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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 55: e12252, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403899

ABSTRACT

Nanosized copper particles (nano Cu) have been incorporated into products in multiple industries, although studies have demonstrated that these particles are nephrotoxic. We investigated the cytotoxicity of nanosized copper particles on rat mesangial cells and measured rates of apoptosis, the expression of caspase-3, and generation of reactive oxygen species. We also measured autophagy through the acridine orange (AO) staining and expression of Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, and p62 to screen the underlying mechanism of toxicity. Nanosized copper particles inhibited mesangial cell viability, up-regulated the activity of caspase-3, and increased the rates of apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to nano Cu increased the formation of acidic vesicular organelles and the expression of Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, and p62, and treatment with an autophagy inhibitor reduced nephrotoxicity. This indicated that the autophagy pathway is involved in the toxicity induced by nanosized copper particles to mesangial cells. This finding can contribute to the development of safety guidelines for the evaluation of nanomaterials in the future.

2.
Clinics ; 77: 100076, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404300

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: This study aims to explore the effect of silencing Beclin-1 gene on autophagy and apoptosis of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (BPH-1) cells under the condition of Androgen Deprivation (AD) and Autophagy Inhibition (AI). Methods: Control group (BPH-1 group), empty carrier group (sh-RNA-BPH-1 group) and Beclin-1 silenced group (sh-Beclin1-BPH-1 group) were set. The Beclin-1 gene silencing efficiency was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Autophagic flux was monitored by GFP-LC3 cleavage assay and cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The protein expression levels of LC3, Caspase-3, PARP-1, Bcl-2, and Bax were detected by Western blot. Results: The transfection of sh-Beclin-1 obviously down-regulated the expression of Beclin-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Under the conditions of AD and AI, silencing of Beclin-1 restrained the autophagy of BPH-1 cells, as evidenced by a decreased number of autophagosomes and down-regulation of LC3-II protein (p < 0.001). The results of flow cytometry showed that the apoptotic rate of sh-Beclin-1 group was elevated significantly compared to the other two groups (p < 0.01). Western blot results showed that silencing of Beclin-1 promoted 89 kd fragmentation of PARP-1 (p < 0.001) and Caspase-3 activation (p < 0.01). Moreover, silencing of Beclin-1 resulted in declined Bcl-2 and augmented Bax protein expression in BPH-1 cells (p < 0.01), which ultimately led to a decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Conclusions: The results indicated that the silencing of Beclin-1 gene hampered autophagy while activating apoptosis in BPH-1 cells. Thus, Beclin-1 may participate in an antagonistic relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in BPH.

3.
Clinics ; 77: 100083, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Due to Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cell (PAEC) dysfunction, Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) persists even after the Pulmonary Embolism (PE) has been relieved. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. Method: Here, the authors incubated Human PAECs (HPAECs) with thrombin to simulate the process of arterial thrombosis. Results: CCK8 results showed a decrease in the viability of HPAECs after thrombin incubation. In addition, the expression of Tissue Factor (TF), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1), VCAM-1, ICAM-1, cleaved cas-pase 3, cleaved caspase 9, and Bax protein were all increased after thrombin incubation, while Bcl-2 was decreased. The effects of 3-MA treatment further suggested that autophagy might mediate the partial protective effects of Resveratrol on HPAECs. To observe the effects of Resveratrol in vivo, the authors established a Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) model by repeatedly injecting autologous blood clots into a rat's left jugular vein. The results exhibited that Mean Pulmonary Arterial Pressure (mPAP) and vessel Wall Area/ Total Area (WA/TA) ratio were both decreased after Resveratrol treatment. Moreover, Resveratrol could reduce the concentration and activity of TF, vWF, P-selectin, and promote these Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in plasma. Western blot analysis of inflammation, platelet activation, autophagy, and apoptosis-associated proteins in pulmonary artery tissue validated the results in PHAECs. Conclusions: These findings suggested that reduced autophagy, increased oxidative stress, increased platelet activation, and increased inflammation were involved in CTEPH-induced HPAEC dysfunction and the development of PH, while Resveratrol could improve PAEC dysfunction and PH.

4.
Clinics ; 77: 100119, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404319

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: This study sought to further verify the protective mechanism of Melatonin (MT) against ovarian damage through animal model experiments and to lay a theoretical and experimental foundation for exploring new approaches for ovarian damage treatment. Method: The wet weight and ovarian index of rat ovaries were weighted, and the morphology of ovarian tissues and the number of follicles in the pathological sections of collected ovarian tissues were recorded. And the serum sex hormone levels, the key proteins of the autophagy pathway (PI3K, AKT, mTOR, LC3II, LC3I, and Agt5) in rat ovarian tissues, as well as the viability and mortality of ovarian granulosa cells in each group were measured by ELISA, western blotting, CCK8 kit and LDH kit, respectively. Results: The results showed that MT increased ovarian weight and improved the ovarian index in ovarian damage rats. Also, MT could improve autophagy-induced ovarian tissue injury, increase the number of primordial follicles, primary follicles, and sinus follicles, and decrease the number of atretic follicles. Furthermore, MT upregulated serum AMH, INH-B, and E2 levels downregulated serum FSH and LH levels in ovarian damage rats and activated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Besides, MT inhibited autophagic apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells and repressed the expression of key proteins in the autophagic pathway and reduced the expression levels of Agt5 and LC3II/I. Conclusions: MT inhibits granulosa cell autophagy by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, thereby exerting a protective effect against ovarian damage.

5.
Clinics ; 77: 100046, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384609

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To explore the role and possible mechanisms of action of apolipoprotein O (APOO) in autophagy in Myocardial Infarction (MI) in vivo and in vitro. Methods Differential gene expression and single Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were used to evaluate MI-related candidate genes. Animal and cell MI models were established. Sh-APOO, si-APOO, and SB203580 were used to inhibit the expression of APOO or p38MAPK. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the expression levels of the target protein or mRNA. Apoptosis was observed using the TUNEL assay. The plasma concentrations of CK-MB and cTn-I in humans and mice were determined. Results In the GSE23294 dataset, APOO mRNA was highly expressed in the left ventricle of mice with MI; GSEA revealed that APOO was positively correlated with p38MAPK, autophagy, and apoptosis. The plasma concentration of APOO in patients with MI was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects. The expression of APOO, Beclin-1, LC3, and Bax in mouse and AC16 cell MI models increased, while the level of Bcl-2 decreased. After silencing the APOO gene, the expression of APOO was downregulated; meanwhile, changes in autophagy, apoptosis and myocardial cell injury were reversed in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, autophagy was alleviated after AC16 cells were treated with SB203580. Conclusions The increased APOO expression in mouse and cell MI models may activate autophagy and apoptosis by regulating the p38MAPK signaling pathway, thus aggravating the myocardial injury. HIGHLIGHTS APOO was highly expressed in the left ventricle of mice with myocardial infarction. Increasing of APOO may activate autophagy and apoptosis in myocardial infarction. The regulation of APOO in autophagy and apoptosis was regulated by p38MAPK signaling pathway.

6.
Biol. Res ; 552022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403568

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Metastatic melanoma has a high mortality rate and poor survival. This is associated with efficient metastatic colonization, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Communication between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and cancer cells plays an important role in metastatic dissemination. Whether cancer stem cells can alter the metastatic properties of non-CSC cells; and whether exosomal crosstalk can mediate such interaction, have not been demonstrated in melanoma prior to this report. Results: The results revealed that exosomes secreted by highly metastatic melanoma CSCs (OL-SCs) promoted the invasiveness of the low metastatic melanoma cells (OL) and accelerated metastatic progression. miR-1268a was up-regulated in cells and exosomes of OL-SCs. Moreover, OL-SCs-derived exosomal miR-1268a, upon taking up by OL cells, promoted the metastatic colonization ability of OL cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the pro-metastatic activity of exosomal miR-1268a is achieved through inhibition of autophagy. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that OL cells can acquire the "metastatic ability" from OL-SCs cells. OL-SCs cells achieves this goal by utilizing its exosomes to deliver functional miRNAs, such as miR-1268a, to the targeted OL cells which in turn augments metastatic colonization by inactivating the autophagy pathway in OL cells.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929052

ABSTRACT

It has been revealed that hypoxia is dynamic in hypertrophic scars; therefore, we considered that it may have different effects on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and p53 expression. Herein, we aimed to confirm the presence of a teeterboard-like conversion between HIF-1α and p53, which is correlated with scar formation and regression. Thus, we obtained samples of normal skin and hypertrophic scars to identify the differences in HIF-1α and autophagy using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, we used moderate hypoxia in vitro to simulate the proliferative scar, and silenced HIF-1α or p53 gene expression or triggered overexpression to investigate the changes of HIF-1α and p53 expression, autophagy, apoptosis, and cell proliferation under this condition. HIF-1α, p53, and autophagy-related proteins were assayed using western blotting and immunofluorescence, whereas apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry analysis, and cell proliferation was detected using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) staining. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation was performed to verify the binding of HIF-1α and p53 to transcription cofactor p300. Our results demonstrated that, in scar tissue, HIF-1α expression increased in parallel with autophagosome formation. Under hypoxia, HIF-1α expression and autophagy were upregulated, whereas p53 expression and apoptosis were downregulated in vitro. HIF-1α knockdown downregulated autophagy, proliferation, and p300-bound HIF-1α, and upregulated p53 expression, apoptosis, and p300-bound p53. Meanwhile, p53 knockdown induced the opposite effects and enhanced HIF-1α, whereas p53 overexpression resulted in the same effects and reduced HIF-1α. Our results suggest a teeterboard-like conversion between HIF-1α and p53, which is linked with scar hyperplasia and regression.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cell Hypoxia , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929042

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Drugs play a pivotal role in cancer treatment, but the complex biological processes of cancer cells seriously limit the efficacy of various anticancer drugs. Autophagy, a self-degradative system that maintains cellular homeostasis, universally operates under normal and stress conditions in cancer cells. The roles of autophagy in cancer treatment are still controversial because both stimulation and inhibition of autophagy have been reported to enhance the effects of anticancer drugs. Thus, the important question arises as to whether we should try to strengthen or suppress autophagy during cancer therapy. Currently, autophagy can be divided into four main forms according to its different functions during cancer treatment: cytoprotective (cell survival), cytotoxic (cell death), cytostatic (growth arrest), and nonprotective (no contribution to cell death or survival). In addition, various cell death modes, such as apoptosis, necrosis, ferroptosis, senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, all contribute to the anticancer effects of drugs. The interaction between autophagy and these cell death modes is complex and can lead to anticancer drugs having different or even completely opposite effects on treatment. Therefore, it is important to understand the underlying contexts in which autophagy inhibition or activation will be beneficial or detrimental. That is, appropriate therapeutic strategies should be adopted in light of the different functions of autophagy. This review provides an overview of recent insights into the evolving relationship between autophagy and cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , Autophagy/physiology , Humans , Necrosis/drug therapy , Neoplasms/therapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929037

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process that maintains cellular homeostasis. It is essential for protecting organisms from environmental stress. Autophagy can help the host to eliminate invading pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. However, pathogens have evolved multiple strategies to interfere with autophagic signaling pathways or inhibit the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes to form autolysosomes. Moreover, host cell matrix degradation by different types of autophagy can be used for the proliferation and reproduction of pathogens. Thus, determining the roles and mechanisms of autophagy during pathogen infections will promote understanding of the mechanisms of pathogen‍‒‍host interactions and provide new strategies for the treatment of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Bacteria , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lysosomes , Signal Transduction
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand activated transcription factors and belongs to bile acid receptor. Studies have shown that the expression of FXR in renal tissue can reduce renal injury via regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, inhibition of inflammatory response, reduction of oxidative stress and renal fibrosis. However, it is unclear whether FXR is involved in autophagy in renal diseases. This study aims to investigate the role of FXR in cisplatin-induced acute renal injury and whether its mechanism is related to autophagy regulation.@*METHODS@#Twelve male WT or FXR-KO mice at 12 weeks were randomly divided into a WT group, a WT+cisplatin group, a FXR-KO group, and a FXR-KO+cisplatin group, with 6 mice in each group. The WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (20 mg/kg), and the WT group and the FXR-KO group were intraperitoneally injected with equal volume of cisplatin solvent. Seventy-two hours later, the mice were killed and blood and renal tissue samples were collected. The levels of SCr and BUN were detected by immunoturbidimetry. After the staining, the pathological changes of renal tissue were observed under optical microscope. The protein levels of LC3 and p62 were detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The clearance of damaged mitochondria and the accumulation of lysosomal substrate were observed under electron microscope. The apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was detected by TUNEL.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the WT group or the FXR-KO group, both SCr and BUN levels in the WT+cisplatin group or the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly increased (P<0.01 or P<0.001), and SCr and BUN levels in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT+cisplatin group (both P<0.05). Under the light microscope, there were no obvious pathological changes in the renal tissue of mice in the WT group and the FXR-KO group. Both the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group had vacuolar or granular degeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells, flat cells, lumen expansion, brush edge falling off, and even exposed basement membrane and tubular formation. The scores of renal tubular injury in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT group and the FXR-KO group, respectively (both P<0.001), and the score in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was significantly higher than that in the WT+cisplatin group (P<0.05). Under the transmission electron microscope, the mitochondria of mouse tubular epithelial cell in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was swollen, round, vacuolated, cristae broken or disappeared; the lysosome was uneven and high-density clumps, and the change was more obvious in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group. Western blotting showed that the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was decreased and the expression of p62 was increased in the WT+cisplatin group compared with the WT group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group compared with FXR-KO group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); compared with the FXR-KO group, the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was decreased and the expression of p62 was increased significantly in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group (both P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression of total LC3 and p62 in renal cortex of the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was increased significantly, especially in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group. TUNEL results showed that the mice in the WT group and the FXR-KO group had negative staining or only a few apoptotic tubular epithelial cells, and the number of apoptotic cells in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were increased. The apoptosis rates of renal tubular epithelial cells in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT group and the FXR-KO group, respectively (both P<0.001), and the apoptosis rate in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was significantly higher than that in the WT+cisplatin group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Knockout of FXR gene aggravates cisplatin induced acute renal injury, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis/physiology , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), nephrotoxin, and sepsis, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Leptin is a protein molecule that regulates the body's energy metabolism and reproductive activities via binding to its specific receptor. Leptin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by I/R, but its effect on I/R kidney injury and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanisms of leptin on renal function, renal histopathology, apoptosis, and autophagy during acute I/R kidney injury.@*METHODS@#Healthy adult male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham+wild-type mice (ob/+) group, a sham+leptin gene-deficient mice (ob/ob) group, an I/R+ob/+ group, and an I/R+ob/ob group (n=8 per group). For sham operation, a longitudinal incision was made on the back of the mice to expose and separate the bilateral kidneys and renal arteries, and no subsequent treatment was performed. I/R treatment was ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 48 h. The levels of BUN and SCr were detected to evaluate renal function; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-positive cells were counted; Western blotting was used to detect levels of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 9), autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), LC3 I, LC3 II], mTOR-dependent signaling pathway proteins [phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)].@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and SCr between the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group (both P>0.05). The levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/+ group were significantly higher than those in the sham+ob/+ group (both P<0.05). Compared with the mice in the sham+ob/ob group or the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/ob group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). There was no obvious damage to the renal tubules in the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group. Compared with sham+ob/+ group and sham+ob/ob group, both the I/R+ob/+ group and the I/R+ob/ob group had cell damage such as brush border shedding, vacuolar degeneration, and cast formation. Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the renal tubules of the mice in the I/R+ob/ob group were more severely damaged. The pathological score of renal tubular injury showed that the renal tubular injury was the most serious in the I/R+ob/ob group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/+ group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, and the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/+ group (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/ob group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, while the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT were more significantly down-regulated, while the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were more significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was more significantly increase in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Renal function and tubular damage, and elevated levels of apoptosis and autophagy are observed in mice kidneys after acute I/R. Leptin might relieve I/R induced AKI by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy that through a complex network of interactions between mTOR-dependent signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Autophagy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Female , Humans , Ischemia , Kidney/pathology , Leptin/pharmacology , Male , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Electroacupuncture can enhance autophagic flow, promote neuronal regeneration, axonal and myelin remodeling to achieve the protection of spinal cord injury, but its role in neurogenic urine retention is not completely clear. This study aims to investigate whether the mechanism of electroacupuncture in the treatment of neurogenic urine retention is through autophagy mediated by adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.@*METHODS@#A rat model of neurogenic urine retention after sacral spinal cord injury was established. The rats with successful model were randomly divided into a model group, an electroacupuncture group (electro-acupuncture for Ciliao, Zhongji, and Sanyinjiao by electronic stimulation, once a day, 20 min each time for 7 days), and an electroacupuncture+AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor group (on the basis of the treatment of electroacupuncture group, 100 μg of AMPK inhibitor compound C was injected intramuscularly around the L2-3 intervertebral space on the 1st and 4th day). The normal group did not receive any treatment. The maximum bladder volume, bladder basal pressure, leak point pressure, and bladder compliance were recorded by multi-channel physiological recorder; the morphology of bladder tissue was observed by HE staining; autophagy was observed under transmission electron microscope; the expressions of LC3II and Beclin1 protein were observed by immunofluorescence staining; the protein levels of AMPK, phosphorylated-AMPK (p-AMPK), mTOR, phosphorylated-mTOR (p-mTOR), microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II and Beclin1 in bladder tissue were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, the maximum bladder capacity, leak point pressure, bladder compliance, p-AMPK, LC3II, Beclin1 protein expressions in the bladder tissue of the model group increased, and the p-mTOR protein expressions were decreased (all P<0.05); compared with the model group, the maximum bladder capacity, bladder compliance, p-mTOR protein expression in the bladder tissue of the electroacupuncture group were decreased, and the p-AMPK, LC3II, and Beclin1 protein expressions were increased (all P<0.05); compared with the electroacupuncture group, the maximum bladder capacity, bladder compliance, p-mTOR protein expression in the bladder tissue of the electroacupuncture+AMPK inhibitor group were increased, the p-AMPK, LC3II, and Beclin1 protein expressions were decreased (all P<0.05). In the model group, the bladder became larger, with unclear and varying degrees of degeneration, severe tissue damage and autophagosome appeared; the bladder of the electroacupuncture group was smaller than that of the model group, and all levels were clearly visible with autophagy bodies; the layers were slightly disordered and damaged in the electroacupuncture + AMPK inhibitor group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Electroacupuncture can activate autophagy through AMPK/mTOR pathway, thereby reducing neurogenic urine retention caused by spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Autophagy , Beclin-1 , Electroacupuncture , Mammals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Injuries , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of ethyl acetate fraction Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss. (EDC) in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro and in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis mouse model in vivo.@*METHODS@#For in vitro study, HSCs were pre-treated with platelet-derived growth factor (10 ng/mL) for 2 h to ensure activation and treated with EDC for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The effect of EDC on HSCs was assessed using cell counting kit-8 assay, EdU staining, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot, respectively. For in vivo experiments, mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (2 ° L/g, adjusted to a 25% concentration in olive oil), 3 times per week for 6 weeks, to develop a hepatic fibrosis model. Forty 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups using a random number table (n=10), including control, model, positive control and EDC treatment groups. Mice in the EDC and colchicine groups were intragastrically administered EDC (0.5 g/kg) or colchicine (0.2 mg/kg) once per day for 6 weeks. Mice in the control and model groups received an equal volume of saline. Biochemical assays and histological examinations were used to assess liver damage. Protein expression levels of α -smooth muscle actin (α -SMA) and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) were measured by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#EDC reduced pathological damage associated with liver fibrosis, downregulated the expression of α -SMA and upregulated the expression of LC3B (P<0.05), both in HSCs and the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. The intervention of bafilomycin A1 and rapamycin in HSCs strongly supported the notion that inhibition of autophagy enhanced α -SMA protein expression levels (P<0.01). The results also found that the levels of phosphoinositide (PI3K), p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K all decreased after EDC treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EDC has anti-hepatic fibrosis activity by inducing autophagy and might be a potential drug to be further developed for human liver fibrosis therapy.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Animals , Autophagy , Carbon Tetrachloride , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928327

ABSTRACT

As an important exercise and energy metabolism organ of the human body, the normal maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is essential for the body to perform normal physiological functions. The autophagy-lysosome (AL) pathway is a physiological or pathological mechanism that is ubiquitous in normal and diseased cells. It plays a key role in the maintaining of protein balance, removing damaged organelles, and the stability of internal environment. The smooth progress of the autophagy process needs to go through multiple steps, which are completed under the coordinated action of multiple factors. Autophagy maintains the muscle homeostasis of a healthy body by removing cell components such as damaged myofibrils and isolated cytoplasmic proteins. Autophagy could also provide the initial energy required for cell proliferation, promote muscle regeneration and remodeling after injury. At the same time, autophagy disorder is also an important cause of age-related skeletal muscle atrophy. Autophagy could affect the response of skeletal muscle to exercise, and increasing the level of basic autophagy is beneficial to improve the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to exercise. This article summarizes the role and pathways of autophagy in the maintenance of skeletal muscle quality, in order to provide effective rehabilitation strategies for clinical prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Atrophy/pathology , Signal Transduction
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928206

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a programmed cell degradation process that is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes including malignant tumors. Abnormal induction of autophagy plays a key role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We established a prognosis prediction model for hepatocellular carcinoma based on autophagy related genes. Two hundred and four differentially expressed autophagy related genes and basic information and clinical characteristics of 377 registered hepatocellular carcinoma patients were retrieved from the cancer genome atlas database. Cox risk regression analysis was used to identify autophagy-related genes associated with survival, and a prognostic model was constructed based on this. A total of 64 differentially expressed autophagy related genes were identified in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Five risk factors related to the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, including TMEM74, BIRC5, SQSTM1, CAPN10 and HSPB8. Age, gender, tumor grade and stage, and risk score were included as variables in multivariate Cox regression analysis. The results showed that risk score was an independent prognostic risk factor for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ( HR = 1.475, 95% CI = 1.280-1.699, P < 0.001). In addition, the area under the curve of the prognostic risk model was 0.739, indicating that the model had a high accuracy in predicting the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. The results suggest that the new prognostic risk model for hepatocellular carcinoma, established by combining the molecular characteristics and clinical parameters of patients, can effectively predict the prognosis of patients.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Prognosis
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927956

ABSTRACT

The present study clarified the molecular mechanism of curcumol against liver fibrosis based on its effects on the autopha-gy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. The hepatic stellate cells were divided into a blank control group, a transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)(10 ng·mL~(-1)) group, and low-(12.5 mg·L~(-1)), medium-(25 mg·L~(-1)), and high-dose(50 mg·L~(-1)) curcumol groups. The effect of curcumol on the viability of hepatic stellate cells induced by TGF-β1 was detected by the MTT assay kit. The apo-ptosis in each group was determined by flow cytometry. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR(RT-PCR) was employed for the detection of mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen(collagen Ⅰ), and type Ⅲ collagen(collagen Ⅲ). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of p62, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), beclin1, B cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax). Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) was used to observe cell morphology and autophagosome formation in each group. The autophagic flux was observed after cell infection with adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling. The cell viability assay revealed that compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly decreased cell viability. The apoptosis assay showed that the apoptosis rates of the curcumol groups were significantly higher than that of the TGF-β1 group. RT-PCR indicated that the mRNA expression of α-SMA, collagenⅠ, and collagen Ⅲ in the curcumol groups was significantly lower than that of the TGF-β1 group. Western blot showed that the expression of p62, LC3, beclin1, Bcl-2, and Bax in the curcumol groups was significantly different from that in the TGF-β1 group. As demonstrated by TEM, compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly increased autophagosomes. The detection of autophagic flow by the adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling showed that autolysosomes in the curcumol groups were significantly increased compared with those in the TGF-β1 group. Curcumol can induce the autophagy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells, which may be one of its anti-liver fibrosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Actins/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927892

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of Zhongfeng capsule on the autophagy-related proteins expression in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/ RI), and to explore its neural protection mechanisms of the decoction. Methods: Rat middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion injury model (ischemia for 2 h, reperfusion for 24 h) was prepared by the improved line plug method. Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, butylphthalide group(0.054 g/kg), Zhongfeng capsule high-dose groups (1.08 g/kg), Zhongfeng capsule middle-dose groups (0.54 g/kg), Zhongfeng capsule low-dose groups (0.27 g/kg), with 10 rats in each group. Rats were treated with Zhongfeng capsule by gavage once a day for 10 days. The rats were sacrificed and the brain tissue was obtained after the experiment in each group. Score neurological deficit was evaluated after 24 h of the last intervention in rat of each group. The pathological changes of brain tissue were observed by HE staining. The serum levels of estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were determined by ELISA. The expressions of key genes and proteins of PI3K/Akt/Beclin1 signaling pathway in brain tissue were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Results: Compared with the sham operation group, the body weight and protein expressions of p-PI3k and p-Akt in brain tissue of rats were decreased significantly in the model group, while the brain index, neurological deficit score, gene and protein expressions of Beclin1 and LC3 were increased markedly in the model group(P<0.05 or P<0.01). In the model group, nerve cells of brain tissue were loosely packed, interstitial edema, triangular in shape, nuclear pyknosis and dark-blue staining were observed. Compared with the model group, the body weight of rats was increased obviously, the neurological deficit score was decreased significantly and the pathological injury of brain tissue was alleviated evidently in high-dose of Zhongfeng capsule group (P<0.05). The brain index, the gene and protein expressions of Beclin1 and LC3 were decreased apparently in Zhongfeng capsule treatment groups(P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the expressions of p-PI3k and p-Akt in brain tissue were increased evidently in Zhongfeng capsule treatment groups(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Zhongfeng capsule can inhibit autophagy and improve brain neurons lesion of CIRI rats, the mechanism may be related to regulate the expression of Beclin1 and LC3 in PI3K/Akt/Beclin1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy-Related Proteins/pharmacology , Beclin-1/metabolism , Body Weight , Brain , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Male , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927681

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the function of primary cilia in regulating the cellular response to temozolomide (TMZ) and ionizing radiation (IR) in glioblastoma (GBM).@*Methods@#GBM cells were treated with TMZ or X-ray/carbon ion. The primary cilia were examined by immunostaining with Arl13b and γ-tubulin, and the cellular resistance ability was measured by cell viability assay or survival fraction assay. Combining with cilia ablation by IFT88 depletion or chloral hydrate and induction by lithium chloride, the autophagy was measured by acridine orange staining assay. The DNA damage repair ability was estimated by the kinetic curve of γH2AX foci, and the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activation was detected by immunostaining assay.@*Results@#Primary cilia were frequently preserved in GBM, and the induction of ciliogenesis decreased cell proliferation. TMZ and IR promoted ciliogenesis in dose- and time-dependent manners, and the suppression of ciliogenesis significantly enhanced the cellular sensitivity to TMZ and IR. The inhibition of ciliogenesis elevated the lethal effects of TMZ and IR via the impairment of autophagy and DNA damage repair. The interference of ciliogenesis reduced DNA-PK activation, and the knockdown of DNA-PK led to cilium formation and elongation.@*Conclusion@#Primary cilia play a vital role in regulating the cellular sensitivity to TMZ and IR in GBM cells through mediating autophagy and DNA damage repair.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA/therapeutic use , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Humans , Radiation, Ionizing , Temozolomide/therapeutic use
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14) on the expressions of Beclin-1 and GRP78 in spinal dorsal horn in rats with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR), and to explore the possible analgesic mechanism of wheat-grain moxibustion for CSR.@*METHODS@#A total of 48 SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a wheat-grain moxibustion group and a wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group, 12 rats in each group. The CSR model was prepared by spinal cord insertion method. Three days after modeling, the rats in the model group were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14, 6 cones per time) on the basis of the model group; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group were intraperitoneally injected with 3-MA solution and wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14, 6 cones per time). The three groups were intervened for 7 days, once a day. The gait score and mechanical pain threshold were observed before treatment and 7 days into treatment; after the treatment, the expressions of mRNA and protein of Beclin-1 in spinal dorsal horn were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry; the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was detected by Western blot method; the autophagosomes and ultrastructure in spinal dorsal horn neurons were observed by electron microscope.@*RESULTS@#After the treatment, compared with the sham operation group, in the model group, the gait score was increased and the mechanical pain threshold was decreased (P<0.01), and the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group and the wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group, in the wheat-grain moxibustion group, the gait score was decreased and mechanical pain threshold was increased (P<0.01), and the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was decreased, and the expressions of mRNA and protein of Beclin-1 were increased (P<0.01). Under electron microscope, the ultrastructure of spinal dorsal horn neurons in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was not significantly damaged, and its structure was basically close to normal, and the number of autophagosomes was more than the other three groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14) has analgesic effect on CSR rats. The mechanism may be related to moderately up-regulate the expression of Beclin-1, enhance autophagy and reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beclin-1/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Moxibustion , RNA, Messenger , Radiculopathy/therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Spondylosis , Triticum/genetics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of needle knife on chondrocyte autophagy and expressions of autophagy-related protein and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in rats with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and to explore the possible mechanism of needle knife for KOA.@*METHODS@#A total of 42 SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group and a needle knife group, 14 rats in each group. Except for the normal group, the other two groups were injected with the mixture of papain and L-cysteine into the left hind knee joint to establish the KOA model. After modeling, the rats in the needle knife group were treated with needle knife at strip or nodule around the quadriceps femoris and medial and lateral collateral ligament on the affected side, once a week for 3 times (3 weeks). The changes of left knee circumference in each group were observed; the chondrocytes and ultrastructure of left knee joint were observed by HE staining and electron microscope; the mRNA and protein expressions of autophagy-related genes (Atg5, Atg12, Atg4a), Unc-51 like autophagy activated kinase 1 (ULK1), autophagy gene Beclin-1 and mTOR in left knee cartilage were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#After modeling, the left knee circumferences in the model group and the needle knife group were increased compared with those before modeling and in the normal group (P<0.05); after intervention, the left knee circumference in the needle knife group was smaller than that in the model group and after modeling (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the number of chondrocytes was decreased, and a few cells swelled, nuclei shrank, mitochondria swelled and autophagosomes decreased in the model group; compared with the model group, the number of chondrocytes was increased , and most cell structures returned to normal, and autophagosomes was increased. Compared with the normal group, the mRNA and protein expressions of Atg5, Atg12, Atg4a, Beclin-1 and ULK1 in the knee cartilage in the model group were decreased (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the expressions of the above indexes in the needle knife group were increased (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the mRNA and protein expressions of mTOR in the knee cartilage in the model group were increased (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the expressions of the above indexes in the needle knife group were decreased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The needle knife intervention could improve knee cartilage injury in rats with KOA, and its mechanism may be related to reducing the expression of mTOR and up-regulating the expressions of Atg5, Atg12, Atg4a, ULK1 and Beclin-1, so as to promote chondrocyte autophagy and delay the aging and degeneration of chondrocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Protein-1 Homolog/genetics , Beclin-1/genetics , Chondrocytes , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics
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