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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251004, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339339

ABSTRACT

Abstract The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Resumo A suplementação de probióticos enriquecidos com selênio é eficaz na redução do estresse oxidativo e na manutenção da estabilidade da qualidade da carne em frangos de corte, especialmente sob estresse por calor. Um estudo experimental foi conduzido para realizar uma análise comparativa da levedura selênio com o Se inorgânico em frangos de corte sob estresse térmico. Um total de 120 pintos de um dia foi dividido em 4 grupos, cada um consistindo de 30 pintos alimentados com a mesma dieta basal, mas com diferentes fontes de selênio. A dieta basal do grupo D1 não foi suplementada com fonte de Se (controle negativo), a dieta basal do grupo D2 foi suplementada com selênio inorgânico (selenito de sódio 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora), a dieta basal do grupo D3 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico disponível comercialmente (fase inicial de seleno-metionina 0,22 mg / kg e fase finalizadora de 0,15 mg / kg) e a dieta basal do grupo D4 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico autodesenvolvido (fermento enriquecido com Se 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora). Os parâmetros de desempenho, ou seja, consumo de ração (FI), peso corporal vivo (PC) e FCR não foram significativamente (p > 0,05) afetados pela suplementação de selênio na fase inicial, mas foram significativamente (p < 0,05) afetados na fase final. A suplementação de selênio afetou significativamente (p < 0,05) o nível de Se sérico em diferentes grupos suplementados. O maior valor de Se sérico (58,20 ± 0,06) foi registrado no grupo D4. Da mesma forma, valor de selênio significativamente menor foi registrado para D4 e maior foi registrado para D1 (11,36 ± 0,08). No entanto, um valor mais baixo de Paraoxonase (PON) sérica foi registrado para D4 (13,24 ± 0,01) e mais alto para D1 (13,33 ± 0,03). A levedura enriquecida com Se comparativamente autodesenvolvida aumentou o acúmulo de Se e melhorou o sistema antioxidante. A glutationa peroxidase (GPx) foi encontrada maior em D4 (12,333 ± 0,03) seguido por D3, D2 e ​​D1 respectivamente. Enquanto a superóxido dismutase (SOD) foi significativamente menor (p < 0,05) em D4 (0,1437 ± 0,003) seguido por D3 (0,1457 ± 0,002). A suplementação de selênio aumentou a taxa de sobrevivência da ave. Aves alimentadas com levedura enriquecida com Se apresentaram maior deposição de Se e melhor capacidade antioxidante em comparação com outras fontes de selênio. A levedura enriquecida com Se apresentou um resultado melhorado na deposição de Se nos tecidos, capacidade oxidativa, maciez da carne e nível de resposta imune em comparação com outras fontes de selênio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Selenium , Chickens , Heat-Shock Response , Antioxidants
2.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210372, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364722

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the chemical profiles and evaluated the inhibitory effect against 5-Lipoxygenase (5-Lox) activity for extracts of ginger rhizome, callus, and callus treated with the elicitors; yeast extract (100, 300 and 500 mg/L), glycine (100, 200 and 300 mg/L) and salicylic acid (100 and 200 mg/L). Oils and chloroform: methanol (CM) extracts were prepared by maceration in petroleum ether and CM (1:1, v/v), respectively. Chemical profiles were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Oil of the callus recorded higher 5-Lox inhibitory effect (IC50 58.33±4.66 μg/mL) than the oil of rhizome (IC50168.34±15.64 μg/mL) and comparable to that of the positive control; Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (IC50 61.25±1.02 μg/mL). The chemical profile of the callus oil contained large amounts of fatty acids, mainly the unsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (31.11%) and saturated fatty acid palmitic acid (28.56%). Elicitors modified the chemical profile of the callus and ameliorated the anti-5-Lox activity of CM extract of the callus. CM extracts of callus treated with 100 and 300 mg/L yeast extract and 50 mg/L salicylic acid significantly suppressed (P ≤ 0.05) the 5-Lox activity by 33.16%, 25.46% and 16%, respectively as compared to the CM extract of untreated callus. In conclusion, ginger callus could be considered as a valuable dietary supplement in the treatment of various inflammatory disorders.


RESUMO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os perfis químicos e avaliar o efeito inibitório da atividade da 5-Lipoxigenase (5-Lox) em extratos de rizoma, calo e calo de gengibre tratados com os eliciadores; extrato de levedura (100, 300 e 500 mg / L), glicina (100, 200 e 300 mg / L) e ácido salicílico (100 e 200 mg / L). Extratos de óleos e clorofórmio: metanol (CM) foram preparados por maceração em éter e CM (1: 1, v / v), respectivamente. Os perfis químicos foram determinados por análise de cromatografia gasosa / espectrometria de massa (GC / MS). O óleo do calo registrou maior efeito inibitório de 5-Lox (IC50 58,33 ± 4,66 μg / mL) do que o óleo de rizoma (IC50168,34 ± 15,64 μg / mL) e comparável ao do controle positivo; Ácido nordi-hidroguaiarético (IC50 61,25 ± 1,02 μg / mL). O perfil químico do óleo de calo continha grandes quantidades de ácidos graxos, principalmente o ácido graxo insaturado ácido oleico (31,11%) e ácido graxo saturado palmítico (28,56%). Os elicitores modificaram o perfil químico do calo e melhoraram a atividade anti-5-Lox do extrato de CM do calo. Extratos de CM de calos tratados com 100 e 300 mg / L de extrato de levedura e 50 mg / L de ácido salicílico suprimiram significativamente (P ≤ 0,05) a atividade de 5-Lox em 33,16%, 25,46% e 16%, respectivamente, em comparação com o extrato de CM de calo não tratado. Em conclusão, o calo de gengibre pode ser considerado um suplemento dietético valioso no tratamento de vários distúrbios inflamatórios.

3.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 103-112, jan./jun. 2021. Ilus, Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247950

ABSTRACT

O glifosato é um herbicida amplamente utilizado. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) reclassificou o glifosato como "provavelmente cancerígeno a humanos". A remoção do glifosato do ambiente pode ser realizada por ação enzimática microbiana. O presente trabalho enfocou o isolamento de microrganismos do solo capazes de tolerar glifosato como única fonte de carbono. As células foram isoladas em meio de cultivo mínimo suplementado com glifosato. Foram isoladas 17 bactérias, 14 fungos e 1 levedura. Foi verificada a produção da biomassa microbiana na presença e na ausência do glifosato. Um fungo (F3) e uma levedura (L1) foram selecionados após teste de tolerância ao glifosato em meio líquido. Os microrganismos toleraram o glifosato, entretanto, o metabolismo foi afetado pelo herbicida, comparado ao controle sem glifosato. Estatisticamente, o tempo de crescimento apresentou diferenças significativas. Microrganismos eucarióticos isolados de solo com glifosato são tolerantes ao composto e podem ser úteis como biorremediadores de ambientes afetados por este herbicida.(AU)


Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reclassified glyphosate as "probably carcinogenic to humans". Glyphosate removal from the environment can be performed by microbial enzymatic action. The present work focused on the isolation of soil microorganisms that can tolerate glyphosate as the sole carbon source. Cells were isolated in minimal culture medium supplemented with glyphosate. Microbial biomass production was verified in the presence and absence of glyphosate. Seventeen, fourteen and one bacteria, fungi and yeast were isolated, respectively. One fungus (F3) and one yeast (L1), were selected after glyphosate tolerance test in liquid medium. Eukaryotic microorganisms tolerate glyphosate, however metabolism was affected by herbicide compared to control without glyphosate. Statistically growth time showed significant differences. Eukaryotic microorganisms isolated from soil with glyphosate are tolerant to the compound and may be useful as bioremediators of environments affected by this herbicide.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Eukaryota , Herbicides , Soil , Bacteria
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905069

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Qiyu Sanlong decoction (QYSL) on the expressions of key molecules in signal axis of mammalian rapamycin target protein (mTOR)/yeast Atg6 homologous (Beclin1)/ microtubule-associated protein1 light chain3 (LC3) in A549 cells. Method:With A549 cells as the research object, the effect of QYSL medicated serum on cell viability of A549 cells were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. The effect of QYSL decoction on A549 cell apoptosis, autophagosome formation and the expression of autophagy markers were detected by Terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) method, transmission electron microscope (TEM), Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot. Result:QYSL medicated serum could inhibit the viability of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the blank serum group, the number of apoptotic A549 cells in the QYSL medicated serum group was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the formation of autophagosome was significantly increased. Compared with the blank serum group, the mRNA and protein expressions of mTOR in A549 cells in the QYSL serum group were significantly decreased (P<0.01), while mRNA and protein expressions of Beclin-1, autophagy related genes 5 (ATG5), autophagy related genes 13 (ATG13) were significantly increased (P<0.01). Conclusion:QYSL decoction can induce autophagy in A549 cells, and its specific mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of mTOR expression, the up-regulation of Beclin1, ATG5, ATG13 and LC3 expression, and the promotion of LC3Ⅰ conversion to LC3Ⅱ.

5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4373-4381, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921513

ABSTRACT

Lager yeast is the most popular yeast strain used for beer production in China. The flocculation of yeast plays an important role in cell separation at the end of fermentation. Therefore, appropriately enhancing the flocculation capability of the lager yeast without affecting its fermentation performance would be desirable for beer industry. Our previous study showed that the defect of gene RIM21 might contribute to the enhanced flocculation capability of a lager yeast G03. To further investigate the role of the RIM21 gene in flocculation of strain G03, this study constructed a RIM21-deleted mutant strain G03-RIM21Δ through homologous recombination. Deletion of RIM21 improved the flocculation capability of strain G03 during wort fermentation at 11 °C without changing its fermentation performance significantly. The expression of FLO5, Lg-FLO1 and some other genes involved in cell wall integrity pathway were up-regulated in strain G03-RIM21Δ. In addition, the disruption of RIM21 enhanced resistance of yeast cells to cell wall inhibitors. These results provide a basis for elucidating the flocculation mechanism of lager yeast under low-temperature fermentation conditions.


Subject(s)
Beer , Fermentation , Flocculation , Receptors, Cell Surface , Saccharomyces/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2483-2494, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887814

ABSTRACT

Solanum lycopersicum phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 5 (SlPAL5) gene regulates the metabolism of phenolic compounds. The study of transcription factors that regulate the expression of SlPAL5 gene is of great significance to elucidate the regulatory mechanism underlying the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in tomato fruit induced by UV-C irradiation. Here, yeast one-hybrid library of tomato fruit was constructed, and the yeast one-hybrid technology was used to screen the transcription factors that regulate the expression of SlPAL5, the key gene related to the synthesis of phenolic compounds in tomato fruit. As a result, a transcription factor, SlERF7, was obtained and sequenced, followed by the blast homology analysis. Further experiments confirmed that SlERF7 interacted with the promoter of SlPAL5 gene. In addition, UV-C irradiation significantly increased the expression level of SlERF7. These results indicate that SlERF7, which is regulated by UV-C irradiation, might be involved in regulating the transcription of SlPAL5, which provided foundations for further studying the regulation mechanism of the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in tomato fruit induced by UV-C irradiation.


Subject(s)
Fruit , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolism , Phenols , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 806-815, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878597

ABSTRACT

Yeast are comprised of diverse single-cell fungal species including budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and various nonconventional yeasts. Budding yeast is well known as an important industrial microorganism, which has been widely applied in various fields, such as biopharmaceutical and health industry, food, light industry and biofuels production. In the recent years, various yeast strains from different ecological environments have been isolated and characterized. Novel species have been continuously identified, and strains with diverse physiological characteristics such as stress resistance and production of bioactive compounds were selected, which proved abundant biodiversity of natural yeast resources. Genome mining of yeast strains, as well as multi-omics analyses (transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, etc.) can reveal diverse genetic diversity for strain engineering. The genetic resources including genes encoding various enzymes and regulatory proteins, promoters, and other elements, can be employed for development of robust strains. In addition to exploration of yeast natural diversity, phenotypes that are more suitable for industrial applications can be obtained by generation of a variety of genetic diversity through mutagenesis, laboratory adaptation, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology design. The optimized genetic elements can be used to efficiently improve strain performance. Exploration of yeast biodiversity and genetic diversity can be employed to build efficient cell factories and produce biological enzymes, vaccines, various natural products as well as other valuable products. In this review, progress on yeast diversity is summarized, and the future prospects on efficient development and utilization of yeast biodiversity are proposed. The methods and schemes described in this review also provide a reference for exploration of diversity of other industrial microorganisms and development of efficient strains.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Biofuels , Industrial Microbiology , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Synthetic Biology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876148

ABSTRACT

@#pdr5 and snq2 gene knockout was constructed by overlap PCR, and the effects of pdr5 and snq2 mutations on the accuracy and sensitivity of RNR2 promoter-regulated yeast cell sensors in detecting genotoxic compounds were studied. The yeast cell sensors of wild-type, single-gene mutation of pdr5, single-gene mutation of snq2, and double-gene mutation of pdr5 and snq2 were studied. The cell growth inhibition and the fluorescence induction factor of the yeast cell sensors exposed to a series of concentrations of methyl methanesulfonate(MMS), ethyl methanesulfonate(EMS), cisplatin, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide(4NOQ), 5-fluorouracil(5-FU), hydroxyurea, salicylic acid and glucose solution were investigated. The results showed that overlap PCR method could efficiently construct the mutant yeast cell sensor. The accuracy of cell sensors of single-gene mutation of snq2 and double-gene mutation of pdr5 and snq2 were both 100%, higher than that of cell sensors of wild-type and single-gene mutation of pdr5 (87.5%). The yeast cell sensor of double-gene mutation of pdr5 and snq2 showed the highest sensitivity in detecting genotoxicity. This study provides guidance for the construction of high accuracy and sensitivity yeast cell sensor, and foundation for further functional research of yeast cell membrane transporter gene pdr5 and snq2.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2449-2468, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888869

ABSTRACT

Orally administered drug entities have to survive the harsh gastrointestinal environment, penetrate the enteric epithelia and circumvent hepatic metabolism before reaching the systemic circulation. Whereas the gastrointestinal stability can be well maintained by taking proper measures, hepatic metabolism presents as a formidable barrier to drugs suffering from first-pass metabolism. The pharmaceutical academia and industries are seeking alternative pathways for drug transport to circumvent problems associated with the portal pathway. Intestinal lymphatic transport is emerging as a promising pathway to this end. In this review, we intend to provide an updated overview on the rationale, strategies, factors and applications involved in intestinal lymphatic transport. There are mainly two pathways for peroral lymphatic transport-the chylomicron and the microfold cell pathways. The underlying mechanisms are being unraveled gradually and nowadays witness increasing research input and applications.

10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200781, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339313

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fruit juice industry generates massive amount of lignocellulosic by-products annually which are excellent raw materials for bioethanol production. In the current study, bioethanol production from apricot (Prunus armeniaca) pomace by Kluyveromyces marxianus was investigated for the first time. Some key parameters for fermentation such as pretreatment methods, biomass and cellulase loading and time, were optimized. Kluyveromyces marxianus produced 30.09 g/L ethanol in the 20% washed apricot pomace and 120 FPU/g cellulose enzyme loading. The highest theoretical yield and Y P/S values were also observed as 94.7% and 0.50 g/g, respectively, when 15 FPU/g cellulose enzyme was used. These results depict that apricot pomace is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production.


Subject(s)
Kluyveromyces , Biofuels , Renewable Energy , Prunus armeniaca
11.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(2): e20200407, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153849

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Natural additives in ruminant diet optimizes animal performance by controlling or modifying the rumen fermentation pattern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using Saccharomyces cerevisiae products during abrupt changes in dietary starch concentration on ruminal pH maintenance, performance and metabolism of confined sheep. Twenty adult ewes, crossbred Texel x Corriedale(44.7±6.97 Kg BW) were divided into three groups: Control (n=6), Cultron X (yeast culture; n=7) and Cultron Pro (hydrolyzed yeast; n=7), administered at a dose of 5 g/sheep/day (10x1010CFU/g DM). The experiment lasted 20 days divided into four periods, alternating between 40 and 60% concentrate. Blood and ruminal fluid were collected at the end of each period, and daily dry matter intake was measured to determine the average daily gain (ADG). Blood tests included blood count and biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, total plasma proteins (TPP), liver enzymes, acute phase proteins and minerals. There was an upward trend in ADG in group Cultron X compared to control in period 3. Although, ruminal pH did not differ between groups, protozoan motility was higher in animals supplemented with hydrolyzed yeast. The Cultron Pro group showed an increase in TPP in periods 3 and 4, and AST in periods 2 and 3 compared to the control group. There was no difference in other metabolites. Yeast supplementation is a potential tool in times of feeding challenge, in which yeast culture is the most effective for improving performance of confined sheep being in improving performance of confined sheep.


RESUMO: A utilização de aditivos naturais na dieta de ruminantes é uma prática que otimiza o desempenho, controlando ou modificando o padrão de fermentação ruminal. O objetivo do estudo buscou avaliar os efeitos da utilização de produtos à base de Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante mudanças na concentração de amido da dieta sobre a manutenção do pH ruminal, desempenho e metabolismo de ovinos confinados. Dessa forma, 20 fêmeas ovinas adultas mestiças das raças Texel e Corriedale (44,7±6,97 PV) foram divididas em três grupos: Controle (n=6), Cultron X (cultura de levedura; n=7) e Cultron Pro (levedura hidrolisada; n=7), administrados na dose de 5 g/ovelha/dia (10x1010ufc/g de MS). O experimento teve duração de 20 dias divididos em quatro períodos, alternando entre 40 e 60% de concentrado. Foram realizadas coletas de sangue e líquido ruminal ao final de cada período e mensuração da ingestão de matéria seca diariamente, a fim de determinar o ganho médio diário (GMD). As análises sanguíneas incluíram hemograma e parâmetros bioquímicos como glicose, ureia, proteínas plasmáticas totais (PPT), enzimas hepáticas, proteínas de fase aguda e minerais. Houve tendência de aumento no GMD no grupo Cultron X em relação ao controle no período 3. Apesar do pH ruminal não diferir entre grupos, a motilidade de protozoários foi melhor nos animais suplementados com levedura hidrolisada. O grupo Cultron Pro apresentou aumento de PPT nos períodos 3 e 4 e aumento nos níveis da enzima hepática AST nos períodos 2 e 3 em comparação ao grupo controle. Não houve diferença nos demais metabólitos. A suplementação com levedura apresentou-se como potencial ferramenta em momentos de desafio alimentar, sendo a cultura de levedura mais eficaz na melhora da performance de ovinos confinados.

12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 14-21, jul. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biosurfactants are biomolecules that have the potential to be applied in food formulations due to their low toxicity and ability to improve sensory parameters. Considering the ability of yeasts to produce biosurfactants with food-friendly properties, the aim of the present study was to apply a biosurfactant produced by Candida utilis in the formulation of cookies. RESULTS: The biosurfactant was obtained with a yield of 24.22 ± 0.23 g/L. The characterization analysis revealed that the structure of a metabolized fatty acid with high oleic acid content (68.63 ± 0.61%), and the thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated good stability at temperatures lower than 200°C, potential for food applications. The biosurfactant also exhibited satisfactory antioxidant activity at concentrations evaluated, without cytotoxic potential for cell strains, L929 and RAW 264.7, according to the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of the surfactant into the dough of a standard cookie formulation to replace animal fat was carried out, achieving a softer, spongier product without significantly altering the physical and physicochemical properties or energy value. CONCLUSION: The thermal stability and antioxidant activity of the biosurfactant produced by C. utilis were verified, besides the positive contribution in the texture analysis of the cookies. Therefore, this biomolecule presents itself as a potential ingredient in flour-based sweet food formulations.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Candida/metabolism , Food, Formulated , Cookies , Temperature , Yeasts , Food Industry , Food Additives , Antioxidants
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 55-64, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethanol concentration (PE), ethanol productivity (QP) and sugar consumption (SC) are important values in industrial ethanol production. In this study, initial sugar and nitrogen (urea) concentrations in sweet sorghum stem juice (SSJ) were optimized for high PE (≥10%, v/v), QP, (≥2.5 g/L·h) and SC (≥90%) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSJKKU01. Then, repeated-batch fermentations under normal gravity (NG) and high gravity (HG) conditions were studied. RESULTS: The initial sugar at 208 g/L and urea at 2.75 g/L were the optimum values to meet the criteria. At the initial yeast cell concentration of ~1 × 108 cells/mL, the PE, QP and SC were 97.06 g/L, 3.24 g/L·h and 95.43%, respectively. Repeated-batch fermentations showed that the ethanol production efficiency of eight successive cycles with and without aeration were not significantly different when the initial sugar of cycles 2 to 8 was under NG conditions (~140 g/L). Positive effects of aeration were observed when the initial sugar from cycle 2 was under HG conditions (180­200 g/L). The PE and QP under no aeration were consecutively lower from cycle 1 to cycle 6. Additionally, aeration affected ergosterol formation in yeast cell membrane at high ethanol concentrations, whereas trehalose content under all conditions was not different. CONCLUSION: Initial sugar, sufficient nitrogen and appropriated aeration are necessary for promoting yeast growth and ethanol fermentation. The SSJ was successfully used as an ethanol production medium for a high level of ethanol production. Aeration was not essential for repeated-batch fermentation under NG conditions, but it was beneficial under HG conditions.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Sorghum/chemistry , Ethanol/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Urea , Yeasts/growth & development , Aeration , Sorghum/microbiology , Ethanol/analysis , Sugars , Juices , Fermentation , Gravitation , Nitrogen
14.
CienciaUAT ; 14(2): 133-145, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124389

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los probióticos favorecen el desarrollo de microorganismos benéficos en el rumen, lo que incrementa la digestibilidad de los nutrientes y mejora el desempeño productivo de los rumiantes; con esto, se tiene la posibilidad de utilizar ingredientes como el rastrojo de maíz de relativo bajo valor nutritivo, pero altamente disponible en algunos lugares a bajo precio. Convencionalmente, se utilizan como probióticos las levaduras Saccharomyces, aunque existen reportes sobre el uso de cepas autóctonas, como Candida norvegensis. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos del probiótico de Candida norvegensis en la degradabilidad ruminal in situ de rastrojo de maíz y en el comportamiento productivo de ovinos en crecimiento. La levadura Candida norvegensis (cepa Levazoot 15) [0 g (T1) y 5 g (T2)] se usó para determinar la degradación ruminal in situ (DRMS), del rastrojo de maíz, en 3 vacas canuladas ruminalmente por medio de la técnica de la bolsa de poliéster. No hubo efecto de la levadura (P > 0.05) para la fracción (a), (b) y (a+b); pero la degradabilidad efectiva al 1 %/h y 5 %/h de recambio ruminal fue mayor para T2 (P < 0.05). En un segundo experimento, 32 corderos se asignaron al azar a corrales individuales por 105 d para evaluar 4 dietas que difirieron en la proporción de concentrado/ forraje: T1 = 75:25, T2 = 75:25, T3 = 50:50, y T4 = 25:75. A excepción de T1, las dietas fueron suplementadas con Candida norvegensis, a razón de 15 mL/kg de peso vivo, equivalente a 5 g/d de levadura en base seca. Los ovinos en la dieta con 75 % de concentrado más la levadura (T2) presentaron mayor ganancia de peso, y mejor conversión alimenticia (P < 0.05). Se concluye que Candida norvegensis mostró efectos benéficos en la degradabilidad ruminal y en el desarrollo de corderos.


Abstract Probiotics assist in the development of beneficial microorganisms in the rumen that increase digestibility of nutrients and improves the productive performance of ruminants; it also has the possibility of using ingredients as corn stover of relatively low nutritional value, but available in some places at low prices. Saccharomyces yeasts are conventionally used as pro biotics and there are reports that use native strains such as Candida norvegensis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the probiotic of Candida norvegensis on the in situ ruminal dry matter degradability of corn stover and on the productive performance of growing lambs. In the first experiment, the yeast Candida norvegensis (strain Levazoot 15) [0 g (T1)] and 5 g (T2) was used to determine the in situ ruminal dry matter degradation (RDMD) of the corn stover in 3 cows with cannulas in the rumen, which was determined by the polyester bag technique. There was no effect of yeast (P > 0.05) on fraction (a), (b) and (a+b). However, the effective degradability at 1 %/h and 5 %/h of ruminal turnover was higher in T2 (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, 32 lambs were randomly assigned to individual pens for 105 d to evaluate 4 diets that differed in the proportion of concentrate: forage: T1 = 75: 25, T2 = 75:25; T3 = 50: 50, and T4 = 25: 75. With the exception of T1, the diets were supplemented with Candida norvegensis at 15 mL/kg of live weight, equivalent to 5 g/d of yeast in dry matter basis. The lambs in the diet with 75 % of concentrate plus the yeast (T2) showed greater weight gain and best feed conversion (P < 0.05). It is concluded that Candida norvegensis showed beneficial effects on ruminal degradability and on the growth of lambs.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210360

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel method for inducing hyphae formation, was described.Methods:Mycelia of experimental and clinical strains from 100 patients with oral lichen planuswere cultured in RPMI 1640 medium with 56°C or 121°C inactivated calf sera. After these strains were cultured for 2 h to 7 days, the average hyphae formation rate was observed under light microscopy. Results: The 121°C inactivated calf serum showed better outcomes than 56°C inactivated calf serum in terms of time and amounts of hyphae products. Conclusions:For Candida albicanshyphae culture, the 121°C inactivated serum is superior to the 56°C inactivated serum

16.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 3-7, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095737

ABSTRACT

Criptococose é uma doença grave que afeta tanto imunocomprometidos quanto imunocompetentes, com isso analisar a virulência é fundamental para novas terapêuticas. Objetivo: Analisar a capacidade de virulência e susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos de Cryptococcus spp. isolados de líquor de pacientes de hospital do norte do Paraná. Métodos: A partir de dois isolados clínicos C. neoformans e C. gattii, realizou-se a confirmação da identificação. Para a virulência, avaliou-se o tamanho da cápsula, capacidade de sobrevivência após exposição a neutrófilos, produção de melanina e urease. No antifungigrama por difusão em disco utilizou-se: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, voriconazol, itraconazol e miconazol. Resultados: C. gattii destaca-se por maior desenvolvimento da cápsula além da melhor capacidade de sobreviver a fagocitose em relação ao C. neoformans. No antifungigrama, ambos os isolados se apresentam sensíveis às drogas estudadas. Conclusão: Esses achados contribuem para a compreensão das diferentes patogêneses entre C. gattii e C. neoformans.


Cryptococcosis is a serious disease that can affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals, thus the virulence analysis is fundamental for the development of new treatments. Objective: To analyze the virulence and susceptibility of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients from a hospital in the north of Paraná. Methods: From two clinical isolates, C. neoformans and C. gattii were confirmed and identified. For virulence, capsule size, survival capacity after exposure to neutrophils, melanin production and urease were evaluated. In the disc-diffusion method, the following antifungals were used: amphotericin B, ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and miconazole Results: It was observed that C. gattii presents greater results for development of the capsule beside presenting the best ability to survive phagocytosis in relation to C. neoformans. In the disc-diffusion method, both isolates presented sensitivity to the studied drugs. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of the different pathogens between C. gattii and C. neoformans.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcosis/virology , Virulence Factors/analysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Phagocytosis , Urease/urine , Yeasts/virology , Capsules/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/analysis , Itraconazole , Cryptococcus neoformans/virology , Agar/analysis , Cryptococcus gattii/virology , Voriconazole , Melanins/analysis , Miconazole , Neutrophils/virology
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 535-544, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128402

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility of diet, ingestive behavior which occurred in two moments, carcass traits, being evaluated constituent and non-carcass components, and also the effect the yeast culture could promote in the peripheral temperature of rumen, hull and body temperature. The diets consisted of a constant ratio of 50% forage (maize silage) and 50% concentrate. Thirty-six steers, ½ Angus Nelore, with average age of 11 months and average initial body weight of 339.5±10kg were used in the experiment. The inclusion of yeast culture promoted a higher daily dry matter intake (8.83 vs 9.35kg day-1) and, consequently, a better daily weight gain (1,143 vs. 1,325kg day-1) in the initial feedlot phase, with no difference in other periods. The apparent digestibility of the diet containing yeast culture was higher than the control diet (69.69 versus 68.32%, respectively), and its use did not interfere with the feeding behavior of the animals. Based on our findings, supplementation with yeast culture may bring positive results in the initial feedlot phase.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho; a digestibilidade aparente da dieta; o comportamento oral ingestivo, o qual ocorreu em dois momentos, as características de carcaça, sendo avaliados componentes integrantes e não integrantes da carcaça; bem como o efeito que a cultura de leveduras pudesse promover perante a temperatura periférica de rúmen, casco e temperatura corpórea, sendo aferida por meio da temperatura retal. As dietas foram constituídas em uma constante relação de 50% de volumoso (silagem de milho) e 50% de concentrado. Utilizaram-se no experimento 36 novilhos, ½ sangue Angus Nelore, com idade média de 11 meses e peso vivo médio inicial de 339,5 ± 10kg. O uso de cultura de leveduras promoveu maior consumo diário de matéria seca (8,83 contra 9,35 kg dia-1) e consequentemente melhor ganho de peso diário (1,143 contra 1,325kg dia-1) na fase inicial do confinamento, não havendo diferença nos demais períodos. A digestibilidade aparente da dieta que continha cultura de leveduras foi superior à da dieta controle (69,69 contra 68,32%, respectivamente), e seu uso não interferiu no comportamento ingestivo dos animais. Com base nos resultados do presente estudo, a suplementação com cultura de leveduras pode trazer resultados positivos na fase inicial de confinamento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Body Weight , Weight Gain , beta-Glucans , Feeding Behavior , Rumen/physiology , Silage
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 19-24, Mar. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pyruvic acid (PA), a vital α-oxocarboxylic acid, plays an important role in energy and carbon metabolism. The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (Y. lipolytica) has considerable potential for the production of PA. An increased NaCl concentration reportedly increases the biomass and PA yield of Y. lipolytica. RESULTS: To increase the yield of PA, the NaCl-tolerant Y. lipolytica A4 mutant was produced using the atmospheric and room temperature plasma method of mutation. The A4 mutant showed growth on medium containing 160 g/L NaCl. The PA yield of the A4 mutant reached 97.2 g/L at 120 h (0.795 g/g glycerol) in a 20-L fermenter with glycerol as the sole carbon source, which was 28.9% higher than that of the parental strain. CONCLUSION: The PA yield from Y. lipolytica can be improved by increasing its NaCl tolerance.


Subject(s)
Pyruvic Acid/metabolism , Yarrowia/genetics , Yarrowia/metabolism , Osmotic Pressure , Yeasts , Carbon/metabolism , Sodium Chloride , Bioreactors , Salt Tolerance/genetics , Fermentation , Glycerol/metabolism , Mutation
19.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 60-68, Mar. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087705

ABSTRACT

Background: Oleaginous yeasts can be grown on different carbon sources, including lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing a mixture of glucose and xylose. However, not all yeast strains can utilize both the sugars for lipogenesis. Therefore, in this study, efforts were made to isolate dual sugar-utilizing oleaginous yeasts from different sources. Results: A total of eleven isolates were obtained, which were screened for their ability to utilize various carbohydrates for lipogenesis. One promising yeast isolate Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans S2 was selected based on its capability to use a mixture of glucose and xylose and produce 44.86 ± 4.03% lipids, as well as its tolerance to fermentation inhibitors. In order to identify an inexpensive source of sugars, nondetoxified paddy straw hydrolysate (saccharified with cellulase), supplemented with 0.05% yeast extract, 0.18% peptone, and 0.04% MgSO4 was used for growth of the yeast, resulting in a yield of 5.17 g L−1 lipids with conversion productivity of 0.06 g L−1 h−1 . Optimization of the levels of yeast extract, peptone, and MgSO4 for maximizing lipid production using Box­Behnken design led to an increase in lipid yield by 41.59%. FAME analysis of single cell oil revealed oleic acid (30.84%), palmitic acid (18.28%), and stearic acid (17.64%) as the major fatty acids. Conclusion: The fatty acid profile illustrates the potential of T. mycotoxinivorans S2 to produce single cell oil as a feedstock for biodiesel. Therefore, the present study also indicated the potential of selected yeast to develop a zero-waste process for the complete valorization of paddy straw hydrolysate without detoxification


Subject(s)
Trichosporon/metabolism , Oryza , Xylose/isolation & purification , Trichosporon/chemistry , Oils/chemistry , Lipogenesis , Biofuels , Fermentation , Glucose/isolation & purification , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism , Lipids/biosynthesis
20.
Rev. colomb. cienc. pecu ; 33(1): 5-15, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156299

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The yeasts of the genus Malassezia are considered part of the normal skin microbiota in humans and animals. In horses, several species of the genus Malassezia have been reported in different areas of the skin and ear canal. Objective: Isolate, characterize and identify the different species belonging to the genus Malassezia isolated from the ear canal and skin of equine patients with no dermatological lesions that were referred to the large animal clinic of veterinary teaching hospital at the National University of Colombia. Methods: 22 horses were evaluated and sampled. Eighty-two samples were obtained by swabbing either the ear canals (left and right), skin areas of prepuce, mammary gland and inguinal region. The samples were examined by cytological evaluation and were cultured on modified Dixon's agar and phenotypic and molecular identification were performed for yeast colonies. Results: Fourteen yeast isolates were obtained from the 82 samples. Biochemical identification determined that 50% (n=7) were Malassezia spp., 35.7% (n=5) were identified as Candida spp. and 14.3% (n=2) as Cryptococcus spp.. Using molecular tests, the Malassezia species were M. slooffiae (28.6%) and M.nana (57.1%); only one isolate was classified as Trichosporo asahii. Conclusion: M.nana and M. slooffiae were identified as part of the normal ear canal and skin microbiota in the evaluated horses. The observed prevalence of Malassezia spp. was 18.2% (n=4/22) in this study sample.


Resumen Antecedentes: Las levaduras del género Malassezia hacen parte de la microbiota normal cutánea de humanos y animales. En equinos se han reportado diferentes especies de Malassezia aisladas de varias regiones de piel y canal auditivo externo. Objetivo: Aislar, caracterizar e identificar las especies del género Malassezia spp. a partir de canal auditivo externo y piel de equinos sin lesiones dermatológicas, remitidos a la Clínica de Grandes Animales de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Metodología: Se evaluaron 22 equinos, a partir de los cuales se obtuvieron 82 muestras entre hisopados de canal auditivo externo (izquierdo y derecho) y diferentes regiones de piel (prepucio, glándula mamaria e ingle). Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante examen directo y cultivo en agar Dixon modificado. A partir de los aislamientos en los que se observaron colonias morfológicamente compatibles con Malassezia spp. se realizó la identificación fenotípica y molecular. Resultados: De las 82 muestras procesadas se obtuvieron 14 aislamientos de levaduras, de las cuales mediante identificación bioquímica el 50% (n=7) correspondió a Malassezia spp., el 35,7% (n=5) a Candida spp., y el 14,3% (n=2) a Cryptococcus spp. Luego mediante pruebas moleculares se identificaron las especies del género Malassezia como: M. slooffiae (28,6%) y M . nana (57,1%); y un aislamiento correspondió a Trichosporon asahii. Conclusión: Se logró identificar las especies M.nana y M. slooffiae como microbiota normal de la piel y el canal auditivo en los equinos evaluados. La prevalencia de Malassezia spp. para la población evaluada fue de 18,2% (n=4/22).


Resumo Antecedentes: As leveduras do gênero Malassezia fazem parte da microbiota cutânea normal de humanos e animais. Em cavalos, diferentes espécies de Malassezia isoladas de várias regiões da pele e do canal auditivo externo foram reproduzidas. Objetivo: Isolar, caracterizar e identificar as espécies do gênero Malassezia spp. do canal auditivo externo e pele eqüinos sem lesões cutâneas, referiu-se à Clínica de Grandes Animais da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Nacional da Colômbia. Métodos: 22 equinos foram avaliadas a partir dos quais 82 amostras a partir de esfregaços do canal auditivo externo (esquerda e direita) e diferentes regiões da pele (prepúcio, glândula mamaria e virilha) foram obtidos. As amostras foram processadas por exame direto e cultura em ágar Dixon modificado. Dos isolados nos quais as colônias foram observadas morfologicamente compatíveis com Malassezia spp. identificação fenotípica e molecular foi realizada. Resultados: Das 82 amostras processadas 14 isolados de levedura, que foram obtidos por identificação bioquímica de 50% (n=7) correspondia a Malassezia spp., 35,7% (n=5) a Candida spp., e 14,3% (n=2) para Cryptococcus spp.. Em seguida, usando o teste molecular espécie Malassezia foram identificadas como M. slooffiae (28,6%) e M . nana (57,1%); e um isolamento correspondia a Trichosporon asahii. Conclusão: As espécies M.nana e M. slooffiae foram identificadas como microbiota de pele normal e do canal auditivo nos equídeos avaliados. A prevalência de Malassezia spp. para a população avaliada foi 18,2% (n=4/22).

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