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Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 67(1): 3-18, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420105


ABSTRACT In individuals with very low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) cholesterol, such as Tangier disease, LCAT deficiency, and familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia, there is an increased risk of premature atherosclerosis. However, analyzes based on comparisons of populations with small variations in HDL-C mediated by polygenic alterations do not confirm these findings, suggesting that there is an indirect association or heterogeneity in the pathophysiological mechanisms related to the reduction of HDL-C. Trials that evaluated some of the HDL functions demonstrate a more robust degree of association between the HDL system and atherosclerotic risk, but as they were not designed to modify lipoprotein functionality, there is insufficient data to establish a causal relationship. We currently have randomized clinical trials of therapies that increase HDL-C concentration by various mechanisms, and this HDL-C elevation has not independently demonstrated a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, this evidence shows that (a) measuring HDL-C as a way of estimating HDL-related atheroprotective system function is insufficient and (b) we still do not know how to increase cardiovascular protection with therapies aimed at modifying HDL metabolism. This leads us to a greater effort to understand the mechanisms of molecular action and cellular interaction of HDL, completely abandoning the traditional view focused on the plasma concentration of HDL-C. In this review, we will detail this new understanding and the new horizon for using the HDL system to mitigate residual atherosclerotic risk.

Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 56: e12364, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420754


Current data shows that the autonomic and vascular systems can influence each other. However, only a few studies have addressed this association in the general population. We aimed to investigate whether heart rate variability (HRV) was associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We examined baseline data from 3138 participants (aged 35 to 74 years) without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment and had validated HRV recordings. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score>0, and HRV analyses were performed over 5-min segments. We detected CAC score>0 in 765 (24.4%) participants. Subgroup analyses in older participants (≥49 years) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables revealed that CAC score>0 was associated with lower values of standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) (odds ratio [OR]=1.32; 95%CI: 1.05,1.65), root mean square of successive differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) (OR=1.28; 95%CI: 1.02,1.61), and low frequency (LF) (OR=1.53, 95%CI: 1.21,1.92). Interaction analysis between HRV indices and sex in age-stratified groups revealed significant effect modification: women showed increased OR for prevalent CAC in the younger group, while for men, the associations were in the older group. In conclusion, participants aged ≥49 years with low SDNN, RMSSD, and LF values were more likely to present prevalent CAC, suggesting a complex interaction between these markers in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, our results suggested that the relationship between CAC and HRV might be sex- and age-related.

Clinics ; 78: 100154, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421265


Abstract Introduction: The association of diabetes with subclinical thyroid diseases may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We analyzed the association of subclinical hypothyroidism, diabetes, and both diseases with carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT) as a surrogate maker for early cardiovascular disease in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis with data from the 3rd visit (2017‒2019). Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association of subclinical hypothyroidism, diabetes and of both diseases with a cIMT presented as Beta (95% Confidence Interval - 95% CI) without adjustment, with adjustment for sociodemographic variables (Model 1) and multivariable adjustment (Model 1 more cardiovascular risk factors). We also used logistic regression models to analyze the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% CI for the association of both diseases using cIMT > P75%. Results: After the exclusion of patients with previous cardiovascular disease, 5,077 participants with no diseases, 1578 with diabetes, 662 with subclinical hypothyroidism, and 234 with both diseases were included in the analysis. Linear regression models showed an association of cIMT with only diabetes (β = 0.019; 95% CI 0.012 to 0.027; p < 0.0001) and subclinical hypothyroidism more diabetes (β = 0.03; 95% CI 0.010‒0.047, p < 0.0001). The logistic regression model reported an association between diabetes and CIMT higher than P75% (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.30‒1.71). No interaction between diabetes and subclinical hypothyroidism was detected using cIMT respectively as a continuous (p = 0.29) or as a categorical variable (p = 0.92). Discussion: Diabetes was associated with higher cIMT values. However, no additive effect of subclinical hypothyroidism associated with diabetes over cIMT was detected.

J. vasc. bras ; 22: e20220029, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422038


Abstract Background Determination of predictors that can affect development of atherosclerosis progression in the postoperative period is an urgent problem in vascular surgery. Objectives Integrated assessment of markers of apoptosis and cell proliferation in atherosclerotic lesions and their progression after surgery in patients with peripheral arterial diseases. Methods The investigation included 30 patients with stage IIB-III peripheral arterial disease. All patients have undergone open surgical interventions on the arteries of the aorto-iliac and femoral-popliteal segments. During these interventions, intraoperative specimens were obtained from the vascular wall with atherosclerotic lesions. The following values were evaluated: VEGF А165, PDGF BB, and sFas. Samples of normal vascular wall were obtained from post-mortem donors and used as a control group. Results The levels of Bax and p53 were increased (p<0.001) in samples from arterial wall with atherosclerotic plaque, while sFas values were reduced (p<0.001), compared to their levels in control samples. Values of PDGF BB and VEGF A165 were 1.9 and 1.7 times higher in atherosclerotic lesion samples (p=0.001), in comparison with the control group. The levels of p53 and Bax were increased against a background of reduced sFas levels in samples with progression of atherosclerosis compared to their baseline values in samples with atherosclerotic plaque (p<0.05). Conclusions Initially increased values of the Bax marker against a background of reduced sFas values in vascular wall samples from patients with peripheral arterial disease is associated with risk of atherosclerosis progression in the postoperative period.

Resumo Contexto A determinação de preditores que possam influenciar o desenvolvimento da progressão da aterosclerose no período pós-operatório é um problema urgente em cirurgia vascular. Objetivos Realizar uma avaliação integral de marcadores de apoptose e proliferação celular nas lesões ateroscleróticas e sua progressão após cirurgia em pacientes com doenças arteriais periféricas. Métodos A investigação incluiu 30 pacientes com doenças arteriais periféricas de estágio IIB-III. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a intervenções operatórias abertas nas artérias dos segmentos aorto-ilíaco e fêmoro-poplíteo. Durante a intervenção, foi obtido material intraoperatório da parede vascular com lesões ateroscleróticas. Foram avaliados os seguintes valores: VEGF A165, PDGF BB e sFas. Como grupo controle, amostras de parede vascular normal foram obtidas de doadores post-mortem. Resultados O nível de Bax e p53 (p < 0,001) em amostras de parede arterial com placa aterosclerótica estava elevado em meio a valores reduzidos de sFas (p < 0,001) em comparação ao grupo controle. Os valores de PDGF BB e VEGF A165 foram 1,9 e 1,7 vezes maiores, respectivamente, nas amostras com lesão aterosclerótica (p = 0,001) do que no grupo controle. O nível de Bax e p53 e Bax estava elevado no contexto de nível reduzido de sFas em amostras com progressão da aterosclerose em comparação com seus valores basais em amostras com placa aterosclerótica (p < 0,05). Conclusões Níveis inicialmente elevados do marcador Bax no contexto de valores reduzidos de sFas na parede vascular em pacientes com doença arterial periférica estão associados a risco de progressão da aterosclerose no período pós-operatório.

Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 41: e2021312, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422838


Abstract Objective: To analyze the lipid profile and cardiovascular risk of overweight and obese adolescents and correlate the findings with anthropometric measurements. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on overweight and obese adolescents of both sexes (aged 14 to 18 years old). The collected variables were sex, weight, height, age, total cholesterol, triglycerides, High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The Atherogenic Index of Plasma and Castelli Risk Indices I and II were calculated. These indices were classified into cutoff points to stratify cardiovascular risk. The anthropometric profile was evaluated by Z score according to Body Mass Index for age. Significance level was considered as p≤0.05. Results: A total of 146 adolescents participated in the study; the mean age was 16.4±1.1 years and most of them were girls (74.7%) and obese (52.7%). The prevalent dyslipidemias were high triglycerides (47.9%), LDL (26.7%), total cholesterol (37.7%), and low HDL (46.6%). Most adolescents presented increased atherogenic risk according to the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (55.5%); 15.1% presented high cardiovascular risk according to Castelli Risk Index I; and 13.7%, according to Castelli Risk Index II. Boys presented higher values of anthropometric measurements and Castelli Risk Indices I and II in relation to girls — who, conversely, presented higher values of HDL. There was a positive correlation of the Z score with Atherogenic Index of Plasma and a negative correlation with HDL. Conclusions: The adolescents of the study presented high prevalence of cardiovascular and atherogenic risk according to the evaluated indices. In addition, the increased cardiovascular risk was correlated with higher Body Mass Index.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o perfil lipídico e os índices de risco cardiovascular de adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade e correlacionar os achados com medidas antropométricas. Métodos: Estudo transversal com adolescentes com sobrepeso ou obesidade de ambos os sexos (14 a 18 anos). Foram coletadas as variáveis: sexo, peso, altura, idade, colesterol total, triglicerídeos, lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-c) e lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-c). Calcularam-se o índice aterogênico plasmático e os índices de Castelli I e II. Eles foram classificados em pontos de corte para estratificar o risco cardiovascular. O perfil antropométrico foi avaliado por meio do escore Z com base no índice de massa corporal para a idade. Considerou-se o nível de significância p≤0,05. Resultados: Foram incluídos 146 adolescentes, com média de idade de 16,4±1,1 anos, a maioria do sexo feminino (74,7%) e obesa (52,7%). As dislipidemias prevalentes foram: triglicerídeos (47,9%), LDL-c (26,7%), colesterol total (37,7%) elevado e HDL-c baixo (46,6%). A maioria apresentou risco aterogênico aumentado pelo índice aterôgenico plasmático (55,5%); 15,1% apresentaram alto risco cardiovascular segundo o índice de Castelli I e 13,7%, segundo o índice de Castelli II. Os meninos apresentaram valores superiores de medidas antropométricas e índices de Castelli I e II em relação às meninas, que, por outro lado, apresentaram valores superiores de HDL-c. Houve correlação positiva do escore Z com o índice aterôgenico plasmático e negativa com HDL-c. Conclusões: Os adolescentes do estudo apresentaram alta prevalência de risco cardiovascular e aterogênico conforme os índices avaliados. Além disso, o risco cardiovascular aumentado foi correlacionado com maior índice de massa corporal.

Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 36: e20220007, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430496


Abstract Background: Monocytes are essential components in inflammatory signaling, and their recruitment is crucial in the signaling pathway, which directs and determines cell adhesion to the activated endothelium. A better understanding of the correlation between monocyte subsets and inflammatory signaling in patients with atherosclerotic disease in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is essential for the development of more effective therapies for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To analyze differences between biomarkers and monocyte activation in the setting of ischemic heart disease. Methods: This was a case-control study comparing biomarkers and monocyte subsets between patients with ACS with and without ST-segment elevation and individuals without coronary stenosis. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess differences between groups, and Dunn's post hoc test was used to identify which groups were different. Cuzick's test for ordered group trends was used to assess falling or rising trends. Participants were classified into 3 groups: control (0); non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (1); ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) D1 (2). Results: Forty-seven patients with ACS and 19 controls with no obstructive lesions on coronary angiography were recruited. Monocyte profile assessment was statistically different regarding time of symptom onset and the presence or absence of atherosclerotic disease (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.0009). Dunn's post hoc test showed a significant difference between the control group and the STEMI D1 (p = 0.0014), STEMI D3 (p = 0.0036), and STEMI D7 (p = 0.0195) groups, corresponding to a 2-fold increase in classical (p = 0.0022) and nonclassical (p = 0.0031) monocytes compared with controls. For classical monocytes, there was a difference between the control group and all STEMI groups and between the NSTEMI group and the STEMI D1, D3, and D7 groups. For nonclassical monocytes, there was a difference between the control group and the STEMI D7 group (p = 0.0056) and between the NSTEMI group and the STEMI D7 group (p = 0.0166). Conclusion: This study found that there was an increase in total and classical monocyte mobilization at the time of acute myocardial infarction in patients with ACS.

Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246385, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339384


Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.

Resumo A doença coronariana (DCC) tem sido associada a significativa morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Embora ainda sejam controversos, vários estudos têm demonstrado a associação de infecções por M. pneumoniae com aterosclerose. Avaliamos a possível associação de infecções por micoplasma em pacientes com diagnóstico de aterosclerose pelos métodos ELISA e PCR. Amostras de tecido aterosclerótico e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a detecção de anticorpos contra micoplasma (IgA) por ELISA de 97 pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). IgA, IgG e IgM específicos para M. pneumoniae foram medidos usando o Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA / IgG / IgM ELISA. A detecção de M. pneumoniae visando o gene de adesão P1 foi realizada por PCR. A infecção aguda por M. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada em 43,3% (42) dos pacientes pela PCR. Os anticorpos específicos para M. pneumoniae foram detectados em 36,1% (35) dos pacientes. Vinte e cinco (25,8%) casos tinham anticorpos IgG, 15 (15,5%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM, 3 (3,1%) casos tinham anticorpos IgA, 10 (10,3%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM + IgG e 1 (1%) caso de cada um tinha anticorpos IgM + IgA e IgG + IgA. Nenhum dos casos foi positivo para os três anticorpos. A análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson revelou uma excelente correlação entre o PCR e os resultados sorológicos (r = 0,921, p < 0,001). A maioria (17, 40,5%) dos pacientes positivos para M. pneumoniae está na faixa etária de 41-50 anos, seguida por 10 (23,8%) pacientes na faixa etária de 61-70 anos e 2 (4,8%) pacientes tinham > 70 anos de idade. Nosso estudo relatou uma prevalência incomumente maior de M. pneumoniae por testes sorológicos (36,1%) e PCR (43,3%). Embora a hipótese da associação de M. pneumoniae e DAC ainda não tenha sido comprovada, a prevalência incomumente alta de M. pneumoniae em pacientes com DAC indica uma associação, se não, no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence , Antibodies, Bacterial , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 139-148, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964294


This study investigated the intervention effect of Guanxinning Tablet on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injury induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), providing experimental basis for Guanxinning Tablet in the treatment of atherosclerosis-related diseases. Under the damage of HUVECs by ox-LDL, the cell viability was detected by CCK-8 (cell counting kit-8) assay; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the cell culture supernatant was detected by the corresponding kit; the cell morphology of different groups was observed by common phase contrast microscope; reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO levels in the cells were detected by DCFH-DA and DAF-FM DA probes, respectively; monocyte adhesion assay was used to detect the recruitment of THP-1 in HUVECs, and TMRM dye was used to detect the level of mitochondrial membrane potential; interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion in the cells was detected by ELISA assay. The results showed that Guanxinning Tablet had a concentration-dependent proliferative effect on HUVECs. Under the stimulation of 100 μg·mL-1 ox-LDL, the morphology of endothelial cells was significantly changed. At this time, NO level was significantly decreased, ROS level was significantly increased and accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. The recruitment of THP-1 cells by endothelial cells and IL-6, ICAM-1 and MCP-1 were also significantly increased, resulting in oxidative stress and inflammatory injury. Guanxinning Tablet and its composed extracts could significantly improve cell morphology, increase NO level, decrease ROS production, and also reduce the secretion of inflammation-related proteins IL-6 and MCP-1. Salvia miltiorrhiza and Ligusticum striatum DC. have significant synergistic effects on NO. Among them, salvianolic acid B and salvianic acid A exerted the main effects, and the combined efficacy of salvianic acid A and ferulic acid was superior to that of single administration. The above results showed that Guanxinning Tablet and their active substances had the effects of improving endothelial basal function, resisting oxidative stress, and alleviating inflammatory injury, and Salvia miltiorrhiza and Ligusticum striatum DC. synergized, which may be related to their regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation and have application prospects in the treatment of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 223-227, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-959752


OBJECTIVE To provide reference for the management of antithrombotic therapy in thrombocytopenia patients with atrial fibrillation and atherosclerosis. METHODS The clinical pharmacist participated in the treatment of a thrombocytopenia patient with atrial fibrillation and atherosclerosis, and analyzed the causes of thrombocytopenia according to the patient’s medical history and laboratory examination results. At the same time, the risk of thrombosis-bleeding was evaluated according to the relevant guidelines, and the clinicians were assisted in formulating individual antithrombotic therapy plan and pharmaceutical care plan for the patient. The literature on antithrombotic therapy related to thrombocytopenia was collected and analyzed by retrieving CNKI. RESULTS Thrombocytopenia was considered as primary thrombocytopenia in this patient, and the main risk of bleeding was age ≥65 years old, bleeding tendency, and combined use of antithrombotic drugs. After the clinical pharmacist assessed the risk of thrombosis and bleeding, the clinician was recommended to give full dose of Bemiheparin sodium injection + Dronedarone hydrochloride tablets + Metoprolol succinate sustained-release tablets. In view of thrombocytopenia, the clinician gave Compound zaofan pill, Caffeic acid tablet and Sheng xuexiaoban capsule, but the patient developed diarrhea after the medication. The clinical pharmacist suggested stopping Sheng xuexiaoban capsule, and the clinician adopted the clinical pharmacist’s suggestion. When the patient was discharged from hospital, the clinical pharmacist suggested that the antithrombotic therapy plan for discharge was anticoagulation alone or selective anticoagulation. The clinician chose selective anticoagulation treatment considering that the patient’s current thrombocytopenia, urinary occult blood (+) and fecal occult blood were weakly positive, and ordered the patient to take Metoprolol succinate sustained-release tablets + Atorvastatin calcium tablets at discharge. Literature analysis showed that the causes of thrombocytopenia of patients with thromboembolism mainly included heparin induced-thrombocytopenia, immune thrombocytopenia, etc. All patients were improved after symptomatic treatment. CONCLUSIONS By participating in the management of antithrombotic therapy for the thrombocytopenia patient with atrial fibrillation and atherosclerosis, clinical pharmacists can help effectively control the patient’s condition and ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug use.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953773


@#Obesity, sleep disorders, psychological stress, sedentary are modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. There is growing evidence that these risk factors may accelerate the chronic inflammatory process of atherosclerosis and lead to myocardial infarction. Studies on the role of immune cells and their related immune mechanisms in atherosclerosis have shown that the above modifiable risk factors can affect the hematopoiesis of the bone marrow system, affect the production of immune cells and phenotypes, and then affect the progress of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on the effects of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors on the progression of atherosclerosis through the role of the innate immune system.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-944562


@#Periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious and inflammatory disease occurring in tooth-supporting tissues. In recent decades, many studies have reported a potential relationship between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease, and periodontal pathogens are an important factor linking periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize updated preclinical studies and epidemiological evidence on the association of these two diseases. Moreover, possible mechanisms accounting for such links are introduced, including bacteremia and direct invasion of pathogens, endotoxemia caused by virulence factors of periodontal pathogens leading to systemic inflammation, abnormal lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, which further affect the inflammatory states of the cardiovascular system. The molecular mimicry theory and the intrinsic correlation of apolipoprotein E between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease require further study. Combined with existing studies, it is reasonable to assume that periodontal treatment and oral hygiene can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with periodontitis. More studies are needed to focus on the molecular mechanism linking periodontal pathogens and cardiovascular diseases. These studies will provide evidence that periodontal pathogens directly invade the cardiovascular system or indirectly invade host cells as well as isolate and culture bacteria from the tissues of lesions. Studies should also explore how the local inflammatory state, periodontal pathogens and their products directly influence cardiovascular disease-related biomarkers (C-reactive protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, heat shock protein, etc.) and the mechanism. This information may provide a reference for the effective prevention and treatment of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease in the future.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(6): 931-937, dez. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420121


Resumo Fundamento A estenose coronária pode ser causada por de novo aterosclerose, reestenose intra-stent e neoaterosclerose intra-stent, três entidades que se desenvolvem a partir de diversos meios fisiopatológicos. Objetivos Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar, por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT), se as lesões coronarianas relacionadas a esses processos diferem em seu perfil inflamatório local. Métodos Análise retrospectiva de pacientes com lesões coronárias diagnosticadas ou suspeitas que realizaram exames de OCT por motivos clínicos. Macrófagos e neovascularização intraplaca foram avaliados por OCT e utilizados como marcadores de inflamação local. O nível de significância < 0,05 foi adotado como estatisticamente significante. Resultados Das 121 lesões, 74 eram de novo , 29 eram reestenose e 18 eram neoaterosclerose. Neovascularização foi encontrada em 65,8% das de novo , 10,3% na reestenose e 94,4% na neoaterosclerose (p<0,01 para todos). O volume de neovascularização foi diferente entre os tipos de lesão (950 vs. 0 vs. 6.220, respectivamente [valores medianos em 1000 x µm 3 /mm]; p<0,01 para todos), sendo significativamente maior na neoaterosclerose e menor na reestenose. A presença de macrófagos diferiu entre as lesões (95,9% em de novo vs. 6,9% em reestenose vs. 100% em neoaterosclerose [p<0,01 para todos]). Além disso, a intensidade da infiltração macrofágica foi diferente entre os tipos de lesão (2,5 vs. 0,0 vs. 4,5, respectivamente [valores medianos do escore de macrófagos]; p<0,01 para todos), significativamente maior na neoaterosclerose e menor na reestenose. Conclusões Quando comparados pela OCT coronariana, de novo , reestenose intra-stent e neoaterosclerose apresentaram fenótipos inflamatórios marcadamente diferentes.

Abstract Background Coronary stenosis can be caused de novo atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, and in-stent neoatherosclerosis, three entities that develop from a diverse pathophysiological milieu. Objective This study aims to investigate, using optical coherence tomography (OCT), whether or not coronary lesions related to these processes differ in their local inflammatory profile. Methods Retrospective analysis of patients with diagnosed or suspected coronary lesions who had undergone OCT imaging for clinical reasons. Macrophage and intra-plaque neovascularization were assessed by OCT and used as surrogates of local inflammation. A significance level of < 0.05 was adopted as statistically significant. Results From the 121 lesions, 74 were de novo, 29 were restenosis, and 18 were neoatherosclerosis. Neovascularization was found in 65.8% of de novo, 10.3% in restenosis, and 94.4% in neoatherosclerosis (p<0.01 for all). The volume of neovascularization was different among lesion types (950 vs. 0 vs. 6220, respectively [median values in 1000 x µm3/mm]; p<0.01 for all), which were significantly higher in neoatherosclerosis and lower in restenosis. The presence of macrophages differed among the lesions (95.9% in de novo vs. 6.9% in restenosis vs. 100% in neoatherosclerosis [p<0.01 for all]). Moreover, the intensity of macrophagic infiltration was different among lesion types (2.5 vs. 0.0 vs. 4.5, respectively [median values of macrophage score]; p<0.01 for all), significantly higher in neoatheroscleosis and lower in restenosis. Conclusion When compared using coronary OCT, de novo atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, and neoatherosclerosis presented markedly different inflammatory phenotypes.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(6): 912-920, dez. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420132


Resumo Fundamento O aumento no volume de gordura epicárdica (VGE) está relacionado com doença arterial coronariana (DAC), independentemente de gordura visceral ou subcutânea. O mecanismo dessa associação não é claro. O escore de cálcio coronariano (CC) e a disfunção endotelial estão relacionados com eventos coronarianos, mas não está bem esclarecido se o VGE está relacionado com esses marcadores. Objetivos Avaliar a associação entre VGE medido por método automatizado, fatores de risco cardiovasculares, escore de CC, e função endotelial. Métodos: Em 470 participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto LSA-Brasil com medidas de VGE, escore de CC e função endotelial, realizamos modelos multivariados para avaliar a relação entre fatore de risco cardiovascular e VGE (variável resposta), e entre VGE (variável explicativa), e função endotelial ou escore de CC. Valor de p<0,05 bilateral foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados A idade média foi 55 ± 8 anos, e 52,3% dos pacientes eram homens. O VGE médio foi 111mL (86-144), e a prevalência de escore de CC igual a zero foi 55%. Nas análises multivariadas, um VGE mais alto relacionou-se com sexo feminino, idade mais avançada, circunferência da cintura, e triglicerídeos (p<0,001 para todos). Um VGE mais alto foi associado com pior função endotelial: em comparação ao primeiro quartil, os valores de odds ratio para a amplitude de pulso basal foram (q2=1,22; IC95% 1,07-1,40; q3=1,50, IC95% 1,30-1,74; q4=1,50, IC95% 1,28-1,79) e para a razão de tonometria arterial periférica foram (q2=0,87; IC95% 0,81-0,95; q3=0,86, IC95% 0,79-0,94; q4=0,80, IC95% 0,73-0,89), mas não com escore de CC maior que zero. Conclusão Um VGE mais alto associou-se com comprometimento da função endotelial, mas não com escore de CC. Os resultados sugerem que o VGE esteja relacionado ao desenvolvimento de DAC por uma via diferente da via do CC, possivelmente pela piora da disfunção endotelial e doença microvascular.

Abstract Background The increase in epicardial fat volume (EFV) is related to coronary artery disease (CAD), independent of visceral or subcutaneous fat. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and endothelial dysfunction are related to coronary events, but whether EFV is related to these markers needs further clarification. Objectives To evaluate the association between automatically measured EFV, cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and endothelial function. Methods In 470 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) with measures of EFV, CAC score and endothelial function, we performed multivariable models to evaluate the relation between cardiovascular risk factors and EFV (response variable), and between EFV (explanatory variable) and endothelial function variables or CAC score. Two-sided p <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Mean age was 55 ± 8 years, 52.3% of patients were men. Mean EFV was 111mL (IQ 86-144), and the prevalence of CAC score=0 was 55%. In the multivariable analyses, increased EFV was related to female sex, older age, waist circumference, and triglycerides (p<0.001 for all). Higher EFV was associated with worse endothelial function: as compared with the first quartile, the odds ratio for basal pulse amplitude were (q2=1.22, 95%CI 1.07-1.40; q3=1.50, 95%CI 1.30-1.74; q4=1.50, 95%CI 1.28-1.79) and for peripheral arterial tonometry ratio were (q2=0.87, 95%CI 0.81-0.95; q3=0.86, 95%CI 0.79-0.94; q4=0.80, 95%CI 0.73-0.89), but not with CAC score>0. Conclusion Higher EFV was associated with impaired endothelial function, but not with CAC. The results suggest that EFV is related to the development of CAD through a pathway different from the CAC pathway, possibly through aggravation of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease.

Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(6): 784-793, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405208


Abstract Background Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease may be more likely to develop atherogenic cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Therefore, the early identification of risk factors and intervention in childhood may be crucial for a good quality of life and longevity. Objectives To describe the distribution of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and its association with socioeconomic, clinical and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease. Methods Cross-sectional study with children and adolescents aged between 5 and 18 years, with congenital heart disease. Socioeconomic, clinical and cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated. HDL-c concentrations were evaluated by the direct method and categorized as desirable (>45 mg/dL), borderline (40-45 mg/dL) and low (<40 mg/dL). We also assessed the "undesirable" levels, consisting of the sum of "borderline" and "low" values for comparative purposes. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the factor associated with undesirable HDL-c levels. A p<0.05 value was adopted as statistically significant. Results Mean HDL-c was 51.2 mg/dL (SD 12.6), with a prevalence of 33.2% of undesirable HDL-c. In the multivariate analysis, C-reactive protein levels ≥ 3mg/dL (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.32-8.04), age ≥ 10 years old (OR: 2.11; 95% CI 1.12-3.99) and undesirable levels of triglycerides (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.13-4.75) were associated with undesirable HDL-c. Conclusion In this sample of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease, almost one third presented low or borderline HDL-c levels. Age ≥10 years, C-reactive protein and triglycerides were associated with undesirable HDL-c levels. These factors should be considered in the prevention of cerebrovascular diseases in adulthood in this population.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(6): 947-950, dic. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422091


Resumen Se presenta un caso de infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST en una paciente de 22 años de edad, con LES, HTA y nefropatía a la cual se le realizó angioplastia coronaria exitosa a tercio medio de arteria descendente anterior. Evolucionó sin signos de insuficiencia cardiaca, sin embargo, debido al retraso en el diagnóstico presentó deterioro grave de la función ventricular. El infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del ST es un evento muy poco frecuente en mujeres pre menopáusicas pero, en comparación con la población general las pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico presentan al menos un 50% más de riesgo de padecerlo independientemente de la edad. En esta población, las etiologías más frecuentes son la vasculitis, la aterosclerosis precoz y la trombosis secundaria a síndrome antifosfolipídico. A su vez, en contexto de lupus, se han descripto condiciones como la presencia de nefritis lúpica, que favorecen aún más a la aparición del infarto de miocardio, constituyendo subgrupos de mayor riesgo. El incremento del riesgo de IAM en los pacientes con LES debe tenerse en cuenta y hay que sospechar como diagnóstico diferencial del dolor precordial aún en mu jeres jóvenes, incluso menores de 25 años, población categorizada como de bajo riesgo cardiovascular según los scores y criterios tradicionales. Esto evitaría las demoras en el diagnóstico y tratamiento con consecuencias pronósticas adversas como la necrosis miocárdica extensa y su impacto negativo sobre la función sistólica ventricular como ocurrió en esta paciente.

Abstract We repor a case of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction in a 22-year-old patient with SLE, hypertension and nephropathy who underwent successful coronary angioplasty to a middle third of the left an terior descending artery. She evolved without signs of heart failure however, due to the delay in diagnosis, she presented severe deterioration of ventricular function. ST segment elevation myocardial infarction is a very rare event in young premenopausal women, but compared to the general population, patients with lupus have at least a 50% higher risk of suffering it regardless their age. In this population, the most frequent causes are vasculitis, early atherosclerosis and secondary thrombosis to antiphospholipid syndrome. In the context of lupus, conditions such as the presence of nephritis have been described as favoring the appearance of myocardial infarction, constituting subgroups of higher risk. The increased risk of AMI in patients with SLE must be taken into account and must be suspected as a differential diagnosis of precordial pain in young women, even those under 25 years of age, a population categorized as having low CV risk according to traditional scores. This would avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment with adverse consequences such as extensive myocardial necrosis and its impact on ventricular systolic function, as occurred in this patient.