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1.
Rev. colomb. ortop. traumatol ; 36(1): 55-59, 2022. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1378811

ABSTRACT

La tortícolis es una contractura involuntaria unilateral del esternocleidomastoideo y de la musculatura posterior del cuello que causa la inclinación de la cabeza hacia un lado. Se han descrito múltiples causas de torticolis siendo una de ellas la subluxación atloaxoidea atraumática asociada a un proceso de carácter inflamatorio en la región de cabeza y cuello, llamada síndrome de Grisel. Aunque la mayoría de los pacientes suelen recuperarse sin secuelas tras tratamiento médico existe la posibilidad de complicaciones graves con déficits funcionales, de ahí la importancia de la realización de un diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz.


Torticollis is an unilateral involuntary contracture of the sternocleidomastoid and posterior neck musculature that causes the head tilts to the one side. Multiple causes of torticolis have been described, one of them being the non-traumatic rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint associated with an inflammatory process in the head and neck region, called Grisel's syndrome. Although most patients usually recover without sequels after medical treatment, there is the possibility of serious complications with functional deficits, that is why the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment of this potology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Torticollis , Atlanto-Axial Joint , Cervical Atlas , Axis, Cervical Vertebra
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2252-2267, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929389

ABSTRACT

Aristolochic acids (AAs) have long been considered as a potent carcinogen due to its nephrotoxicity. Aristolochic acid I (AAI) reacts with DNA to form covalent aristolactam (AL)-DNA adducts, leading to subsequent A to T transversion mutation, commonly referred as AA mutational signature. Previous research inferred that AAs were widely implicated in liver cancer throughout Asia. In this study, we explored whether AAs exposure was the main cause of liver cancer in the context of HBV infection in mainland China. Totally 1256 liver cancer samples were randomly retrieved from 3 medical centers and a refined bioanalytical method was used to detect AAI-DNA adducts. 5.10% of these samples could be identified as AAI positive exposure. Whole genome sequencing suggested 8.41% of 107 liver cancer patients exhibited the dominant AA mutational signature, indicating a relatively low overall AAI exposure rate. In animal models, long-term administration of AAI barely increased liver tumorigenesis in adult mice, opposite from its tumor-inducing role when subjected to infant mice. Furthermore, AAI induced dose-dependent accumulation of AA-DNA adduct in target organs in adult mice, with the most detected in kidney instead of liver. Taken together, our data indicate that AA exposure was not the major threat of liver cancer in adulthood.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904722

ABSTRACT

Objective @# To observe the clinical significance of miR-135b-5p in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and to conduct a bioinformatics analysis of its predicted target genes.@*Methods @#The expression levels of miR-135b-5p in OSCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were compared using data from TCGA and GEO databases, and the correlations of miR-135b-5p expression level with clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. Fresh tissues were collected in the clinic, and the expression of miR-135b-5p was verified by quantitative real-time PCR. The target genes with enriched pathways were analyzed by using bioinformatics methods. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed to screen hub genes.@*Results @#The expression levels of miR-135b-5p were significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.001) and had a good diagnostic capability (AUC=0.960, P < 0.001). The expression level of miR-135b-5p was positively correlated with histopathological grading (P=0.011). Enrichment analyses revealed that the target genes of miR-135b-5p were significantly associated with tumor-related signaling pathways, such as the calcium signaling pathway, the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway and the cAMP signaling pathway. Ten core target genes were obtained by screening: DLG2, ANK3, ERBB4, SCN2B, NBEA, GABRB2, ATP2B2, SNTA1, CACNA1D, and SPTBN4.@*Conclusion@#miR-135b-5p may act as an oncogene miRNA in OSCC and has the potential value of acting as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for OSCC.

4.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 675-684, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932880

ABSTRACT

Objective:To introduce a novel technique note about anterior decompression through transoral axis slide and rotation osteotomy (ASRO) and identify its imaging parameters related to osteotomy, and to explore its clinical application value.Methods:CT data of cervical spine of 90 subjects were collected, including 54 males and 36 females. The age ranged from 26 to 72 years, with an average age of 48.7 years. The Mimics software was used to reconstruct the atlantoaxial three-dimensional model. We plan to perform osteotomy on both sides of the axis of the vertebral body in the anteroposterior direction and the ASRO related anatomical parameters were measured, including the minimum osteotomy angle, the maximum osteotomy angle, the minimum and maximumdistance between the osteotomy trajectory and the inner side of the articular surface, the length of the upper articular surface of the axis side mass, the depth of osteotomy at the highest point and lowest point of the axial osteotomy surface and the minimum osteotomy depth. A 56-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to atlantoaxial dislocation with failure of occipital-cervical fusion, difficulty walking, weakness and hypoaesthesia in four limbs. Imaging revealed that narrow space between the transversal walking wire and upper-posterior of the odontoid process, compressing the spinal cord from the front and the back respectively. The ASRO technique was performed on the patient under neuro-electrophysiological monitoring, and the osteotomy angle, osteotomy depth, narrowest width of the upper cervical spinal canal, the medullary, spinal cord angle were measured and Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scores (JOA) cervical myelopathy evaluation were performed after the operation to evaluate the surgical treatment effect.Results:The minimum osteotomy angle and the maximum osteotomy angle was 14.7°± 4.36° and 33.0°± 8.67°. The minimum and maximumdistance between the osteotomy trajectory and the inner side of the articular surface, and the length of the upper articular surface of the axis side mass was 6.0±1.80 mm, 12.2±3.17 mm, and 17.2±1.90 mm, the ratio of the former two to the latter was 34%±8.7% and 70%± 15.0%. The depth of osteotomy at the upper edge, lower edge and narrowest place of the axial osteotomy surface were 6.0±1.80 mm, 12.2±3.17 mm and 17.2±1.90 mm. The postoperative imaging of the patient showed that the osteotomy angle was 17.1° on left side and 16.5° on right side, and the depth of osteotomy at the upper edge, lower edge and narrowest place of the axial osteotomy surface were 17.1 mm, 13.2 mm, and 9.1 mm on left side, and 17.4 mm, 11.8 mm, 8.46 mm on right side. All measured values met the ranges which were shown in the imaging anatomical study. The narrowest width of the upper cervical spinal canal increased from 6.58 mm to 15.28 mm, the medullary spinal cord angle increased from 131.7° to 153.8°postoperatively, and the cervical spine JOA score recovered from 6 points to 14 points, suggesting that the postoperative spinal canal space is obvious increased, the compression on the front of the spinal cord was significantly reduced. The patient's symptoms improved significantly.Conclusion:ASRO technique is a good choice for salvage of failed posterior occipitocervical fusion and some irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation because of the anterior bony fusion. It could direct decompress the spinal cord anteriorly, avoid the odontoid resection, which is a safe and feasible new technique.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928348

ABSTRACT

Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is a kind of life-threatening atlantoaxial structural instability and a series of neurological dysfunction caused by common multidisciplinary diseases. The operation risk is extremely high because it is adjacent to the medulla oblongata and the location is deep. With the increase of the number of operations in the upper cervical region, postoperative complications such as failure of internal fixation, non fusion of bone graft and poor prognosis gradually increase.Incomplete primary operation, non fusion of bone graft, infection and congenital malformation are the potential causes. In addition, considering the objective factors such as previous graft, scar formation and anatomical marks changes, revision surgery is further difficult. However, there is currently no standard or single effective revision surgery method. Simple anterior surgery is an ideal choice in theory, but it has high risk and high empirical requirements for the operator;simple posterior surgery has some defects, such as insufficient reduction and decompression;anterior decompression combined with posterior fixation fusion is a more reasonable surgical procedure, but many problems such as posterior structural integrity and multilevel fusion need to be considered.This article reviews the causes and strategies of AAD revision surgery.


Subject(s)
Atlanto-Axial Joint/surgery , Humans , Joint Dislocations/surgery , Joint Instability/surgery , Reoperation/adverse effects , Spinal Fusion/methods , Treatment Outcome
6.
Saúde Redes ; 7(Supl. 2): 35-44, 20211201.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367114

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho tem como objetivo elaborar um de aprendizagem para o curso de Medicina Legal propondo o estabelecimento de inovações no desenho dos métodos de aprendizagem dos alunos do terceiro período do curso de Direito de uma universidade privada no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O material elaborado foi um Atlas de Medicina Legal, que propõe a expansão da possibilidade de aprendizagem através de exposição a imagens aos graduandos em Direito, como processo de apreensão dos apontamentos essenciais da Medicina Legal, normalmente restrita a atividades presenciais, limitando possibilidades do debate, essencial no estudo e o alcance do efetivo conhecimento pelos discentes. O material proposto demanda que os alunos utilizem as informações sobre a origem de cada um dos conceitos apresentados no Atlas sobre Medicina Legal, formem o primeiro conjunto de dados empíricos que ratifica o potencial dessa nova abordagem. Esta proposta se soma aos procedimentos já tradicionais de leitura e avaliação para fins de aprendizagem. Um resultado associado ao procedimento proposto foi a possibilidade do professor também avaliar o seu plano de ensino, verificando como os alunos poderão articular e concentrar os conceitos apresentados pelas imagens, formulando, ao final, um atlas com todo o conteúdo aplicado em sala de aula, além da complementação pesquisada, formulando e instruindo uma associação do meio jurídico à Medicina Legal.

7.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(2): 144-148, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249661

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The treatment of C1-C2 rotatory dislocation remains controversial and surgery is rare. Surgical treatment is indicated when the injury satisfies the instability criteria or when it cannot be reduced. The objective of this study is to analyze the principles and the adaptations necessary for treating these injuries in the pediatric population. Methods: A retrospective case series study. Three cases of patients diagnosed with traumatic C1-C2 rotatory dislocation and treated surgically in our hospital were studied. Through critical analysis of the available literature, a practical guide was proposed to establish the principles and competencies for the treatment of these injuries. Results: The operated cases were female patients between 8 and 16 years of age, with a diagnosis of traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation. Two patients required preoperative skeletal traction with halo. All patients underwent posterior instrumented arthrodesis, two with a transarticular screw technique and one with mass and C2 isthmic (Göel-Harms) screws. Conclusion:. It is essential to determine if the injury is stable and reducible. We recommend treating this type of injury keeping the criteria and competencies related to the stability, alignment, biology and function of the spine in mind. Level of evidence IV; Case series.


RESUMO Objetivo: O tratamento da luxação rotacional de C1-C2 permanece controverso, e a cirurgia é rara. O tratamento cirúrgico é indicado quando a lesão satisfaz os critérios de instabilidade ou quando não pode ser reduzida. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os princípios e a adequação necessários para tratar essas lesões na população pediátrica. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos. Foram estudados três casos em pacientes tratados cirurgicamente em nosso hospital com diagnóstico de luxação rotacional traumática de C1-C2. Por meio de análise crítica da literatura disponível, foi proposto um guia prático para estabelecer os princípios e a adequação do tratamento dessas lesões. Resultados: Os casos submetidos à cirurgia foram pacientes do sexo feminino, entre 8 e 16 anos de idade, com diagnóstico de luxação atlantoaxial traumática. Duas pacientes precisaram de tração esquelética pré-operatória com halo. Todas as pacientes foram submetidas à artrodese instrumentada por via posterior, duas com técnica de parafuso transarticular e uma com parafusos de massa e pedículo e lâmina em C2 (técnica de Göel-Harms). Conclusões: É essencial determinar se a lesão é estável e se pode ser reduzida. Recomenda-se tratar esse tipo de lesão tendo em mente os critérios e a adequação relacionados com estabilidade, alinhamento, biologia e função da coluna vertebral. Nível de evidência IV; Série de casos.


RESUMEN Objetivo: El tratamiento de la luxación rotatoria de C1-C2 permanece controversial y la cirugía es rara. Se indica tratamiento quirúrgico cuándo la lesión cumple criterios de inestabilidad o cuándo es considerada irreductible. El objetivo de este estudio es revisar los principios y competencias necesarios para tratar esas lesiones en la población pediátrica. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de serie de casos. Se estudian tres casos en pacientes tratados quirúrgicamente en nuestro hospital con diagnóstico de luxación rotatoria de C1-C2 traumática. A través del análisis crítico de la literatura disponible se elabora un esquema práctico para establecer los principios y competencias para el abordaje de estas lesiones. Resultados: Los casos intervenidos fueron pacientes de sexo femenino entre 8 y 16 años, con diagnóstico de luxación atlantoaxoidea traumática. Dos pacientes requirieron tracción esquelética preoperatoria con halo. A todas las pacientes se les practicó artrodesis instrumentada por vía posterior, dos con técnica de tornillos transarticulares y una con tornillos de masa e ístmicos de C2 (Göel-Harms). Conclusiones: Resulta imprescindible determinar si la lesión es estable y reductible. Siempre abordar este tipo de lesiones teniendo presentes los criterios y competencias relacionados con la estabilidad, alineación, biología y función de la columna vertebral. Nivel de Evidencia IV; Serie de casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Joint Dislocations , Cervical Atlas , Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Torticollis
8.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 6(1): 26-33, abr. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354405

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to compare through cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) the morphology of the cervical vertebrae atlas (C1) and axis (C2) in mouth breathers (MB) and nose breathers (NB), correlating them with the head and neck postures of the two groups. Materials and Methods: CBCT images of 36 subjects aged 11 to 22 years were evaluated using the InVivo Dental 5.1 (Anatomage, San Jose, California) software. The following measurements were used to assess C1 and C2 morphology: posterior height, anterior height, length, and volume. The craniocervical angle (NSL/OPT) was used to evaluate head posture concerning the neck. Results: The posterior height, length, and volume of C1 and C2 were lower in the MB group, but only the posterior size was significantly shorter than the NB group (C1, p=0.01 / C2, =0.05). Mouth breathers also showed a considerably higher craniocervical angle (p=0.04). Spearman test showed a significant positive correlation between C1 and C2 length and craniocervical angle (C1, =0.629, p=0.005 / C2, =0.665, p=0.003). Conclusion: The mouth breathers showed an increased craniocervical angle and decreased posterior height of the C1 vertebra concerning nasal breathers. The hyperextension of the head present is positively correlated with the length of the vertebra.


Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar por meio da tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC) a morfologia do atlas das vértebras cervicais (C1) e do eixo (C2) em respiradores orais (MB) e nasais (RN), correlacionando-os com a cabeça e posturas do pescoço dos dois grupos. Materiais e Métodos: Imagens de CBCT de 36 indivíduos com idades entre 11 e 22 anos foram avaliadas usando o software InVivo Dental 5.1 (Anatomage, San Jose, Califórnia). As seguintes medidas foram usadas para avaliar a morfologia de C1 e C2: altura posterior, altura anterior, comprimento e volume. O ângulo craniocervical (NSL/OPT) foi utilizado para avaliar a postura da cabeça em relação ao pescoço. Resultados: A altura posterior, comprimento e volume de C1 e C2 foram menores no grupo MB, mas apenas o tamanho posterior foi significativamente menor que o grupo RN (C1, p=0,01 / C2, =0,05). Os respiradores orais também apresentaram um ângulo craniocervical consideravelmente maior (p=0,04). O teste de Spearman mostrou correlação positiva significativa entre comprimento de C1 e C2 e ângulo craniocervical (C1, =0,629, p=0,005 / C2, =0,665, p=0,003). Conclusão: Os respiradores orais apresentaram aumento do ângulo craniocervical e diminuição da altura posterior da vértebra C1 em relação aos respiradores nasais. A hiperextensão da cabeça presente está positivamente correlacionada com o comprimento da vértebra.


Subject(s)
Dentistry , Cervical Atlas , Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mouth Breathing
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923059

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicular screws insertion are used for C1-C2 posterior fusion. Fluoroscopy Guided technique is routinely used for screw placement but it is associated with risk of injury to spinal cord and vertebral artery. 3D printing has developed rapidly in the fields of medicine. It is helpful in improving precise treatment and used for instrumentation in spine. We want to evaluate the accuracy of C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws insertion by Pre-Fabricated Template made by threedimensional (3D) printing. Materials and methods: Five cervical samples were obtained from cadavers. Based on fine-cut CT scan 3Dimages reconstructed and the path of the screws designed by special software. A template produced by 3D-printer from 3D images. After printing the templates, they were fixed on the relevant vertebra in the operation room and based on the template path, C1 lateral mass screw and C2 pedicular screws were inserted. Placement of the screws was evaluated using CT scans post-operatively. Results: A total of 14 screws were inserted by abovementioned method. After evaluation with CT scans none of the screws were entered in the spinal canal. Two screws had vertebral artery canal perforation with less than 50% breach. Violation was judged as noncritical and would probably not have resulted in injury to vertebral artery. Conclusions: The accuracy of C1 lateral mass screw and C2 pedicle screw insertion is acceptable with pre-fabricated template and can provide a useful aid for screw placement.

10.
Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 521-525, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909788

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the expression of signal sequence receptor subunit 1 (SSR1) and its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods:Search the expression data and relevant clinical data of SSR1 in hepatocellular carcinoma patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to June 20, 2021, and download relevant public data. The expression levels of SSR1 in 334 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma with complete information and data were analyzed retrospectively. The expression difference of SSR1 gene between hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent tissues was analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were divided into high expression group and low expression group based on the median value of SSR1 expression level (14.660). χ 2 test was conducted to analyze the relationship between SSR1 expression and clinicopathological features. Cox regression and Log-rank survival test were used to analyze the relationship between SSR1 gene expression, clinicopathological features and overall survival rate in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to determine the factors affecting prognosis. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to predict the possible regulatory pathways. Result:Bioinformatics analysis based on TCGA database showed that the expression level of SSR1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (16.320±7.231) was significantly higher than that in normal liver tissue (7.473±1.410). The difference between groups was statistically significant ( t=8.621, P<0.001).The overall survival rate of patients with high SSR1 gene expression group was lower than that of patients with high SSR1 gene expression group (χ 2=10.1, P<0.001). The high expression of SSR1 gene was related to sex (χ 2=4.392, P=0.036), Stage (χ 2=6.264, P=0.012), T stage (χ 2=4.561, P=0.033) and Grade classification (χ 2=14.015, P<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that patients with high expression of SSR1 gene got worse risk of death ( HR=1.030, 95% CI:1.002-1.060, P=0.036), and SSR1 gene expression was an independent predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that the high expression of SSR1 was related to ubiquitination, cell cycle, RNA degradation, mTOR signal pathway, Wnt signal pathway and MAPK signal pathway. Conclusion:SSR1 gene is significantly up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma, which is related to gender, Stage, T stage and Grade classification. Ubiquitination, cell cycle, RNA degradation, mTOR signal pathway, Wnt signal pathway and MAPK signal pathway may be the key pathways for SSR1 to promote the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942221

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the minimally invasive surgical method for cervical1-2 epidural neurilemmoma.@*METHODS@#The clinical features, imaging characteristics and surgical methods of 63 cases of cervical1-2 epidural neurilemmoma from July 2010 to December 2018 were reviewed and analyzed. Pain and numbness in occipitocervical region were the common clinical symptoms. There were 58 cases with pain, 30 cases with numbness, 3 cases with limb weakness and 2 cases with asymptomatic mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the tumors located in the cervical1-2 epidural space with diameter of 1-3 cm. The equal or slightly lower T1 and equal or slightly higher T2 signals were found on MRI. The tumors had obvious enhancement. Individualized laminotomy was performed according to the location and size of the tumors, and axis spinous processes were preserved as far as possible. Resection of tumor was performed strictly within the capsule.@*RESULTS@#Total and subtotal resection of tumor were achieved in 60 and 3 cases respectively, and no vertebral artery injury was found. The operation time ranged from 60 to 180 minutes, with an average of 92.83 minutes. The hospitalization time ranged from 3 to 9 days, with an average of 5.97 days. All tumors were confirmed as neurilemmoma by pathology. There was no postoperative infection or cerebrospinal fluid leakage. There was no new-onset dysfunction except 9 cases of numbness in the nerve innervation area. The period of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 8 years (median: 3 years). All the new-onset dysfunction recovered completely. Pain disappeared in all of the 58 patients with pain. Numbness recovered completely in 27 patients while slight numbness remained in another 3 patients. Three patients with muscle weakness recovered completely. The spinal function of all the patients restored to McCormick grade Ⅰ. No recurrence was found on MRI. No cervical spine instability or deformity was found on X-rays.@*CONCLUSION@#It is feasible to resect cervical1-2 epidural neurilemmoma by full use of the anatomical space between atlas and axis and individual laminotomy. It is helpful to prevent cervical instability or deformity by minimizing the destruction of cervical2 bone and preserving normal muscle attachment to cervical2 spinous process. Strict intracapsular resection can effectively prevent vertebral artery injury.


Subject(s)
Epidural Space/surgery , Humans , Laminectomy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neurilemmoma/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 4008-4019, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922456

ABSTRACT

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has emerged as an intractable cancer with scanty therapeutic regimens. The aberrant activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are reported to be common in CCA patients. However, the underpinning mechanism remains poorly understood. Deubiquitinase (DUB) is regarded as a main orchestrator in maintaining protein homeostasis. Here, we identified Josephin domain-containing protein 2 (JOSD2) as an essential DUB of YAP/TAZ that sustained the protein level through cleavage of polyubiquitin chains in a deubiquitinase activity-dependent manner. The depletion of JOSD2 promoted YAP/TAZ proteasomal degradation and significantly impeded CCA proliferation

13.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1010-1017, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921840

ABSTRACT

The emergence of single-cell sequencing technology enables people to observe cells with unprecedented precision. However, it is difficult to capture the information on all cells and genes in one single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) experiment. Single-cell data of a single modality cannot explain cell state and system changes in detail. The integrative analysis of single-cell data aims to address these two types of problems. Integrating multiple scRNA-seq data can collect complete cell types and provide a powerful boost for the construction of cell atlases. Integrating single-cell multimodal data can be used to study the causal relationship and gene regulation mechanism across modalities. The development and application of data integration methods helps fully explore the richness and relevance of single-cell data and discover meaningful biological changes. Based on this, this article reviews the basic principles, methods and applications of multiple scRNA-seq data integration and single-cell multimodal data integration. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of existing methods are discussed. Finally, the future development is prospected.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2726-2737, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888884

ABSTRACT

Integrins are transmembrane receptors that have been implicated in the biology of various human physiological and pathological processes. These molecules facilitate cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions, and they have been implicated in fibrosis, inflammation, thrombosis, and tumor metastasis. The role of integrins in tumor progression makes them promising targets for cancer treatment, and certain integrin antagonists, such as antibodies and synthetic peptides, have been effectively utilized in the clinic for cancer therapy. Here, we discuss the evidence and knowledge on the contribution of integrins to cancer biology. Furthermore, we summarize the clinical attempts targeting this family in anti-cancer therapy development.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the feasibility and clinical effect of hemi-resection of posterior arch of atlas in the upper cervical spinal dumbbell-shaped schwannomas.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 13 patients with high level cervical dumbbell schwannomas from January 2005 to December 2018, including 10 males and 3 females, aged 19 to 67 years old. The occipital foramen to the C@*RESULTS@#The operation was successfully completed in 13 cases of this group. No vertebral artery injury or spinal cord injury occurred during the operation. All 13 patients were followed up for more than 12 months. No local recurrence was found. Both the VAS and the JOA score were significantly improved compared with those before surgery. The ASIA classification before operation was:1 case of grade C, 6 cases of grade D, 6 cases of grade E;the latest follow up was 3 cases of ASIA grade D and 10 cases of E.@*CONCLUSION@#The posterior arch of the atlas hemisection can remove the upper cervical dumbbell schwannoma in one stage. The short-term clinical effect is good, and there are no complications such as cervical instability.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cervical Vertebrae , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neurilemmoma , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1274-1285, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881198

ABSTRACT

Liver is the most common metastatic site for colorectal cancer (CRC), there is no satisfied approach to treat CRC liver metastasis (CRCLM). Here, we investigated the role of a polycomb protein BMI-1 in CRCLM. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that BMI-1 expression in liver metastases was upregulated and associated with T4 stage, invasion depth and right-sided primary tumor. Knockdown

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1227-1245, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881195

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a critical cellular homeostatic mechanism, and its dysfunction is linked to invasive breast carcinoma (BRCA). Recently, several omics methods have been applied to explore autophagic regulators in BRCA; however, more reliable and robust approaches for identifying crucial regulators and druggable targets remain to be discovered. Thus, we report here the results of multi-omics approaches to identify potential autophagic regulators in BRCA, including gene expression (EXP), DNA methylation (MET) and copy number alterations (CNAs) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Newly identified candidate genes, such as

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 694-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881163

ABSTRACT

Targeting immune checkpoints such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have been approved for treating melanoma, gastric cancer (GC) and bladder cancer with clinical benefit. Nevertheless, many patients failed to respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment, so it is necessary to seek an alternative strategy for traditional PD-1/PD-L1 targeting immunotherapy. Here with the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and our in-house tissue library, PD-L1 expression was found to be positively correlated with the expression of ubiquitin-specific processing protease 7 (USP7) in GC. Furthermore, USP7 directly interacted with PD-L1 in order to stabilize it, while abrogation of USP7 attenuated PD-L1/PD-1 interaction and sensitized cancer cells to T cell killing

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 156-180, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881131

ABSTRACT

@#This study was aimed to design the first dual-target small-molecule inhibitor co-targeting poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) and bromodomain containing protein 4 (BRD4), which had important cross relation in the global network of breast cancer, reflecting the synthetic lethal effect. A series of new BRD4 and PARP1 dual-target inhibitors were discovered and synthesized by fragment-based combinatorial screening and activity assays that together led to the chemical optimization. Among these compounds, 19d was selected and exhibited micromole enzymatic potencies against BRD4 and PARP1, respectively. Compound 19d was further shown to efficiently modulate the expression of BRD4 and PARP1. Subsequently, compound 19d was found to induce breast cancer cell apoptosis and stimulate cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Following pharmacokinetic studies, compound 19d showed its antitumor activity in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1/2 (BRCA1/2) wild-type MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 xenograft models without apparent toxicity and loss of body weight. These results together demonstrated that a highly potent dual-targeted inhibitor was successfully synthesized and indicated that co-targeting of BRD4 and PARP1 based on the concept of synthetic lethality would be a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the treatment strategy and clinical efficacy for os odontoideum complicated with atlantoaxial dislocation.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 17 patients with os odontoideum complicated with atlantoaxial dislocation surgically treated from January 2006 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed, including 7 males and 10 females, aged 17 to 53 (43.1±11.3) years old;course of disease was 3 to 27(10.2±6.9) months. All patients received cranial traction before operation, 12 of 14 patients with reducible dislocation were treated by posterior atlantoaxial fixation and fusion, and 2 patients with atlantooccipital deformity were treated by posterior occipitocervical fixation and fusion;3 patients with irreducible alantoaxial dislocation were treated by transoral approach decompression combined with posterior atlantoaxial fixation and fusion. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss and perioperative complications were recorded. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score were used to evaluate the change of neck pain and neurological function. Atlantoaxial joint fusion rate was evaluated by CT scan.@*RESULTS@#The operation time of posterior fixation and fusion ranged from 86 to 170 (92.2±27.5) min, and the intraoperative blood loss was 200-350 (250.7±65.2) ml. No vertebral artery injury and spinal cord injury were recorded. Among the patients underwent atlantoaxial fixation and fusion, 1 patient with reducible dislocation fixed by C@*CONCLUSION@#Surgical treatment of os odontoideum complicated with atlantoaxial dislocation can achieve satisfactory results, improve the patient's neurological function and improve the quality of life, however the surgical options needs to be individualized.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Atlanto-Axial Joint/surgery , Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Female , Humans , Joint Dislocations/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fusion , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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