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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(2): 319-325, 20240220. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532716

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El edema pulmonar por reexpansión es una complicación poco frecuente, secundaria a una rápida reexpansión pulmonar posterior al drenaje por toracentesis o toracostomía cerrada. Al día de hoy, se ha descrito una incidencia menor al 1 % tras toracostomía cerrada, con mayor prevalencia en la segunda y tercera década de la vida. Su mecanismo fisiopatológico exacto es desconocido; se ha planteado un proceso multifactorial de daño intersticial pulmonar asociado con un desequilibrio de las fuerzas hidrostáticas. Caso clínico. Presentamos el caso de un paciente que desarrolló edema pulmonar por reexpansión posterior a toracostomía cerrada. Se hizo una revisión de la literatura sobre esta complicación. Resultados. Aunque la clínica sugiere el diagnóstico, la secuencia de imágenes desempeña un papel fundamental. En la mayoría de los casos suele ser autolimitado, por lo que su manejo es principalmente de soporte; sin embargo, se han reportado tasas de mortalidad que alcanzan hasta el 20 %, por tanto, es importante conocer los factores de riesgo y las medidas preventivas. Conclusión. El edema pulmonar de reexpansión posterior a toracostomía es una complicación rara en los casos con neumotórax, aunque es una complicación que se puede presentar en la práctica diaria, por lo cual debe tenerse en mente para poder hacer el diagnóstico y un manejo adecuado.


Introduction. Re-expansion pulmonary edema is a rare complication secondary to rapid pulmonary re-expansion after drainage by thoracentesis and/or closed thoracostomy. As of today, an incidence of less than 1% has been described after closed thoracostomy, with a higher prevalence in the second and third decades of life. Its exact pathophysiological mechanism is unknown; a multifactorial process of lung interstitial damage associated with an imbalance of hydrostatic forces has been proposed. Clinical case. We present the case of a patient who developed pulmonary edema due to re-expansion after closed thoracostomy, conducting a review of the literature on this complication. Results. Although the clinic suggests the diagnosis, the sequence of images plays a fundamental role. In most cases, it tends to be a self-limited disease, so its management is mainly supportive. However, mortality rates of up to 20% have been recorded. Therefore, it is important to identify patients with major risk factors and initiate preventive measures in these patients. Conclusions. Re-expansion pulmonary edema after thoracostomy is a rare complication in cases with pneumothorax; however, it is a complication that can occur in daily practice. Therefore, it must be kept in mind to be able to make the diagnosis and an adequate management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumothorax , Pulmonary Edema , Iatrogenic Disease , Postoperative Complications , Thoracostomy , Acute Lung Injury
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 57: e13235, fev.2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550145

ABSTRACT

Abstract The imbalance between pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) may modulate macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype by altering mitochondrial activity. This study aimed to investigate the role of the PGC-1α agonist pioglitazone (PGZ) in modulating sepsis-induced ALI. A mouse model of sepsis-induced ALI was established using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). An in vitro model was created by stimulating MH-S cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). qRT-PCR was used to measure mRNA levels of M1 markers iNOS and MHC-II and M2 markers Arg1 and CD206 to evaluate macrophage polarization. Western blotting detected expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) PGC-1α, and mitochondrial biogenesis proteins NRF1, NRF2, and mtTFA. To assess mitochondrial content and function, reactive oxygen species levels were detected by dihydroethidium staining, and mitochondrial DNA copy number was measured by qRT-PCR. In the CLP-induced ALI mouse model, lung tissues exhibited reduced PGC-1α expression. PGZ treatment rescued PGC-1α expression and alleviated lung injury, as evidenced by decreased lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and enhanced M2 macrophage polarization. Mechanistic investigations revealed that PGZ activated the PPARγ/PGC-1α/mitochondrial protection pathway to prevent sepsis-induced ALI by inhibiting M1 macrophage polarization. These results may provide new insights and evidence for developing PGZ as a potential ALI therapy.

3.
Clinics ; 79: 100336, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534247

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Xuebijing (XBJ) is widely applied in the treatment of Acute Lung Injury (ALI). This study focused on the potential mechanism of XBJ in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Methods The rat ALI model was established by injection of LPS (10 mg/kg) and pretreated with XBJ (4 mL/kg) three days before LPS injection. BEAS-2B cell line was stimulated with LPS (1 μg/mL) and ATP (5 mM) to induce pyroptosis, and XBJ (2 g/L) was pretreated 24h before induction. The improvement effects of XBJ on pulmonary edema, morphological changes, and apoptosis in ALI lung tissue were evaluated by lung wet/dry weight ratio, HE-staining, and TUNEL staining. Inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue and cell supernatant were determined by ELISA. pyroptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Meanwhile, the expressions of miR-181d-5p, SPP1, p-p65, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, p20, and GSDMD-N in tissues and cells were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. The relationship between miR-181d-5p and SPP1 in experimental inflammation was reported by dual luciferase assay. Results XBJ could improve inflammation and pyroptosis of ALI by inhibiting contents of inflammatory cytokines, and levels of inflammation- and pyroptosis-related proteins. Mechanistically, XBJ could up-regulate miR-181d-5p and inhibit SPP1 in ALI. miR-181d-5p can target the regulation of SPP1. Depressing miR-181d-5p compensated for the ameliorative effect of XBJ on ALI, and overexpressing SPP1 suppressed the attenuating effect of XBJ on LPS-induced inflammation and pyroptosis. Conclusion XBJ can regulate the miR-181d-5p/SPP1 axis to improve inflammatory response and pyroptosis in ALI.

4.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 64-70, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003409

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the protective effect and mechanism of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens alcohol extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice. MethodBalb/c mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, dexamethasone group, and low- and high-dose Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens groups. Mice in the normal group were instilled with normal saline through the nose, and the other groups were instilled with normal saline containing LPS (50 μg). After 30 minutes of modeling, the dexamethasone group was gavaged with 5 mg·kg-1 of dexamethasone acetate solution, the low- and high-dose Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens groups were gavaged with different doses of (7, 14 g·kg-1) of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens alcohol extract, and the normal group and the model group were gavaged with the same volume of water. After 24 hours of modeling, the total number of white blood cells in bronchoalceolar lavage fluid (BALF) was detected by cell counter, and the levels of the inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining method was used to observe the pathological changes of lung tissue in each group, and the Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB p65, phosphorylation (p)-NF-κB p65, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in lung tissue. ResultCompared with the normal group, the white blood cell count in BALF and the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MPO in the model group was increased (P<0.01), and the level of SOD was decreased (P<0.05). Pathological damage of lung tissue was obvious, and the protein expression of NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, and TLR4 in lung tissue was increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the white blood cell count in BALF and the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MPO in the treatment group was decreased (P<0.05,P<0.01), and the level of SOD was increased (P<0.05,P<0.01). Pathological damage of lung tissue was alleviated, and the protein expression of NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, and TLR4 in lung tissue was decreased (P<0.01). ConclusionZingiberis Rhizoma Recens alcohol extract may play a protective role in LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 243-250, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Danmu Extract Syrup (DMS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and explore the mechanism.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two male Balb/C mice were randomly divided into 6 groups according to a random number table (n=12), including control (normal saline), LPS (5 mg/kg), LPS+DMS 2.5 mL/kg, LPS+DMS 5 mL/kg, LPS+DMS 10 mL/kg, and LPS+Dexamethasone (DXM, 5 mg/kg) groups. After pretreatment with DMS and DXM, the ALI mice model was induced by LPS, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected to determine protein concentration, cell counts and inflammatory cytokines. The lung tissues of mice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of lung tissue was calculated. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 β in BALF of mice were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of Claudin-5, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt) and Akt were detected by Western blot analysis.@*RESULTS@#DMS pre-treatment significantly ameliorated lung histopathological changes. Compared with the LPS group, the W/D ratio and protein contents in BALF were obviously reduced after DMS pretreatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The number of cells in BALF and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity decreased significantly after DMS pretreatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). DMS pre-treatment decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1 β (P<0.01). Meanwhile, DMS activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway and reversed the expressions of Claudin-5, VE-cadherin and VEGF (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#DMS attenuated LPS-induced ALI in mice through repairing endothelial barrier. It might be a potential therapeutic drug for LPS-induced lung injury.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Claudin-5/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535461

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La lesión pulmonar aguda (TRALI) y la sobrecarga circulatoria (TACO) son las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad relacionadas con la transfusión. La TRALI se presenta durante o después de las transfusiones de plasma y sus derivados, o por inmunoglobulinas en alta concentración intravenosa; se asocia a procesos sépticos, cirugías y transfusiones masivas. La TACO es la exacerbación de manifestaciones respiratorias en las primeras 6 horas postransfusión. Reporte caso: Paciente de sexo masculino de 38 días de vida, ingresó al servicio de urgencias con un cuadro clínico de 8 días de evolución, caracterizado por dificultad respiratoria dado por retracciones subcostales y aleteo nasal sin otro síntoma asociado, con antecedentes de importancia de prematuridad y bajo peso al nacer. El reporte de hemograma arrojó cifras compatibles con anemia severa, por lo que requirió transfusión de glóbulos rojos empaquetados desleucocitados. El paciente presentó un cuadro respiratorio alterado en un periodo menor a 6 horas, por lo que se descartaron causas infecciosas y finalmente se consideró cuadro compatible con TRALI. Conclusiones: Se debe considerar una lesión pulmonar aguda relacionada con una transfusión de sangre si se produce una insuficiencia respiratoria aguda durante o inmediatamente después de la infusión de hemoderivados que contienen plasma.


Introduction: Acute lung injury (TRALI) and circulatory overload (TACO) are the main causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. TRALI occurs during or after transfusions of plasma or its derivatives, or by immunoglobulins in high intravenous concentration; it is associated with septic processes, surgeries, and massive transfusions. TACO is the exacerbation of respiratory manifestations in the first 6 hours post transfusion. Case report: A 38-day-old male was admitted to the emergency department with clinical symptoms experienced over the course of 8 days and characterized by respiratory distress due to subcostal retractions and nasal flaring with no other associated symptoms. Important antecedents included prematurity and low birth weight. The hemogram report showed figures compatible with anemia, which benefited from transfusion of packed red blood cells without leukocytes. In a period of less than 6 hours, the patient presented altered respiratory symptoms, practitioners ruled out infectious causes and finally considered clinical signs compatible with TRALI. Conclusion: Acute lung injury related to blood transfusion should be considered if acute respiratory failure occurs during or immediately after infusion of plasma-containing blood products.

7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 38(1): 79-87, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423099

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To explore the effect of ischemic postconditioning on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Methods: Forty adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham operation group (SO group), myocardial ischemia-reperfusion group (IR group), ischemic preconditioning group (IPRE group) and ischemic postconditioning group (IPOST group) (10 mice in each group). Anterior descending coronary artery was blocked for 60 min and then reperfused for 15 min to induce myocardial IR. For the IPRE group, 3 consecutive cycles of 5 min of occlusion and 5 minutes of reperfusion of the coronary arteries were performed before ischemia. For the IPOST group, 3 consecutive cycles of 5 min reperfusion and 5 minutes of occlusion of the coronary arteries were performed before reperfusion. Pathological changes of lung tissue, lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio, inflammatory factors, oxidative stress indicators, apoptosis of lung cells and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) protein were used to evaluate lung injury. Results: After myocardial IR, lung injury worsened significantly, manifested by alveolar congestion, hemorrhage, structural destruction of alveolar septal thickening, and interstitial neutrophil infiltration. In addition, lung W/D ratio was increased, plasma inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-17A, were increased, malondialdehyde (MDA) activity of lung tissue was increased, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased after myocardial IR. It was accompanied by the increased protein expression levels of ERS-related protein glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), and caspase-12, and the increased apoptotic indices of lung tissues. Conclusion: IPOST can effectively improve myocardial IR-induced ALI by inhibiting ERS-induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2124-2137, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982832

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI), as a common clinical emergency, is pulmonary edema and diffuse lung infiltration caused by inflammation. The lack of non-invasive alert strategy, resulting in failure to carry out preventive treatment, means high mortality and poor prognosis. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a key molecular biomarker of innate immunity in response to inflammation, but there is still a lack of STING-targeted strategy. In this study, a novel STING-targeted PET tracer, [18F]FBTA, was labeled with high radiochemical yield (79.7 ± 4.3%) and molar activity (32.5 ± 2.9 GBq/μmol). We confirmed that [18F]FBTA has a strong STING binding affinity (Kd = 26.86 ± 6.79 nmol/L) and can be used for PET imaging in ALI mice to alert early lung inflammation and to assess the efficacy of drug therapy. Our STING-targeted strategy also reveals that [18F]FBTA can trace ALI before reaching the computed tomography (CT) diagnostic criteria, and demonstrates its better specificity and distribution than [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG).

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1400-1428, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982813

ABSTRACT

Emerging therapies based on localized delivery of siRNA to lungs have opened up exciting possibilities for treatment of different lung diseases. Localized delivery of siRNA to lungs has shown to result in severalfold higher lung accumulation than systemic route, while minimizing non-specific distribution in other organs. However, to date, only 2 clinical trials have explored localized delivery of siRNA for pulmonary diseases. Here we systematically reviewed recent advances in the field of pulmonary delivery of siRNA using non-viral approaches. We firstly introduce the routes of local administration and analyze the anatomical and physiological barriers towards effective local delivery of siRNA in lungs. We then discuss current progress in pulmonary delivery of siRNA for respiratory tract infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, acute lung injury, and lung cancer, list outstanding questions, and highlight directions for future research. We expect this review to provide a comprehensive understanding of current advances in pulmonary delivery of siRNA.

10.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 423-435, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982713

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a prevalent and severe clinical condition characterized by inflammatory damage to the lung endothelial and epithelial barriers, resulting in high incidence and mortality rates. Currently, there is a lack of safe and effective drugs for the treatment of ALI. In a previous clinical study, we observed that Jinyinqingre oral liquid (JYQR), a Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation prepared by the Taihe Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Medicine, exhibited notable efficacy in treating inflammation-related hepatitis and cholecystitis in clinical settings. However, the potential role of JYQR in ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its anti-inflammatory mechanism remains unexplored. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of JYQR in ALI using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and an in vitro RAW264.7 cell model. JYQR yielded substantial improvements in LPS-induced histological alterations in lung tissues. Additionally, JYQR administration led to a noteworthy reduction in total protein levels within the BALF, a decrease in MPAP, and attenuation of pleural thickness. These findings collectively highlight the remarkable efficacy of JYQR in mitigating the deleterious effects of LPS-induced ALI. Mechanistic investigations revealed that JYQR pretreatment significantly inhibited NF-κB activation and downregulated the expressions of the downstream proteins, namely NLRP3 and GSDMD, as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in mice and RAW2647 cells. Consequently, JYQR alleviated LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting the NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD pathway. JYQR exerts a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI in mice, and its mechanism of action involves the downregulation of the NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD inflammatory pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/therapeutic use , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins/therapeutic use
11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 95-103, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998167

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the action mechanism of Linggan Wuwei Jiangxintang on the treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. MethodTraditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), GeneCards, DisGeNET, and Herb databases were combined with clinical data from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) to screen the key targets of Linggan Wuwei Jiangxintang in the treatment of ALI. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to screen the core targets, and gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed. The mouse ALI model was established by LPS induction to verify the effect and key targets of Linggan Wuwei Jiangxintang on the treatment of ALI. The expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65), and phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (NF-κB p-p65) in lung tissue were detected by Western blot. ResultThe analysis showed that the treatment of ALI with Linggan Wuwei Jiangxintang was related to 10 core targets such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and JUN, involving TNF signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, etc. The animal experimental results show that Linggan Wuwei Jiangxintang can reduce lung injury, improve the pathological state of ALI mice, significantly reduce the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum, increase the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and catalase (CAT) in lung tissue, and reduce the expression levels of JUN, TLR4, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p-p65 proteins in lung tissue. ConclusionLinggan Wuwei Jiangxintang can inhibit LPS-induced inflammation and oxidative damage in ALI mice, and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and the reduction of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IL-6.

12.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2063-2068, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the improvement effects of Shaoyao gancao decoction (SGD) on acute lung injury (ALI) in rats and its effects on the intestinal flora. METHODS Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group (CON group, normal saline), model group (MOD group, normal saline), positive control group (DEX group, 5 mg/kg dexamethasone), SGD low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups (SGD-L, SGD-M, SGD-H groups, 5.8, 11.6, 23.2 g/kg, calculated by crude drug), with 10 rats in each group. Each group was given relevant medicine 10 mL/kg intragastrically, for 7 consecutive days. Thirty minutes after the last administration, CON group was given constant volume of normal saline via airway infusion, and other groups were given lipopolysaccharide (5 mg/kg) via airway infusion to induce ALI model. After 12 hours of modeling, the lung tissue wet/dry weight ratio was calculated, and the contents of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) in rat bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were all detected; the pathological changes of lung tissue were observed after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The intestinal flora of rat feces was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing technology, and the correlation of differential bacteria genera with inflammatory factors was also analyzed. RESULTS Compared with MOD group, the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung tissue of rats in each SGD dose group was decreased, and the thickening of alveolar septum and pulmonary edema improved; lung tissue wet/dry weight ratio, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in BALF significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). SGD (low dose) could improve the intestinal flora disorder in ALI rats, restore the diversity and richness of intestinal flora, regulate the structure of flora, reduce the abundance of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Escherichia-Shigella, and increase the abundance of Firmicutes, Lachnospira, Ruminococcus, Clostridia,Dubosiella and Akkermansia. Through correlation analysis, it was found that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Escherichia-Shigella was positively related to the levels of inflammatory factor IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The relative abundance of Lachnospira, Dubosiella, Firmicutes was significantly negatively correlated with the levels of inflammatory factors mentioned above (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS SGD may improve ALI by reducing lung tissue injury and inflammatory response and regulating flora structure in rats.

13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 56: e12830, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520472

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a critical respiratory syndrome with limited effective interventions. Lung macrophages play a critical role in the pathogenesis of abnormal inflammatory response in the syndrome. Recently, impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO), one of the key lipid metabolic signalings, was found to participate in the onset and development of various lung diseases, including ALI/ARDS. Lipid/fatty acid contents within mouse lungs were quantified using the Oil Red O staining. The protective effect of FAO activator L-carnitine (Lca, 50, 500, or 5 mg/mL) was evaluated by cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assay, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), ELISA, immunoblotting, fluorescence imaging, and fluorescence plate reader detection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/mL)-stimulated THP-1-derived macrophages. The in vivo efficacy of Lca (300 mg/kg) was determined in a 10 mg/kg LPS-induced ALI mouse model. We found for the first time that lipid accumulation in pulmonary macrophages was significantly increased in a classical ALI murine model, which indicated disrupted FAO induced by LPS. Lca showed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on THP-1 derived macrophages upon LPS stimulation. Mechanistically, Lca was able to maintain FAO, mitochondrial activity, and ameliorate mitochondrial dynamics. In the LPS-induced ALI mouse model, we further discovered that Lca inhibited neutrophilic inflammation and decreased diffuse damage, which might be due to the preservation of mitochondrial homeostasis. These results broadened our understanding of ALI/ARDS pathogenesis and provided a promising drug candidate for this syndrome.

14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 56: e12906, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520477

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of betaine on sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in rats through histopathological examination, radiologic imaging, and biochemical analysis. Eight rats were included in the control group, and no procedure was performed. Feces intraperitoneal procedure (FIP) was performed on 24 rats to create a sepsis-induced ARDS model. These rats were separated into three groups as follows: FIP alone (sepsis group, n=8), FIP + saline (1 mL/kg, placebo group, n=8), and FIP + betaine (500 mg/kg, n=8). Computed tomography (CT) was performed after FIP, and the Hounsfield units (HU) value of the lungs was measured. The plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), and lactic acid (LA) were determined, and arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) and arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2) were measured from an arterial blood sample. Histopathology was used to evaluate lung damage. This study completed all histopathological and biochemical evaluations in 3 months. All evaluated biomarkers were decreased in the FIP + betaine group compared to FIP + saline and FIP alone (all P<0.05). Also, the parenchymal density of the rat lung on CT and histopathological scores were increased in FIP + saline and FIP alone compared to control and these findings were reversed by betaine treatment (all P<0.05). Our study demonstrated that betaine suppressed the inflammation and ameliorated acute lung injury in a rat model of sepsis.

15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 56: e12888, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528091

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study focused on the effect and mechanism of Notch signal on pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) following acute lung injury. PMVECs were cultured in vitro and randomly divided into eight groups. Grouping was based on whether cells were co-cultured with T cells (splenic CD4+T cells were isolated using MACS microbeads) and the level of Notch expression: Normal group and Normal+T cells group, Model group and Model+T cells group, Notch low-expression group and Notch low-expression+T cells group, and Notch overexpression group and Notch overexpression+T cells group. Except for the Normal group and Normal+T cells group, all other groups were treated with 500 μL lipopolysaccharide (1 μg/mL). The expression of VE-cadherin and Zo-1 protein in the Model group (with or without T cells) was lower than that in the normal group (with or without T cells), their expression in the Notch low-expression group (with or without T cells) was significantly increased, and their expression in the Notch overexpression group (with or without T cells) was significantly decreased. Compared with the normal+T cells group, the number of Treg cells in the Notch low-expression+T cells group decreased significantly (P<0.01). The number of Th17 cells in the Notch overexpression+T cells group was higher than that in the Model+T cells group (P<0.01), while the number of Treg cells decreased (P<0.01). Our results demonstrated that activated Notch signal can down-regulate the expression of the tight junction proteins VE-Cadherin and Zo-1 in PMVECs and affect Th17/Treg immune imbalance. Autophagy was discovered to be involved in this process.

16.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 446-454, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447616

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Sepsis and septic shock still represent great challenges in critical care medicine. Sildenafil has been largely used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its effects in sepsis are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that sildenafil can attenuate endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension in a porcine model of endotoxemia. Methods Twenty pigs were randomly assigned to Control group (n = 10), which received saline solution; or to Sildenafil group (n = 10), which received sildenafil orally (100 mg). After 30 minutes, both groups were submitted to endotoxemia with intravenous bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) infusion (4 µg.kg-1.h-1) for 180 minutes. We evaluated hemodynamic and oxygenation functions, and also lung histology and plasma cytokine (TNFα, IL-1β, IL6, and IL10) and troponin I response. Results Significant hemodynamic alterations were observed after 30 minutes of LPS continuous infusion, mainly in pulmonary arterial pressure (from Baseline 19 ± 2 mmHg to LPS30 52 ± 4 mmHg, p< 0.05). There was also a significant decrease in PaO2/FiO2 (from Baseline 411 ± 29 to LPS180 334 ± 49, p< 0.05). Pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly lower in the Sildenafil group (35 ± 4 mmHg at LPS30, p< 0.05). The Sildenafil group also presented lower values of systemic arterial pressure. Sildenafil maintained oxygenation with higher PaO2/FiO2 and lower oxygen extraction rate than Control group but had no effect on intrapulmonary shunt. All cytokines and troponin increased after LPS infusion in both groups similarly. Conclusion Sildenafil attenuated endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension preserving the correct heart function without improving lung lesions or inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Endotoxemia , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Swine , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Hemodynamics , Hypertension, Pulmonary/chemically induced
17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 158-165, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997669

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the characteristics of animal models of acute lung injury caused by non-physical factors, so as to provide a reference for the standardization of the preparation of such animal models and lay a foundation for the research on the pathogenesis and the diagnosis and treatment of acute lung injury. MethodThe articles about the animal experiments of acute lung injury published in the last decade were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, SinoMed, VIP, and PubMed with the theme terms of "acute lung injury" and "animal model". The animal species, drugs used in modeling, modeling period, methods used in molding, model standards, and model evaluation indicators were summarized, and Excel was used for the frequency analysis. ResultA total of 338 articles were included in this study. The results of the frequency analysis showed that SD rats/C57BL/6 mice were mainly used to establish the animal models of acute lung injury. Male mice were mostly used for modeling, and the commonly used modeling agent was lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In most cases, the modeling lasted for 6 h after drug administration. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was mainly used for the observation of histological changes in the lungs, which were taken as the criteria for modeling. The established models were mainly evaluated based on lung dry/wet weight ratio, lung index, morphological changes in the lung tissue, myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). ConclusionThe models of acute lung injury were mostly prepared by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg·kg-1) in SD rats and tracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg·kg-1) in C57BL/6 mice, which were praised for the simple operation, high success rate, and consistent with the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. This study provides a reference for the basic research on acute lung injury by animal experiments.

18.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 1181-1187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996875

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To investigate the protective effect of atomized inhalation of nano-luteolin preparation on acute lung injury caused by extracorporeal circulation, and to explore the anti-inflammatory mechanism of luteolin, so as to provide study basis for clinical application. Methods    Thirty male SD rats aged 5-6 weeks and weighting 160-190 g, were randomly divided into a preoperative baseline (BL) group, arteriovenous partial diversion (ECC) group, luteolin atomization pretreatment for 1 h group, 2 h group, and 3 h group by random number method, with 6 rats in each group. In the BL group, lung tissue samples were collected directly without any treatment. The ECC group received mechanical ventilation, and the whole body was heparinized after the jugular arteriovenous intubation. The flow was transferred for 30 minutes, followed by observation for 60 minutes, then lung tissue samples were collected. Subjects in the 1 h, 2 h and 3 h groups were placed in a small animal atomizer 1 h, 2 h and 3 h before flow transfer respectively, and the subsequent operation was the same as that in the ECC group. The inflammatory level of lung tissue was detected to evaluate the degree of pathological injury of lung tissue. Western blotting (WB) was used to detect the contents of p65, IKKα, IKKβ and IKKγ in the cytoplasm of lung tissue samples of each group. Results    Compared with the ECC group, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in lung tissues and the degree of pathological injury in the 1 h, 2 h and 3 h groups decreased, and the difference between the 3 h group and the ECC group was statistically different (P<0.05). WB results showed that compared with the ECC group, the levels of p65 in lung tissue of the 1 h, 2 h and 3 h groups decreased; the levels of IKKβ in the lung tissue increased in the 1 h, 2 h and 3 h groups, and the difference of the 3 h group was statistically different from the ECC group (P<0.05). Conclusion    Luteolin has a protective effect on acute lung injury induced by ECC, and atomization 3 h in advance has the best protective effect on lung. The mechanism plays a protective role in ECC-induced acute lung injury, may be through inhibition of IKKβ phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting the classical NF-κB signaling pathway.

19.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; (12): 805-809, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996488

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To investigate the mechanism of insulin alleviating pulmonary edema in mice with acute lung injury(ALI) by serine/threonine protein kinase-1(SGK1).Methods 32 male adult C3H/HeN mice were randomly divided into control group(only pumped with the same amount of normal saline as the treatment group),ALI group(continuously pumped with the same amount of normal saline as the treatment group after modeling),treatment group [continuously pumped with 0.1 U/(kg·h) of insulin through jugular vein after establishing ALI model] and SGK1 siRNA group[continuously pumped with 0.1 U/(kg·h) of insulin and given SGK1 siRNA(75 μg SGK1 siRNA diluted in 100 μL saline) simultaneously after establishing ALI model] with 8 mice in each group.After 8 h,the mice were killed for arterial blood gas analysis(1 h after establishment of the model) and the changes of plasma glucose levels were detected(0,1,4and 8 h);The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) was collected to detect the content of total protein,and the alveolar epithelial permeability and lung water content were measured;The pathological changes of lung tissue and apoptosis of lung epithelial cells were observed;The protein expressions of alveolar epithelial sodium channel(ENaC) and α_1-Na~+,K~+-ATPase and the phosphorylation level of SGK1 were determined by Western blot.Results There was no significant difference in plasma glucose level of ALI and treatment group at 0,1,4 and 8 h after insulin infusion(t=1.330 0,0.986 0,0.565 7 and 0.724 3,P=0.204 7,0.340 7,0.580 6 and 0.480 8,respectively).Compared with ALI group,the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood in treatment group increased significantly(t=6.026,P <0.000 1),while the BALF protein content,alveolar epithelial permeability,lung water content and lung epithelial cells apoptosis decreased significantly(t=7.39,5.286,5.651 and 3.312,P <0.000 1,=0.000 4,=0.000 2 and=0.007 8,respectively),and the expression of α-ENaC and α_1-Na~+,K~+-ATPase and the phosphorylation level of SGK1 in lung tissue significantly increased(t=26,18.67 and 8.547,P <0.000 1,<0.000 1 and=0.000 1,respectively);Compared with the treatment group,the BALF protein content,alveolar epithelial permeability,lung water content and lung epithelial cells apoptosis increased significantly in SGK1 siRNA group(t=5.964,3.449,3.148 and 3.520,P=0.000 2,0.006 2,0.010 4 and0.016 9,respectively),while α-ENaC and α_1-Na~+,K~+-ATPase protein expression and SGK1 phosphorylation level decreased significantly(t=13,9.874 and 7.741,P <0.000 1,<0.000 1 and=0.001 5,respectively).Conclusion Exogenous insulin can alleviate the pulmonary edema in ALI mice,which might be mediated via up-regulation of the expressions of α-ENaC and α_1-Na~+,K~+-ATPase by SGK1.

20.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 846-852, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994270

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of small ubiquitin-associated modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase (PIAS)-regulated SUMOylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in the endogenous protective mechanism against endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice.Methods:Experiment Ⅰ Twenty-four clean-grade wild type male C57BL/6 mice, aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 18-22 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=6 each) using a random number table method: control group (C group), ALI group, ALI+ PPARγ inducer TZD group (ALI+ T group) and ALI+ TZD+ SUMOylation inhibitor anacardic acid group (ALI+ T+ A group). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 15 mg/kg was injected into the tail vein to develop the ALI model. In ALI+ T+ A group, anacardic acid 5 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 1 h before LPS administration. In ALI+ T group and ALI+ T+ A group, TZD 50 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 30 min before LPS administration. The mice were sacrificed at 12 h after LPS administration, and the lung tissues were obtained to examine the pathological changes which were scored and to determine the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio, and expression of PIAS1, PIAS2, PIAS3 and PIASy protein and mRNA (by Western blot or polymerase chain reaction). Experiment Ⅱ Mouse alveolar macrophages (MH-S cells) were cultured in vitro and divided into 4 groups ( n=5 each) using a random number table method: control group (C group), LPS group, LPS+ PIAS2 siRNA group (L+ P group) and LPS+ Con siRNA group (L+ C group). Cells were routinely cultured in group C. Cells were stimulated with 10 μg/ml LPS to develop the model of endotoxin challenge. PIAS2 siRNA 50 nmol/L and Con siRNA 50 nmol/L were transfected at 48 h before LPS was added in L+ P group and L+ C group, respectively. The cells were collected at 24 h of incubation with LPS to determine the cell viability, levels of M1 and M2 alveolar macrophages (by flow cytometry), expression of PIAS2 and PPARγ (by Western blot), co-expression of PPARγ-SUMO1 (by immunoprecipitation) and expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA (by polymerase chain reaction). The ratio of M1/M2 was calculated. Results:Experiment Ⅰ Compared with C group, the lung injury scores and W/D ratio were significantly increased, and the expression of PIAS2 protein and mRNA was up-regulated in the other three groups ( P<0.05). Compared with ALI group, the lung injury scores and W/D ratio were significantly decreased, and the expression of PIAS2 protein and mRNA was up-regulated in ALI+ T group and ALI+ T+ A group ( P<0.05). Compared with ALI+ T group, the lung injury scores and W/D ratio were significantly increased, and the expression of PIAS2 protein and mRNA was down-regulated in ALI+ T+ A group ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the expression of PIAS1, PIAS3 and PIASy protein and mRNA in lung tissues among the four groups ( P>0.05). Experiment Ⅱ Compared with C group, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the expression of PPARγ and co-expression of PPARγ-SUMO1 was up-regulated, the levels of M1 and M2 macrophages and M1/M2 ratio were increased, the expression of TNF-α mRNA was up-regulated, and the expression of IL-10 mRNA was down-regulated in the other three groups, and PIAS2 expression was significantly up-regulated in L group and L+ C group ( P<0.05). Compared with L group, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the expression of PIAS2 and PPARγ and PPARγ-SUMO1 co-expression were down-regulated, the M1 macrophage level and M1/M2 ratio were increased, TNF-α mRNA expression was up-regulated, and the expression of IL-10 mRNA was down-regulated in L+ P group ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in L+ C group ( P>0.05). Compared with L+ C group, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the expression of PIAS2 and PPARγ and co-expression of PPARγ-SUMO1 were down-regulated, the level of M1 alveolar macrophages and M1/M2 ratio were increased, the expression of TNF-α mRNA was down-regulated, and the expression of IL-10 mRNA was up-regulated in L+ P group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:PIAS2-regulated SUMOylation of PPARγ is the endogenous protective mechanism against endotoxin-induced ALI in mice, which may be related to inhibition of macrophage polarization into M1 type and alleviation of inflammatory responses.

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