Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 37
Filter
1.
Rev. salud pública ; 24(1): e200, ene.-feb. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377213

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Determinar el conocimiento y las actitudes de un grupo de 53 jóvenes de la Cruz Roja de la Juventud en la Seccional Valle del Cauca sobre el fenómeno social del VIH/SIDA y sus portadores. Método El diseño de la investigación se basó en la línea de desarrollo humano y construcción de ciudadanía, bajo el método cuantitativo de orden descriptivo. Para la recolección de la información, se empleó un formato de encuesta de tipo descriptivo con preguntas cerradas o de alternativa fija, compuesto por un cuestionario de 39 preguntas. Resultados Entre el 69% y 72% de los jóvenes refieren conocimiento sobre sus derechos sexuales y reproductivos; sin embargo, un porcentaje bajo, entre 26% y 39%, afirma haber recibido asesoría sobre la realización de la prueba del VIH, un porcentaje menor se la ha realizado. Conclusiones Es claro el bajo nivel de reconocimiento que tienen las instituciones y los medios de comunicación como difusores de temas relacionados con la salud sexual y reproductiva y el VIH/SIDA. Por otro lado, a pesar del reconocimiento de sus derechos, perviven en los jóvenes mitos sobre la forma de contagio, la actitud de distanciamiento con los portadores y las conductas de riesgo en las prácticas sexuales.


ABSTRACT Objective Determine the knowledge and attitudes of a group of 53 young people of the Red Cross of Youth in the Valle del Cauca Sectional about the social phenomenon of HIV/AIDS and its bearers. Method The design of the research was based on the line of human development and construction of citizenship, under the quantitative method of descriptive order. For the collection of information, a descriptive survey format with closed questions or a fixed alternative was used, consisting of a questionnaire of 39 questions. Results Between 69% and 72% of young people report knowledge about their sexual and reproductive rights, however, a low percentage between 26% and 39% say they have received counseling about the HIV test and a smaller percentage have accomplished. Conclusions It is clear the low levels that institutions and media have in the dissemination of the topic of sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS. Despite the recognition of their rights, myths persist about the form of contagion, the attitude of distancing with carriers and risk behaviors in sexual practices.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887136

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the demographic characteristics and sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Tianjin, and to compare these aspects between recreational drug users and non-users. Methods:This research was conducted by Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. From July to September 2015, various methods such as simple random sampling and snowball sampling were used to recruit MSM. Information was collected through on-site questionnaire surveys, and laboratory tests were conducted to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status in the research subjects. Statistical description and frequency distribution tests on demographic information and behavioral variables were performed. Results:A total of 410 qualified participants, ranged from 17 to 70 years old, were included. A total of 297 (72.4%) MSM were unmarried, 194 (47.3%) had monthly income over 3 000 yuan, 182 (44.4%) MSM had high school education, and 366 (89.3%) were working full-time. Among all 410 participants, 208 MSM self-reported using recreational drugs. Among them, 140 MSM had used Rush Popper. Influencing factors of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Rush Popper users include: more than 30 years old, average monthly income less than 5 000 yuan, and sex with temporary partners (all P<0.05). Conclusion:Among MSM in Tianjin, the use of recreational drugs is quite common, and Rush Popper is the most commonly used recreational drug. Therefore, it is necessary to establish and strengthen the relevant laws and regulations for the reduction of Rush Popper circulation among the MSM population.

3.
Más Vita ; 2(3,Extraord): 19-29, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1373022

ABSTRACT

La adherencia al tratamiento constituye actualmente una de las principales preocupaciones en relación al control del VIH/sida, asociándose fuertemente al éxito o fracaso terapéutico. Este estudio muestra la adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral identificando diversos factores que podrían ser facilitadores u obstáculos por medio de la aplicación de los instrumentos cuantitativo y cualitativo. Objetivo: Validación los instrumentos cuantitativo y cualitativo para determinar los factores que influyen en la adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral y analizar la percepción del paciente sobre el seguimiento que recibe en el Servicio de Farmacia Integral. Métodos: La investigación es mixta, de corte transversal y de tipo exploratorio, descriptivo. El diseño es no experimental. La validación de los instrumentos se realizará mediante juicio de expertos, se utilizó una prueba piloto para el cuantitativo con 15 pacientes, seleccionados de forma no aleatoria, no probabilística. Para el instrumento cualitativo se utiliza un paciente. Resultados: 98.8% de confiabilidad de los instrumentos cualitativos y 85% cuantitativo. De las conductas o comportamiento individual de los pacientes depende exclusivamente la adherencia terapéutica. La percepción del usuario es buena sobre el desempeño profesional al realizar el seguimiento terapéutico, pero todavía se demuestra que deben incrementarse las acciones para que se logre una verdadera descentralización de la atención. Conclusiones: El instrumento es apto para aplicar a los usuarios, los factores sociodemográficos, comportamiento individual y conductas frente al tratamiento influyen en la adherencia terapéutica(AU)


Adherence to treatment is currently one of the main concerns in relation to the control of HIV / AIDS, strongly associated with therapeutic success or failure. This study shows adherence to antiretroviral treatment by identifying various factors that could be facilitators or obstacles through the application of quantitative and qualitative instruments. Objective: Validation of the quantitative and qualitative instruments to determine the factors that influence adherence to antiretroviral treatment and analyze the patient's perception of the follow-up they receive at the Comprehensive Pharmacy Service. Methods: The research is mixed, cross-sectional and exploratory, descriptive. The design is non-experimental. The validation of the instruments was carried out through expert judgment; a pilot test was used for the quantitative with 15 patients, selected in a non-random, non-probabilistic way. One patient selected for the qualitative instrument. Results: 98.8% reliability of the qualitative instruments and 85% quantitative. The conduct or individual behavior of the patients depends exclusively on therapeutic adherence. The user's perception is good on the professional performance when carrying out the therapeutic follow-up, but it is showing yet, that the actions must be increase so that achieve a true decentralization of care. Conclusions: The instrument is suitable to apply to users, sociodemographic factors, individual behavior and behaviors towards treatment influence therapeutic adherence(AU)


Subject(s)
HIV/drug effects , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Alcohol Drinking , Epidemiology , Communicable Diseases , Life Style
4.
Univ. salud ; 22(2): 120-126, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115961

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La atención odontológica oportuna e inclusiva tiene un papel importante en las personas con VIH/SIDA, por cuanto permite prevenir y dar tratamiento a las múltiples lesiones orales que acompañan a esta patología, mejorando la calidad de vida de esta población. Objetivo: Determinar la percepción y experiencia de pacientes con VIH/SIDA sobre la consulta odontológica en una Institución Prestadora de Salud (IPS) de Santa Marta, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo cuantitativo donde participaron 64 pacientes con VIH/SIDA de una IPS de la ciudad de Santa Marta, quienes se les aplicó un instrumento de recolección de datos. Resultados: El 65,6% expresó nunca percibir rechazo por parte del odontólogo, el 25% refiere haber experimentado algún rechazo por lo menos una vez y un 9,4% siempre se siente rechazado. Conclusiones: Existe la necesidad de abordar esta enfermedad no sólo desde el aspecto clínico, sino también desde lo social, para educar tanto al profesional de la salud como a la comunidad, sobre avances científicos, el estudio de esta patología y los riesgos reales de contraerla, para desmitificar esta afección y erradicar la discriminación hacia los pacientes.


Introduction: Timely and comprehensive dental care is important for HIV/AIDS patients as it facilitates prevention and treatment of the multiple oral lesions that accompany this pathology, and consequently, improves their quality of life. Objective: To determine the perception and experience of the dental care service provided by a Health Provider Institution (HPI) to HIV/AIDS patients from the city of Santa Marta (Colombia). Materials and methods: A descriptive quantitative study was carried out with 64 HIV/AIDS patients treated in the HPI, to whom a data collection instrument was applied. Results: 65.6% of the HIV/AIDS patients did not perceive any rejection from the dentist, whereas 25% and 9.4% of these patients reported being discriminated at least once and always, respectively. Conclusions: There is a need to approach this disease not only from a clinical standpoint but also from a social perspective in order to educate both health professionals and communities about: scientific advances; how to study this pathology; and the risks of contracting HIV/AIDS. It is also necessary to demystify some misconceptions and eradicate discrimination against these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Care , HIV , Perception , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
5.
Infectio ; 23(3): 246-251, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1002158

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Caracterizar de forma sociodemográfica y clínica pacientes con diagnóstico nuevo de VIH, que fueron hospitalizados en una Clínica Universitaria de alta complejidad entre el año 2010 - 2016. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptico, de corte transversal por medio de revisión de historias clínicas, que incluyo pacientes ≥14 años, a quienes se les diagnosticó VIH durante la hospitalización y tuvieran al menos un conteo de linfocitos CD4. Resultados: La mediana para la edad fue 41 años (RIC 31 - 51), el 85,1% eran hombres. Los principales síntomas al ingreso fueron generales/sistémicos (70,2%). 99 pacientes (61,5%) tenían infecciones oportunistas siendo tuberculosis la más frecuente (34,3%). La mediana para el conteo de CD4 fue 88 células/mm3 RIC (27 - 327) y el 77% se clasificó como SIDA. 29 pacientes murieron (18%) encontrando como posible factor de riesgo tener conteo de CD4 fue 88 células/mm3 RIC (27 - 327) y el 77% se clasificó como SIDA. 29 pacientes murieron (18%) encontrando como posible factor de riesgo tener conteo de CD4<200 células/mm3 , no pertenecer al régimen contributivo, ingresar con síntomas respiratorios, tener diagnóstico de neumonía, criterios de falla multiorgánica o necesidad de UCI/UCE. Conclusión: Para nuestro caso la mayoría de pacientes con diagnóstico nuevo de VIH se encontraban en estados avanzados de inmunosupresión con alta carga de enfermedades definitorias de SIDA. Es importante fortalecer las políticas de salud pública para diagnosticar más temprano la infección por VIH.


Abstract Purposes: To characterize sociodemographic and clinical aspects in newly diagnosed HIV patients that were hospitalized at a university health center between 2010 - 2016. Methods: We made an observational descriptive cross - sectional study reviewing clinical records, including patients older than 14 years old, who were diagnosed with HIV infection during hospitalization and at least a CD4 count. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 41 years old (IQR 31 - 51), 85% were men. The main symptoms were general/systemic (70.2%). 99 patients (61.5%) had opportunist infections, being tuberculosis the most frequent (34.3%). The median CD4 were 88 cells/mm3 (IQR 27 - 327) and 77% were classified as AIDS. 29 patients died (18%), finding as a risk factor for mortality don't having a good health care insurance, low CD4 count, having respiratory symptoms, pneumonia diagnosis, multiple organic failure's criteria and ICU admission. Conclusion: In our case, the majority of patients with a new diagnosis of HIV were in advanced stages of immunosuppression with a high burden of AIDS defining diseases. It is important to strengthen public health policies to diagnose HIV infection earlier.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Statistical Data , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Opportunistic Infections , Demography/classification , Data Collection , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Diagnosis , Hospitalization
6.
Rev. Fac. Nac. Salud Pública ; 36(3): 79-89, sep.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-985116

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: De los 36 millones de personas que viven con vih en el mundo, el 63 %, aproximadamente, son activas a nivel laboral, pero poco se sabe de los significados que el trabajo representa para ellas. Objetivo: Comprender los significados que el trabajo tiene para un grupo de trabajadores con vih y que viven en la ciudad de Bogotá. Metodología: Estudio de tipo cualitativo, hermenéutico e interpretativo, en el que participaron voluntariamente once trabajadores (seis mujeres y cinco hombres), seleccionados según criterios de pertinencia y adecuación. La muestra se definió por saturación teórica, y la recolección de datos se dio mediante una entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis siguió la técnica hermenéutica propuesta por Diekelman, Allen y Tanner. Resultados: Para los participantes del estudio, el significado del trabajo, cuando se vive con vih, se encuentra sustentado bajo tres categorías: 1) "Empleabilidad, tipo de empleo y manejo de horarios", 2) "Salud, trabajo y vih" y 3) "Entorno social y laboral del vih". Conclusiones: El vih significa una disminución en las posibilidades laborales, que afecta las condiciones extra- e intralaborales del trabajador, principalmente debido al estigma que se impone a la infección, lo cual lleva a acciones de discriminación e influye en las opciones de empleo. Trabajar es un determinante fundamental en el acceso a la salud y, por ende, en su mantenimiento.


Abstract Introduction: Out of the 36 million of people living with hi vworldwide, approximately 63 % are actively working, yet very little is known about the meaning work has for them. Ob jective: To understand the meaning that work has for a group of workers with hiv living in the city of Bogota. Methodolo gy: A qualitative, hermeneutic, interpretive study in which 11 workers (six Women and five men) voluntarily participated, chosen based on relevance and adequacy criteria. The sample was defined by theoretical saturation, and data was collected using a semi-structured interview. This analysis followed the hermeneutic techniques proposed by Diekelman, Allen and Tanner. Results: For the people participating in the study, the meaning of work, when you live with hiv, is supported under three categories: 1) "employability, type of job and schedu les", 2) "health, work and hiv" y 3) "the social and work envi ronment of hiv". Conclusions: Living with hiv means having less work opportunities, and it affects the worker's conditions both in and out of work, mainly because of the stigma surroun ding the infection, which leads to discriminatory actions and influences job opportunities. Working is a fundamental deter minant to have access to healthcare and thus, maintaining it.


Resumo Introdução: Dos 36 milhões de pessoas que vivem com vih neste mundo, o 63 %, aproximadamente, são ativas no nível laboral, porém pouco se sabe dos significados que o trabalho representa para aquelas. Objetivo: Compreender os significa dos que o trabalho tem para o time de trabalhadores com vih e que moram na cidade de Bogotá. Metodologia: Estudo de for mato qualitativo, hermenêutico e interpretativo, no qual par ticiparam voluntariamente onze trabalhadores (seis mulheres e cinco homens), escolhidos segundo critérios de pertinência e adequação. A amostra se definiu por saturação teórica, e a coleta de dados se deu mediante uma entrevista semiestrutu rada. A análise seguiu a técnica hermenêutica proposta pelos Diekelman, Allen e Tanner. Resultantes: Para os participantes do estudo, o significado do trabalho, quando se vive com vih, se encontra suportado sob três categorias: 1) "Empregabilida de, jeito de emprego e uso de horários", 2) "Saúde, trabalho e vih" e 3) "Redor social e laboral do vih". Conclusões: O vih significa uma diminuição nas possibilidades laborais, que afeta as condiciones extra- e intra laborais do laborista, primordial mente devido ao estigma que se impõe contra a infeção, o qual leva a ações de segregação e influem nas opções de emprego. Trabalhar é um determinante fundamental no acesso na saúde e, decorrerá, no seu mantimento.

7.
HU rev ; 44(3): 387-391, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048108

ABSTRACT

o principal objetivo do monitoramento de adesão a terapia antirretroviral (TARV) é manter os portadores do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV) com carga viral indetectável. A adesão do paciente à TArV é um processo dinâmico, multifatorial que requer decisões compartilhadas e corresponsabilizadas entre o usuário do serviço, a equipe de saúde e a rede social de apoio, visando atender às singularidades socioculturais, melhorando a qualidade de vida dos pacientes com HIV. Existem vários nos métodos de avaliação da aderência disponíveis, com diferentes implicações para as práticas clínicas e de pesquisa, porém não está definido um método padrão-ouro. Tendo em vista que a efetividade da terapia depende diretamente do engajamento dos pacientes, o estudo visa expor, mediante revisão de literatura, as principais barreiras encontradas nesse contexto e as diversas estratégias utilizadas na prática clínica para promover a adesão integral dos indivíduos portadores de HIV ao tratamento.


The main objective of adherence monitoring is to keep HIV patients with undetected viral load. Patient adherence to ArT is a dynamic, multifactorial process that requires shared and shared decision-making between the service user, the health team and the network social support, aiming to attend sociocultural singularities, improving the quality of life of patients with HIV. There is great variability in the extent of adhesion available with different implications for clinical and research practices. However, a standardized method for assessing adherence is not established. Considering that the effectiveness of the therapy depends directly on the engagement of the patients, the study aims to expose, through a literature review, the main barriers encountered in this contex and the various strategies used in medical practice to promote the integral adherence of individuals with HIV to treatment.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Social Support , AIDS Serodiagnosis , Patient Compliance , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Medication Adherence
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27295

ABSTRACT

To achieve early detection of HIV infection, physicians must be aware of symptoms related to HIV infection. Dermatologists, in particular, can play an important role, because more than 90% of patients infected with HIV will develop at least one type of dermatologic disorder, which may be the first indicator of the existence of infection. A 26-year-old male presented with a one-year history of intractable pruritus associated with multiple excoriations and small ulcers. Initially, his condition clinically resembled adult atopic dermatitis. However, no improvement was observed despite treatment including narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB), antihistamine, and topical and systemic corticosteroid. After a week, the patient developed seizures and was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the brain. HIV testing was performed, and the patient was revealed to be HIV-positive. He began highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and the pruritus and skin condition improved dramatically. Herein, we report a case of HIV infection for which the presenting sign was intractable pruritus.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Brain , Dermatitis, Atopic , HIV Infections , HIV , Humans , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Male , Pruritus , Seizures , Skin , Ulcer
9.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 13(1): 8, 20140508.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1120768

ABSTRACT

O objeto deste artigo são o sofrimento e o prazer dos trabalhadores de enfermagem decorrentes da assistência a clientes com HIV/AIDS na Unidade de Doença Infectocontagiosa. Como objetivo, deseja-se descrever e analisar os sentimentos dos trabalhadores de enfermagem decorrentes da assistência ao cliente com HIV/AIDS. A metodologia empregada é a abordagem qualitativa, de caráter descritivo e exploratório. Os dados foram obtidos entre maio e agosto de 2010, utilizando a entrevista semiestruturada, são analisados através da técnica de Análise Temática de Conteúdo. Constatou-se que o sofrimento psíquico advindo da vivência do processo demorte/morrer dos pacientes, do estigma da doença, da discriminação aos pacientes e aos profissionais e do medo que os profissionais têm da contaminação ocupacional. O prazer estava atrelado ao sentimento de utilidade e ao reconhecimento dos pacientes acerca da qualidade do cuidado. A vivência do sofrimento apareceu de forma mais contundente que o sentimento de prazer. Recomendam-se, entre outras, as seguintes estratégias para minimizar o sofrimento psíquico deste coletivo profissional: grupos de reflexão, ginástica laboral, terapias alternativas, ambiente laboral mais humanizado e capacitação permanente dos profissionais


The objective of this article is the suffering and pleasure of nurses assisting patients with HIV/AIDS in the Unit for Infectious Diseases. The main objective is to describe and analyze the feelings of these nursing workers deriving from the assistance to patients with HIV/AIDS. The methodology applied consists of a qualitative approach, of descriptive and exploratory character. The data were obtained between May and August 2010, through semi-structure interview, and also analyzed by the Thematic Content Analysis techniques. It was found out that the psychic pain was due to the patients' process of death/dying, the stigma of the disease, the prejudice that both patients and professionals suffer as well as the fear those professionals feel of the occupational contamination. Their joy was connected to the feeling of being useful and the patients' acknowledgement to the quality of the given care. The experience of pain appeared in a stronger way than the feeling of pleasure. The following strategies are recommended, among others, to minimize the psych pain of the professional people: focus groups, laboral gymnastics, alternative therapies, more humanized laboral environment and permanent education of the professionals.

10.
Rev. panam. infectol ; 16(1): 67-70, 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1067141

ABSTRACT

Paciente feminina, 47 anos, hipertensa e tabagista, em uso crônico de corticoide, apresentou lesões em pele e mucosa nasal, com dor local; tratado empiricamente como sinusite. Houve piora das lesões, com ulceração. Após nove meses do início dos sintomas, foi realizada biópsia da lesão, revelando o anatomopatológico uma micose cutânea sugestiva de criptococose. A paciente foi diagnosticada com infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) e, então, internada em hospital de referência, tendo recebido tratamento com fluconazol 800mg/dia endovenoso, a seguir, fluconazol 800mg/dia oral até completar 12 semanas de tratamento. Houve resolução da lesão ulcerada e posterior fibrose da narina esquerda


A 47-year-old woman, carrier systemic hypertension, tobacco user, and chronic user of corticosteroids, showed skin and nasal mucosa lesions, with local pain; treated empirically as sinusitis. The lesions evolved with increased ulceration. After nine months of symptoms onset, the lesion was biopsied, revealing fungal skin pathology suggestive of cryptococcosis. The patient was diagnosed with an HIV infection. The patient was then hospitalized in a specialized hospital and treated with intravenous fluconazole 800mg/day, followed by fluconazole 800mg daily orally up to 12 weeks of treatment. There was resolution of the ulcerated lesion and subsequent fibrosis of the left nostril


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adult , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/therapy , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Fluconazole , Case Reports
11.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 40(3): 303-308, set. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-695761

ABSTRACT

Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis Bb12 is a probiotic strain that has received considerable attention from the scientific community. It has tolerance to higher temperatures and lower, acidic pH than other bacteria. When administered for 12 months to infants and children together with S. thermophilus this was associated with lower incidences of acute diarrhea. Studies in different countries and with different experimental designs confirmed these results. It was also shown that its administration did not interfere the growth or the normal weight gain of the children. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis Bb12 was associated with decreases of the fecal excretion of rotavirus during episodes of diarrhea, a fact that represents an epidemiological benefit. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis Bb12 exerts positive effects on manifestations of atopy/eczema, with decreases of the parameters of inflammation such as CD4 in blood serum and eosinophil protein X in urine. This was associated with changes in the extension and severity of the skin lesions. No modifications of the normal growth parameters were observed when Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis CNCM I-3446 was given. Administration of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis Bb12 is associated with higher levels of fecal sIgA and calprotectin, which are considered parameters of immune responses and ofthe capacity to launch inflammatory responses. The statements made by some groups that infants under 4 months of age who are not breastfed should not receive probiotics have weak support if it is considered that maternal milk contains a large number and variety of strains of bacteria which may be considered as probiotics. These may not only protect from acute diarrhea but also from upper respiratory infections. Although cases of septicemia due to probiotic have been reported these represent an infinitely small proportion of the total numbers of consumers. No outbreaks have been reported that would point to invasive properties in a strain. It is not advisable to administer any living bacteria to individuals in shock or with innate or severe defects of immunity. However, carriers of HIV or patients with AIDS benefit from probiotic agents. A study carried out in Chile showed that although without evident clinical benefits L. rhamnosus HN001, significantly increased fecal sIgA as a manifestation of improved mucosal defense in the digestive tract.


Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis Bb12 es una de las cepaBifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis Bb12 es una de las cepas probióticas más estudiadas. Posee ventajas que la hacen útil para el uso industrial: tolerancia a ambientes ácidos y a temperaturas superiores a las de los demás probióticos. En un estudio de 12 meses Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis Bb12 fue administrada por un año asociada con S. thermophilus y se observó que los niños experimentaron menos episodios de diarrea aguda. Estudios con seguimientos de distinta duración y diseño refrendaron estos resultados y su administración no ejercía influencias negativas en el crecimiento. Esta bifido-bacteria inducía disminuciones de la excreción de rotavirus durante episodios de diarrea, lo que disminuye la posibilidad de contagios. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis Bb12 ejerce efectos positivos sobre las manifestaciones de atopia como el eccema con el descenso de marcadores de inflamación tales como CD4 en el suero y de la proteína X de los eosinófilos en la orina; y mejorías de las alteraciones de la permeabilidad. Estudios con Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis CNCM I-3446 administrada con ARA y DHA mostraron alteraciones de los parámetros de crecimiento y bioquímicos en lactantes y preescolares en seguimientos entre 14 y 119 días. La administración de Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis Bb12 junto con inmunizaciones se asociaba con niveles más elevados de sIgA específica anti-poliovirus y de calprotectina, cuyos niveles estarían asociados con los de esta inmunoglobulina. Se ha sostenido que no existe justificación para administrar probióticos a menores de 4-6 meses no amamantados, el hecho que la leche materna los proporciona en cantidad y variedad apoya las posibles ventajas de su administración. Los probióticos protegerían no sólo de infecciones del tracto gastrointestinal sino también de las respiratorias altas. Hay casos aislados de sepsis en individuos con diversas afecciones, pero la proporción de afectados es mínima. No se han comunicado brotes epidémicos que indicarían cepas probióticas con capacidades invasoras. Probablemente no es aconsejable administrarlos a sujetos en shock o con defectos de la función de barrera intestinal. Los portadores de VIH y los pacientes con SIDA experimentan mejorías al recibir probióticos. En un estudio en Chile se demostró que aunque sin efectos clínicamente evidentes, administrar L. rhamnosus HN001 produjo aumentos del la IgA secretoria fecal, que representa un aumento de las defensas del tubo digestivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Health , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Probiotics , Dysentery , Bifidobacterium animalis
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149457

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) is seen mostly in advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known about the epidemiology and disease course of these patients from India. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of PML in patients with HIV/AIDS, and the clinical features and survival of these patients. Methods: The charts of HIV/AIDS patients with PML seen over a period of five years (2006-2011) at the Antiretroviral treatment (ART) centre at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 1465 patients with HIV/AIDS, 18 (1.2%) were diagnosed with PML; four were laboratory confirmed and 14 had consistent clinical and radiological features. PML was the initial presentation of HIV infection in 10 (56%) patients, and 16 (89%) patients had CD4 count less than 200/μl. Insidious onset focal limb weakness (78%) and visual disturbance (28%) were common symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed characteristic white matter lesions in all the patients. The estimated median survival was 7.6 months (95% CI, 0-20 months). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that the patients present late to access treatment with advanced immunosuppression at presentation. PML is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite institution of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is a need to address the lacuna in diagnostic and management services for these patients in India.

13.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-648191

ABSTRACT

O preconceito e os paradigmas da sociedade e do próprio idoso quanto a sua sexualidade acabam fazendo com que o mesmo não use métodos preventivos, sendo um fator agravante na infecção pelo vírus HIV nessa população. Atualmente, o perfil epidemiológico da doença vem mudando como aumento de casos em indivíduos acima de 49 anos. Objetivo: quantificar e analisar os dados da infecção por HIV na população acima de 49 anos no estado de Rondônia. Métodos: os dados foram coletados na AGEVISA/RO, através de dados epidemiológicos dos Sistemas de Informação de Agravode Notificação - SINAN NET e SINAN W. Os casos estudados foram entre o período de janeiro de 2000 a agosto de 2011; as variáveis analisadas emnosso estudo foram: faixa etária, gênero, modo de transmissão, ano de diagnóstico e evolução do caso. Resultados: no período de tempo analisado foram registrados 2.252 casos da doença na população de Rondônia de 14 a 81 anos, desse total, 323 (14,3%) são indivíduos com idade acima de 49 anos, sendoque 67,2% são homens e 32,8%, mulheres. O modo mais comum de transmissão do vírus encontrado nesse estudo foi por via sexual e entre heterossexuais.Na evolução dos casos, 256 pacientes encontram-se em tratamento e 69 foram a óbito. Conclusão: nos últimos 10 anos houve um aumento de 440% do número de casos de HIV soropositivos na população idosa no estado de Rondônia.


The prejudice of society and even the elderly about its sexuality, makes this group do not use basic methods of preventing, revealing anaggravating factor of HIV infection in this population. Currently, the epidemiology of the disease has been changing with this apparent increase in the burden of the disease in the elderly. Objective: to quantify and analyze HIV infections among persons over aged 49 years in the state of Rondonia.Methods: data were collected in AGEVISA/RO, through epidemiological data source SINAN NET and SINAN W. The data set obtained refers to theperiod from January 2000 to August 2011, using as variables: age bracket, gender, mode of transmission, year of diagnosis and progress of the disease.Results: 2,252 cases were recorded with individuals between 14 and 81 years old, of which 323 (14.3%) are people over 49 years of age, and 67.2% are menand 32.8% women. The most common mode of transmission found in this study was through sex and among heterosexual. Concerning the progress of thedisease, 256 patients are under treatment and 69 died. Conclusion: over the past 10 years there was a 440% increase in reported cases of HIV seropositive cases among elderly population in the state of Rondonia, changing the epidemiology of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Aged/statistics & numerical data
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47305

ABSTRACT

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a vascular neoplasm, which is fairly prevalent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Mucocutaneous and lymph node involvements are characteristic features of KS in AIDS patients. The involvement of gastrointestinal tract occurs in 40% of KS patients and leads to significant morbidity and mortality. In the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, the rate of AIDS related KS has fallen with control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia. However, it is still recognized as the primary AIDS-defining illness, and the proportion of AIDS diagnoses made due to KS ranged from 4.1% to 7.5%. In Korea, AIDS-related KS has been report in low rate incidence. Its gastrointestinal involvements are rarely reported. To date, five cases have been recorded in Korea. Herein, we present an additional case of gastrointestinal KS as the AIDS-defining illness and review of the Korean medical literature.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Endoscopy, Digestive System , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Rev. cuba. hig. epidemiol ; 48(3): 242-252, sep.-dic. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-615272

ABSTRACT

En Venezuela, la tasa de incidencia anual de la infección por VHI/SIDA es de 2 por cada millón de habitantes en adolescentes. Los estados con tasa superior al promedio nacional son Distrito Federal, Bolívar y Mérida; la incidencia es más temprana en varones de 15 a 19 años y de 20 a 24 años, con el 3,03 por ciento y 11,24 por ciento, respectivamente. En julio de 2007 se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, con la finalidad de identificar actitudes frente al VHS/SIDA en estudiantes de la Escuela Técnica Industrial "Simón Rodríguez". La recopilación de los datos estuvo a cargo de los investigadores mediante un cuestionario realizado al efecto. Los resultados reflejaron que el 84 por ciento comenzó las relaciones sexuales antes de los 15 años de edad, el 64,1 por ciento mantuvieron inestabilidad con su pareja sexual y utilizaron poco el condón como medio de protección en las relaciones sexuales. Se puede concluir que las actitudes que más atención demandan son la inestabilidad de la pareja sexual y el poco uso del condón, lo que pudiera estar indicando que es necesario crear programas educativos que aborden estas temáticas en el centro educacional.


In Venezuela, the annual rate of HIV/AIDS infection is of two by each million of inhabitants in adolescents. The states with the higher rate to national average are the following: Federal District, Bolivar and Merida, the incidence is earlier in males aged 15-19 and 20-24 is of 3,03 percent and 12,24 percent, respectively. In July, 2007 a descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in students of the "Simón Rodríguez"Industrial Technique School. Researchers performed the data collection by a questionnaire applied to that end. The results showed that the 84 percent started the sexual intercourses before the 15 years old, the 64,1 percent maintained instability with its partner and not much use of condom as a protection mean in sexual intercourses. It is possible to conclude that the attitudes with more attention are the instability of sexual partner and the not much use of condom being necessary to create educational programs approaching these subject matters in the educational institution.

16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 95(5): 640-647, out. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-570440

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) é fator de risco modificável, cujo controle pode reduzir doença cardiovascular nos pacientes com vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV). OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de HAS e descrever as características dos pacientes com HAS e pré-hipertensão infectados pelo HIV/AIDS. MÉTODOS: Estudo seccional alinhado a uma coorte de pacientes com HIV/AIDS. Considerou-se hipertensão em níveis > 140/90 mmHg ou uso de anti-hipertensivos e pré-hipertensão em níveis > 120/80 mmHg. RESULTADOS: Dos 958 pacientes, 388 (40,5 por cento) eram normotensos, 325 (33,9 por cento) pré-hipertensos e 245 (25,6 por cento) hipertensos. Desses 245 pacientes, 172 (70,2 por cento) sabiam ser hipertensos e 36 (14,8 por cento) apresentavam pressão arterial controlada. Tiveram diagnóstico de HAS após o diagnóstico do HIV 62 pacientes (54,4 por cento). Lipodistrofia ocorreu em 95 (46,1 por cento) dos pacientes, já sobrepeso/obesidade em 129 (52,7 por cento). Utilização de antirretrovirais ocorreu em 184 (85,9 por cento), 89 (41,6 por cento) com inibidores de protease (IP) e 95 (44,4 por cento) sem IP. Utilizavam antivirais > 24 meses 74,7 por cento. Idade, antecedentes familiares de hipertensão, circunferência abdominal, índice de massa corporal e triglicerídeos foram maiores entre pacientes hipertensos. Tempo de infecção pelo HIV, contagem de linfócitos CD4, carga viral, tempo e tipo de esquema antirretroviral foram semelhantes nos hipertensos e pré-hipertensos. CONCLUSÃO: A elevada frequência de hipertensos não controlados e de riscos cardiovasculares nos infectados pelo HIV apontam a necessidade de medidas preventivas e terapêuticas contra HAS nesse grupo.


BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HBP) is modifiable risk factor, whose control may reduce cardiovascular disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hypertension and describe the characteristics of patients with hypertension infected by HIV/AIDS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study aligned to a cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS. The study considered hypertension at levels > 140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive drugs and pre-hypertension at levels > 120/80 mmHg. RESULTS: Out of 958 patients, 388 (40.5 percent) were normotensive, 325 (33.9 percent) were pre-hypertensive, and 245 (25.6 percent) were hypertensive. Out of these 245 patients, 172 (70.2 percent) were aware of the fact there they were hypertensive, and 36 (14.8 percent) had blood pressure controlled. Sixty-two (62) patients (54.4 percent) were diagnosed with hypertension after HIV diagnosis. Lipodystrophy occurred in 95 (46.1 percent) patients; overweight/obesity in 129 (52.7 percent). Use of antiretrovirals occurred in 184 (85.9 percent), 89 (41.6 percent) with protease inhibitors (PI) and 95 (44.4 percent) without PI. Out of these patients, 74.7 used antivirals > 24 months. Age, family history of hypertension, waist circumference, body mass index and triglyceride levels were higher among hypertensive patients. Time of HIV infection, CD4 count, viral load, time and type of antiretroviral regimen were similar in hypertensive and prehypertensive patients. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of uncontrolled hypertensive patients and cardiovascular risks in HIV-infected patients point out to the need for preventive and therapeutic measures against hypertension in this group.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Life Style , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Body Mass Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hypertension/classification , Lipodystrophy/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Reference Values , Risk Factors
17.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 9(2)ago. 2010. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-568527

ABSTRACT

Problem: Is associated the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) to ethnic groups? Objective: This study describes the AIDS distribution in Metropolitan Region (MR) in Brazil, by race/color, sex, category of exposure, and analyzes its temporal evolution (2000-2007). Methods: The data of Aids in persons of 20 to 69 years were collected in the Information Department of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (DATASUS). The distribution and temporal evolution in each MR is analyzed by race/color, sex, category of exposure, as well as the annual incidence rate of Aids in each MR. The contingency of table allowed the X2 test and the residual analysis, which points out the Aids excess in the MR according to the race or color. The correspondence analysis presents the relationship among the categories. Results: Of the totality of the AIDS registers 42% were of whites, 10% of blacks, 21% of brown and 26% of ignored race information. The two dimensions (race and MR) explain 95% of the total variation. The associations between race and MR are the following: White is associated to Florianopolis, Campinas e Sao Paulo; the brown is associated to Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and Recife; and, the ignored information of race is associated to Entorno de Brasilia (DF), Goiania and Fortaleza. The black race has not MR associated. Conclusion: The race analysis should be used in appropriated context, and this way enabling their proper interpretation. Health professionals should be careful and do not associate race and AIDS in a pejorative way, but it is necessary to study deeply the social factors associated with AIDS.


A Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (Aids) está associada a grupos étnicos? Objetivo: Este estudo objetiva descrever a distribuição da Aids por Região Metropolitana (RM) do Brasil e associação segundo raça ou cor (cor), sexo e categorias de exposição, e analisa a sua evolução temporal (2000-2007). Métodos: Os casos de Aids (20-69 anos) foram colhidos no Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde (DATASUS). A distribuição e evolução temporal por RM foi analisada por sexo, cor e categoria de exposição, bem como a taxa de incidência anual de Aids nas RM. A tabela de contingência permitiu, além do teste qui-quadrado (X2), a análise de resíduo, que aponta o excesso de Aids nas RM conforme cor e a análise de correspondência apresenta as relações entre as categorias. Resultados: Dos casos registrados 42% eram brancos, 10% pretos, 21% pardos e 26% ignorados. As duas dimensões (cor e RM) explicaram 95% da variação total existente. A cor branca foi associada à Florianópolis, Campinas e São Paulo; a parda à Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro e Recife; e, a cor ignorada ao Entorno de Brasília (DF), Goiânia e Fortaleza. A cor preta não está associada a RM. Conclusão: O uso da raça deve ser contextualizado, a fim de permitir adequada interpretação, e não atribuir de forma pejorativa a associação cor ou raça com Aids, mas aprofundar estudos que identifiquem os fatores sociais atrelados à doença.


Problema: Está La Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) asociada con grupos étnicos? Objetivo: Este estudio describe la distribución del Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) de acuerdo con las Regiones Metropolitanas (RM) en Brasil y su asociación con raza o etnia, sexo y categorías de exposición, y analiza su evolución temporal (2000-2007). Métodos: Los casos de SIDA (20-69 años) fueron colectados en el Departamento de Información del Sistema Unificado de Salud (DATASUS). La distribución y evolución temporal por RM fue analizada por sexo, etnia y categoría de exposición, así como la tasa de incidencia anual de SIDA en las RM. La tabla de contingencia posibilitó, además del teste qui-quadrado (X2), el análisis del residuo, que muestra el exceso de SIDA en las RM de acuerdo con la etnia e el análisis de correspondencia presenta las relaciones entre las categorías. Resultados: A partir de los casos notificados, 42% eran blancos, 10% negros, 21% pardos y 26% ignorados. Las dos dimensiones (etnia y RM) explicaron 95% de la variación total existente. De acuerdo con las asociaciones entre etnia y RM fue observado que: la etnia blanca fue asociada con las regiones de Florianopolis, Campinas y São Paulo; la etnia parda con Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro y Recife y, la etnia ignorada con el Entorno de Brasília (DF), Goiânia y Fortaleza. La etnia negra no fue asociada con ninguna RM. Conclusión: El uso de la etnia debe ser usada por los profesionales de acuerdo con el contexto, para que pueda permitir la adecuada interpretación, para evitar atribuir de manera peyorativa la asociación con etnia o raza con SIDA, pero es necesario profundizar estudios que identifiquen los factores sociales asociados a la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Nursing , Clinical Nursing Research
18.
Arch. venez. farmacol. ter ; 29(2): 35-38, jun. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-630375

ABSTRACT

Las meningoencefalitis por gérmenes oportunistas ocupan un lugar importante dentro de la patología neurológica del paciente sida, Treponema pallidum y Mycobacterium tuberculosis dentro de las bacterias, Cryptococcus neoformans dentro de los hongos, Toxoplasma gondii dentro de los protozoos y el Papovirus JC dentro de los virus, son de los gérmenes mas frecuentes dentro de cada grupo. También en los pacientes inmunodeprimidos en general y en particular en el paciente sida, se han encontrado con cierta frecuencia infecciones mixtas, precisamente por el gran deterioro en su barrera inmunológica. La meningitis tuberculosa (MTB) es la forma mas grave en que se manifiesta la tuberculosis extrapulmonar, pues la inespecificidad de sus síntomas, la lentitud en el diagnóstico etiológico y las severas secuelas neurológicas que puede producir sobre todo en este tipo de paciente, hacen de esta enfermedad un importante problema de salud, tanto en países desarrollados como en los que están en vías de desarrollo. En este estudio se describe el ¨primer caso¨ meningitis e infección diseminada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis en paciente cubano infectado por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana


Meningoencephalitis due to opportunistic germs has an important place among the neurological diseases in AIDS patient. Treponema pallidum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (bacteria), Cryptococcus neoformans (fungi), Toxoplasma gondii (protozoa), and Papovirus JC (virus) are the most frequently germs found in each group. Likewise, in immunodepressed patients in general and in HIV/AIDS patients in particular, mixed infections have been frequently found, basically as a consequence of the patient’s deteriorated immunological barrier. Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of presentation of the extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Its unspecific symptoms, the delay in the etiological diagnosis, and the severe neurological sequelae that can appear in this specific type of patient make of this disease an important health problem, in both developed and developing countries. This study describes the "first case" of meningitis and disseminated infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Cuban patient infected by the human immunodeficiency virus


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Antitubercular Agents , HIV , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/complications , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/etiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
19.
Rev. gerenc. políticas salud ; 8(17): 106-122, dic. 2009.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-586274

ABSTRACT

Se presenta una perspectiva de género para el análisis de la situación en salud, así como la articulación de las categorías género y salud para entender las diferencias de la salud de la mujer con respecto a la del varón, y también las especificidades que poseen las identidades de género no normativas, tales como las de personas transgeneristas. La información epidemiológica enmascara una gran parte de los problemas de mayor prevalencia e incidencia en cada sexo. Se recomienda prestar atención específica a aquellos procesos que subyacen a los problemas de salud de hombres y mujeres, y que trascienden el individualismo biomédico, así como estudiar las fuerzas sociales e históricas que por razones de género resultan en desventaja para el disfrute de la salud, y pasar del ámbito individual al colectivo.


This article gives a gender perspective of the analysis of the health situation, as well as the articulation between the categories of gender and health, in order to understand the differencesbetween women’s and men’s health and also the specificities that not normative gender identity has, such as the transgender people have. The epidemiological information masks a high proportion of problems with a greater prevalence and incidence on one of the sexes. The recommendationsare, to lend special attention to the disparate processes underlying the unhealthy lives of women and men, to transcend biomedical individualism, as well as to study the socialand historical forces which generate gender-related health disadvantages, and to pass from the individual to the collective level.


Apresenta-se una perspectiva de gênero para a analise da situação em saúde, bem como a articulação das categorias gênero e saúde para entender as diferenças da saúde da mulher comrespeito à do homem, e também as especificidades que possuem as identidades de gênero não normativas, tais como as de pessoas transgeneristas. A informação epidemiológica mascara uma grande parte dos problemas de maior prevalência e incidência em cada sexo. Recomenda-se prestar atendimento específico aos processos que subjazem aos problemas de saúde de homens emulheres, e que transcendam o individualismo biomédico, assim como estudar as forças sociais e históricas que por razões de gênero de sejam desvantagens para o desfrute da saúde e passar do âmbito individual ao coletivo.


Subject(s)
Gender Identity , Women's Health , HIV , Men's Health
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-596414

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To observe the infection after ophthalmic operation in 276 patients with AIDS.METHODS This trial involved 276 patients(276 eyes) with AIDS.They were divided into 2 groups according to surgical sites:112 patients(112 eyes) were in the first group who were undergone eyelid or conjunctival operation and 164 patients(164 eyes) were in the second group who were undergone cataract or glaucoma operation.There were 325 patients(325 eyes) who did not suffered with AIDS in the control group: 130 patients(130 eyes) were in the third group who were undergone eyelid or conjunctival operation and 195 patients(195 eyes) were in the fourth group who were undergone cataract or glaucoma operation.The infections were observed after operation.RESULTS There were 30 cases(26.79%),8 cases(4.88%),12 cases(9.23%) and 8 cases(4.10%) suffered with infection after operation in four groups respectively.There were 38 infected cases(13.77%) in patients with AIDS and more than that in patients who did not suffered with AIDS(20 cases and 6.15% ?2=9.07,P

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL