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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246385, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339384


Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.

Resumo A doença coronariana (DCC) tem sido associada a significativa morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Embora ainda sejam controversos, vários estudos têm demonstrado a associação de infecções por M. pneumoniae com aterosclerose. Avaliamos a possível associação de infecções por micoplasma em pacientes com diagnóstico de aterosclerose pelos métodos ELISA e PCR. Amostras de tecido aterosclerótico e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a detecção de anticorpos contra micoplasma (IgA) por ELISA de 97 pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). IgA, IgG e IgM específicos para M. pneumoniae foram medidos usando o Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA / IgG / IgM ELISA. A detecção de M. pneumoniae visando o gene de adesão P1 foi realizada por PCR. A infecção aguda por M. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada em 43,3% (42) dos pacientes pela PCR. Os anticorpos específicos para M. pneumoniae foram detectados em 36,1% (35) dos pacientes. Vinte e cinco (25,8%) casos tinham anticorpos IgG, 15 (15,5%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM, 3 (3,1%) casos tinham anticorpos IgA, 10 (10,3%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM + IgG e 1 (1%) caso de cada um tinha anticorpos IgM + IgA e IgG + IgA. Nenhum dos casos foi positivo para os três anticorpos. A análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson revelou uma excelente correlação entre o PCR e os resultados sorológicos (r = 0,921, p < 0,001). A maioria (17, 40,5%) dos pacientes positivos para M. pneumoniae está na faixa etária de 41-50 anos, seguida por 10 (23,8%) pacientes na faixa etária de 61-70 anos e 2 (4,8%) pacientes tinham > 70 anos de idade. Nosso estudo relatou uma prevalência incomumente maior de M. pneumoniae por testes sorológicos (36,1%) e PCR (43,3%). Embora a hipótese da associação de M. pneumoniae e DAC ainda não tenha sido comprovada, a prevalência incomumente alta de M. pneumoniae em pacientes com DAC indica uma associação, se não, no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence , Antibodies, Bacterial , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 243-252, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364985


Abstract Background: Atherosclerosis is a serious health problem, and several factors contribute to its occurrence. Longitudinal and qualified monitoring of primary health care (PHC) may contribute to the management of atherosclerosis and reduction of avoidable hospital admissions. Objectives: To estimate the trend in hospitalizations for atherosclerosis and the impact of PHC coverage on its evolution from 2008 to 2018 in Brazil. Methods: An ecological time series analytical study based on the outcomes of hospital admissions for atherosclerosis in Brazil. Time in years, PHC coverage, and Family Health Strategy (FHS) services were considered independent variables. A Prais-Winsten model was used to estimate the outcome trend, and α < 0.05 was adopted. Results: We observed a mean increase of 1.81 hospitalizations for atherosclerosis per 100 000 inhabitants annually (p = 0.002) in Brazil. This growth was evidenced in the Northeast (p < 0.001), Southeast (p = 0.003), and South (p < 0.001) regions, being stable in the North (p = 0.057) and Midwest (p = 0.62) regions. Men presented twice the growth in hospitalizations from the fifth decade of life on (p < 0.01). An inversely proportional relationship was observed for PHC coverage (B = -0.71; p < 0.001) and the proportion of FHS services (B = -0.59; p < 0.001) with the rate of admissions due to atherosclerosis in Brazil. Conclusions: Although hospitalizations for atherosclerotic complications are increasing in Brazil, they present regional and individual gender and age discrepancies, as well as a mitigating effect exerted by PHC coverage.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 80-87, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365532


Abstract Objective/Introduction: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive technique to detect cerebral ischemia by monitoring changes in regional cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) in the frontal lobes. However, there are no studies showing the changes in NIRS values in response to hemodynamic variations during stages of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) procedure and clinical implications of these changes. The aim of this study was to determine if hemodynamic changes affect NIRS values during carotid endarterectomy and if our results may help to provide strategies for hemodynamic management in these patients. Methods: A total of 50 consecutive patients undergoing CEA were prospectively included in the study. NIRS was measured at first minute after clamping of carotid artery, and then systolic blood pressure was increased above 150 mmHg. NIRS values from both hemispheres were recorded simultaneously at certain time points and were analyzed to evaluate the changes at different stages of operation and to assess correlations with hemodynamic parameters. Results: NIRS values on the right and left sides were correlated with systolic (right P<0.001, R2:0.24; left P=0.02, R2:0.10) diastolic (right P<0.001, R2:0.36; left P=0.001, R2:0.18) and mean (right P<0.001, R2:0.33; left P=0.003, R2:0.17) blood pressures when the patient was under general anaesthesia. NIRS values were significantly lower than pre-incision values just after clamping of carotid artery in both hemispheres (P=0.005 for the right and P<0.001 for the left side). Conclusion: NIRS values measured in our study show that there is a correlation between hemodynamic changes and cerebral oxygenation. This effect is especially pronounced while the patient is asleep and intubated, which implies the importance of close monitoring of patients with carotid disease during any surgery requiring general anaesthesia.

Ann. Health Res. (Onabanjo Univ. Teach. Hosp.) ; 8(1): 49-62, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1362843


Background:The co-existence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) has been rising globally with subclinical atherosclerotic complications. These vascular changes can be detected using carotid ultrasonography. Objectives: To determine and compare the carotid arterial structural wall changes and blood flow velocities of adults with co-existing DM and HTN with age-and sex-matched non-diabetic, non-hypertensive controls. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study of 300 participants comprising 200 adults with co-existing DM and HTN and 100 age-and sex-matched controls was done. Their carotid arteries were examined bilaterally for plaques, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and flow velocities ­peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) using 4­12MHz linear array transducer. Visceral obesity and serum lipids were also assessed. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 56.13 ± 6.93 years; they comprised 38% males and 62% females. The subjects' CIMT was statistically significantly higher (p = 0.001) with a three-fold mean increase (45.5%) compared to the controls (13.7%). Lower flow velocities but higher indices were also observed in the subjects. Strong and significant correlations were observed between EDV and PI r =-0.663, p=>0.001), EDV and RI (r = -0.661, p=>0.001) and PI and RI (r =0.988, p= >0.001)among the subjects. Conclusion: Significant reduction in flow velocities with increased CIMT may be an early indication of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therefore, carotid ultrasonography should be mandatory in individuals at risk for early detection and possible prevention of atherosclerotic complications.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Blood Flow Velocity , Carotid Artery Diseases , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension
China Pharmacy ; (12): 19-25, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907007


OBJECTIVE To s tudy the impr ovement effects of tilianin on the atherosclerosis (AS)model mice and its potential mechanism. METHODS Eight C 57BL/6J mice were taken as the normal group. Forty ApoE-/- mice were randomly divided into model group ,tilianin low-dose ,medium-dose and high-dose groups [ 2.1,3.5,7.0 mg/(kg·d)] and simvastatin group [positive control drug ,3.5 mg/(kg·d)],with 8 mice in each group. Normal group was given normal diet ,and other groups were given high-lipid diet to induce AS model. At the same time ,normal group and model group were given normal saline intragastrically , administration groups were given relevant drug intragastrically ,once a day ,for 12 consecutive weeks. The levels of TC ,TG, LDL-C,HDL-C,Ox-LDL,IL-1β,IL-6,MCP-1 and TNF-α in plasma were determined. The pathomorphological changes of the aorta in mice were observed. The positive rate of ICAM- 1,VCAM-1 and PCNA in the aorta were determined. mRNA expressions of MMP- 2,MMP-9,TGF-β1,Smad2 and Smad 3 as well as protein expressions of TGF-β1,Smad2/3 and p-Smad 2/3 were also determined in aorta of mice. RESULTS Compared with normal group ,the plasma levels of TC ,TG,LDL-C,Ox-LDL,IL-1β, IL-6,MCP-1 and TNF-α in model group were increased significantly(P<0.01),while HDL-C level was significantly reduced (P<0.01). Lipid plaques were formed in the aorta ,and the plaque area was large and caused severe stenosis of the lumen. mRNA expressions of MMP- 2,MMP-9,TGF-β1,Smad2 and Smad 3 as well as positive rate of ICAM- 1,VCAM-1,PCNA and protein expression TGF-β1,Smad2/3,and p-Smad 2/3 in the aorta were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with model group , most of above indexes of medication groups were improved significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Tilianin can inhibit the activation of TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway and then inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells ,reduce , inflammation and regulate lipid metabolism to inhibit the No.81960766) formation of AS.

Adv Rheumatol ; 62: 4, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360069


Abstract Background: We aimed to assess the concordance of recommendation for initiating statin therapy according to the 2019 World Health Organization (WHO) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk charts and to the presence of carotid plaque (CP) identified with carotid ultrasound in Mexican mestizo rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and to determine the proportion of patients reclassified to a high cardiovascular risk after the carotid ultrasound was performed. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study nested of a RA patients' cohort. A total of 157 Mexican mestizo RA patients were included. The cardiovascular evaluation was performed using the 2019 WHO CVD risk charts (laboratory-based model) for the Central Latin America region. A carotid ultrasound was performed in all patients. The indication to start statin therapy was considered if the patient was classified as high risk, moderate risk if > 40 years with total cholesterol (TC) > 200 mg/dl or LDL-C > 120 mg/dl, and low risk if > 40 years with TC > 300 mg/dl, according to the WHO CVD risk chart or if the patient had carotid plaque (CP). Cohen's kappa (k) coefficient was used to evaluate the concordance between statin therapy initiation. Results: Initiation of statin therapy was considered in 49 (31.2%) patients according to the 2019 WHO CVD risk charts and 49 (31.2%) patients by the presence of CP. Cardiovascular risk reclassification by the presence of CP was observed in 29 (18.9%) patients. A slight agreement (k = 0.140) was observed when comparing statin therapy recommendations between 2019 WHO CVD risk charts and the presence of CP. Conclusion: The WHO CVD risk charts failed to identify a large proportion of patients with subclinical atherosclerosis detected by the carotid ultrasound and the concordance between both methods was poor. Therefore, carotid ultra-sound should be considered in the cardiovascular evaluation of RA patients.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 400-408, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364332


Resumo Fundamento Foi demonstrado que as subunidades de interleucina-35 (IL-35) estão fortemente expressas nas placas ateroscleróticas em humanos. Assim, considera-se que elas têm um papel na aterosclerose. Objetivos Neste estudo, os níveis de IL-35 foram comparados com o grupo controle em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC) estável, e a associação entre os níveis de IL-35 e o tipo, gravidade e extensão da lesão foram investigadas com o escore Gensini (GS) e o escore Syntax (SS) no grupo de pacientes Métodos Sessenta pacientes (18 mulheres e 42 homens) com DAC, diagnosticados por meio da angiografia coronária, que apresentaram dor no peito típica e teste de esforço não invasivo positivo, e 46 pacientes (18 mulheres e 28 homens) com luminograma normal, foram incluídos no estudo. Tanto o GS quanto o SS foram calculados para o grupo de pacientes, e esses valores foram comparados com os níveis de IL-35. Variáveis com distribuição não normal foram avaliadas com o teste U de Mann-Whitney, enquanto os parâmetros com distribuição normal foram analisados com o teste t de Student. A diferença entre as variáveis categóricas foi avaliada pelo teste de qui-quadrado ou de Fisher. Os valores de p<0,05 foram considerados como estatisticamente sinificativos. Resultados Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre pacientes e o grupo controle em termos de características demográficas e achados laboratoriais. Em comparação ao grupo controle, os níveis de IL-35 no grupo com DAC foram consideravalmente menores (36,9±63,9 ng/ml vs. 33,2±13,2 ng/ml, p<0,008). Embora não tenha sido estatisticamente significativo, os níveis de IL-35 foram maiores em pacientes com SS mais baixo do que nos com SS mais alto (33,2±13,7 vs. 31,8±8,9, p=0,51). Os valores de IL-35 em pacientes com GS alto foram significativamente mais baixos do que em pacientes com GS baixo (35±17,4 vs. 30,7±8,6, p=0,043). Conclusão Demonstrou-se que os níveis de IL-35 podem ser um novo biomarcador para a DAC estável, e que a IL-35 está associada à extensão da DAC.

Abstract Background It has been shown that interleukin-35 (IL-35) subunits are strongly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques in humans. Therefore, it is considered to play a role in atherosclerosis. Objectives In this study, IL-35 levels were compared with the control group in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), and the association between IL-35 levels and the lesion type, lesion severity and extension was investigated with the Gensini score (GS) and the Syntax score (SS) in the patient group. Methods Sixty patients (18 female and 42 male) with CAD diagnosed by coronary angiography, who presented with typical chest pain and positive noninvasive cardiac stress test, and 46 patients (18 female and 28 male) with normal coronary lumenogram, were included in this study. Gensini and Syntax scores were calculated in the patient group, and these values were compared with IL-35 levels. Non-normally distributed variables were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test, whereas normally distributed parameters were assessed by Student's t-test. The difference between categorical variables were evaluated by the Chi-square or Fisher test. P-values<0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results No significant differences were observed between patients and the control group in terms of demographic characteristics and laboratory findings. Compared to the control group, IL-35 levels of the CAD group were considerably lower (36.9±63.9 ng/ml vs. 33.2±13.2 ng/ml, p<0.008). Although not statistically significant, IL-35 levels were higher in patients with low SS than among those with high SS (33.2±13.7 vs. 31.8±8.9, p=0.51). The IL-35 values of the patients with high GS were significantly lower than in patients with low GS (35±17.4 vs. 30.7±8.6, p=0.043). Conclusion It has been shown that IL-35 levels can be a new biomarker for stable CAD, and IL-35 is associated with the extension of CAD.

Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Interleukins/blood , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers , Coronary Angiography
Bol. venez. infectol ; 32(2): 111-116, julio - diciembre 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363872


ntroducción: El riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes VIH positivos es mayor en comparación a la población general. Objetivos: Comparar la estratificación del riesgo cardiovascular según las ecuaciones de Framingham, PROCAM y SCORE en pacientes con VIH. Metodología: Estudio transversal de una cohorte bien caracterizada de 760 adultos infectados por el VIH, gestionado en la Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas para pacientes ambulatorios en el período de 2016 a 2018. Se examinó la puntuación de riesgo cardiovascular y se clasificó a los pacientes como de riesgo bajo, moderado o alto utilizando Framingham y PROCAM (<10 %, 10 % - 20 % y >20 %, respectivamente) y SCORE (<3 %, 3 % - 4 % y ≥5 %, respectivamente). Resultados: La prevalencia de pacientes con riesgo cardiovascular bajo, moderado y alto fue de 76,6 %, 15,1 % y 8,3 % por Framingham, respectivamente, 90,1 %, 4,9 % y 5 % por PROCAM, respectivamente, y 88,6 %, 3 %, y 8,4 % por SCORE, respectivamente. La concordancia entre estas tres funciones de riesgo fue significativa, pero globalmente moderada (Framingham y PROCAM, к 0,48, p <0,0001; Framingham y SCORE, к 0,32, p <0,0001; PROCAM y SCORE, к 0,49, p <0,0001). Conclusiones: El presente estudio mostró una alta prevalencia de pacientes con bajo riesgo cardiovascular independientemente del sistema de riesgo coronario evaluado utilizado. Sin embargo, en comparación con PROCAM y SCORE, la ecuación de riesgo de Framingham en pacientes infectados por el VIH identificó un mayor número de pacientes varones con riesgo cardiovascular moderado.

Introduction: The cardiovascular risk in HIV positive patients is higher compared to the general population. Objectives: To compare the cardiovascular risk stratification according to the Framingham, PROCAM and SCORE equations in patients with HIV. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of a well-characterized cohort of 760 HIV-infected adults. managed in the Outpatient Infectious Diseases Unit from 2016 to 2018. Cardiovascular risk score was examined and patients were classified as low, moderate or high risk using Framingham and PROCAM (<10 %, 10 % - 20 % and > 20 %, respectively) and SCORE (<3 %, 3 % - 4 % and ≥5 %, respectively). Results: The prevalence of patients with low, moderate and high cardiovascular risk was 76.6 %, 15.1 % and 8.3 % by Framingham, respectively, 90.1 %, 4.9 % and 5 % by PROCAM, respectively, and 88.6 %, 3 %, and 8.4 % by SCORE, respectively. The concordance between these three risk functions was significant, but overall moderate (Framingham and PROCAM, к 0.48, p <0.0001; Framingham and SCORE, к 0.32, p <0.0001; PROCAM and SCORE, к 0.49, p <0.0001). Conclusions: The present study showed a high prevalence of patients with low cardiovascular risk regardless of the assessed coronary risk system used. However, compared to PROCAM and SCORE, the Framingham risk equation in HIV-infected patients identified a higher number of male patients with moderate cardiovascular risk

Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(supl.1): 21-30, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360998


ABSTRACT Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly coronary heart disease and stroke, is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased prevalence of CVD and subclinical atherosclerosis, even after adjustment for traditional risk factors, are well established. Several associations with disease-related clinical, genetic and immunological features have been identified. The SLE-specific stratification algorithms with emphasis on composite risk-assessment scores including both traditional risk factors and novel biomarkers is recommended. The clinical complexity of accelerated atherosclerosis will most likely require an integrated approach for the identification, treatment, and intensive study into this aspect of SLE that will ultimately lead to improved cardiovascular outcomes for these patients.

RESUMEN La enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV), en particular la enfermedad coronaria y el ictus, es una de las causas más importantes de morbimortalidad en pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES). El aumento en la prevalencia de la ECV y de la aterosclerosis subclínica, aun después del ajuste de los factores de riesgo tradicionales, está claramente establecida. Se han identificado diversas asociaciones con características clínicas, genéticas e inmunológicas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Se recomienda el uso de los algoritmos de estratificación específicos para el LES, con énfasis en los puntajes compuestos de evaluación de riesgo, incluyendo tanto los factores de riesgo tradicionales como los nuevos biomarcadores. La complejidad clínica de la aterosclerosis acelerada muy probablemente requerirá un abordaje integral para la identificación, el tratamiento y el estudio intensivo de este aspecto del LES, que en última instancia permita obtener mejores desenlaces cardiovasculares en estos pacientes.

Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 8(2): 18-31, 20211201. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369435


Introducción: El signo de Frank o signo del lóbulo hendido se ha asociado con la existencia de una desorganización de las fibras elásticas y un espesamiento de las arteriolas que provoca una esclerosis vascular y una isquemia crónica local del lóbulo de la oreja.Objetivo: Determinar la relación del signo de lóbulo hendido con las enfermedades cardiovasculares en pacientes del servicio de Medicina Interna del Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de los Andes, entre diciembre de 2017 y julio de2018. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal de casos y controles, para establecer la relación entre el signo del lóbulo hendido y la enfermedad cardiovascular. Resultados: Se observa que el tabaquismo es un factor de riesgo asociado directamente con la presencia del signo del lóbulo hendido (p = 0,047), dado que existe una mayor tendencia a su aparición mientras mayor es la intensidad del tabaquismo. La presencia del signo del lóbulo genera un riesgo relativo de 2,062 veces, en cuanto a eventos cardiovasculares en comparación con aquellos quienes no lo presentan. Conclusiones: Se considera que la asociación encontrada entre el signo del lóbulo hendido, el tabaquismo y las enfermedades cardiovasculares ofrecen una herramienta fácilmente identificable de una población de riesgo mayor para el desarrollo de estas patologías.

Introduction: The sign of Frank or sign of the cleft lobe has been associated with the existence of a disorganization of the elastic fibers and a thickening of the arterioles that causes a vascular sclerosis and a chronic local ischemia of the lobe of the ear. Objectives: To determine the relationship of the split lobe sign with cardiovascular diseases in patients of the Internal Medicine service of the Autono-mous University Hospital of the Andes, December-2017 to July-2018. Methodology: A descriptive and cross-sectional observational study of cases and controls to establish a relationship between the sign of the diseased lobe and cardiovascular disease. Results: We observed Smoking is a risk factor directly associated with the presence of the cleft lobe sign p (0.047), there being a greater tendency to appear when the intensity of smoking is higher. The presence of the lobe sign generates a relative risk of 2.062 times in terms of cardiovascular events compared to those who do not. Conclusions: We consider that the association found between the sign of the cleft lobe, smoking and cardiovascular diseases, give us an easily identifiable tool for a population at higher risk for the deve-lopment of these pathologies.

Introdução: O sinal de Frank ou sinal de lóbulo fendido tem sido associado com desorganização das fibras elásticas e espessamento das arteríolas, levando à esclerose vascular e isquemia local crônica do lóbulo da orelha. Objetivo: Determinar a relação entre o sinal do lóbulo fendido e as doenças cardiovasculares em pacientes do Departamento de Medicina Interna do Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitário dos Andes, entre dezembro de 2017 e julho de 2018. Materiais e métodos: Estudo observacional, descritivo, transversal, caso-controle para estabelecer a relação entre o sinal do lóbulo fendido e a doença cardiovascular. Resultado: Fumar é um fator de risco diretamente associado à presença do sinal do lóbulo fendido (p = 0,047), pois há uma tendência maior para que ele apareça quanto maior a intensidade do fumo. A presença do sinal do lóbulo gera um risco relativo 2.062 vezes maior para eventos cardiovasculares do que para aqueles sem ele. Conclusão: A associação encontrada entre o sinal do lóbulo fendido, o tabagismo e a doença cardio-vascular é considerada como uma ferramenta facilmente identificável de uma população com maior risco para o desenvolvimento dessas patologias.

Hypertension , Risk , Atherosclerosis
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5): 550-556, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340050


Abstract Background: Sizeable proportion of patients have discordant low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (NHDL-C). It has been shown that discordance of LDL-C and NHDL-C either underestimates or overestimates coronary risk. Objectıve: We assessed whether this discordance has an impact on GRACE and TIMI risk scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the data of 198 consecutive patients with AMI. Fasting serum lipid profiles were recorded, GRACE and TIMI scores were calculated. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to LDL-C and NHDL-C percentiles: Discordant group: LDL-C<NHDL-C (n=38), concordant group: LDL-C=NHDL-C (n=112) and discordant group LDL-C>NHDL-C (n=48). GRACE and TIMI scores, mortality and cardiovascular events (heart failure, non-fatal myocardial infarction and angina) at sixth month were compared between these three groups. Differences between these groups were analyzed with One-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis rank test, and with chi-square for percentages. Also, post hoc LSD or Conover-Iman's non-parametric multiple comparison test were used. A p value <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: TIMI risk score didn't differ between discordant or concordant groups. Mean GRACE (death) and GRACE (death and MI) scores were higher in group with LDL-C<NHDL-C than with LDL-C=NHDL-C and LDL-C>NHDL-C (p=0.029 and 0.008, respectively). Cardiovascular events and mortality at sixth month were not different among groups (p=0.473 and p=0.176, respectively). Conclusion: GRACE score was higher in discordant group with LDL-C<NHDL-C, but there is no difference regarding TIMI scores between discordant and concordant groups in AMI patients.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 465-473, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339183


Resumo Fundamento As arritmias ventriculares (AVs) são a principal causa de mortalidade e morbidade hospitalar em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA) e sua relação com o tiol é desconhecida. Objetivo Investigar a relação entre os níveis plasmáticos de tióis e os níveis de troponina em pacientes com SCA e estimar o desenvolvimento de AV intra-hospitalar durante a internação. Método O estudo incluiu 231 pacientes consecutivos com SCA com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (SCA-SDST) e pacientes com SCA sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (SCA-SSDST). Após a aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, 191 pacientes foram incluídos na análise estatística. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: grupo SCA-SDST (n=94) e grupo SCA-SSDST (n=97). Os níveis plasmáticos de tiol, dissulfeto e troponina foram medidos e a razão de troponina para tiol nativo (RTTN) foi calculada. Considerou-se estatisticamente significativo um valor de p bilateral inferior a 0,05. Resultados Tiol nativo plasmático, tiol total, dissulfeto e suas razões foram semelhantes entre os grupos. A RTTN se mostrou significativamente maior no grupo SCA-SDST em comparação com o grupo SCA-SSDST. Houve correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis de troponina e tiol. Verificou-se que o tiol nativo é preditor independente do desenvolvimento de AV em pacientes com SCA-SDST e em todos os pacientes com SCA. Verificou-se que o RTTN é preditor independente do desenvolvimento de AV em pacientes com SCA-SSDST e em todos os pacientes com SCA. Conclusão Os níveis plasmáticos de tiol podem ser usados para identificar pacientes com alto risco de desenvolvimento de AV intra-hospitalar em pacientes com SCA. A correlação entre os níveis de troponina e tiol pode sugerir que os tióis possam ser marcadores importantes para o diagnóstico e prognóstico da SCA com a ajuda de estudos futuros.

Abstract Background Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are the main cause of in-hospital mortality and morbidity in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and its relationship with thiol is not known. Objective To investigate the relationship between plasma thiol levels and troponin levels in patients with ACS and to estimate in-hospital VA development during hospital stay. Method The study included 231 consecutive ST-segment elevation ACS (STE-ACS) and non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) patients. After application of exclusion criteria, 191 patients were included in the statistical analysis. Patients were classified into two groups: STE-ACS group (n=94) and NSTE-ACS group (n=97). Plasma thiol, disulphide and troponin levels were measured and troponin-to-native thiol ratio (TNTR) was calculated. A two-sided p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Plasma native thiol, total thiol, disulphide and their ratios were similar between the groups. TNTR was significantly higher in the STE-ACS group compared to the NSTE-ACS group. Troponin and thiol levels correlated negatively and significantly. Native thiol was found to be an independent predictor of VA development in STE-ACS patients and in all ACS patients. TNTR was found to be an independent predictor of VA development in NSTE-ACS patients and in all ACS patients. Conclusion Plasma thiol levels can be used to identify ACS patients at high risk for in-hospital VA development. Correlation between troponin and thiol levels may suggest that thiols may be an important marker for diagnosis and prognosis of ACS with the help of future studies.

Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Sulfhydryl Compounds , Troponin , Biomarkers , Hospitals
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e2134, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347515


Introducción: La aterosclerosis es la causa principal de enfermedad coronaria. Su presencia en la red vascular se manifiesta desde edades muy tempranas. Se asegura que está presente desde la vida intrauterina y se va haciendo cada vez mayor con el paso de los años, tanto por la acción del envejecimiento como por la presencia de otros factores que lo aceleran y perpetúan. La aterosclerosis subclínica es un término que debe ser usado para expresar que existe un grado de evidencia de lesión de la pared arterial sin expresión clínica. Objetivo: Identificar la presencia de aterosclerosis subclínica y su relación con factores de riesgo aterogénico. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo transversal en trabajadores del Centro Internacional de Salud CIS La Pradera entre enero y diciembre de 2019. Resultados: Se detectó aterosclerosis subclínica en 129 pacientes (32,7 por ciento). Se asoció con la hipertensión, la diabetes mellitus, la dislipidemia y el hábito de fumar. Conclusiones: La enfermedad subclínica estuvo presente en los trabajadores de la salud, aparentemente sanos y jóvenes, que tuvieron al menos un factor de riesgo para la enfermedad aterosclerótica(AU)

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary disease. Its presence in the vascular network is shown from very early age. It is ensured that it is present from intrauterine life and becomes larger and larger over the years, both due to the action of aging and the presence of other factors that accelerate and perpetuate it. Subclinical atherosclerosis is a term that should be used to express that there is a degree of evidence of arterial wall injury without clinical appearance. Objective: To identify the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis and its relationship with atherogenic risk factors. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in workers of La Pradera International Health Center from January to December 2019. Results: Subclinical atherosclerosis was detected in 129 subjects (32.7 percent). It was associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and smoking. Conclusions: Subclinical disease was present in health workers, apparently healthy and young, who had at least one risk factor for atherosclerotic disease(AU)

Humans , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Rev Bras Hiperten ; 28(3): 240-253, 20210910.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367769


Caso clínico de homem de 66 anos, branco, casado, porteiro, com antecedentes pessoais de hipertensão arterial (HA) e diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) diagnosticados há mais de tres anos e sem tratamento. Há dois anos teve infarto do miocárdio (IAM) por doença arterial coronária (DAC) e relatou cansaço aos grandes e moderados esforços. Desde então faz seguimento ambulatorial e tratamento da HA e do DM2 com medicações em doses otimizadas buscando-se sempre os alvos terapeuticos recomendados assim como de estatina potente e ácido acetil salicílico. Há aproximadamente um ano, teve o diagnóstico de doença arterial periférica (DAP) ao apresentar limitação por dor em membro inferior direito ao caminhar pequenas distâncias (100 m). Relatou cansaço progressivo até pequenos esforços há um ano e negou dispneia paroxística noturna, ortopneia e edemas. Na consulta ambulatorial, o quadro clínico foi caracterizado como insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e ao exame clínico a pressão arterial não estava controlada. Os exames laboratoriais solicitados mostraram que o diabetes e o perfil lipídico estavam fora das metas preconizadas. O ecocardiograma mostrou fração de ejeção reduzida. Foi associada medicação hipoglicemiante ao esquema terapêutico e feito ajuste da medicação anti-hipertensiva, o que resultou em melhores controles da HA, do DM2, além de melhora sintomática da IC. Foi reforçada a importância das medidas não farmacológicas, da aderência ao tratamento medicamentoso e um seguimento ambulatorial multiprofissional rigoroso está sendo realizado. Relatamos este caso, não pela sua raridade ou excepcionalidade, mas por tratar-se de sequência de eventos que frequentemente encontramos na nossa prática diária. Quando fatores de risco importantes como a HA e o DM2 são diagnosticados e tratados tardiamente a evolução é bastante desfavorável levando à progressão e agravamento da doença aterosclerótica e à IC

Clinical case of a 66-year-old white male, married, caretaker, with a personal history of arterial hypertension (AH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) diagnosed for more than three years and without treatment. Two years ago, he had a myocardial infarction (AMI) due to coronary artery disease (CAD) and reported fatigue on great and moderate efforts. Since then, he has been following up on an outpatient basis and treating AH and DM2 with medications at optimized doses, always seeking the recommended therapeutic targets, as well as a potent statin and acetylsalicylic acid. Approximately one year ago, he was diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) when he presented pain limitation in the right lower limb when walking short distances (100 m). He reported progressive tiredness to slight exertion for a year and denied paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea and edema. In the outpatient consultation, the clinical scenario was characterized as heart failure (HF) and on clinical examination, blood pressure was not controlled. The laboratory tests requested showed that diabetes and lipid profile were outside the recommended goals. The echocardiogram showed reduced ejection fraction. Hypoglycemic medication was associated with the therapeutic regimen and adjustments were made to the antihypertensive medication, which resulted in better control of AH and DM2, in addition to symptomatic improvement in HF. The importance of non-pharmacological measures, adherence to drug treatment, and strict multiprofessional outpatient follow-up was being carried out. We report this case, not because of its rarity or exceptionality, but because it is a sequence of events that we frequently encounter in our daily practice. When important risk factors such as AH and DM2 are diagnosed and treated late, the evolution is very unfavorable, leading to the progression and worsening of atherosclerotic disease and HF

Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(4): 383-392, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286828


Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in women and the accuracy of currently available risk scores is questionable. Objective To reclassify the risk estimated by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in asymptomatic middle-aged women by incorporating family history, exercise testing variables, and subclinical atherosclerosis markers. Methods This cross-sectional study included 509 women (age range, 46-65 years) without cardiovascular symptoms. Those at low or intermediate risk by the FRS were reclassified to a higher level considering premature family history of acute myocardial infarction and/or sudden death; four variables from exercise testing; and two variables related to subclinical atherosclerosis markers. The homogeneity of these variables according to the FRS was verified by Pearson chi-square test (p<0.05). Results According to the FRS, 80.2%, 6.2%, and 13.6% of the women were classified as low (<5%), intermediate (5-10%), and high (>10%) risks, respectively. The intermediate-risk stratum showed the highest increase (from 6.2% to 33.3%) with addition of family history; followed by addition of chronotropic index <80% (to 24.2%); functional capacity <85% (22.2%), coronary calcium score >0 (20.6%); decreased one-minute heart rate recovery ≤12 bpm (15.2%); carotid intima-media thickness >1 mm and/or carotid plaque (13.8%) and ST-segment depression (9.0%). The high-risk stratum increased to 14.4% with the addition of reduced heart rate recovery and to 17.1% with the coronary calcium score. Conclusion Incorporation of premature family history of cardiovascular events, exercise testing abnormal parameters, and subclinical atherosclerosis markers into the FRS led to risk reclassification in 3.0-29.7% of asymptomatic middle-aged women, mainly by an increase from low to intermediate risk.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 5-12, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285245


Resumo Fundamento A baixa escolaridade tem sido considerada um fator de risco modificável significativo para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares há bastante tempo. Apesar disso, ainda não se sabe muito sobre esse fator impactar ou não os desfechos após infarto do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST). Objetivo Investigar se a escolaridade é um fator de risco independente para mortalidade em pacientes com IAMCSST. Métodos Os pacientes com diagnóstico de IAMCSST foram consecutivamente incluídos em uma coorte prospectiva (Brasília Heart Study) e categorizados de acordo com os anos dos quartis de estudo (0-3, 4-5, 6-10 e >10 anos). Os grupos foram comparados pelo teste t de Student para variáveis contínuas e qui-quadrado para categóricas. A incidência de mortalidade por todas as causas foi comparada com Kaplan-Meyer com regressão de Cox ajustada por idade, sexo e escore GRACE. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. SPSS21.0 foi utilizado para todas as análises. Resultados A média de escolaridade foi de 6,63±4,94 anos. Durante o período de acompanhamento (média: 21 meses; até 6,8 anos), 83 pacientes vieram à óbito (mortalidade cumulativa de 15%). A taxa de mortalidade foi maior entre o quartil inferior em comparação com aqueles do quartil superior [18,5 vs. 6,8%; RR 2,725 (IC 95%: 1,27-5,83; p=0,01)]. Na análise multivariada, a baixa escolaridade perdeu significância estatística para mortalidade por todas as causas após ajuste para idade e sexo, com RR 1,305 (IC 95%: 0,538-3,16; p=0,556), e após ajuste pelo escore GRACE com RR 1,767 (IC 95%: 0,797-3,91; p=0,161). Conclusão Investigar se a escolaridade é um fator de risco independente para mortalidade em pacientes com IAMCSST.

Abstract Background Low schooling has been considered an important modifiable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease for a long time. Despite that, whether this factor impacts the outcomes following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is poorly understood. Objective To investigate whether schooling stands as an independent risk factor for mortality in STEMI patients. Methods STEMI-diagnosed patients were consecutively enrolled from a prospective cohort (Brasilia Heart Study) and categorized according to years of study quartiles (0-3, 4-5, 6-10 and >10 years). Groups were compared by student's t test for continuous variables and qui-square for categorical. Incidence of all-cause mortality was compared with Kaplan-Meyer with Cox regression adjusted by age, gender, and GRACE score. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. SPSS21.0 was used for all analysis. Results The mean schooling duration was 6.63±4.94 years. During the follow-up period (mean: 21 months; up to 6.8 years), 83 patients died (cumulative mortality of 15%). Mortality rate was higher among the lowest quartile compared to those in the highest quartile [18.5 vs 6.8%; HR 2.725 (95% CI: 1.27-5.83; p=0.01)]. In multivariate analysis, low schooling has lost statistical significance for all-cause mortality after adjustment for age and gender, with HR of 1.305 (95% CI: 0.538-3.16; p=0.556), and after adjustment by GRACE score with an HR of 1.767 (95% CI: .797-3.91; p=0.161). Conclusion Low schooling was not an independent risk factor for mortality in STEMI patients.

Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome