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1.
Medisan ; 25(5)2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1346548

ABSTRACT

Los accidentes cerebrovasculares se han mantenido, a nivel mundial, como la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad. Para disminuir la incidencia de casos de isquemia o hemorragia cerebral, así como sus consecuencias, se deben poseer los conocimientos sobre dichas entidades clínicas, los factores de riesgo asociados y las alternativas preventivas y terapéuticas como estrategias neuroprotectoras. Muchas de las intervenciones médicas realizadas hasta la fecha en modelos animales han resultado insatisfactorias en la fase clínica. Por ello, se realizó una revisión de las publicaciones más recientes donde se abordan los modelos experimentales para la isquemia cerebral más utilizados en las evaluaciones de las terapias neuroprotectoras, y se pudo concluir que si se analizan los protocolos empleados en la fase preclínica podrán optimizarse las investigaciones para lograr resultados más acertados en este campo.


The strokes have been considered, worldwide, as the third cause of death and the first cause of disability. To diminish the incidence of ischemia cases or cerebral hemorrhage, as well as their consequences, one should have the knowledge on this clinical entities, the associated risk factors and preventive and therapeutic alternatives as neuroprotector strategies. Many of the medical interventions carried out so far in animal models have been unsatisfactory in the clinical phase. Reason why, a review of the most recent publications was carried out, where the most used experimental models for the cerebral ischemia in the evaluations of the neuroprotector therapies are approached, and it was concluded that if protocols used in the preclinic phase are analyzed, the investigations could be optimize to achieve more relevant results in this field.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Neuroprotective Agents , Stroke , Risk Factors , Models, Animal
2.
Entramado ; 17(1): 218-230, ene.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249784

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El correcto funcionamiento del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-tiroides es indispensable para el crecimiento y desarrollo embrionario-fetal, al intervenir en la diferenciación de los tejidos, el desarrollo cerebral y somático, la maduración ósea y la regulación del metabolismo. El paso de las hormonas tiroideas maternas al feto a través de la placenta depende de transportadores transmembrana, enzimas desyodinasas (DIO2 y DIO3) y proteínas transportadoras (TTR). Objetivo: Identificar las zonas de expresión de DIO3 y TTR en la placenta de ratón Mus musculus E10.5, E12.5, E14.5. Métodos: La estructura placentaria y expresión de DIO3 y TTR fueron evaluadas con técnicas histoquímicas e inmunofluorescencia. Resultados: Desde E10.5 se encontraron las tres zonas placentarias, laberinto, zona de unión y decidua. En E12.5 se observó la conformación placentaria definitiva. DIO3 y TTR fueron detectadas en los tres estadios, con predominio en la zona del laberinto. Conclusión: DIO3 y TTR se expresan a lo largo del establecimiento y maduración de la placenta de ratón. El biomodelo murino es una herramienta útil para el estudio del transporte placentario de hormonas tiroideas desde la circulación materna a la fetal.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Correct functioning of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is essential for embryonic-fetal growth and development, as it is involved in tissue differentiation, brain and somatic development, bone maturation and metabolic regulation. Maternal thyroid hormones passage to the fetus through the placenta depends on transmembrane transporters, deiodinase enzymes (DIO2 and DIO3) and carrier proteins (TTR). Objective: Identify DIO3 and TTR expression within placental layers of Mus musculus E10.5, E12.5 and E14.5. Methods: Placental structure, DIO3 and TTR expression were evaluated using histochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques. Results: We found that the three placental layers, labyrinth zone, junctional zone, and decidua were present since E10.5. At E12.5 placental final conformation was observed. DIO3 and TTR were detected in the three stages with a predominance in the labyrinth. Conclusion: DIO3 and TTR are expressed throughout the establishment and maturation of mouse placenta. Mice are a useful tool for studying how thyroid hormones are transported from maternal t° fetal circulation at the placenta.


RESUMO Introdução: O correto funcionamento do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-tireoide é essencial para o crescimento e desenvolvimento embrionário-fetal, pois intervém na diferenciação dos tecidos, desenvolvimento cerebral e somático, maturação óssea e regulaçãodo metabolismo. A passagem dos hormônios tireoidianos maternos para o feto através da placenta depende de transportadores transmembranas, enzimas deiodinase (DIO2 e DIO3) e proteínas transportadoras (TTR). Objetivo: Identificar as zonas de expressão de DIO3 e TTR na placenta de rato Mus musculus E10.5, E12.5, E14.5. Métodos: A estrutura placentária e a expressão de DIO3 e TTR foram avaliadas com técnicas histoquímicas e imunofluorescência. Resultados: De E10.5 as três zonas placentárias, labirinto, zona de união e decídua foram encontradas. Em E12.5 a conformação definitiva da placenta foi observada. O DIO3 e o TTR foram detectados nas três fases, com predomínio na área do labirinto. Conclusão: DIO3 e TTR são expressos ao longo do estabelecimento e maturação da placenta de rato O biomodelo murino é uma ferramenta útil para o estudo do transporte placentário dos hormônios tireoidianos da circulação materna para a fetal.

3.
Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 747-753,C11-3, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910221

ABSTRACT

Objective:Sodium urate was used to induce acute gouty arthritis rat model, and to observe the inflammatory response of rats and the intervention effect of diclofenac sodium on the expression of Toll-like receptor-related (TLR) protein of ankle joint.Methods:Thirty males specific pathogen free (SPF) grade Wistar rats were used to develop the models. Random number table method was used to divide the rats into normal saline control group, model group, and drug group (diclofenac sodium t 1.35 mg/g body weight), 10 rats in each group. After fully grinding the sodium urate crystals, an appropriate amount of saline and Tween-80 (9∶1) was added to make a suspension, and the sodium urate crystals (25 mg/ml) were injected to the right posterior ankle of the rats in the model and drug groups. The solution was 0.2 ml, and rats in the sham group were injected with 0.2 ml of normal saline at the same location. After the model was established, drug and equal volume of purified water were administrated intragastrically once a day for 7 days. The toe volume device was used to measure the joint swelling of the rat (at 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h) , and blood was taken from the abdominal aorta after anesthesia to determine the rat kidney function, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) content, the rat ankle joint TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88), NF-κBp65 protein expression were determined using Western blot and immunohistochemical methods. Multiple comparisons were carried out using single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), comparing the two groups by using LSD- t, the comparison of different times using repetitive measure analysis of variance (repeated measures). Results:After the models were established, the rat's right ankle joint showed various degrees of redness, slow walking, and unresponsiveness. Compared with the normal saline control group, under the light microscope, the ankle synovial cells of the model group proliferated, with localized degeneration and necrosis, and many inflammatory cell infiltration. The rat serum inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α in the diclofenac sodium group [(24.6±3.3) pg/ml, (151±21) pg/ml, (61±16) pg/ml] were significantly reduce compared with model group [(28.4±4.3) pg/ml, (173±26) pg/ml, (81±5) pg/ml] ( t=2.296, P<0.01; t=2.909, P<0.01; t=2.352, P<0.01). Compared with normal saline group, variance analysis showed that the NF-κBp65, MyD88, TLR4 protein expression of ankle joint detected by Western bolt method and immunohistochemistry method was significantly increased in the model group. Compared with the model group, diclofenac sodium the ankle tissue protein expression of NF-κBp65, MyD88, and TLR4 was significantly inhibited. There were statistical significances in three groups ( P<0.05 or P<0.001). Conclusion:The level of inflammatory factors in acute gout arthritis rats model induced by sodium urate crystals is increased, and the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-КBp65 proteins in ankle joint tissue is increased, which affects the TLR signaling pathway. Diclofenic has inhibitory and relieving effects.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906447

ABSTRACT

Cystitis, one of the most common diseases in the urinary system, is manifested by urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and bladder pain, which are known as the classic symptom triad of bladder irritation, especially in women. In recent years, with the change of the lifestyle, the prevalence of bladder diseases in China is increasing year by year. According to the characteristics of etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical symptoms of cystitis, this paper listed the clinical diagnostic criteria in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine after consulting the relevant literature. Through the analysis of the existing animal model of cystitis, the fit between the model and clinical manifestations was evaluated, and the advantages and disadvantages were summarized. The models induced by "intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide" and "Freund's complete adjuvant combined with bladder catheterization" were proved highly matched with manifestations despite some shortcomings such as long time and high cost. At present, the diagnostic criteria of cystitis are mainly based on western medicine, and the definitive diagnosis of the relevant types still depends on cystoscopy and tissue biopsy. The lack of TCM syndrome model limits the TCM research. Additionally, four diagnostic methods in TCM cannot be well applied to animal models because of the susceptibility to subjective factors. Behavioral tests can be used to determine the model index and develop the relevant behavior rating scale. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an animal model of cystitis in line with the clinical characteristics of western medicine and TCM syndrome differentiation, so as to better promote the study of cystitis.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906323

ABSTRACT

This paper collated the western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) diagnostic criteria of pulmonary fibrosis (PF) based on its clinical characteristics and relevant literature reports and summarized the inductive agents, methods, objects, and mechanisms for replicating the PF animal models as well as their respective advantages and disadvantages. By analyzing the consistency of symptoms among successfully modeled animal models with the clinical characteristics in TCM and western medicine, we found that the intratracheal injection of bleomycin was the most frequently employed method for modeling, and the resulting outcomes were very similar to clinical characteristics in TCM and Western Medicine. Besides, considering the time-saving process, high stability, good repeatability, and low cost, such method was suitable for the rapid screening of drugs. The second preferred method was intraperitoneal injection of paraquat, which exhibited the advantages of high degree of consistency with clinical characteristics of PF caused by paraquat poisoning, low cost, high success rate, and easy operation, which allowed it to be suitable for exploring the mechanism of paraquat poisoning and developing the antidotes. The existing PF animal models shared a fairly high degree of consistency in symptoms with patients diagnosed as having PF in western medicine. However, the criteria for TCM syndrome differentiation remained unclear, and the animal models failed to reflect TCM pathogenesis. It is necessary to establish more accurate TCM diagnostic criteria that focus on syndrome differentiation and reveal TCM etiology and pathogenesis and carry out more experiments concerning TCM syndromes of PF in the future, so as to better treat PF with integrated TCM and Western Medicine.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906128

ABSTRACT

Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is one of the most common eye diseases in ophthalmology, including type I allergies and type Ⅳallergies, which seriously affect the quality of life of patients. This article analyzes the current models of allergic conjunctivitis based on the characteristics of clinical symptoms of Chinese and Western medicine, including the types of animals selected, the characteristics of the models, and the analysis of the degree of agreement with the clinical symptoms of Chinese and Western medicine. It is concluded that most of the current AC model replication uses ovalbumin (OVA) induction method, ragweed pollen induction method. In recent years, animal models of fungal-inducible, compound 48/80-inducible, and murine allergic conjunctivitis have appeared, which are sensitized by the "systemic first and then local" method. Most of them have a high degree of coincidence with the characteristics of Western medicine symptoms, but there are certain gaps in the indicators of Chinese medicine, and there are also inconsistencies between the existing observation indicators and the diagnostic standards of Chinese medicine, resulting in unclear symptoms of Chinese medicine and irregular classification judgments. Therefore, To replicate the animal model with high clinical anastomosis of Chinese and Western medicine, further discussion and research are needed to better promote the research of allergic conjunctivitis.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905887

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a metabolic stress-induced liver injury characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, which is closely related to insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility. It falls into the category of "liver lump" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). NAFLD affects about 25% of the population worldwide and has become a major burden of the world health care system. However, its exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Conducting the basic research on NAFLD is of great clinical significance and social value. As an important tool for NAFLD research, animal model plays a particularly important role in clarifying the pathophysiological mechanism of NAFLD. In recent years, the modeling methods for NAFLD in China and abroad have been constantly updated, and in particular, certain progress has been made in the duplication of TCM syndrome models. By consulting and sorting out the relevant literature published in recent years in China and abroad, the author summarized the replication methods of NAFLD animal models. This paper reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of models established via dietary induction (high-fat feed, high-fat and high-fructose feed, high-fat and high-cholesterol feed, and methionine choline-deficient feed), models with genetic defects [leptin-deficiency (Lepob/Lepob), autosomal recessive diabetes gene homozygous deficiency (ob/ob), Alms1 gene (foz/foz) mutation, and FATZO mice] and exposure to special diets, and models for TCM syndromes (liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome, phlegm-dampness syndrome, blood stasis syndrome, combined phlegm and stasis syndrome, and qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome), in order to provide reference for the preparation of more scientific, reasonable, economical, and convenient animal models of NAFLD, thus laying a foundation for in-depth study of the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of NAFLD.

8.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E317-E323, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904404

ABSTRACT

The most serious problem facing the implantation of vascular graft in the body is the formation of blood clots. In order to solve this problem, various attempts have been made by the scientific community for many years. However, endothelialization is the fundamental method to solve thrombosis and keep vascular graft open for a long time. Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) has the advantages of biodegradability, low cost and good mechanical properties. In recent years, it has been widely used as tissue engineering scaffolds, drug deliverys and so on. This article mainly reviews the endothelialization of small-caliber vascular graft based on PCL after implanted in different animal models, as well as the endothelialization of the same animal model but under different implantation conditions, and trying to find the reasons why small-caliber vascular grafts are still not ideal in clinical applications at different angles such as the different animal models and the different way about endothelialization, and provide references for future animal model selection.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921818

ABSTRACT

Hypertension, a cardiovascular disease with main clinical manifestations of dizziness and elevated blood pressure, especially elevated arterial pressure, features high prevalence rate and low control rate, which affects patients' quality of life. Therefore, establishing a good animal model of hypertension is of great significance for its diagnosis and clinical prevention and treatment. Based on the clinical characteristics of hypertension in traditional Chinese and western medicine, this study summarized the advantages and disadvantages of current hypertension animal models: gene-related model, surgery-caused model, drug-induced model, and environment-induced model, and investigated the similarity to the clinical symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Among them, spontaneously hypertensive rats, models established with the surgical two-kidney one-clip, one-kidney one-clip, two-kidney two-clip, and abdominal aorta constriction methods, models induced with the drug deoxycorticosterone acetate, and models induced with the high-fat high-purine diet showed symptoms highly similar to the clinical manifestations. Then, the corresponding evaluation and improvement methods of hypertension animal models were proposed. This study provides suggestions for the establishment of hypertension animal model so that the symptoms are more similar to the clinical characteristics of hypertension in traditional Chinese and Western medicine, which is important for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Pressure , China , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality of Life , Rats
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921657

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis(RA) is an autoimmune disease involving multiple joints bilaterally with symmetrical polyarthritis as the main symptom. The high disability rate of this disease seriously affects the quality of life of patients and even threatens their lives. The establishment of a good animal model is of great significance for the diagnosis and clinical prevention of RA. Based on the clinical characteristics of RA in traditional Chinese and Western medicine, the common animal models of RA were summarized, including drug-induced, gene-related, and syndrome and disease combined models. Joint swelling, pain, redness, nodules, and joint deformity are the main criteria for model evaluation, which have certain differences from the clinical diagnostic criteria of RA. From the perspective of syndrome differentiation, the animal model combining syndrome and disease only simulates the syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine and has no direct causal relationship with the formation of RA. In this paper, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of animal models of RA and the coincidence degree of the models with the clinical characteristics and then put forward the corresponding recommendations for the evaluation and improvement of these models, aiming to make the animal models of RA closer to the clinical symptoms and play an important role in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of RA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , China , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality of Life
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3836-3852, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921470

ABSTRACT

As one of the three major nutrients, dietary lipids provide energy and nutrition for human. The quantity and quality of dietary lipids affect the composition of gut microbiota, which consequently may affect the host metabolic health. Development of disease animal models is an important approach to study the relationship between gut microbiota and human metabolic health. In this review, we discussed the types of dietary lipids, and summarized how dietary lipids affect the composition of gut microbiota and regulate the metabolic health of animal models. The clarification of potential underlying mechanisms will shed lights on future research in other live systems including human.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dietary Fats , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(6): e360601, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278116

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To develop a segmental tibial bone defect model for tissue engineering studies in veterinary orthopedics using single locking compression plate (LCP) fixation and cast immobilization. Methods A 3-cm bone defect was created in the right tibia of 18 adult Suffolk sheep. A 10-hole, 4.5-mm LCP was applied to the dorsomedial aspect of the bone. Four locking screws were inserted into the proximal and three into the distal bone fragment. Operated limbs were immobilized with casts. Animals were submitted to stall rest, but were allowed to bear weight on the operated limb. During the recovery period, animals were checked daily for physiological parameters, behavior and lameness. Follow-up radiographs were taken monthly. Results Surgical procedures and postoperative recovery were uneventful. Animals adapted quickly to casts and were able to bear weight on the operated limb with no signs of discomfort or distress. No clinical or radiographic complications were detected over a 90-day follow-up period. Conclusions Surgical creation of tibial segmental bone defects followed by fixation with single LCP and cast immobilization was deemed a feasible and appropriate model for veterinary orthopedic research in tissue engineering.

13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10656, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142583

ABSTRACT

Research on the prevention of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) has seen remarkable advances regarding its physiopathology in recent years. From the search for biomarkers that might be used to indicate individual susceptibility to the development of new animal models and the investigation of new drugs, a great deal of knowledge has been amassed. Various groups have concentrated efforts in generating new animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in an attempt to provide the means to further produce knowledge on the subject. Here we forward the hypothesis that restricting the search of biomarkers and of new drugs to prevent PTE by using only a limited set of TBI models might hamper the understanding of this relevant and yet not preventable medical condition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/prevention & control , Biomarkers
14.
Clinics ; 76: e2740, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The intrathecal route has not yet been thoroughly standardized and evaluated in an experimental model of spinal cord injury (SCI) in Wistar rats. The objective of this study was to standardize and evaluate the effect of intradural injection in this animal model. METHOD: The animals were divided into 6 groups: 1) laminectomy and intradural catheter; 2) laminectomy, intradural catheter and infusion; 3) only SCI; 4) SCI and intradural catheter; 5) SCI, intradural catheter and infusion; and 6) control (laminectomy only). Motor evaluations were performed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale and the horizontal ladder test; motor evoked potentials were measured for functional evaluation, and histological evaluation was performed as well. All experimental data underwent statistical analysis. RESULTS: Regarding motor evoked potentials, the groups with experimental SCI had worse results than those without, but neither dural puncture nor the injection of intrathecal solution aggravated the effects of isolated SCI. Regarding histology, adverse tissue effects were observed in animals with SCI. On average, the BBB scores had the same statistical behaviour as the horizontal ladder results, and at every evaluated timepoint, the groups without SCI presented scored significantly better than those with SCI (p<0.05). The difference in performance on motor tests between rats with and without experimental SCI persisted from the first to the last test. CONCLUSIONS: The present work standardizes the model of intradural injection in experimental SCI in rats. Intrathecal puncture and injection did not independently cause significant functional or histological changes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries , Reference Standards , Spinal Cord , Rats, Wistar , Evoked Potentials, Motor , Recovery of Function , Disease Models, Animal
15.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 33(3): 153-164, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278199

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The use of correctly designed animal models is a fundamental step prior to clinical trials in humans. Although rats are easy to house and handle, and have molars that resemble those of humans, very few researchers use them as a model for root canal treatment, probably due to their small size and the lack of relevant data necessary to reproduce the model. Our aims were to describe the anatomic and histologic characteristics of the mandibular first molar of the Wistar rat and present a standardised model for its experimental endodontic treatment. Twenty female rats were used. The characteristics of the mesial and distal roots were described histologically and the quality of the results achieved following the treatment protocol presented herein was assessed by means of digital radiographs, micro-CT and histological sections. The age of 55 days was found to be the most adequate for performing this technique, but we consider the interval of 50 to 60 days to be suitable. Both canals are oval, although in opposite planes, and the furcating-facing walls present the minimum dentine thickness. It was essential to become familiar with these aspects in order to decide upon the most appropriate instrumentation and obturation techniques that would enable replication of this model in basic science research.


RESUMEN El uso de modelos animales correctamente diseñados es un paso fundamental previo al desarrollo de ensayos clínicos en humanos. A pesar de resultar fáciles de criar y manipular y de poseer molares que se asemejan a los humanos, muy pocos grupos utilizan a la rata como modelo experimental para el tratamiento endodóntico probablemente debido a su pequeño tamaño y a la escasa información disponible para poder aplicar los modelos existentes. Nuestros objetivos fueron describir las características anatómicas e histológicas del primer molar inferior de la rata Wistar y presentar un modelo estandarizado para el tratamiento endodóntico experimental de esta pieza. Se utilizaron 20 ratas hembra. Las características de las raíces mesial y distal fueron descritas histológicamente y los resultados obtenidos fueron evaluados mediante radiografías digitales, microCTy cortes histológicos. La edad de 55 días demostró ser la más adecuada para ejecutar la técnica, pero consideramos que el intervalo de 50 a 60 días puede resultar apropiado. Se observó que ambos canales presentan una morfología oval, aunque en direcciones opuestas, y que las paredes furcales resultaron ser las que presentan el menor espesor de dentina. Familiarizarse con estos aspectos de la anatomía e histología del molar de la rata resultó fundamental para decidir sobre las técnicas de preparación y obturación más apropiadas que permitieran la replicación de este modelo en el campo de las ciencias básicas.

16.
Psicol. pesq ; 14(3): 66-82, dez. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1149495

ABSTRACT

Dor é uma experiência pessoal e subjetiva que pode apenas ser sentida pelo sofredor. A dor aguda tem a finalidade de avisar o indivíduo que algo está errado. Contudo, a dor crônica (DC) é um problema global de saúde, que afeta a qualidade de vida e torna o indivíduo parcial ou totalmente incapacitado. A pesquisa básica utiliza diversos modelos animais para o estudo da dor aguda ou crônica, bem como para o estudo das principais comorbidades oriundas de sua cronificação como a ansiedade e a depressão. Esta revisão aborda os modelos animais mais comumente utilizados neste contexto.


Pain is a personal and subjective experience that can only be felt by the sufferer. Acute pain is intended to warn the individual that something is wrong. However, chronic pain (CP) is a global health problem, affecting the quality of life and making the individual parts or disabled. Basic research uses several animal models for the study of acute or chronic pain, as well as for the study of the main comorbidities arising from their chronicity, such as anxiety and depression. This review focuses on the animal models most commonly used in this context.


El dolor es una experiencia personal y subjetiva que solo puede sentir la víctima. El dolor agudo está destinado a advertir al individuo que algo está mal. Sin embargo, el dolor crónico (EC) es un problema de salud global, que afecta la calidad de vida y hace que el individuo esté parcial o totalmente discapacitado. La investigación básica utiliza varios modelos animales para el estudio del dolor agudo o crónico, así como para el estudio de las principales comorbilidades resultantes de su cronicidad, como la ansiedad y la depresión. Esta revisión se centra en los modelos animales más utilizados en este contexto.

17.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 771-777, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156205

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate different femoral fixation devices for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction and compare their effectiveness regarding fixation strength up to failure in porcine knees. Methods Thirty porcine knees were used, divided into three groups of 10 knees. The removed grafts were dissected from the extensor tendons of porcine feet. In each group, the graft was fixed to the femur with an interference screw, an anchor, or adductor tenodesis. The three methods were subjected to biomechanical tests using a universal Tensile testing machine at a speed of 20 mm/minute. Results The highest average linear resistance under lateral traction occurred in group 1, "screw fixation" (185.45 ± 41.22 N), followed by group 2, "anchor fixation" (152.97 ± 49, 43 N); the lower average was observed in group 3, "tenodesis fixation" (76.69 ± 18.90 N). According to the fixed error margin (5%), there was a significant difference between groups (p < 0.001); in addition, multiple comparison tests (between group pairs) also showed significant differences. Variability was small, since the variance coefficient was lower than 33.3%. Conclusion Interference screws in bone tunnels and mountable anchors fixation with high resistance wire are strong enough for femoral fixation in porcine medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. Adductor tenodesis, however, was deemed fragile for such purpose.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar diferentes dispositivos de fixação femoral na reconstrução do ligamento patelofemoral medial para comparar sua eficácia quanto à força de fixação até a falha em joelhos suínos. Métodos Foram ensaiados 30 joelhos de suínos subdivididos em 3 grupos de 10 joelhos. Os enxertos retirados foram dissecados de tendões extensores das patas dos suínos. Cada grupo teve o enxerto fixado ao fêmur com parafuso de interferência, âncora, ou tenodese no tendão adutor. Os 3 métodos foram submetidos à testes biomecânicos utilizando uma máquina universal de ensaio de tração com uma velocidade de 20 mm/min. Resultados Verificamos que a média mais elevada da resistência linear sob tração lateral (185,45 ± 41,22 N) ocorreu no grupo 1: "fixação por parafuso," seguido do grupo 2: "fixação por âncora" (152,97 ± 49,43 N), e a média foi menor no grupo 3: "fixação por tenodese" (76,69 ± 18,90 N). Para a margem de erro fixada (5%), comprovou-se a diferença significativa entre os grupos (p < 0,001) e também através dos testes de comparações múltiplas (entre os pares de grupos) verificou-se a ocorrência de diferenças significativas. A variabilidade expressada por meio do coeficiente de variação mostrou-se reduzida, já que a referida medida foi inferior a 33,3%. Conclusão O uso de parafusos de interferência no túnel ósseo de joelhos porcinos é suficientemente forte para fixação femoral na reconstrução do ligamento patelofemoral medial, assim como a fixação com âncoras montáveis com fio de alta resistência. Entretanto, a tenodese no tendão adutor mostrou-se frágil para essa finalidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Orthopedic Fixation Devices , Swine , Tendons , Traction , Effectiveness , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone and Bones , Suture Techniques , Transplants , Models, Animal , Tenodesis , Patellofemoral Joint , Femur , Ligaments , Methods
19.
J Biosci ; 2020 Jun; : 1-10
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214278

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become one of the biggest health concern, along with huge economic burden. With no clearremedies to treat the disease, doctors are repurposing drugs like chloroquine and remdesivir to treat COVID-19patients. In parallel, research institutes in collaboration with biotech companies have identified strategies to useviral proteins as vaccine candidates for COVID-19. Although this looks promising, they still need to pass thetest of challenge studies in animal models. As various models for SARS-CoV-2 are under testing phase,biotech companies have bypassed animal studies and moved to Phase I clinical trials. In view of the presentoutbreak, this looks a justified approach, but the problem is that in the absence of animal studies, we can neverpredict the outcomes in humans. Since animal models are critical for vaccine development and SARS-CoV-2has different transmission dynamics, in this review we compare different animal models of SARS-CoV-2 withhumans for their pathogenic, immune response and transmission dynamics that make them ideal models forvaccine testing for COVID-19. Another issue of using animal model is the ethics of using animals for research;thus, we also discuss the pros and cons of using animals for vaccine development studies.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862928

ABSTRACT

Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy among infants and young children,which has an increasing incidence in recent years.Performing suitable animal experiments is a key to study CMPA,but currently there aren't proper models consistent with human physiological sensitization process.Ideal animal models can serve as critical tools to reveal the mechanisms of CMPA and develop preventive and therapeutic approaches.Animal species and strains,different types of the models,biological detection methods and evaluation are reviewed in this paper.It also summarizes characteristics of animal models,which will provide a reference for basic and applied researches of CMPA.

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