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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 95-103, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011447

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo detect the flexibility differences of Plasmodium berghei K173 (PbK173)-infected red blood cells with varying degrees of sensitivity to artemisinin-based drugs and to preliminarily explore the underlying mechanisms of the differences. MethodA total of 102 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups, with 30 mice each in the control group and PbK173-resistant (PbK173-R) group, and 42 mice in the PbK173-sensitive (PbK173-S) group. Except for the control group, the rest groups were vaccinated with 1×107 PbK173-S/PbK173-R infected red blood cells to establish a mouse malaria model. During the administration and recovery periods (control group, PbK173-R/PbK173-S), dihydroartemisinin (DHA, 40 mg·kg-1) and malaridine (MD, 6 mg·kg-1) were administered continuously for four days. Peripheral blood was taken from the PbK173-S/PbK173-R groups with an infection rate equal to or greater than 20%. Peripheral blood and each organ were taken on the first day at the end of administration (dosing period) and on the fifth day at the end of administration (recovery period), and blood parameters and organ indices of each group were examined. The osmotic fragility of peripheral blood red blood cells in each group was detected using the red blood cell osmotic fragility test. Western blot was applied to determine the levels of Piezo1 and Band3 proteins in the red blood cell membrane. ResultDuring the administration and recovery periods, there were no significant differences between the PbK173-S MD group and the DHA group. During the administration period, there were no significant differences in hematological parameters between PbK173-S and PbK173-R in the MD group. However, during the recovery period, the red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of the PbK173-R group were significantly higher than those of the PbK173-S group (P<0.05) in the MD group. Compared with that of the control group, the osmotic fragility of the PbK173-S/PbK173-R groups was significantly enhanced (P<0.01), and the osmotic fragility of the PbK173-S group was significantly stronger than that of the PbK173-R group (P<0.01). The osmotic fragility of red blood cells in the PbK173-S group during the administration period was significantly stronger than that in the control group and PbK173-R group during the administration period (P<0.01). The osmotic fragility of red blood cells in the PbK173-R group during the recovery period was significantly higher than that in the control group during the administration period and the PbK173-S group during the recovery period (P<0.05). Compared with those in the control group, the Piezo1 protein and Band3 protein in the red blood cell membrane of the PbK173-S group were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Compared with those in the PbK173-R group, the Piezo1 protein and Band 3 protein in the red blood cell membrane of the PbK173-S group were significantly reduced. ConclusionThe flexibility of PbK173-infected red blood cells with different sensitivities to artemisinins differed. Plasmodium-infected red blood cells significantly reduced the levels of Piezo1 and Band3 proteins in the red blood cell membrane, and the erythrocyte flexibility exhibited a decreasing trend in the following order: normal group, PbK173-R group, and PbK173-S group.

2.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2023 Apr; 60(4): 331-338
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221643

ABSTRACT

The aggregation of erythrocytes is an important mechanism for blood flow through the cardiovascular system. In malaria, this is complicated by infection caused by P. falciparum and is further complicated by the severity of parasitemia. Hence analysis of this micro-mechanism is essential to know the changes in blood not only in diseased conditions but also after artemisinin combination therapy (ASAQ) to alleviate suffering. For analysis purposes, aggregation of erythrocytes was determined by LED laser aggregometer, represented in terms of various parameters related to the changes in laser transmitted intensity. Formed aggregates are further analyzed by imaging and image-processing methods. For this study blood samples from young adults (18 – 40 years old) infected with P. falciparum (n= 80), without any other serious illness, were performed. These samples were selected based on the severity of parasitemia, and were divided into low (LP), medium1 (MP1), medium 2 (MP2), and high (HP) parasitemia. For three days, the selected individuals were treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy ASAQ (Artesunate 4 mg/kg and amodiaquine 10 mg base/ kg once a day). Healthy subjects (n=20) without any history of the disease were selected as a control group. The results, as obtained by various parameters, show a significant elevation of aggregation of erythrocytes (P< 0.05) in P. falciparum malaria with the increase of parasitemia level. There was a decrease in the aggregation after treatment on day four tending towards normal. Thus the current study shows the potential beneficial role of ASAQ on erythrocytes aggregation, which may contribute to reducing the harmful effects on various organs in P. falciparum-infected blood.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223572

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum ( Pf) poses a serious threat to the control and elimination of malaria. The objective of this study was to detect the molecular biomarkers of antimalarial drug resistance in Pf in patients visiting a tertiary care hospital in Assam. Methods: Malaria was first detected in fever cases using microscopy and a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and then confirmed using PCR. Pf chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt), Pf multidrug resistance-1 (Pfmdr-1), and single-nucleotide polymorphisms linked to delayed parasite clearance after treatment with artemisinin MAL 10-688956 and MAL 13-1718319 and Kelch-13 propeller (PfK-13) genes were evaluated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: Sixty nine cases of malaria were found among 300 cases of fever. Of these, 54 were positive for Pf, 47 of which were confirmed by PCR. Pfcrt-K76T mutation was seen in 96.6 per cent and Pfmdr1-N86Y mutation in 84.2 per cent of cases. Mutation was not detected in MAL10 and MAL13 genes. Sequence analysis of Kelch-13 gene showed the presence of a novel mutation at amino acid position 675. Statistically, no significant association was found between the molecular biomarkers and demographic profile, clinical presentation and outcome of the cases. Interpretation & conclusions: Molecular surveillance is essential to assess the therapeutic efficacy of the drugs against circulating Pf isolates in Assam which are found to be highly resistant to CQ. The role of the new mutation found in the Kelch-13 gene in the development of artemisinin resistance in Assam needs to be thoroughly monitored in future research.

4.
Afr J Pharm Res Dev (AJOPRED) ; 15(2): 9-16, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1553616

ABSTRACT

With roughly 50 % of the global population at risk for infection, malaria is one of the most serious public health problems in the world. This infection is caused by single-celled protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. By the turn of the century, the majority of antimalarial drugs were no longer effective against Plasmodium falciparum. However, one year after World Health Organization's final endorsement for the global use of ACTs, an appearance of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum was seen in the border regions of Thailand and Cambodia and has since spread to other areas on the globe in subsequent years. The purpose of this work is to summarize the knowledge structure and trend of malaria and artemisinin resistance from 2012 to 2022. The VOS viewer application was used to bibliometrically analyze publications from 2012 to 2022. A total of 169 papers that discussed the keywords were used. VOS viewer application was used to produce maps based on the scientific data between the top authors and top terms in clusters. The research trend of artemisinin resistance and malaria was reported to be on the decline from 2019 to 2022. The bibliographic analysis offered an intellectual framework for the study area by identification of research groups and themes. The years with the most publications were 2015-2017, with 23 articles published each year. The most often used keywords in the research were artemisinin resistance (38 occurrences). The spread of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in significant regions of Southeast Asia threatens to destabilize malaria control globally. One of the most pressing global health concerns today is preventing artemisinin resistance from spreading to Africa, where the consequences for childhood mortality might be severe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artemisinins
5.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(2): 1-8, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1427757

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin drug resistance is one of the major reasons for malaria treatment failures in the sub-Saharan African countries where artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. The occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is found to correlate with antimalarial drug resistance. With artemisinin, the SNPs occurs at the Kelch 13-propeller gene locus on chromosome 13. The artemisinin drug resistance surveillance strategy involves continuous monitoring of Kelch 13-propeller biomarker to detect emergence of mutations which could herald drug resistance in the region. In this narrative review paper, we examined existing literature to bridge the knowledge gap and accentuate the importance of routine surveillance for artemisinin resistance in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted our search on PubMed database and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed articles, reports, and abstracts on artemisinin drug resistance using the following keywords; 'artemisinin drug resistance', 'antimalarial drug resistance', 'artemisinin-based combination therapy', 'Kelch 13-propeller', 'K13- propeller gene', and 'K13 molecular marker'. The review provided pertinent information on artemisinin derivatives, artemisinin-based combination therapy, molecular action of artemisinin, definition of artemisinin resistance, genetic basis of artemisinin drug resistance and discovery of Kelch 13, and the importance of artemisinin resistance surveillance. Molecular surveillance can provide healthcare policy makers a forecast of impending threats to malaria treatment. This is more so when drugs are in combination therapy, for instance, molecular surveillance can give a hint that one drug is failing despite the fact that in combination, it is still apparently clinically effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Malaria , Capillary Resistance , Artemisinins , Genes , Molecular Conformation
6.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(2): 112-119, 2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1436066

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin drug resistance is one of the major reasons for malaria treatment failures in the sub-Saharan African countries where artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. The occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is found to correlate with antimalarial drug resistance. With artemisinin, the SNPs occurs at the Kelch 13-propeller gene locus on chromosome 13. The artemisinin drug resistance surveillance strategy involves continuous monitoring of Kelch 13-propeller biomarker to detect emergence of mutations which could herald drug resistance in the region. In this narrative review paper, we examined existing literature to bridge the knowledge gap and accentuate the importance of routine surveillance for artemisinin resistance in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted our search on PubMed database and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed articles, reports, and abstracts on artemisinin drug resistance using the following keywords; 'artemisinin drug resistance', 'antimalarial drug resistance', 'artemisinin-based combination therapy', 'Kelch 13-propeller', 'K13- propeller gene', and 'K13 molecular marker'. The review provided pertinent information on artemisinin derivatives, artemisinin-based combination therapy, molecular action of artemisinin, definition of artemisinin resistance, genetic basis of artemisinin drug resistance and discovery of Kelch 13, and the importance of artemisinin resistance surveillance. Molecular surveillance can provide healthcare policy makers a forecast of impending threats to malaria treatment. This is more so when drugs are in combination therapy, for instance, molecular surveillance can give a hint that one drug is failing despite the fact that in combination, it is still apparently clinically effective.


La résistance aux médicaments à base d'artémisinine est l'une des principales raisons des échecs du traitement du paludisme dans les pays d'Afrique subsaharienne où la polythérapie à base d'artémisinine (ACT) est le traitement de première intention du paludisme simple. L'apparition de polymorphismes mononucléotidiques (SNP) est corrélée à la résistance aux médicaments antipaludiques. Avec l'artémisinine, les SNP se produisent au locus du gène Kelch 13- propeller sur le chromosome 13. La stratégie de surveillance de la résistance aux médicaments à base d'artémisinine implique une surveillance continue du biomarqueur Kelch 13-propeller pour détecter l'émergence de mutations qui pourraient annoncer une résistance aux médicaments dans la région. Dans cet article de revue narrative, nous avons examiné la littérature existante pour combler le manque de connaissances et accentuer l'importance de la surveillance de routine de la résistance à l'artémisinine en Afrique subsaharienne. Nous avons effectué notre recherche sur la base de données PubMed et Google Scholar pour identifier des articles, des rapports et des résumés évalués par des pairs sur la résistance aux médicaments à base d'artémisinine en utilisant les mots-clés suivants; «résistance aux médicaments à base d'artémisinine¼, «résistance aux médicaments antipaludiques¼, «thérapie combinée à base d'artémisinine¼, «Kelch 13-propeller¼, «gène K13-propeller¼ et «marqueur moléculaire K13¼. L'examen a fourni des informations pertinentes sur les dérivés de l'artémisinine, la polythérapie à base d'artémisinine, l'action moléculaire de l'artémisinine, la définition de la résistance à l'artémisinine, la base génétique de la résistance aux médicaments à base d'artémisinine et la découverte de Kelch 13, ainsi que l'importance de la surveillance de la résistance à l'artémisinine. La surveillance moléculaire peut fournir aux responsables des politiques de santé une prévision des menaces imminentes pour le traitement du paludisme. C'est d'autant plus vrai lorsque les médicaments sont en thérapie combinée, par exemple, la surveillance moléculaire peut donner un indice qu'un médicament échoue malgré le fait qu'en combinaison, il est toujours apparemment cliniquement efficace.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Therapeutics , Drug Resistance , Artemisinins , Drug Therapy, Combination , Malaria
7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 246-250, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-959757

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone containing a peroxide group isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. It has antimalarial activity and is effective for the treatment of malaria. With the deepening of research on artemisinin, the pharmacological effects of artemisinin and its derivatives in other systems have gradually become a research hotspot. This article reviews the research progress of artemisinin and its derivatives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Artemisinin and its derivatives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease have shown anti-atherosclerosis, lipid- lowering, inhibition of vascular remodeling, reducing vascular pressure, improving ventricular remodeling, anti-arrhythmia, protection of vascular endothelium, prevention and treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications and protection of myocardial cells and other pharmacological effects. It provides a new treatment strategy for common cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, arrhythmia, coronary heart disease complications after stent implantation, hyperlipidemia, etc. However, there are few studies on the antiplatelet aggregation and antithrombotic effects of artemisinin and its derivatives, the molecular mechanisms behind many pharmacological effects have not yet been clarified, and there is little clinical application. A large number of basic studies and clinical trials are still needed to answer these questions.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3691-3700, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004659

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone natural product that contains an endoperoxide bond. Artemisinin has various biological activities including antimalarial, anti-tumor, antiviral and anti-fibrotic activity. Owing to the poor pharmacokinetic properties of artemisinin, its derivatives are currently used in clinic and frequently reported in literature. Although numerous derivatives of artemisinin have been reported, no study has been carried out yet to study the effect of substituted groups with different acid-base property on the antimalarial activity. Among these derivatives, the C-10 carbon artemisinin derivatives are often reported, and their corresponding 10β epimer show much better antimalarial activity than 10α epimer with large-sized substitute. However, there is currently no stereoselective synthesis to efficiently prepare the privileged 10β epimer of C-10 carba artemisinin. To address these two scientific questions, we herein first report an optimized method to stereoselectively synthesize the 10β epimer of C-10 carba artemisinin (98∶2 d.r.). Second, we employed the optimized method to synthesize a series of C-10 carba artemisinin derivatives with different acid-base properties. The antimalarial examination indicated that those derivatives with neutral groups or basic group of short chain showed similar antimalarial activity as dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The acidic group could dramatically decrease the antimalarial effect and was more than 22-fold less effective than DHA or the neutral ones. This study will shed light on the development of new generation of artemisinin derivatives with potent activity.

9.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Practice ; (6): 714-721, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003617

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the potential mechanism of artemisinin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. Methods The corresponding targets of natural product artemisinin were obtained from PubChem, Swiss Target Prediction and PharmMapper databases, targets related to PCOS were obtained through GeneCards and DisGeNET databases; the intersection target genes of Artemisinin and PCOS were screened by Draw Venn diagram. Then the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was constructed according to the intersection target genes through the STRING Database, and the core targets were screened by Cytoscape. Besides, gene ontology (GO) function and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed by DAVID Database, and finally the data were analyzed visually by the online platform. Molecular docking of artemisinin and core targets were performed by Chemdraw, Pymol, Auto Dock Tools and RCSB PDB database. Results A total of 229 targets of artemisinin and 1292 targets of PCOS were screened out, 90 overlapping targets were obtained by Draw Venn diagram, and 5 potential core targets, AKT1, ESR1, MMP9, PPARG, MMP2, were mainly act on PI3K Akt, MAPK, RAS, endocrine resistance and other signal pathways. Molecular docking results showed that there were molecular binding sites between artemisinin and core targets. Conclusion It is preliminarily analyzed that artemisinin may play a therapeutic role in PCOS through multiple targets and mechanisms.

10.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 435-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979705

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To detect the distribution of CYP2A6∗2, CYP2A6∗10, CYP2A6∗17, CYP2B6∗4, CYP2B6∗6, and CYP2B6∗18 loci affecting the metabolism of artemisinins in Kazak population in Xinjiang. To explore the pharmacogenetic background of the Kazak population in Xinjiang for artemisinin drugs and provide clinical decision support for the treatment and prevention of malaria based on artemisinin drugs. Methods Six SNPs including CYP2A6∗2, CYP2A6∗10, CYP2A6∗17, CYP2B6∗4, CYP2B6∗6, and CYP2B6∗18 were selected for the sequencing experiment. 330 whole blood samples were collected from the Kazak population in Xinjiang. After extracting the whole blood DNA genome, multiplex PCR and high-throughput sequencing were used for genotyping. The allele frequencies were analyzed using the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Results In this study all SNPs follow the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05), there was no significant difference in the distribution of SNPs between different genders (P>0.05). The number of successfully sequenced samples of CYP2A6∗2, CYP2A6∗10, CYP2A6∗17, CYP2B6∗4, CYP2B6∗6, and CYP2B6∗18 were 326, 319, 328, 318, 322 and 328 respectively. The frequencies of variant alleles of CYP2A6∗2, CYP2A6∗10, CYP2A6∗17, CYP2B6∗4, CYP2B6∗6, and CYP2B6∗18 in Kazak population are: 0.61%, 0%, 0%, 30.97%, 22.98%, 0%. Conclusions Mutation alleles affecting the metabolism of artemisinins exist in the Kazak population in Xinjiang. When using artemisinins, the relationship between the drug effect and individual pharmacogenetic background should be further explored.

11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 659-665, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of a water-soluble novel dihydroartemisinin dimer containing nitrogen atoms SM 1044 on the apoptosis of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4-R1 cells and its potential mechanism.@*METHODS@#The effects of SM 1044 on cell apoptosis, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Expressions of apoptosis-related proteins were determined by Western blot. The effects of SM 1044 on MAPK (ERK, JNK) signaling pathway, PML/RARα fusion protein, and expressions of apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#SM 1044 could significantly induce apoptosis and the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in NB4-R1 cells, and activate apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). SM 1044 could also induce NB4-R1 cells to produce ROS. Western blot showed that SM 1044 activated the phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK, JNK) signaling pathway and down-regulated the expression of PML/RARα fusion protein.@*CONCLUSION@#SM 1044 can induce apoptosis of ATRA resistant APL NB4-R1 cells, which may be related to ROS/ERK and ROS/JNK signaling pathway, and can also induce by down-regulating PML/RARα fusion protein.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Cell Line , Apoptosis , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Cell Differentiation
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2876-2895, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981422

ABSTRACT

Microbial transformation is an efficient enzymatic approach for the structural modification of exogenous compounds to obtain derivatives. Compared with traditional chemical synthesis, the microbial transformation has in fact the undoubtable advantages of strong region-and stereo-selectivity, and a low environmental and economic impact on the production process, which can achieve the reactions challenging to chemical synthesis. Because microbes are equipped with a broad-spectrum of enzymes and therefore can metabolize various substrates, they are not only a significant route for obtaining novel active derivatives, but also an effective tool for mimicking mammal metabolism in vitro. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene with a peroxy-bridged structure serving as the main active functional group, is a famous antimalarial agent discovered from Artemisia annua L. Some sesquiterpenoids, such as dihydroartemisinin, artemether, and arteether, have been developed on the basis of artemisinin, which have been successfully marketed and become the first-line antimalarial drugs recommended by WHO. As revealed by pharmacological studies, artemisinin and its derivatives have exhibited extensive biological activities, including antimalarial, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory. As an efficient approach for structural modification, microbial transformation of artemisinin and its derivatives is an increasingly popular strategy that attracts considerable attention recently, and numerous novel derivatives have been discovered. Herein, this paper reviewed the microbial transformation of artemisinin and its artemisinin, including microbial strains, culture conditions, product isolation and yield, and biological activities, and summarized the advances in microbial transformation in obtaining active derivatives of artemisinin and the simulation of in vivo metabolism of drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Artemether , Artemisinins , Mammals
13.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 557-564, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011413

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of artemisinin resistance-related Pfubp1 and Pfap2mu genes in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, so as to to provide baseline data for the formulation of malaria control strategies in Bioko Island. Methods A total of 184 clinical blood samples were collected from patients with P. falciparum malaria in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea from 2018 to 2020, and genomic DNA was extracted. The Pfubp1 and Pfap2mu gene SNPs of P. falciparum were determined using a nested PCR assay and Sanger sequencing, and the gene sequences were aligned. Results There were 159 wild-type P. falciparum isolates (88.83%) from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, and 6 SNPs were identified in 20 Pfubp1-mutant P. falciparum isolates (11.17%), in which 4 non-synonymous mutations were detected, including E1516G, K1520E, D1525E, E1528D. There was only one Pfubp1gene mutation site in 19 Pfubp1-mutant P. falciparum isolates (95.00%), in which non-synonymous mutations accounted for 68.42% (13/19). D1525E and E1528D were identified as major known epidemic mutation sites in the Pfubp1 gene associated with resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). At amino acid position 1525, there were 178 wild-type P. falciparum isolates (99.44%) and 1 mutant isolate (0.56%), with such a mutation site identified in blood samples in 2018, and at amino acid position 1528, there were 167 wild-type P. falciparum isolates (93.30%) and 12 mutant isolates (6.70%). The proportions of wild-type P. falciparum isolates were 95.72% (134/140), 79.25% (126/159) and 95.83% (161/168) in the target amplification fragments of the three regions in the Pfap2mu gene (Pfap2mu-inner1, Pfap2mu-inner2, Pfap2mu-inner3), respectively. There were 16 different SNPs identified in all successfully sequenced P. falciparum isolates, in which 7 non-synonymous mutations were detected, including S160N, K199T, A475V, S508G, I511M, L595F, and Y603H. There were 7 out of 43 Pfap2mu-mutant P. falciparum isolates (16.28%) that harbored only one gene mutation site, in which non-synonymous mutations accounted for 28.57% (2/7). For the known delayed clearance locus S160N associated with ACTs, there were 143 wild-type (89.94%) and 16 Pfap2mu-mutant P. falciparum isolates (10.06%). Conclusions Both Pfubp1 and Pfap2mu gene mutations were detected in P. falciparum isolates from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea from 2018 to 2020, with a low prevalence rate of Pfubp1 gene mutation and a high prevalence rate of Pfap2mu gene mutation. In addition, new mutation sites were identified in the Pfubp1 (E1504E and K1520E) and Pfap2mu genes (A475V and S508G).

14.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(3)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1449985

ABSTRACT

Los limitados tratamientos disponibles para enfrentar la leishmaniasis requieren el desarrollo de investigaciones para buscar nuevos agentes terapéuticos. Una estrategia recomendada es el reposicionamiento farmacológico, en el que la artemisina figura como un posible candidato. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las potencialidades de la artemisina en dos modelos murinos de leishmaniasis cutánea experimental. Para ello, se emplearon ratones BALB/c (susceptibles) y C57BL/6 (resistentes) infectados con Leishmania amazonensis. El tratamiento se realizó por vía oral o intralesional con cinco dosis de artemisina a 30 mg/kg cada 4 días. Se determinó el comportamiento del peso, la evolución del tamaño de la lesión y la carga parasitaria. En ambos modelos animales se observó que el tratamiento con artemisina (oral e intralesional) disminuyó el tamaño de la lesión y la carga parasitaria con respecto a los grupos infectados sin tratamiento (p 0,05). Los ratones C57BL/6 tratados por vía oral fueron los únicos capaces de controlar las lesiones hasta el final del experimento. Se demuestra la eficacia in vivo de la artemisina en dos modelos de leishmaniasis cutánea inducida por L. amazonensis y se destaca la administración por vía oral en el control de la enfermedad. Se sugiere el futuro desarrollo de este fármaco para el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis cutánea.


The limited treatments available for leishmaniasis require the development of research for new therapeutic agents. One recommended strategy is the pharmacological repositioning, where artemisinin stands out as a possible candidate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of artemisinin in two murine models of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. For this purpose, BALB/c (susceptible) and C57BL/6 (resistant) mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis were used. Oral or intralesional treatment was performed with five doses of artemisinin at 30 mg/kg every four days. Weight behavior, evolution of lesion size, and parasitic load were determined. In both animal models it was observed that treatment with artemisinin (oral and intralesional) decreased lesion size and parasitic load with respect to the untreated infected groups (p 0.05). Orally treated C57BL/6 mice were the only ones able to control lesions until the end of the experiment. The in vivo efficacy of artemisinin in two models of cutaneous leishmaniasis induced by L. amazonensis is demonstrated and oral administration is highlighted in the control of the disease. Further development of this drug for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans
15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217089

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is a type of coronavirus disease belonging to the family Coronaviridae. In late December 2019, this virus emerged from Wuhan, Hubei province, China, and resulted in an outbreak in China and expanded globally. In India, the mortality rate today was 521,691 till the date-time of writing this article. Several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based comparative, observational study of the use of artesunate injections with standard-of-care (SOC) treatment (group A) versus only SOC (group B) treatment in moderate- to-severe cases of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, on a total of 130 patients (comparative group of 65 patients each). The study was done on hospitalized COVID-19-positive moderate and severe cases of ARDS from October 2020 to June 2021 at MGM Hospital and Research Centre, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Results: One hundred and thirty patients were divided into two groups of 65 each; group A was compared with group B; group A received SOC with artesunate injections and group B received only SOC treatment. The mean age of patients in group A was 57.3 ± 12.5 years (standard deviation [SD]: 54.2–60.3) and in group B was 55.8 ± 12.5 years (SD: 52.8–58.9). Diabetes mellitus was the most comorbid condition. The inflammatory markers, respiratory rate, and SpO2 improved in group A as compared to group B. The proportion of patients progressing to noninvasive and invasive ventilation was more in group B as compared to group A (P < 0.05). About 93.8% of patients (61 patients) recovered in group A compared with 72.3% of patients (47 patients) who recovered in group B. The overall death in group A was 6.2% (four patients) and 27.7% (18 patients) in group B (P < 0.05), indicating the proportion of dead patients is significantly more where only SOC treatment was given. Conclusions: Artesunate injection administration accelerated recovery in our patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 disease by controlling hyperimmune response. The clinical improvement was seen by decreased levels of inflammatory markers, reduced respiratory rate, and improved oxygen saturation and showed significant survival in group A compared with group B. Artesunate injections were given 2 mg/kg body weight diluted in 1 mL 5% sodium bicarbonate solution as a bolus followed by 1 mg/kg body weight after 6 h and 2 mg/kg body weight with 1 mL sodium bicarbonate solution for next 2 days at an interval of 24 h. Patients tolerated the injections well and recovery improved, so artesunate can be considered a therapeutic option in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 ARDS.

16.
Babcock Univ. Med. J ; 5(2): 1-10, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400507

ABSTRACT

Objective:The antimalarial preferences, tolerability, and cost of the Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) among adult patients and caregivers are largely understudied despite being the recommendedtreatment for Plasmodium falciparum.We, therefore, evaluated antimalarial preferences, tolerability, and cost of the ACTs among adult patients attending the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Methods:This was a cross-sectional study conducted among adult patients and their caregivers atthe University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria,using a semi-structured questionnaire. Their preferred antimalarial medication, previous use of antimalarial monotherapies, current ACT use; cost considerations, and adverse effects profile were sought.Result:Six hundred respondents were recruited with a mean age of 41.4±16.3years and M/F ratio of 1.4. The majority (88.0%), reported that they had between 1-5 episodes of malaria fever in a year. Only 28.2% received doctors' prescriptions while 85.8% purchased their antimalarial medications from a pharmacy. Sixty percent of the respondents used at least one ACT; mainly Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL) 312(52.0%). Only 9.3% reported previous adverse effects with the ACTs with 4.0% of respondents discontinuing their medications. The mean (SD) cost of purchasing ACTs was 1,516.47±760.3 (3.65 USD) Naira.Conclusion: This study showed adult patients' preference for the ACTs, especially Artemether-Lumefantrine despite some inclination towards antimalarial monotherapies and parenteral route. There was also a high rate of use of malaria presumptive treatment, but only a few reported adverse effects. There is a need to make ACTs affordable because the cost is still presently high for most Nigerians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Artemisinins , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Malaria , Antimalarials , Therapeutics , Hospitals, Teaching
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-10, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468490

ABSTRACT

Artemisia absinthium L. is an important herb that is widely cultivated in different parts of the world for its medicinal properties. The present study evaluated the effects of four concentrations of nanoparticles treatment (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg L-¹) and NaCl salinity stress (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl) and their interactions with respect to the expression of two key genes, i.e. DBR2 and ADS, in the biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin in A. absinthium. Total RNA was extracted and a relative gene expression analysis was carried out using Real-Time PCR. The amount of artemisinin was also determined by HPLC. All the experiments were performed as factorial in a completely randomized design in three replications. The results revealed that salinity stress and nanoparticles treatment and their interaction affected the expressions of these genes significantly. The highest levels of ADS gene expression were observed in the 30 mg L-¹ nanoparticles–treated plants in the presence of 150 mM salinity stress and the lowest levels in the 10 mg L-¹ nanoparticles–treated plants under 50 mM salinity stress. The maximum DBR2 gene expression was recorded in the 10 mg L-¹ nanoparticles–treated plants in the absence of salinity stress and the minimum expression in the 100 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles treatment. Moreover, the smallest amounts of artemisinin were observed in the 150 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles and the highest amounts in the 30 mg L-¹ nanoparticles–treated plants. The maximum amounts of artemisinin and ADS gene expression were reported from the plants in the same nanoparticles treatment and salinity stress [...].


Artemisia absinthium L. é uma erva importante que é amplamente cultivada em diferentes partes do mundo por suas propriedades medicinais. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos de quatro concentrações de tratamento com nanopartículas (0, 10, 20 e 30 mg L-¹) e estresse de salinidade com NaCl (0, 50, 100 e 150 mM NaCl) e suas interações com relação à expressão de dois genes-chave, isto é, DBR2 e ADS, na via de biossíntese da artemisinina em A. absinthium. O RNA total foi extraído, e uma análise de expressão gênica relativa foi realizada usando PCR em tempo real. A quantidade de artemisinina também foi determinada por HPLC. Todos os experimentos foram realizados como fatorial, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em três repetições. Os resultados revelaram que o estresse por salinidade e o tratamento com nanopartículas e sua interação afetaram significativamente as expressões desses genes. Os níveis mais altos de expressão do gene ADS foram observados nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-¹ na presença de estresse de salinidade de 150 mM, e os níveis mais baixos, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-¹ com estresse de salinidade de 50 mM. A expressão máxima do gene DBR2 foi registrada nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-¹ na ausência de estresse de salinidade, e a expressão mínima, nas plantas estressadas com salinidade de 100 mM na ausência de tratamento com nanopartículas. Além disso, as menores quantidades de artemisinina foram observadas nas plantas com estresse de salinidade de 150 mM na ausência de nanopartículas, e as maiores quantidades, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-¹. As quantidades máximas de expressão de genes de artemisinina e ADS foram relatadas a partir das plantas no mesmo tratamento com nanopartículas e condições de estresse de salinidade. A esse respeito, a quantidade de artemisinina diminuiu pela metade nas [...],


Subject(s)
Artemisia/enzymology , Artemisia/genetics , Artemisinins , Salt Stress , Nanoparticles/analysis
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 822022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468677

ABSTRACT

Abstract Artemisia absinthium L. is an important herb that is widely cultivated in different parts of the world for its medicinal properties. The present study evaluated the effects of four concentrations of nanoparticles treatment (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg L-1) and NaCl salinity stress (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl) and their interactions with respect to the expression of two key genes, i.e. DBR2 and ADS, in the biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin in A. absinthium. Total RNA was extracted and a relative gene expression analysis was carried out using Real-Time PCR. The amount of artemisinin was also determined by HPLC. All the experiments were performed as factorial in a completely randomized design in three replications. The results revealed that salinity stress and nanoparticles treatment and their interaction affected the expressions of these genes significantly. The highest levels of ADS gene expression were observed in the 30 mg L-1 nanoparticlestreated plants in the presence of 150 mM salinity stress and the lowest levels in the 10 mg L-1 nanoparticlestreated plants under 50 mM salinity stress. The maximum DBR2 gene expression was recorded in the 10 mg L-1 nanoparticlestreated plants in the absence of salinity stress and the minimum expression in the 100 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles treatment. Moreover, the smallest amounts of artemisinin were observed in the 150 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles and the highest amounts in the 30 mg L-1 nanoparticlestreated plants. The maximum amounts of artemisinin and ADS gene expression were reported from the plants in the same nanoparticles treatment and salinity stress conditions. In this regard, the amount of artemisinin was decreased by half in the plants containing the highest DBR2 gene expression. Meanwhile, no significant correlation was observed between these gene expressions and the artemisinin amount in the other nanoparticlestreated plants under different levels of salinity stress. The biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites appears to be very complex and dose not directly dependent on these gene expressions.


Resumo Artemisia absinthium L. é uma erva importante que é amplamente cultivada em diferentes partes do mundo por suas propriedades medicinais. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos de quatro concentrações de tratamento com nanopartículas (0, 10, 20 e 30 mg L-1) e estresse de salinidade com NaCl (0, 50, 100 e 150 mM NaCl) e suas interações com relação à expressão de dois genes-chave, isto é, DBR2 e ADS, na via de biossíntese da artemisinina em A. absinthium. O RNA total foi extraído, e uma análise de expressão gênica relativa foi realizada usando PCR em tempo real. A quantidade de artemisinina também foi determinada por HPLC. Todos os experimentos foram realizados como fatorial, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em três repetições. Os resultados revelaram que o estresse por salinidade e o tratamento com nanopartículas e sua interação afetaram significativamente as expressões desses genes. Os níveis mais altos de expressão do gene ADS foram observados nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-1 na presença de estresse de salinidade de 150 mM, e os níveis mais baixos, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-1 com estresse de salinidade de 50 mM. A expressão máxima do gene DBR2 foi registrada nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-1 na ausência de estresse de salinidade, e a expressão mínima, nas plantas estressadas com salinidade de 100 mM na ausência de tratamento com nanopartículas. Além disso, as menores quantidades de artemisinina foram observadas nas plantas com estresse de salinidade de 150 mM na ausência de nanopartículas, e as maiores quantidades, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-1. As quantidades máximas de expressão de genes de artemisinina e ADS foram relatadas a partir das plantas no mesmo tratamento com nanopartículas e condições de estresse de salinidade. A esse respeito, a quantidade de artemisinina diminuiu pela metade nas plantas que contêm a expressão gênica DBR2 mais alta. Enquanto isso, nenhuma correlação significativa foi observada entre essas expressões gênicas e a quantidade de artemisinina nas outras plantas tratadas com nanopartículas sob diferentes níveis de estresse de salinidade. A via biossintética dos metabólitos secundários parece ser muito complexa e não depende diretamente dessas expressões gênicas.

19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237214, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249258

ABSTRACT

Artemisia absinthium L. is an important herb that is widely cultivated in different parts of the world for its medicinal properties. The present study evaluated the effects of four concentrations of nanoparticles treatment (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg L-1) and NaCl salinity stress (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl) and their interactions with respect to the expression of two key genes, i.e. DBR2 and ADS, in the biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin in A. absinthium. Total RNA was extracted and a relative gene expression analysis was carried out using Real-Time PCR. The amount of artemisinin was also determined by HPLC. All the experiments were performed as factorial in a completely randomized design in three replications. The results revealed that salinity stress and nanoparticles treatment and their interaction affected the expressions of these genes significantly. The highest levels of ADS gene expression were observed in the 30 mg L-1 nanoparticles­treated plants in the presence of 150 mM salinity stress and the lowest levels in the 10 mg L-1 nanoparticles­treated plants under 50 mM salinity stress. The maximum DBR2 gene expression was recorded in the 10 mg L-1 nanoparticles­treated plants in the absence of salinity stress and the minimum expression in the 100 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles treatment. Moreover, the smallest amounts of artemisinin were observed in the 150 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles and the highest amounts in the 30 mg L-1 nanoparticles­treated plants. The maximum amounts of artemisinin and ADS gene expression were reported from the plants in the same nanoparticles treatment and salinity stress conditions. In this regard, the amount of artemisinin was decreased by half in the plants containing the highest DBR2 gene expression. Meanwhile, no significant correlation was observed between these gene expressions and the artemisinin amount in the other nanoparticles­treated plants under different levels of salinity stress. The biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites appears to be very complex and dose not directly dependent on these gene expressions.


Artemisia absinthium L. é uma erva importante que é amplamente cultivada em diferentes partes do mundo por suas propriedades medicinais. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos de quatro concentrações de tratamento com nanopartículas (0, 10, 20 e 30 mg L-1) e estresse de salinidade com NaCl (0, 50, 100 e 150 mM NaCl) e suas interações com relação à expressão de dois genes-chave, isto é, DBR2 e ADS, na via de biossíntese da artemisinina em A. absinthium. O RNA total foi extraído, e uma análise de expressão gênica relativa foi realizada usando PCR em tempo real. A quantidade de artemisinina também foi determinada por HPLC. Todos os experimentos foram realizados como fatorial, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em três repetições. Os resultados revelaram que o estresse por salinidade e o tratamento com nanopartículas e sua interação afetaram significativamente as expressões desses genes. Os níveis mais altos de expressão do gene ADS foram observados nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-1 na presença de estresse de salinidade de 150 mM, e os níveis mais baixos, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-1 com estresse de salinidade de 50 mM. A expressão máxima do gene DBR2 foi registrada nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-1 na ausência de estresse de salinidade, e a expressão mínima, nas plantas estressadas com salinidade de 100 mM na ausência de tratamento com nanopartículas. Além disso, as menores quantidades de artemisinina foram observadas nas plantas com estresse de salinidade de 150 mM na ausência de nanopartículas, e as maiores quantidades, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-1. As quantidades máximas de expressão de genes de artemisinina e ADS foram relatadas a partir das plantas no mesmo tratamento com nanopartículas e condições de estresse de salinidade. A esse respeito, a quantidade de artemisinina diminuiu pela metade nas plantas que contêm a expressão gênica DBR2 mais alta. Enquanto isso, nenhuma correlação significativa foi observada entre essas expressões gênicas e a quantidade de artemisinina nas outras plantas tratadas com nanopartículas sob diferentes níveis de estresse de salinidade. A via biossintética dos metabólitos secundários parece ser muito complexa e não depende diretamente dessas expressões gênicas.


Subject(s)
Artemisia absinthium/genetics , Artemisia annua , Artemisinins , Nanoparticles , Plant Proteins , Titanium , Salt Stress
20.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 639-645, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953844

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the global literature output and citation of publications pertaining to artemisinin (ART) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum from 2011 to 2021, so as to provide insights into researches on resistance of P. falciparum to ART. Methods The publications pertaining to ART resistance in P. falciparum were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database in Web of Science during the period from January 2011 through May 2022. The subject, journal, country, affiliation and author distributions and citations of publications were descriptively analyzed. Results A total of 1 640 publications pertaining to ART resistance in P. falciparum were retrieved in the SCIE database during the period from January 2011 through May 2022, and the number of publications appeared an overall tendency towards a rise during the study period. These articles were published in 343 journals, and the three most productive journals included Malaria Journal (341 publications, 20.79%), Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (141 publications, 8.60%), American Journal of Aropical Medicine and Hygiene (68 publications, 4.15%), with infectious diseases (565 publications, 34.45%), parasitology (531 publications, 32.38%), and tropical medicine (517 publications, 31.54%) as the predominant subject. The three most productive countries included the United States of America (627 publications, 38.23%), United Kingdom (395 publications, 24.08%), and Thailand (294 publications, 17.94%), with total citations of 25 280, 18 622 and 15 474, respectively, and the most productive countries included Mahidol University (Thailand), Oxford University (England) and London University (England), with 234, 220 publications and 142 publications and 15 058, 15 421 citations and 6 191 citations, respectively. The three most productive authors were all from Mahidol University, with 85, 77 and 63 publications, respectively; and among the three most cited authors, two were from Mahidol University, Thailand, with 8 623 and 7 961 total citations, and one from National Institutes of Health, the United States of America, with 6 267 total citations. A total of 138 articles were published by Chinese scientists, with 3 434 total citations, and National Institute of Parasitic Diseases of Chinese Center for the Diseases Control and Prevention was the most productive Chinese institution, with 35 publications, 1 165 total citations and 33.29 citations per publication. Conclusions The literature output of ART resistance in P. falciparum was relatively high in the United States of America, Europe, and Southeast Asian countries during the period from 2011 to 2021, with a relatively high academic impact. Publications in Malaria Journal and Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy are recommended to be paid much attention by Chinese scientists to understand the latest advances and extend the research interests.

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