dirofilaria immitis/genetics , Dirofilaria repens/genetics , Egypt , Entomology/methods , Female , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Parasitology/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Wuchereria bancrofti/genetics
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(8): 978-983, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732610

ABSTRACT

The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2) and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2), which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , DNA, Helminth/isolation & purification , Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis , Microfilariae/isolation & purification , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolation & purification , Antigens, Surface/blood , Antigens, Surface/urine , Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood , Elephantiasis, Filarial/urine , Limit of Detection , Microfilariae/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Wuchereria bancrofti/genetics
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-155140

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: In India, diurnally sub periodic Wuchereria bancrofti transmitted by Downsiomyia nivea is prevalent only in the Nicobar district of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The ongoing LF elimination programme aims at transmission interruption by bringing down the microfilarie (mf) load in the community, which has implication on the parasite load in mosquito vector. Therefore, understanding density dependent constraints on transmission assumes significance from control perspective. The present study was undertaken in Teressa Island to understand the density dependent parasite mortality and survival probability of the parasite Do. nivea. Methods: The entomological data collected from Teressa Island, endemic for the diurnally sub periodic form of W. bancrofti were used to examine the parasite loss and its survival up to infectivity. Patterns of parasite distribution in Do. nivea were examined. Results: Distribution patterns of microfilariae were found to be over dispersed in Do. nivea. The later stages of the parasite in the vector were randomly distributed. Distribution pattern of various filarial larval stages suggested that the loss of parasites occurred as development progressed and was maximal between the first and second stages. Further, both the prevalence of infection and the degree of parasite aggregation in the vector population have fallen significantly with development of parasite stage. Interpretation & conclusions: Results indicate the operation of parasite density dependent mortality of vectors or parasite loss or combination of both. The present study with Aedes transmitted filariasis conducted before launching LF elimination programme in the study area indicates a comparable level of parasite regulation in the vector which has similar implications on the transmission threshold. Thus, the consideration of Aedes with Culex in deriving the critical level of antigen positive for making decisions on cessation of mass drug administration (MDA) can be justified. However, with MDA aiming at reducing parasite load in the community, the operation of density dependent factor in the transmission becomes less pronounced in the subsequent rounds of MDA.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To elucidate immunoprophylactic potential of recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti) cuticular collagen (COL-4) in BALB/c mice and filarial clinical samples.@*METHODS@#col-4 gene was PCR amplified from W. bancrofti L3 cDNA library and cloned in pRSET B vector. Recombinant COL-4 was over expressed in salt inducible system and was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Humoral and cellular responses were measured by ELISA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of various filarial clinical samples respectively using purified recombinant COL-4 antigen. Then the protective immune responses of COL-4 immunized BALB/c mice were characterized.@*RESULTS@#Sequence analysis of COL-4 with human host proteins reveals lack of homology. The recombinant COL-4 was found to be at 15 kDa fusion protein. The affinity purified COL-4 showed significant reactivity with putatively immune sera and in a similar fashion it demonstrated marked proliferation in PBMC samples. Immunization studies in experimental filarial host (mice) elicited significant titers with protective antibody isotype profile (IgM and IgG). Cellular immune responses were also significant in terms of splenocytes proliferation assay on mice samples.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our immunological findings in experimental host suggest Th2 mediated immune response. Hence, we propose that W. bancrofti COL-4 could be an efficacious vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis.


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Animals , Antibodies, Helminth , Blood , Cells, Cultured , Cloning, Molecular , Collagen , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Elephantiasis, Filarial , Helminth Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic , Allergy and Immunology , Wuchereria bancrofti , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(2): 214-220, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674641

ABSTRACT

Introduction The aim of this work was to identify possible lymphatic filariasis foci in the western Brazilian Amazonian that could be established from the reports of Rachou in the 1950s. The study was conducted in three cities of the western Brazilian Amazon region - Porto Velho and Guajará-Mirim (State of Rondônia) and Humaitá (State of Amazonas). Methods For human infection evaluation thick blood smear stained with Giemsa was used to analyze samples collected from 10pm to 1am. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine mosquito vectors for the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Humans were randomly sampled from night schools students and from inhabitants in neighborhoods lacking sanitation. Mosquitoes were collected from residences only. Results A total 2,709 night students enrolled in the Program for Education of Young Adults (EJA), and 935 people registered in the residences near the schools were examined, being 641 from Porto Velho, 214 from Guajará-Mirim and 80 from Humaitá. No individual examined was positive for the presence of microfilariae in the blood stream. A total of 7,860 female Culex quinquefasciatus specimens examined were negative by PCR. Conclusions This survey including human and mosquito examinations indicates that the western Amazon region of Brazil is not a focus of Bancroftian filariasis infection or transmission. Therefore, there is no need to be included in the Brazilian lymphatic filariasis control program. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Humans , Young Adult , Culicidae/parasitology , Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Wuchereria bancrofti/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Helminth/analysis , Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis , Elephantiasis, Filarial/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Surveillance , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolation & purification
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312397

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti) infection rates of Culex quinquefasciatus, using dissection and PCR-ELISA in two consecutive time periods (from 2007 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2009).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Mosquitoes were collected in 30 sentinel and 15 non-sentinel sites in 15 Medical Officer of Health areas of Gampaha District known for the presence of W. bancrofti transmission in two consecutive time period of 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009. Captured mosquitoes were dissected to determine the W. bancrofti larvae (L1, L2, L3). PCR was carried out using DNA extracted from mosquito pools (15 body parts/pool) utilizing the primers specific for Wb-SspI repeat. PCR products were analyzed by hybridization ELISA using fluorescein-labeled wild type specific probes. The prevalence of infected/infective mosquitoes in PCR pools (3 pools/site) was estimated using the PoolScreen™ algorithm and a novel probability-based method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of 45 batches of mosquitoes dissected, W. bancrofti infected mosquitoes were found in 19 and 13 batches, with an infection rate of 13.29% and 3.10% with mean larval density of 8.7 and 1.0 larvae per mosquito for two study periods in the Gampaha District. Total of 405 pools of head, thorax and abdomen were processed by PCR-ELISA for each year. Of these, 51 and 31 pools were positive for W. bancrofti in the two study periods respectively. The association of dissection based prevalence rates with PCR based rates as determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient were 0.176 and 0.890 respectively for the two periods.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Data indicate that PCR-ELISA is more sensitive than the traditional dissection techniques for monitoring transmission intensity.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae , Parasitology , Elephantiasis, Filarial , Epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Sri Lanka , Epidemiology , Wuchereria bancrofti , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-672641

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti) infection rates of Culexquinquefasciatus, using dissection and PCR-ELISA in two consecutive time periods (from 2007 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2009). Methods: Mosquitoes were collected in 30 sentinel and 15 non-sentinel sites in 15 Medical Officer of Health areas of Gampaha District known for the presence ofW. bancrofti transmission in two consecutive time period of 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009. Captured mosquitoes were dissected to determine the W. bancrofti larvae (L1, L2, L3). PCR was carried out using DNA extracted from mosquito pools (15 body parts/pool) utilizing the primers specific for Wb-SspI repeat. PCR products were analyzed by hybridization ELISA using fluorescein-labeled wild type specific probes. The prevalence of infected/infective mosquitoes in PCR pools (3 pools/site) was estimated using the PoolScreenTM algorithm and a novel probability-based method.Results:Of 45 batches of mosquitoes dissected, W. bancrofti infected mosquitoes were found in 19 and 13 batches, with an infection rate of 13.29% and 3.10% with mean larval density of 8.7 and 1.0 larvae per mosquito for two study periods in the Gampaha District. Total of 405 pools of head, thorax and abdomen were processed by PCR-ELISA for each year. Of these, 51 and 31 pools were positive for W. bancrofti in the two study periods respectively. The association of dissection based prevalence rates with PCR based rates as determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient were 0.176 and 0.890 respectively for the two periods. Conclusions: Data indicate that PCR-ELISA is more sensitive than the traditional dissection techniques for monitoring transmission intensity.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118761

ABSTRACT

A simple, rapid, and high-throughput method for detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples was developed using a real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Amplicons of the 4 filarial species were generated from 5S rRNA and spliced leader sequences by the real-time PCR and their melting temperatures were determined by the HRM method. Melting of amplicons from W. bancrofti, B. malayi, D. immitis, and B. pahangi peaked at 81.5+/-0.2degrees C, 79.0+/-0.3degrees C, 76.8+/-0.1degrees C, and 79.9+/-0.1degrees C, respectively. This assay is relatively cheap since it does not require synthesis of hybridization probes. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100%. It is a rapid and technically simple approach, and an important tool for population surveys as well as molecular xenomonitoring of parasites in vectors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood/parasitology , Brugia/classification , Cats , Culicidae/parasitology , Dirofilaria immitis/classification , Dogs , Humans , Male , Parasitology/methods , RNA, Helminth/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 5S/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transition Temperature , Wuchereria bancrofti/classification
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