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1.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 16(1): 60-68, Ene - Abr. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537177

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) se conoce como una enfermedad autoinmune multisistémica, cuya causa es desconocida, se caracteriza por la presencia de complejos inmunes y autoanticuerpos. En series internacionales se describe una presentación de procesos infecciosos en estos pacientes hasta en un 75 % de los casos, las infecciones ocurren tanto al inicio de la enfermedad como en etapas tardías, y son causa directa de muerte en 30 % a 60 % de los casos y motivo de hospitalización hasta de 30 %. Objetivos: determinar los procesos infecciosos más frecuentes en pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico internados en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del Hospital Nacional en el periodo 2022-2023. Metodología: diseño observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal de pacientes con diagnóstico de lupus eritematoso sistémico según criterios de European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)-2019 que se encuentran internados en el servicio de Clínica Médica del Hospital Nacional (Itaugua-Paraguay) en el periodo de 2022-2023. Resultados: la edad media de los pacientes fue de 34 años, con predominio del sexo femenino en el 88.18 %. Las infecciones del aparato respiratorio fue la más frecuentemente diagnosticada en 50 (45.45 %) pacientes, seguido por la infección de vías urinarias 47 (42.38 %) pacientes, el condicionante de riesgo predominante fue el uso de corticoides en un total 105 (96.40 %) pacientes, se estableció en un total de 97 (88.18 %) pacientes con antibioticoterapia, dentro del aspecto demográfico de la zona urbana 56 (50.90 %) pacientes y rural 54(49.1 %). Conclusión: la infección del aparato respiratorio fue la infección más frecuente, el condicionante de riesgo predominante es el uso de corticoides y recibieron antibioticoterapia la cual en monoterapia fue la más utilizada


Introduction: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is known as a multisystem autoimmune disease, whose cause is unknown, and is characterized by the presence of immune complexes and autoantibodies. In international series, presentation of infectious processes is described in these patients in up to 75 % of cases. Infections occur both at the beginning of the disease and in late stages, and are a direct cause of death in 30 % to 60 % of patients. Cases and reason for hospitalization up to 30 %. Objectives: determine the most frequent infectious processes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus admitted to the Medical Clinic Service of the Hospital Nacional in the period 2022-2023. Methodology: observational, descriptive cross-sectional design of patients with a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus according to criteria of European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)-2019 who are admitted to the Medical Clinic service of the Hospital Nacional (Itauguá-Paraguay) in the period of 2022-2023. Results: the average age of the patients was 34 years, with a predominance of the female sex in 88.18 %. Respiratory system infections were the most frequently diagnosed in 50 (45.45 %) patients, followed by urinary tract infection in 47 (42.38 %) patients. The predominant risk factor was the use of corticosteroids in a total of 105 (96.40 %) patients, it was established in a total of 97 (88.18 %) patients with antibiotic therapy, within the demographic aspect of the urban area 56 (50.90 %) patients and rural 54 (49.1 %). Conclusion: respiratory tract infection was the most frequent infection, the predominant risk factor is the use of corticosteroids and they received antibiotic therapy, which in monotherapy was the most used.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469379

ABSTRACT

Abstract In advanced biotechnology, the utilization of enzymes to achieve new or modified compounds with antibacterial, fungicidal, and anti-cancer specifications is crucial. Mushroom lactases are a hopeful biocatalyst for the synthesis and modification of different compounds. They are an accessible and inexpensive enzyme for the preparation of reaction objects and have recently received attention. Laccase purification was performed from basidiomycete Lentinus strigosus (LS) in several stages: Stage 1. On ion-exchange chromatography on TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), two distinctly separated laccase activity peaks were observed, eluted from the carrier at 0.21 and 0.27 M NaCl. In order to reduce the loss of enzymes, all fractions with laccase activity were collected, concentrated, and desalted using an ultrafiltration cell (Amicon, United States) with a UM-10 membrane. Stage 2. The resulting preparation with laccase activity was applied to a Q-Sepharose column (60 ml). Two well-separated peaks with laccase activity were obtained during the elution: laccase I (0.12 M NaCl) and laccase II (0.2 M NaCl). Stage 3. In the course of further purification of both enzymes, carried out on anion-exchange carrier Resource Q (6 ml), a broken gradient was used: 0 - 10%, 10 - 20%, and 20 - 100% with 1M NaCl. Stage 4. Both laccase I and laccase II, obtained after Resource Q, were desalted, concentrated to 1 ml each, and applied to a Superdex 75 gel filtration column. As a result, two laccases were obtained in a homogeneous form.


Resumo Na biotecnologia moderna, o uso de enzimas para obter compostos novos ou modificados com propriedades antibacterianas, antifúngicas e anticancerígenas é crucial. Lactases de cogumelos são biocatalisadores promissores para síntese e modificação de diferentes compostos, por serem enzimas baratas e disponíveis para a preparação de componentes de reação, e vem recebendo a devida atenção recentemente. A purificação da lacase foi realizada a partir do basidiomiceto Lentinus strigosus em vários estágios: Etapa 1 - na cromatografia de troca iônica em TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), foram observados dois picos de atividade da lacase distintamente separados, com eluição do transportador a 0,21 e 0,27 M de NaCl. Para reduzir a perda de enzimas, todas as frações com atividade de lacase foram coletadas, concentradas e dessalinizadas em uma célula de ultrafiltração (Amicon, Estados Unidos) com membrana UM-10; Etapa 2 - a preparação resultante com atividade de lacase foi aplicada a uma coluna Q-Sepharose (60 ml). Durante a eluição, foram obtidos dois picos bem separados com atividade de lacase: lacase I (NaCl 0,12 M) e lacase II (NaCl 0,2 M); Etapa 3 - no decurso da purificação adicional de ambas as enzimas, realizada no Recurso Q de transportador de troca aniônica (6 ml), um gradiente quebrado foi usado: 0-10%, 10-20% e 20-100% com NaCl 1M; Etapa 4 - tanto a lacase I como a lacase II, obtidas após o Recurso Q, foram dessalinizadas e concentradas para 1 ml cada e aplicadas a uma coluna de filtração em gel Superdex 75. Como resultado, duas lacases foram obtidas de forma homogênea.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257071, 2024. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364496

ABSTRACT

In advanced biotechnology, the utilization of enzymes to achieve new or modified compounds with antibacterial, fungicidal, and anti-cancer specifications is crucial. Mushroom lactases are a hopeful biocatalyst for the synthesis and modification of different compounds. They are an accessible and inexpensive enzyme for the preparation of reaction objects and have recently received attention. Laccase purification was performed from basidiomycete Lentinus strigosus (LS) in several stages: Stage 1. On ion-exchange chromatography on TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), two distinctly separated laccase activity peaks were observed, eluted from the carrier at 0.21 and 0.27 M NaCl. In order to reduce the loss of enzymes, all fractions with laccase activity were collected, concentrated, and desalted using an ultrafiltration cell (Amicon, United States) with a UM-10 membrane. Stage 2. The resulting preparation with laccase activity was applied to a Q-Sepharose column (60 ml). Two well-separated peaks with laccase activity were obtained during the elution: laccase I (0.12 M NaCl) and laccase II (0.2 M NaCl). Stage 3. In the course of further purification of both enzymes, carried out on anion-exchange carrier Resource Q (6 ml), a broken gradient was used: 0 - 10%, 10 - 20%, and 20 - 100% with 1M NaCl. Stage 4. Both laccase I and laccase II, obtained after Resource Q, were desalted, concentrated to 1 ml each, and applied to a Superdex 75 gel filtration column. As a result, two laccases were obtained in a homogeneous form.


Na biotecnologia moderna, o uso de enzimas para obter compostos novos ou modificados com propriedades antibacterianas, antifúngicas e anticancerígenas é crucial. Lactases de cogumelos são biocatalisadores promissores para síntese e modificação de diferentes compostos, por serem enzimas baratas e disponíveis para a preparação de componentes de reação, e vem recebendo a devida atenção recentemente. A purificação da lacase foi realizada a partir do basidiomiceto Lentinus strigosus em vários estágios: Etapa 1 - na cromatografia de troca iônica em TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), foram observados dois picos de atividade da lacase distintamente separados, com eluição do transportador a 0,21 e 0,27 M de NaCl. Para reduzir a perda de enzimas, todas as frações com atividade de lacase foram coletadas, concentradas e dessalinizadas em uma célula de ultrafiltração (Amicon, Estados Unidos) com membrana UM-10; Etapa 2 - a preparação resultante com atividade de lacase foi aplicada a uma coluna Q-Sepharose (60 ml). Durante a eluição, foram obtidos dois picos bem separados com atividade de lacase: lacase I (NaCl 0,12 M) e lacase II (NaCl 0,2 M); Etapa 3 - no decurso da purificação adicional de ambas as enzimas, realizada no Recurso Q de transportador de troca aniônica (6 ml), um gradiente quebrado foi usado: 0-10%, 10-20% e 20-100% com NaCl 1M; Etapa 4 - tanto a lacase I como a lacase II, obtidas após o Recurso Q, foram dessalinizadas e concentradas para 1 ml cada e aplicadas a uma coluna de filtração em gel Superdex 75. Como resultado, duas lacases foram obtidas de forma homogênea.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Biotechnology , Laccase , Enzymes , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.


O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil , Staphylococcus , Vibrio , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Water Samples , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537807

ABSTRACT

As Infecções Relacionadas à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS) ocorrem com mais frequência em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) devido a exposição maior dos pacientes a procedimentos e dispositivos invasivos, quadro clínico debilitado e sua manipulação pela equipe assistencial exigindo uso elevado de antimicrobianos, o que pode promover um risco de desenvolvimento de resistência bacteriana a estes, cujas consequências podem ser a dificuldade de tratamento, internamento prolongado, risco de óbito e maior custo associado. Tem como objetivo descrever as IRAs relacionando os agentes etiológicos e o tratamento antimicrobiano em uma UTI de um hospital de referência da mesorregião do Rio Grande do Norte. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo e transversal de abordagem quantitativa. Foram inseridos 1.682 pacientes internados na UTI geral do hospital estudado entre 2017-2020. Os dados foram coletados a partir de fichas de registro que foram tabuladas e analisadas nos softwares Microsoft Office Excel® e Statistical Package for the Social Sciences utilizando estatística descritiva simples com apresentação de frequências, tendências e dispersão. A análise dos resultados revelou mediana de idade de 57 anos, prevalência do sexo masculino e existência de comorbidades em 57,9% dos casos, especialmente infecção prévia a admissão na UTI. O tempo médio de permanência na UTI foi 11,4 dias e taxa de mortalidade de 52%. Quanto aos dispositivos invasivos, observou-se uso de sonda vesical de demora (96,8%), ventilação mecânica (79,4%) e cateter venoso central (83,7%). Constatou-se 790 IRAS da UTI com crescimento bacteriano em 48,2%. As principais densidades de incidência (DI) de IRAS/1.000 pacientes-dia foram: IPCSL-CVC 1,8; PAV 27 e ITU-AC 22,3. Quanto aos antibióticos, observou-se Lenght of therapy de 872,5/1.000 pacientes-dia, sendo os mais prescritos: vancomicina (N=633), meropenem (N=625), ceftriaxona (N=479), amicacina (N=463) e polimixina B (N=448). Os valores destaques de Days of therapy/1.000 pacientes-dia: meropenem (N=305,7), amicacina (N=260,4), polimixina B (N=256,4), vancomicina (N=229,3) e imipenem (N=165,3). As bactérias mais isoladas nas culturas foram: Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. e Klebsiella spp., as quais apresentaram resistência, principalmente, a: ceftazidima (51,5% - 87,3%); cefepima (61,6% - 85,3%); ciprofloxacino (56% - 84,6%) e meropenem (31,7% - 80,3%). Identificou-se não conformidades no tratamento com antibióticos em 455 pacientes, que envolvem principalmente polimixina B, vancomicina, meropenem e ceftriaxona. Conclui-se que há elevados níveis de tempo de permanência na UTI e uso de dispositivos invasivos, assim como DI de IRAS alta com identificação microbiológica de bactérias importantes, especialmente por seu perfil de resistência acentuado com destaque para antibióticos da classe dos carbapenêmicos e cefalosporinas de 3a e 4a geração. Destaca-se também a presença de não conformidades na administração de antibióticos que podem contribuir para a seleção de bactérias multirresistentes.


Health Care-Related Infections (HAI) occur more frequently in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to the greater exposure of patients to invasive procedures and devices, weakened clinical status and their handling by the care team, requiring high use of antimicrobials, which can promote a risk of developing bacterial resistance to these, whose consequences may be difficult treatment, prolonged hospitalization, risk of death and higher associated costs. It aims to describe the IRAS relating the etiological agents and antimicrobial treatment in an ICU of a reference hospital in the mesoregion of Rio Grande do Norte. This is a descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. A total of 1,682 patients admitted to the general ICU of the hospital studied between 2017-2020 were included. Data were collected from registration forms that were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel® and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software using simple descriptive statistics with presentation of frequencies, trends and dispersion. The analysis of the results revealed a median age of 57 years, prevalence of males and the existence of comorbidities in 57.9% of cases, especially infection prior to admission to the ICU. The average length of stay in the ICU was 11.4 days and the mortality rate was 52%. As for invasive devices, the use of an indwelling urinary catheter (96.8%), mechanical ventilation (79.4%) and central venous catheter (83.7%) was observed. There were 790 IRAS in the ICU with bacterial growth in 21.67%. The main HAI incidence densities (DI)/1,000 patient-days were: IPCSL-CVC 1.8; PAV 27 and UTI-AC 22.3. As for antibiotics, a Length of therapy of 872.5/1,000 patient-days was observed, with the most prescribed being: vancomycin (N=633), meropenem (N=625), ceftriaxone (N=479), amikacin (N= 463) and polymyxin B (N=448). The highlighted values of Days of therapy/1000 patient-days: meropenem (N=305.7), amikacin (N=260.4), polymyxin B (N=256.4), vancomycin (N=229.3) and imipenem (N=165.3). The most isolated bacteria in cultures were: Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp., which showed resistance mainly to: Ceftazidime (51.5% - 87.3%); cefepime (61.6% - 85.3%); ciprofloxacin (56% - 84.6%) and meropenem (31.7% - 80.3%). Non-compliance was identified in the treatment with antibiotics in 455 patients, which mainly involve polymyxin B, vancomycin, meropenem and ceftriaxone. It is concluded that there are high levels of ICU length of stay and use of invasive devices, as well as high IRAS ID with microbiological identification of important bacteria, especially due to their accentuated resistance profile, with emphasis on antibiotics from the carbapenem class and cephalosporins from 3rd and 4th generation. Also noteworthy is the presence of non-compliance in the administration of antibiotics that may contribute to the selection of multidrug-resistant bacteria.


Las Infecciones Relacionadas con la Atención de la Salud (IRAS) ocurren con mayor frecuencia en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) debido a la mayor exposición de los pacientes a procedimientos y dispositivos invasivos, el debilitamiento del estado clínico y su manejo por parte del equipo asistencial, requiriendo un alto uso de antimicrobianos , lo que puede promover un riesgo de desarrollar resistencia bacteriana a estos, cuyas consecuencias pueden ser un tratamiento difícil, hospitalización prolongada, riesgo de muerte y mayores costos asociados. Tiene como objetivo describir las IRAs que relacionan los agentes etiológicos y el tratamiento antimicrobiano en una UTI de un hospital de referencia en la mesorregión de Rio Grande do Norte. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal con enfoque cuantitativo. Se incluyeron un total de 1.682 pacientes ingresados en la UCI general del hospital estudiado entre 2017-2020. Los datos fueron recolectados a partir de formularios de registro que fueron tabulados y analizados en el software Microsoft Office Excel® y Statistical Package for the Social Sciences utilizando estadística descriptiva simple con presentación de frecuencias, tendencias y dispersión. El análisis de los resultados reveló una mediana de edad de 57 años, predominio del sexo masculino y la existencia de comorbilidades en el 57,9% de los casos, especialmente infección previa al ingreso en UCI. La estancia media en la UCI fue de 11,4 días y la tasa de mortalidad fue del 52%. En cuanto a los dispositivos invasivos, se observó el uso de catéter urinario permanente (96,8%), ventilación mecánica (79,4%) y catéter venoso central (83,7%). Había 790 IRAS en la UCI con crecimiento bacteriano en el 48,2%. Las principales densidades de incidencia (DI) de IRAS/1.000 pacientes-día fueron: IPCSL-CVC 1,8; PAV 27 y UTI-AC 22.3. En cuanto a los antibióticos, se observó una Duración de la terapia de 872,5/1.000 días-paciente, siendo los más prescritos: vancomicina (N=633), meropenem (N=625), ceftriaxona (N=479), amikacina (N= 463) y polimixina B (N=448). Los valores destacados de Días de terapia/1.000 pacientes-día: meropenem (N=305,7), amikacina (N=260,4), polimixina B (N=256,4), vancomicina (N=229,3) e imipenem (N=165,3). Las bacterias más aisladas en cultivos fueron: Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. y Klebsiella spp., que mostraron resistencia principalmente a: ceftazidima (51,5% - 87,3%); cefepima (61,6% - 85,3%); ciprofloxacino (56% - 84,6%) y meropenem (31,7% - 80,3%). Se identificó incumplimiento en el tratamiento con antibióticos en 455 pacientes, los cuales involucran principalmente polimixina B, vancomicina, meropenem y ceftriaxona. Se concluye que existen altos índices de estancia en UCI y uso de dispositivos invasivos, así como elevado IRAS ID con identificación microbiológica de bacterias importantes, especialmente por su acentuado perfil de resistencia, con énfasis en antibióticos de la clase carbapenémicos y cefalosporinas de 3ra y 4ta generación. También es destacable la presencia de incumplimiento en la administración de antibióticos que pueden contribuir a la selección de bacterias multirresistentes.

6.
Sudan j. med. sci ; 19(1): 84-89, 2024.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1552439

ABSTRACT

Background: Resistance to antibiotics has increased dramatically over the past few years and has now reached a level that places future patients in real danger. Several factors contribute to this problem, some of them are health workers related and others are community related. This study aimed to assess the awareness of doctors in Elobeid hospital, North Kordofan state, Sudan about the problem, its causes, and its possible preventive measures. Methods: This descriptive, questionnaire-based study was conducted in Elobeid teaching hospital between 2020, February 27 and March 13. The study involved 50 doctors in the internal medicine department. Results: Out of the 50 doctors involved, 49 (98%) agreed that antibiotics resistance is a big progressive health threat in Sudan; 86% of the participants think that selfmedication is the leading cause of antibiotic resistance; and 98% believe that providing good quality culture and sensitivity service in hospitals and health centers is the most effective preventive measure. Regarding education about antibiotics as a part of academic activities in the unit during the last year, 36% of the participants received zero sessions, 68% received 1­5 sessions, and 12% received more than 5 sessions. The assessment of doctor's adherence to the Sudan Standard Treatment Guideline revealed that 28/50 participants (56%) did not see it or hear about it, 17/50 participants (34%) know it but don't comply, and only 5/50 participants (10%) know it and comply with it. Conclusion: Participants show a good awareness about the significance of antibiotics resistance as a health threat, a good awareness about the main causes and the possible preventive measures, a low to moderate frequency of education on antibiotics, and a very poor adherence to the Sudan Standard Treatment Guidelines.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
7.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(4): 313-327, dic. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537490

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La problemática alrededor de la resistencia a los antibióticos se intensifica por la presencia de patógenos resistentes en alimentos de origen animal. Objetivo. Presentar el estado de la prevalencia de bacterias resistentes a antibióticos (BRA) y los principales genes de resistencia a antibióticos (GRAs) que se reportan en alimentos de origen animal y en animales destinados al consumo humano. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática basada en la guía PRISMA, empleando las bases de datos: Science Direct, Redalyc, Scopus, Hinari, Scielo, Dialnet, PLOS, ProQuest, Taylor, Lilacs y PubMed/ Medline con estudios originales realizados entre enero de 2017 y abril 2023. Resultados. Un total de 2620 estudios fueron identificados y 71 estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. La carne de res, leche cruda/productos lácteos no pasteurizados y las heces de animales de granja fueron las muestras más estudiadas. Las BRAs más frecuentes fueron Escherichia coli productora de ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE), Salmonella spp. resistente a múltiples fármacos (MDR) y Stahylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM). Los GRAs más reportados fueron bla, tet y sul mediados por plásmidos e integrones, principalmente. Conclusiones. En esta revisión sistemática se encontró, que los aislamientos de E. coli, Salmonella spp. y S. aureus son los que más frecuentemente presentaron resistencia a la tetraciclina ampicilina y el sulfametoxazol/ trimetoprima con el predominio de los genes bla, tet y sul, que están siendo diseminados por elementos genéticos móviles entre bacterias y a humanos a través de clones zoonóticos con una alta estabilidad en el tiempo(AU)


Introduction. The problem around antibiotic resistance is intensified by the presence of resistant pathogens in foods of animal origin. Objective. Present the state of the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and the main antibiotic resistance genes (AGRs) that are reported in foods of animal origin and in animals intended for human consumption. Materials and methods. A systematic review was carried out based on the PRISMA guide, from the Science Direct, Redalyc, Scopus, Hinari, Scielo, Dialnet, PLOS, ProQuest, Taylor, Lilacs and PubMed/Medline databases with original studies carried out between January 2017 and April of 2023. Results. A total of 2620 studies were identified, and 71 studies met the inclusion criteria. Beef, raw milk/unpasteurized dairy products, and farm animal feces were the most studied samples. The most common resistant bacteria were extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. multidrug resistant (MDR) and methicillin resistant Stahylococcus aureus (MRSA). The AGRs most reported were bla, tet and sul, mediated mainly through plasmids and integrons. Conclusions. In this systematic review it was found that the isolates of E. coli, Salmonella spp. and S. aureus are the ones that most frequently presented resistance to tetracycline ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim with a predominance of the bla, tet and sul genes, which are being disseminated by mobile genetic elements between bacteria and humans through zoonotic clones with high stability over time(AU)


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
8.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 62(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550842

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los pacientes quirúrgicos geriátricos tienen afectación funcional y enfermedades asociadas, lo cual aumenta su riesgo quirúrgico con la edad. Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento del uso de los antibióticos en pacientes geriátricos que requieren cirugía electiva atendidos en el Hospital Vladimir Ilich Lenin del 2018 al 2022. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional, analítico y transversal a pacientes intervenidos por cirugía electiva con tratamiento con antibiótico. Los datos se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas y la entrevista aplicada. Se analizaron variables como edad, sexo, enfermedades asociadas, diagnóstico preoperatorio, tiempo quirúrgico, complicaciones, evolución, filtrado glomerular y dosis antibiótica perioperatoria. Resultados: El empleo de antibióticos fue más utilizado en los grupos de edades de 60 a 64 años y el sexo femenino; las comorbilidades que predominaron fueron la diabetes mellitus, la hipertensión arterial y la cardiopatía isquémica. Los motivos de consulta más frecuentes fueron por litiasis vesicular y por hernias dentro del grupo ASA I de la American Society of Anesthesiologists. Los antibióticos fundamentales fueron con dosis ajustada. Conclusiones: Se necesita de un trabajo diferenciado en cuanto a la atención al adulto mayor. La utilización de un protocolo o algoritmo de trabajo es necesario en la práctica diaria, sobre todo ante la necesidad de una cirugía electiva(AU)


Introduction: Geriatric surgical patients have functional impairment and associated diseases, which increases their surgical risk with age. Objective: To determine the behavior of antibiotic use in geriatric patients requiring elective surgery attended at Hospital Vladimir Ilich Lenin Hospital from 2018 to 2022. Methods: A descriptive, observational, analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted on patients undergoing elective surgery with antibiotic treatment. The data were obtained from medical records and the applied interview. The analyzed variables included age, sex, associated diseases, preoperative diagnosis, surgical time, complications, evolution, glomerular filtration and perioperative antibiotic dose. Results: Antibiotic use was more frequent in the age group 60 to 64 years and in the female sex; the most frequent comorbidities were diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease. The most frequent reasons for consultation were vesicular lithiasis and hernias within the ASA I group of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. The fundamental antibiotics were adjusted by doses. Conclusions: An individualized work is needed in terms of care of the older adult. The use of a working protocol or algorithm is necessary in daily practice, especially when elective surgery is required(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Studies as Topic
9.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 44(3): 9-20, set.-dez. 2023. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553103

ABSTRACT

A periodontite é definida como uma doença inflamatória crônica de natureza multifatorial associada com biofilme disbiótico. O tratamento padrão para periodontite é a Raspagem e Alisamento Radicular (RAR), no entanto quando há a presença de bolsas profundas, áreas com dificuldades de inacessibilidade como lesão de furca ou perfil microbiológico especifico, pode ser necessário a prescrição de métodos auxiliares como a antibioticoterapia. No entanto o uso de antibióticos pode causar efeitos indesejáveis. Diante disso, ao longo dos últimos anos vem crescendo o interesse de estudos sobre o uso de probióticos no tratamento da periodontite, uma vez que estes são microrganismos vivos, ou seja, que quando ingeridas corretamente são benéficas à saúde. Diante disso o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão de literatura quanto ao uso de probióticos como adjuvante no tratamento da periodontite, onde foram avaliados diversos artigos científicos. Foi observado que o uso de probióticos como adjuvantes no tratamento periodontal é benéfico, no entanto, há a necessidade de realização de mais estudos para averiguação da eficiência do mesmo, assim como a necessidade deste uso ser mais conhecido pelos Cirurgiões dentistas(AU)


Periodontitis can be defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of a multifactorial nature associated with a dysbiotic biofilm. The standard treatment for periodontitis is Scaling and Root Planing (RAR, in Portuguese), however when there is the presence of deep pockets, areas with inaccessibility difficulties such as furcation lesion or specific microbiological profile, it can be necessary to prescribe auxiliary methods such as antibiotic therapy. However, the use of antibiotics can cause undesirable effects. In view of this, over the last few years, interest in studies on the use of probiotics in the treatment of periodontitis has been growing, since these are live microorganisms, that is, when ingested correctly they are beneficial to health. Therefore, the present article aimed to carry out a literature review regarding the use of probiotics as an adjuvant in the treatment of periodontitis, where several scientific articles were analyzed. It was observed that the use of probiotics as adjuvants in periodontal treatment is beneficial, however, there is a need to carry out more studies to investigate if it's really efficient, as well the dentists needs to be known about the right use(AU)


Subject(s)
Periodontitis , Probiotics , Periodontitis/therapy
10.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 60(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550856

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar el efecto de antibióticos pediátricos sobre la microdureza superficial del esmalte dental en dientes bovinos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio in vitro en 60 dientes bovinos no cariados. Se sumergieron 15 dientes en cada grupo de cuatro soluciones (amoxicilina, amoxicilina + ácido clavulánico, eritromicina y saliva artificial) durante 1 minuto tres veces al día durante 7 y 14 días. Se midió la microdureza de la superficie del esmalte al inicio, a los7 y 14 días de exposición a los antibióticos. Resultados: La microdureza superficial del esmalte de los dientes de los grupos de antibióticos pediátricos se redujo después de 7 y 14 días de exposición con diferencia significativa (p < 0,001), respecto a la microdureza inicial. Además, en el grupo expuesto a saliva artificial no hubo diferencia significativa (p = 0,097) en los diferentes tiempos de evaluación. Conclusiones: Se concluye que los antibióticos pediátricos afectan la microdureza del esmalte, siendo la eritromicina la que mayor disminución generó a los 14 días de exposición(AU)


Objective: To compare the effect of pediatric antibiotics on the superficial microhardness of dental enamel in bovine teeth. Methods: An in vitro study was carried out on 60 non carious bovine teeth. Fifteen teeth were immersed in each group of four solutions (amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, erythromycin and artificial saliva) for 1 minute three times a day for 7 and 14 days. Enamel surface microhardness was measured at baseline, 7 and 14 days of antibiotic exposure. Results: The enamel surface microhardness of the teeth of the pediatric antibiotic groups was reduced after seven and 14 days of exposure with significant difference (p < 0.001), with respect to the initial microhardness. In addition, in the group exposed to artificial saliva there was no significant difference (p = 0.097) at the different evaluation times. Conclusions: It is concluded that pediatric antibiotics affect enamel microhardness and erythromycin generated the greatest decrease at 14 days of exposure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Amoxicillin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535274

ABSTRACT

El alarmante incremento de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos a nivel global ha dilucidado otras fuentes diferentes al hospital y la comunidad, donde el agua ha cobrado gran importancia. El ambiente acuático constituye la fuente y el hábitat natural de un gran número de microorganismos, incluyendo bacterias resistentes a antibióticos; así mismo, se considera uno de los principales receptores de antimicrobianos, bacterias resistentes y genes de resistencia a antibióticos provenientes de las actividades humanas. La contaminación del agua con estos contaminantes emergentes tiene implicaciones serias para la salud humana, relacionadas con la diseminación de la resistencia bacteriana y la emergencia de nuevos mecanismos de resistencia. En esta revisión se brinda una descripción global del papel de los ambientes acuáticos en el problema de la resistencia bacteriana, las principales fuentes de contaminación, además del impacto para la salud pública. Ante este panorama, se establece la necesidad de abordar la problemática de la resistencia bacteriana desde la perspectiva de "una salud", donde a la vigilancia tradicional, enfocada a nivel humano y veterinario, se articule la vigilancia epidemiológica ambiental, principalmente basada en aguas residuales.


The alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics globally has diluted sources other than the hospital and community, where water has taken on great importance. The aquatic environment is the source and natural habitat of a large number of microorganisms, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria, as well as being considered one of the main receptors for antimicrobials, resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes from human activities. Contamination of water with these emerging contaminants has serious implications for human health related to the spread of bacterial resistance and the emergence of new resistance mechanisms. This review provides a global description of the role of aquatic environments in the problem of bacterial resistance, the main sources of contamination, as well as the impact on Public Health. In this context, the need arises to address the problem of bacterial resistance from the perspective of "one health", where traditional surveillance, focused at the human and veterinary level, is articulated with environmental epidemiological surveillance, mainly in wastewater.


O incremento alarmante da resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos no nível global tem revelado outras fontes diferentes do hospital e da comunidade, em que a água tem ganho grande importância. O ambiente aquático constitui a fonte e o hábitat natural de um grande número de microrganismos, incluindo bactérias resistentes a antibióticos; é considerado, também, um dos principais receptores de antimicrobianos, bactérias resistentes e genes de resistência a antibióticos provindos das atividades humanas. A poluição da água com esses poluentes emergentes tem sérias implicações para a saúde humana, relacionadas com a disseminação da resistência bacteriana e a emergência de novos mecanismos de resistência. Nesta revisão oferece-se uma descrição global do papel dos ambientes aquáticos na situação problemática da resistência bacteriana, as principais fontes de poluição, além do impacto para a saúde pública. Diante desse panorama, determina-se a necessidade de abordar a problemática da resistência bacteriana desde a perspectiva de "uma saúde" em que a vigilância tradicional, focada nos níveis humano e veterinário, esteja articulada com a vigilância epidemiológica ambiental, principalmente baseada em águas residuais.

12.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 80(5): 279-287, Sep.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527952

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Pediatric cancer patients in the final phase of life receive antibiotics empirically. The decision to start, maintain, or stop the antibiotic administration as part of care at this stage is a dilemma. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study including cancer patients in the final phase of life, hospitalized during the last 5 to 7 days of life. We included demographic variables, diagnoses, days of hospitalization, cultures, antibiotics used, prevalent symptoms in the last week of life, and principal diagnosis at the time of death, and performed descriptive statistics and a chord diagram. Results: Twenty-two patients were included; 18 (81.81%) received antibiotic treatment. The mean age was 8.75 years. The predominant pathologies were central nervous system tumors in seven patients (31.81%). Of the total, 18 (81.81%) had an infectious diagnosis reported as bloodstream infection, followed by pneumonia in three (13.63%). The main cause of death was respiratory failure (40.9%). Of the 18 patients with an infectious diagnosis, 16 (88.88%) received empiric therapy. Predominant factors for antibiotic use were more than 7 days of hospitalization (75%), ICU admission (100%), invasive devices (88.8%), and aminergic support (100%). The predominant symptoms were dyspnea (68.18%), pain (50%), and fever (40.9%), which persisted in nine (60%), two (18.18%), and five (55.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusions: The lack of guidelines for antibiotic administration leads to excessive and potentially unnecessary use, which can lead to discomfort, prolonged hospitalization, bacterial resistance, excessive cost, and suffering without symptom control.


Resumen Introducción: Los pacientes pediátricos oncológicos en la fase final de vida reciben antibióticos de forma empírica. La decisión de iniciar, mantener o suspender la administración del antibiótico como parte del cuidado en esta etapa es un dilema. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y transversal que incluyó pacientes oncológicos en fase final de vida, hospitalizados durante los últimos 5 a 7 días de vida. Se incluyeron variables demográficas, diagnósticos, días de estancia hospitalaria, cultivos, antibióticos utilizados, síntomas prevalentes en la última semana de vida y diagnóstico principal al momento de fallecer. Se realizó estadística descriptiva y un gráfico de cuerdas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 22 pacientes: 18 (81.81%) recibieron manejo antibiótico. La media de edad fue de 8.75 años. Las patologías predominantes fueron tumores de sistema nervioso central en siete pacientes (31.81%). Del total, 18 (81.81%) pacientes presentaron infección del torrente sanguíneo; tres (13.63%) presentaron neumonía. La principal causa de muerte fue insuficiencia respiratoria (40.9%). De los 18 pacientes con diagnóstico infeccioso, 16 (88.88%) recibieron terapia empírica. Los factores prevalentes para el uso antibiótico fueron una estancia hospitalaria mayor a 7 días (75%), hospitalización en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (100%), dispositivos invasivos (88.8%) y apoyo aminérgico (100%). El síntoma prevalente fue disnea (68.18%), dolor (50%) y fiebre (40.9%), mismos que persistieron en nueve (60%), dos (18.18%) y cinco pacientes (55.5%), respectivamente. Conclusiones: La falta de pautas respecto a la administración de antibióticos conlleva a su uso excesivo y potencialmente innecesario, lo cual puede ocasionar incomodidad, prolongar la hospitalización, resistencia bacteriana, costos excesivos y sufrimiento, sin control de los síntomas.

13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Sep; 71(9): 3235-3241
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225248

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the current trends in use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, especially intracameral antibiotics (ICAB), for cataract surgery in India. Methods: This was an E?survey using a previously validated questionnaire carried out by the All India Ophthalmological Society (AIOS) in August 2022. An E?mail invitation to complete an online 40?point survey was sent to all members of the AIOS using a digital E?mail service (Survey Monkey) and social media platforms. Results: Out of 1804 total respondents, 58% (n = 1022) reported using routine ICAB prophylaxis. Of those using ICAB, 89% (n = 909) reported using it for all cases, whereas the rest used it for specific indications such as post?PC rent (n = 43), one eyed patient (n = 19), and high?risk cases (n = 50). Commercially available moxifloxacin was by far the commonest agent used for ICAB (n = 686, 67%). Eighty respondents (8%) reported noticing occasional toxic reactions and nontoxic corneal edema (n = 64, 6%) with ICAB. Surgeons with >10 years� experience especially practicing in medical colleges used fewer ICAB (OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.38 � 0.72, P < 0,001) compared to younger surgeons (<5?year experience) in solo clinics. The commonest reason for nonadoption of IC antibiotics was 搖nconvinced of the need to use it in my setting� (n = 296, 52% of those who answered this question). Conclusion: IC antibiotic prophylaxis for cataract surgery has significantly increased in India from 40% in 2017 to 58% in 2022. Commercially available moxifloxacin was preferred by the majority users. Intraocular inflammation may occur occasionally and needs safer formulations to avoid this

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219464

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from pregnant women attending Mater Misericordia Hospital Afikpo, Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Study Design: This is a laboratory based prospective study carried out on pregnant women suspected of having urinary tract infection and was requested to undergo diagnosis at microbiology laboratory of the hospital. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria from October, 2022 to January, 2023. Methodology: Clean-catch midstream urine samples were collected from 206 pregnant women suspected of having urinary tract infection and were requested to undergo medical diagnosis at microbiology laboratory of the hospital. The urine samples were processed following standard microbiological procedure. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined using the disc diffusion method, while ESBL phenotypes were determine by the Double-Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Disc potentiation test was performed to check for MBL production. Results: Out of the 206 urine samples processed, 24 (11.7 %) E. coli and 12 (5.8 %) K. pneumoniae were isolated. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates recorded a 100 % resistance with Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid and Cotrimoxazole. The Gram-negative isolates showed a high sensitivity of 100 % to Netilmicin, Meropenem and Ofloxacin. Overall, 35 (97.2 %) multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed of the bacteria isolates. A total of 9 (37.5 %) E. coli and 4 (33.3 %) K. pneumoniae was found positive for ESBL production whereas, 5 (20.8 %) E. coli and 2 (16.7 %) K. pneumoniae were MBL positive. Conclusion: The level of drug resistance in this study underscores the need for regular surveillance for effective management of urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

15.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 111(2): 1110811, mayo-ago. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532448

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar los hábitos de medicación sistémica de odontólogos especialistas y no especialistas en endodoncia ante diferentes patologías pulpares previos al tratamiento en- dodóntico en Argentina. Materiales y métodos: Se diseñó una encuesta para evaluar la prescripción de antibióticos, tipo de antibióticos, tiempo de prescripción, indicación de antinflamatorios no es- teroides y esteroides ante diferentes patologías pulpares. Se envió a 635 odontólogos especialistas y no especialistas en endodoncia a través de SurveyMonkey. Por medio de la prue- ba de Chi cuadrado se evaluaron las diferencias de medica- ción entre los grupos estudiados. Resultados: En pulpitis se medicó con antibióticos en el 3,48% de los casos y con antinflamatorios en un 62,60%. En necrosis pulpar sin fístula no se indicó ninguna medica- ción en un 64,47% de los casos, seguido de antibióticos en un 24,56%. En necrosis con fístula, el 52,38% no indicó nin- guna medicación, seguido de medicación con antibióticos en un 35,49%. En periodontitis apical aguda la principal medica- ción fue con antinflamatorios (52,79%), seguido de antibió- ticos (32,87%); y en el absceso alveolar agudo, un 57,10% indicó antibióticos seguido de antinflamatorios. El antibiótico de elección fue la penicilina en un 65,23% de los casos, y en caso de alergia a la misma, el antibiótico elegido fue azitromi- cina (30,12%). El tiempo de prescripción fue de 7 días. En la comparación entre especialistas y no especialistas hubo dife- rencias estadísticamente significativas para pulpitis y necrosis con fístula (p<0,01) y no las hubo entre necrosis sin fístula, periodontitis apical aguda y absceso alveolar agudo (p> 0,05). Conclusiones: La penicilina fue el antibiótico de elec- ción de la mayoría de los odontólogos argentinos encuestados junto al ibuprofeno como anti-inflamatorio. Existiría una so- bremedicación en patologías endodónticas que podría contri- buir a la resistencia microbiana a los antibióticos (AU)


Aim: Determine the systemic medication habits of den- tists specialists and non-specialists in endodontists in differ- ent pulp pathologies prior to root canal treatment in Argen- tina. Materials and methods: A survey was designed to evaluate the prescription of antibiotics, the type of antibiotics, prescription time, indication of non-steroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs in different pulp pathologies. It was sent to 635 general dentists and endodontic specialists via SurveyMon- key. A Chi-square test was made to evaluate the differences in medication between the studied groups. Results: In pulpitis, antibiotics were prescribed in 3.48% of cases and anti-inflammatories in 62.60%. In pul- pal necrosis without fistula, no medication was indicated in 64.47% of cases, followed by antibiotics in 24.56%. In ne- crosis with fistula, 52.38% did not indicate any medication, followed by medication with antibiotics in 35.49%. In acute apical periodontitis the main medication was anti-inflamma-tories (52.79%), followed by antibiotics (32.87%); and for acute alveolar abscess, 57.10% indicated antibiotics, fol- lowed by anti-inflammatories. The antibiotic of choice was penicillin in 65.23% of the cases, and in case of allergy to it, the chosen antibiotic was azithromycin (30.12%). The prescription time was 7 days. In the comparison between specialists and non-specialists, there were significant dif- ferences for pulpitis and necrosis with fistula (p<0.01) and there were no significant differences between necrosis without fistula, acute apical periodontitis and acute alveo- lar abscess (p>0.05). Conclusions: Penicillin was the antibiotic of choice for the majority of the surveyed Argentine dentists, as well as ibuprofen as an anti-inflammatory drug. These could reflect an overmedication in endodontics pathologies that could con- tribute to microbial resistance to antibiotics (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina , Schools, Dental , Specialties, Dental/standards , Chi-Square Distribution , Administration, Oral , Surveys and Questionnaires , Endodontics/trends
16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Jul; 71(7): 2784-2788
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225129

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of epidemic retinitis (ER) during pregnancy. Methods: This is a retrospective, observational chart review of pregnant patients diagnosed with ER from January 2014 to February 2023. Demographic details, month of pregnancy at the onset of ocular symptoms, history of present illness, clinical manifestations, and treatment outcomes were studied. Results: In 9 years, ER was seen in 86 females, of whom 12 (13.9%) were pregnant. Twenty?one eyes of those 12 patients were studied. Most of the patients presented in the sixth month of pregnancy (range: 5–9 months, mean: 6.3 months). Physicians diagnosed viral exanthematous fever in six, typhoid in three, and suspected rickettsia in one patient. Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) was performed in two patients before presentation. Weil–Felix test was positive in five, Brucella in one, WIDAL in three, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID?19) IgG and dengue IgG in one patient each. Oral antibiotics were given in five patients (two post?medical termination of pregnancy [MTP]) for the retinitis. All except four received oral steroids. Mean presenting corrected distant visual acuity (n = 21) was 20/125 (range: 20/20–20/20,000), which improved to (n = 18) 20/30 (range: 20/20–20/240). Macular edema (n = 11) resolved in 33.18 days (range: 20–50 days), and retinitis (n = 13) resolved in 58 days (range: 30–110 days). Ocular and systemic examination of newborn was possible in two and the babies were normal. Conclusion: ER is seen commonly at the beginning of the third trimester. Lack of antibiotics may delay the resolution of retinitis. Ocular health needs to be assessed in larger series to conclude absence of retinal involvement in newborns.

17.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 111(2): 811-811, jul. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535075

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo Determinar los hábitos de medicación sistémica de odontólogos especialistas y no especialistas en endodoncia ante diferentes patologías pulpares previos al tratamiento endodóntico en Argentina. Materiales y métodos Se diseñó una encuesta para evaluar la prescripción de antibióticos, tipo de antibióticos, tiempo de prescripción, indicación de antinflamatorios no esteroides y esteroides ante diferentes patologías pulpares. Se envió a 635 odontólogos especialistas y no especialistas en endodoncia a través de SurveyMonkey. Por medio de la prueba de Chi cuadrado se evaluaron las diferencias de medicación entre los grupos estudiados. Resultados En pulpitis se medicó con antibióticos en el 3,48% de los casos y con antinflamatorios en un 62,60%. En necrosis pulpar sin fístula no se indicó ninguna medicación en un 64,47% de los casos, seguido de antibióticos en un 24,56%. En necrosis con fístula, el 52,38% no indicó ninguna medicación, seguido de medicación con antibióticos en un 35,49%. En periodontitis apical aguda la principal medicación fue con antinflamatorios (52,79%), seguido de antibióticos (32,87%); y en el absceso alveolar agudo, un 57,10% indicó antibióticos seguido de antinflamatorios. El antibiótico de elección fue la penicilina en un 65,23% de los casos, y en caso de alergia a la misma, el antibiótico elegido fue azitromicina (30,12%). El tiempo de prescripción fue de 7 días. En la comparación entre especialistas y no especialistas hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas para pulpitis y necrosis con fístula (p<0,01) y no las hubo entre necrosis sin fístula, periodontitis apical aguda y absceso alveolar agudo (p> 0,05). Conclusiones La penicilina fue el antibiótico de elección de la mayoría de los odontólogos argentinos encuestados junto al ibuprofeno como anti-inflamatorio. Existiría una sobremedicación en patologías endodónticas que podría contribuir a la resistencia microbiana a los antibióticos.


Abstract Aim Determine the systemic medication habits of dentists specialists and non-specialists in endodontists in different pulp pathologies prior to root canal treatment in Argentina. Materials and methods A survey was designed to evaluate the prescription of antibiotics, the type of antibiotics, prescription time, indication of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in different pulp pathologies. It was sent to 635 general dentists and endodontic specialists via SurveyMonkey. A Chi-square test was made to evaluate the differences in medication between the studied groups. Results In pulpitis, antibiotics were prescribed in 3.48% of cases and anti-inflammatories in 62.60%. In pulpal necrosis without fistula, no medication was indicated in 64.47% of cases, followed by antibiotics in 24.56%. In necrosis with fistula, 52.38% did not indicate any medication, followed by medication with antibiotics in 35.49%. In acute apical periodontitis the main medication was anti-inflammatories (52.79%), followed by antibiotics (32.87%); and for acute alveolar abscess, 57.10% indicated antibiotics, followed by anti-inflammatories. The antibiotic of choice was penicillin in 65.23% of the cases, and in case of allergy to it, the chosen antibiotic was azithromycin (30.12%). The prescription time was 7 days. In the comparison between specialists and non-specialists, there were significant differences for pulpitis and necrosis with fistula (p<0.01) and there were no significant differences between necrosis without fistula, acute apical periodontitis and acute alveolar abscess (p>0.05). Conclusions Penicillin was the antibiotic of choice for the majority of the surveyed Argentine dentists, as well as ibuprofen as an anti-inflammatory drug. These could reflect an overmedication in endodontics pathologies that could contribute to microbial resistance to antibiotics.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221448

ABSTRACT

Aim: The study was conducted to assess the prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials and various groups of drugs in tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. Prescription audit was done. Total 500 presc Method: riptions were analysed for sex wise distribution, no of patients for specific age group, antimicrobials prescribed in generic name, percentage of antibiotics, antacids, NSAIDs and multivitamins, among the prescribed drugs, groups of antibiotics, drugs prescribed from National List of Essential Medicines (2022), use of fixed drug combinations, injectable preparations if any. Results: Demographic analysis showed that out of 500 patients in OPD, most were female (53%) and in the age group between 41 to 60 years. In 500 number of prescriptions,9.96% of antibiotics were prescribed; fluoroquinolones (5.42%) were prescribed more from antibiotics followed by extended spectrum penicillin (1.64%).14.78%of antacids were prescribed; PPIs (11.28%) were prescribed more from antacids.21.63% of NSAIDs were prescribed.11.66% were prescribed in generic names,65.44% drugs were prescribed from National List of Essential Medicines (2022),15.88% of FDCs were prescribed,6.13% of injectable preparations were prescribed. The rational use of antimicrobial agents is one of the main contribut Conclusion: ors to control worldwide emergence of bacterial resistance, side effects and reduced cost of the treatment.

19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(1): 158-162, abr. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430790

ABSTRACT

Resumen La información sobre reacciones adversas es fundamental para conocer la seguridad real de los medicamentos comercializados. Existen casos de pacientes con síndrome de intolerancia a múl tiples drogas, una entidad poco reportada, la que puede presentarse cuando en un mismo paciente ocurren reacciones adversas a más de dos medicamentos no relacionados farmacológicamente. Se describe el caso de una mujer con diagnóstico de endocarditis por Staphylococcus aureus multisensible, que cursó con reacciones adversas a cinco antibióticos estructuralmente no relacionados y con mecanismos de acción diferentes, en dos internaciones consecutivas. Las reacciones fueron secundarias a cefazolina (tricitopenia), vancomicina (injuria renal), daptomicina (elevación de creatina fosfoquinasa) y linezolid (hepatotoxicidad) en la primera internación, y a cotrimoxazol (plaquetopenia) en la segunda. En todos los casos se observó daño transitorio en diferentes sistemas de órganos. Finalmente, se otorgó alta hospitalaria con clindamicina sin nuevas intercurrencias hasta finalizar tratamiento. Este caso podría corresponder al síndrome antes mencionado o a una entidad aún no caracterizada.


Abstract Adverse reaction reporting is essential to understand the actual safety of marketed medicines. There are cases of patients with multidrug intolerance syndrome, an under-reported entity, which can occur when adverse reactions to more than two pharmacologically unrelated drugs occur in the same patient. We describe the case of a woman diagnosed with multisensitive Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis who experienced adverse reactions to five structurally unrelated antibiotics with different mechanisms of action in two consecutive hospitalisations. The reactions were secondary to cefazolin (tricytopenia), vancomycin (renal injury), daptomycin (elevated creatine phosphokinase) and linezolid (hepatotoxicity) in the first hospitalization, and to cotrimoxazole (thrombocytopenia) in the second. Transient damage to different organ systems was observed in all cases. Finally, hospital discharge was granted with clindamycin without further intercurrences until treatment was completed. This case could cor respond to the aforementioned syndrome or to an as yet uncharacterized entity.

20.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 75(1)abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550869

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM) es una crisis de salud pública a nivel mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) estableció una lista de bacterias resistentes priorizadas para orientar investigaciones y alternativas de mejora. Objetivo: Describir la producción científica del Perú sobre RAM de bacterias priorizadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, entre 2012 y 2021. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo observacional de tipo bibliométrico en revistas indexadas en Scopus durante el período 2012-2021. La selección de los estudios y la extracción de datos se realizó manualmente por duplicado. Se clasificaron las bacterias resistentes estudiadas, según las prioridades (crítica, alta y media). Resultados: Se incluyeron 118 artículos. Durante el período 2014-2021 hubo un aumento de publicaciones. El 61,9 por ciento fueron artículos publicados en inglés, 98,3 por ciento con filiación en Perú y el 77,1 por ciento fueron realizados en Lima. Se publicaron más estudios sobre las bacterias de prioridad crítica que sobre las de alta o media. El 79,7 por ciento buscó determinar la prevalencia o caracterizar y el 26,1 por ciento mencionó algún financiamiento de instituciones del país. Conclusión: La producción científica peruana sobre RAM ha aumentado en los últimos años y se cuenta con más publicaciones de bacterias de prioridad crítica. Sin embargo, estos estudios se centran en Lima y solo la cuarta parte ha sido financiada por alguna entidad peruana(AU)


Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a worldwide public health crisis. The World Health Organization (WHO) established a priority list of resistant bacteria to guide research and alternatives for improvement. Objective: To describe the scientific production of Peru on AMR of bacteria prioritized by the World Health Organization, between 2012 and 2021. Methods: Observational descriptive study of bibliometric type in journals indexed in Scopus during the period 2012-2021. The selection of studies and data extraction were performed manually in duplicate. Resistant bacteria studied were classified based on priority (critical, high, and medium). Results: A total of 118 articles were included. During the period 2014-2021, the number of publications increased. The articles published in English accounted for 61.9 percent, 98.3 percent had their affiliation in Peru, and 77.1 percent were conducted in Lima. Most publications focused on bacteria of critical priority than high and medium priority. A total of 79.7 percent sought to determine prevalence or characterize and 26.1 percent referred to funding from Peruvian institutions. Conclusions: Peruvian scientific production on AMR has increased in recent years and there are more publications on critical priority bacteria. However, these studies are centered in Lima and only a quarter of them have been financed by a Peruvian entity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial/immunology , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
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