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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259094, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364533

ABSTRACT

Due to extensive application of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, antimicrobial resistance has been increased. To overcome this challenge, rumen microbiologists search for new probiotics to improve the rate of livestock production. The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate breed-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as potential animal probiotics. The current study was conducted during 10 months from July 2020 to April 2021, in which a total of n=12 strains were isolated from different samples including milk, rumen, and feces of Nilli Ravi Buffaloes. These isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential against common animal pathogens (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). All the isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the phylogenetic analyses inferred that these strains showed close relations to the species of various genera; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis, and Lactococcus lactis. NMCC-Ru2 has exhibited the enormous potential of antimicrobial activity, 28 mm, for Salmonella typhimurium;23 mm for Listeria monocytogenes 21 mm for E.coil. Highest resistance was seen in NMCC-Ru2 agasint test antbiotic, like 25.5 mm for Tetracycline. Overall results revesl that the probiotic profile of isolates was achieved using standard criteria, particularly with animal probiotic properties


Devido à extensa aplicação de antibióticos como promotores de crescimento na alimentação animal, a resistência aos antimicrobianos aumentou. Para superar esse desafio, os microbiologistas do rúmen buscam novos probióticos para melhorar a produtividade do gado. O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e avaliar bactérias lácticas específicas de raças (BAL) como potenciais probióticos animais. 12 cepas foram isoladas de diferentes amostras, incluindo leite, rúmen e fezes de búfalos Nilli Ravi. Esses isolados foram avaliados quanto ao seu potencial antimicrobiano contra patógenos animais comuns (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). Todos os isolados foram identificados por meio do sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA e as análises filogenéticas inferiram que essas cepas apresentaram estreita relação com as espécies de vários gêneros; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis, Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis e Lactococcus lactis. O perfil probiótico dos isolados foi obtido usando critérios padrão, particularmente com propriedades probióticas animais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Buffaloes , Enterococcus , Probiotics , Gastrointestinal Tract , Lactobacillus , Anti-Bacterial Agents
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.


O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil , Staphylococcus , Vibrio , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Water Samples , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254513, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360222

ABSTRACT

Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a recently defined vaginal recurring infection, which is treated with antibiotics. However, excessive and prolonged use of antibiotics disrupts healthy vaginal microflora and leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This situation has directed researchers to explore alternative antimicrobials. The current study describes in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy and pharmaceutical interactions between plant essential oils (EOs) and five lactic acid bacteria (LABs), isolated from the healthy vagina, against E. faecalis, one of the major etiological agents of AV. In vitro experiments confirm good antimicrobial activity of both plant EOs and cell free supernatant (CFS) from LABs. Based on high antimicrobial efficacy, Moringa essential oil (MO) was selected to determine its nature of interaction with CFS of five LAB strains. Synergism was recorded between MO and CFS of L. reuteri (MT180537). To validate in vitro findings, prophylactic responses of individual and synergistic application of MO and L. reuteri (MT180537) were evaluated in an E. faecalis (MW051601) induced AV murine model. The prophylactic efficacy was evidenced by a reduction in intensity of clinical symptoms, E. faecalis (MW051601) count per vaginal tissue along with a reduction in AV associated changes in histological markers of infection in animals receiving Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) alone or in combination. However, significant synergism between Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) could not be observed. Our data confirms the importance of in vivo experiments in deducing pharmacological interactions.


Vaginite aeróbica (VA) é uma infecção vaginal recorrente definida recentemente, que é tratada com antibióticos. No entanto, o uso excessivo e prolongado de antibióticos perturba a microflora vaginal saudável e leva ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos entre os patógenos. Esta situação levou os pesquisadores a explorar antimicrobianos alternativos. O presente estudo descreve a eficácia antimicrobiana in vitro e in vivo e as interações farmacêuticas entre óleos essenciais vegetais (OE) e cinco bactérias lácticas (BAL), isoladas de vagina sã, contra E. faecalis, um dos principais agentes etiológicos da AV. Os experimentos in vitro confirmam a boa atividade antimicrobiana de ambos os EOs de plantas e sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de LABs. Com base na alta eficácia antimicrobiana, o óleo essencial de Moringa (MO) foi selecionado para determinar sua natureza de interação com o sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de cinco cepas de LAB. Sinergismo foi registrado entre MO e CFS de L. reuteri (MT180537). Para validar os resultados in vitro, as respostas profiláticas da aplicação individual e sinérgica de MO e L. reuteri (MT180537) foram avaliadas em um modelo murino AV induzido por E. faecalis (MW051601). A eficácia profilática foi evidenciada por uma redução na intensidade dos sintomas clínicos, contagem de E. faecalis (MW051601) por tecido vaginal, juntamente com uma redução nas alterações associadas a AV nos marcadores histológicos de infecção em animais que receberam óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537) sozinho ou em combinação. No entanto, não foi possível observar sinergismo significativo entre o óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537). Nossos dados confirmam a importância dos experimentos in vivo na dedução de interações farmacológicas.


Subject(s)
Vaginitis/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Moringa , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247016, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339416

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Resumo Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), uma minhoca nativa do Paquistão e sudeste da Ásia, tem ampla utilização em processos de vermicompostagem e biorremediação. Neste estudo, o fluido celômico de P. posthuma (PCF) e a pasta corporal (PBP) foram avaliados como agente antibacteriano contra cinco isolados clínicos Gram-positivos e quatro Gram-negativos resistentes à ampicilina (AMP). O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes doses (ou seja, 25-100 µg / ml) de PCF e PBP juntamente com AMP e azitromicina (AZM) (controles negativo e positivo, respectivamente) foi observado por meio de métodos de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Todos os nove isolados clínicos foram notados como resistentes a AMP e sensíveis a AZM. Os efeitos antibacterianos de PCF e PBP foram dependentes da dose e a zona de inibição (ZI) contra todos os isolados clínicos foi entre 23,4 ± 0,92 a 0 ± 00 mm. O perfil de sensibilidade do PCF e PBP contra isolados clínicos foi observado como 44,44% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Tanto o PCF quanto o PBP mostraram ação bacteriostática (BTS) contra S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Além disso, o potencial BTS cumulativo de PCF e PBP contra todos os isolados foi de 66,67% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Os MICs de PCF e PBP variaram de 50-200 µg / ml contra isolados selecionados. As curvas de crescimento bacteriano indicaram que o PCF e o PBP inibiram o crescimento de todos os isolados em suas concentrações específicas de MIC. No entanto, PBP tem melhor potencial antibacteriano em comparação com PCF contra isolados selecionados. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o PCF quanto o PBP de P. posthuma possuem potencial antibacteriano e BTS contra isolados clínicos resistentes à ampicilina. Esse organismo pode ser considerado como uma segunda escolha de agentes antibacterianos e pode ainda ser utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas para a fabricação de novos medicamentos por meio da prospecção de agentes com potencial bioativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta , Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246038, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.


Resumo Isla Arena está localizada na coordenada 20°70'N - 90°45'W, de Campeche, México. Nesses estuários, o oceano se mistura com a água doce e os ecossistemas se concentram onde proliferam petenos e flamingos rosa. Crustáceos e moluscos abundam no mar. Apesar de sua enorme riqueza marinha, não há estudos realizados sobre a presença de microrganismos halofílicos nessas águas. Neste trabalho, a diversidade e estrutura da comunidade microbiana foram investigadas através de uma abordagem metagenômica e corroboradas para o sequenciamento de genes 16S rRNA. Verificou-se que o filo Fimicutes predomina com mais de 50%, quase na mesma proporção da classe Bacilli e com quase 41% de abundância relativa da ordem Bacillales. Os resultados do sequenciamento mostraram que uma das amostras apresentou alto percentual de similaridade (99,75%) pelo programa Nucleotide BLAST com um microrganismo peculiar: Bacillus subtilis. Nossos resultados demonstram que B. subtilis pode ser uma fonte eficiente de proteases, lipases e celulases, provenientes de comunidades microbianas halofílicas localizadas em áreas pouco exploradas.


Subject(s)
Archaea , Microbiota , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Mexico
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239323, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339341

ABSTRACT

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Resumo Os medicamentos combinados de β-lactâmicos / inibidores da lactamase (BLBLIs) são considerados uma alternativa eficaz aos carbapenêmicos. No entanto, existe uma preocupação crescente de que o aumento do uso de BLBLIs pode levar ao aumento da resistência. Este estudo determinou a associação temporal entre o consumo de BLBLI e a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias gram-negativas. Neste estudo retrospectivo, os dados eletrônicos sobre as bactérias gram-negativas isoladas, incluindo A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli e K. pneumoniae de pacientes internados e os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade foram recuperados dos registros médicos do laboratório clínico. Uma regressão linear e análise de correlação cruzada foram realizadas nos dados adquiridos. Foram observadas tendências crescentes (p < 0,05) no consumo de BIBLI e carbapenem com uma mediana de uso de 27,68 e 34,46 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre, respectivamente. Foi observada uma tendência de diminuição (p = 0,023) no consumo de fluoroquinolonas com uma mediana de uso de 29,13 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre. A taxa de resistência de K. pneumoniae foi sincronizada com os consumos de BIBLI e carbapenem com coeficiente de correlação de 0,893 (p = 0,012) e 0,951 (p = 0,016), respectivamente. A análise de correlação cruzada contra o consumo de BIBLI e K. pneumoniae resistente ao meropenem atingiu o pico no intervalo de 0 quarto (r = 951, p = 0,016). Houve uma tendência de aumento no consumo de BLBLI e carbapenêmicos. A tendência crescente nas taxas de resistência a piperacilina/tazobactam, em linha com o consumo crescente de BLBLI, sugere que BLBLI deve ser usado com cautela e não pode ser considerado diretamente como alternativa de longo prazo aos carbapenêmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240015, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285624

ABSTRACT

Abstract Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is required for optimum plant growth. It is present in soil in insoluble forms. Bacterial solubilization of soil unavailable form of Zn into available form, is an emerging approach to alleviate the Zn deficiency for plants and human beings. Zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) could be a substitute for chemical Zn fertilizer. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize bacterial species from the contaminated soil and evaluate their Zn solubilizing potential. Zn resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Zn. Among the 13 isolated bacterial strains ZSB13 showed maximum MIC value upto 30mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Zn was selected for further analysis. Molecular characterization of ZSB13 was performed by 16S rRNA gene amplification which confirmed it as Pseudomonas oleovorans. Zn solubilization was determined through plate assay and broth medium. Four insoluble salts (zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), zinc sulphite (ZnS) and zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) were used for solubilization assay. Our results shows 11 mm clear halo zone on agar plates amended with ZnO. Likewise, ZSB13 showed significant release of Zn in broth amended with ZnCO3 (17 and 16.8 ppm) and ZnO (18.2 ppm). Furthermore, Zn resistance genes czcD was also enriched in ZSB13. In our study, bacterial strain comprising Zn solubilization potential has been isolated that could be further used for the growth enhancement of crops.


Resumo O zinco é um micronutriente essencial necessário para o crescimento ideal das plantas. Ele está presente no solo em formas insolúveis. A solubilização bacteriana da forma indisponível de Zn no solo para a forma disponível é uma abordagem emergente para aliviar a deficiência de Zn em plantas e seres humanos. Bactérias solubilizadoras de zinco (ZSB) podem ser um substituto para fertilizantes químicos de Zn. O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e caracterizar espécies bacterianas de solo contaminado e avaliar seu potencial de solubilização de Zn. Bactérias resistentes ao Zn foram isoladas e avaliadas quanto ao seu MIC contra o Zn. Entre as 13 cepas bacterianas isoladas, ZSB13 apresentou valor máximo de MIC de até 30 mM/L. A cepa bacteriana com maior resistência ao Zn foi selecionada para análise posterior. A caracterização molecular de ZSB13 foi realizada por amplificação do gene 16S rRNA que o confirmou como Pseudomonas oleovorans. A solubilização do Zn foi determinada através de ensaio em placa e meio caldo. Quatro sais insolúveis (óxido de zinco (ZnO), carbonato de zinco (ZnCO3), sulfito de zinco (ZnS) e fosfato de zinco (Zn3 (PO4) 2) foram usados ​​para o ensaio de solubilização. Nossos resultados mostram uma zona de halo clara de 11 mm em placas de ágar corrigidas com ZnO. Da mesma forma, ZSB13 mostrou liberação significativa de Zn em caldo alterado com ZnCO3 (17 e 16,8 ppm) e ZnO (18,2 ppm). Além disso, os genes de resistência ao Zn czcD também foram enriquecidos em ZSB13. Em nosso estudo, a cepa bacteriana compreendendo potencial de solubilização de Zn foi isolada e poderia ser usada posteriormente para o aumento do crescimento de safras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil Pollutants , Pseudomonas oleovorans , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Zinc , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 681-692, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399322

ABSTRACT

Com o avanço da medicina e o aumento do uso de antimicrobianos, a resistência microbiana vem se tornando um problema sério na saúde pública. Para que uma bactéria se torne resistente, são necessários vários fatores, entre eles, o uso indiscriminado e prolongado de antimicrobianos e as resistências intrínsecas e adquiridas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do trabalho foi explorar os mecanismos de ação dos antimicrobianos, de resistência e a sua importância na saúde pública. Foram utilizadas para a presente pesquisa, as bases de dados Pubmed, Google acadêmico e Scielo. Segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde define-se resistência ao antibiótico quando o mesmo não produz mais efeito. A inserção cada vez mais frequente de antimicrobianos favorece a resistência, onde provocam uma pressão seletiva sobre os microrganismos, tornando-os resistentes a diversas drogas. O uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos é o principal fator de resistência microbiana, assim como o uso de antimicrobianos sem exame de cultura e teste de sensibilidade. Neste sentido, conclui-se que é de suma importância a atualização de protocolos que contenham os mecanismos de resistência bacteriana a fim de minimizar o uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos, assim como capacitar os profissionais da saúde para este problema na saúde pública.


With the advance of medicine and the increase in the use of antimicrobials, microbial resistance has become a serious problem in public health. For a bacterium to become resistant, several factors are necessary, among them, the indiscriminate and prolonged use of antimicrobials and the intrinsic and acquired resistance. In this context, the objective of the work was to explore the mechanisms of action of antimicrobials, resistance and their importance in public health. Pubmed, Google academic and Scielo databases were used for this research. According to the World Health Organization, resistance to antibiotics is defined when it no longer has an effect. The increasingly frequent insertion of antimicrobials favors resistance, where they put selective pressure on microorganisms, making them resistant to various drugs. The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials is the main factor of microbial resistance, as well as the use of antimicrobials without culture examination and sensitivity test. In this sense, it is concluded that it is extremely important to update protocols that contain the mechanisms of bacterial resistance in order to minimize the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, as well as to train health professionals for this problem in public health.


Con los avances de la medicina y el mayor uso de antimicrobianos, la resistencia microbiana se ha convertido en un grave problema de salud pública. Para que una bacteria se vuelva resistente son necesarios varios factores, entre ellos, el uso indiscriminado y prolongado de antimicrobianos y la resistencia intrínseca y adquirida. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue explorar los mecanismos de acción de los antimicrobianos, la resistencia y su importancia en la salud pública. Para esta investigación se utilizaron las bases de datos Pubmed, Google Scholar y Scielo. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la resistencia a un antibiótico se define cuando deja de producir efecto. El uso cada vez más frecuente de antimicrobianos favorece la resistencia, ya que provocan una presión selectiva sobre los microorganismos, haciéndolos resistentes a varios fármacos. El uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos es el principal factor de resistencia microbiana, así como el uso de antimicrobianos sin pruebas de cultivo y sensibilidad. En este sentido, se concluye que es de suma importancia actualizar los protocolos que contienen los mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana para minimizar el uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos, así como capacitar a los profesionales de la salud para este problema en la salud pública.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Cell Wall/drug effects , Review , Biofilms/drug effects , Libraries, Digital , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
9.
Rev. ADM ; 79(4): 218-223, jul.-ago. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396089

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: actualizar la información sobre la disbiosis bacteriana oral y su efecto en enfermedades bucales. Material y métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica detallada, donde la búsqueda de artículos comenzó desde el 2014 con trabajos de investigación relacionados con el tema. Se aplicaron palabras clave para facilitar y delimitar el tema. En los resultados obtenidos se observa información específica de disbiosis bacteriana y los problemas y enfermedades que causan en la cavidad bucal. Conclusión: la cavidad oral es un ecosistema muy complejo e interactivo donde se desarrollan variedades de hábitats que establecen relaciones entre los microorganismos en los distintos medios bucales. Por lo general, el cuerpo humano vive en simbiosis con dichas bacterias, esta relación hospedador-huésped es producto de años de evolución y convivencia para poder tolerar a dichas especies y por medio de años de investigación, determinar a los agentes patógenos y a los simbióticos, lo que permitirá en un futuro tener enfoques terapéuticos y científicos, para así solucionar, mejorar y evitar problemas relacionados con la salud (AU)


Objective: this review aimed to update the information on oral bacterial dysbiosis and its effect on oral diseases. Material and methods: a detailed literature review was performed, where the search for articles began in 2014 with research papers related to the topic. Keywords were applied to facilitate and delimit the topic. The results obtained show specific information on bacterial dysbiosis and the problems and diseases they cause in the oral cavity. Conclusion: the oral cavity is a very complex and interactive ecosystem where a variety of habitats develop and establish relationships between microorganisms in different oral environments. Generally, the human body lives in symbiosis with these bacteria, this host-guest relationship is the product of years of evolution and coexistence to be able to tolerate these species and through years of research to determine the pathogens and symbiotics, which will allow in the future to have therapeutic and scientific approaches, to solve, improve and avoid health-related problems (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections/complications , Dysbiosis/etiology , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Gram-Positive Rods/pathogenicity , Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/pathogenicity , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Host Microbial Interactions , Mouth/microbiology
10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(4): 511-522, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introductıon: Deep neck infections are a group of diseases with serious complications and mortality, which can occur as a result of common diseases in the community and which have surgical and medical treatment options. Objectives: Patients ages, genders, complaints, physical examination findings, hospitalization complaints, history of antibiotic use before the application, additional diseases, radiological tests and analysis of examinations, type of treatment method, antibiotic agents selected in treatment, bacterial culture results, duration of hospitalization, complications, mortality rates were systematically recorded. In the study, anaerobic bacterial factors, which are difficult to produce in routine, were produced by considering special transport conditions and culture media. Methods: A total of 74 patients who were hospitalized in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Mersin, between 01.07.2016 and 01.07.2017 for deep neck infection were evaluated prospectively. The study included 37 female and 37 male patients. The ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 69 and the mean age was 31 years. Results: According to the analysis of the obtained data, there was a statistically significant relationship between the patients with additional diseases and the treatment modalities of the patients (p = 0.017). The surgical treatment rate was increased in this group of patients. In patients with a history of antibiotic use, it was found that patients in the pediatric group were in hospital longer in terms of length of stay compared to adults (p = 0.036). In adult patients who underwent surgery, the absorptive long axis was found to be longer in mm than in patients receiving isolated medical treatment (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Deep neck infections is a disease group that seriously concerns public health, with significant mortality and morbidity. Ensuring airway safety of patients should be the first intervention. Abscesses located lateral to the tonsil capsule may not drain adequately without concomitant tonsillectomy.


Resumo Introdução: As infecções cervicais profundas constituem um grupo de doenças com graves complicações e mortalidade, que podem ocorrer como resultado de doenças comuns na comunidade e que têm opções de tratamento médico e cirúrgico. Objetivo: Detectar bactérias anaeróbias e comparar a eficácia do tratamento médico-cirúrgico em diferentes faixas etárias. Método: Foram sistematicamente registrados idade dos pacientes, sexo, queixas, achados do exame físico, queixas na hospitalização, histórico de uso de antibióticos, doenças adicionais, exames radiológicos e análise dos exames, tipo de tratamento, agentes antibióticos selecionados no tratamento, resultados de cultura bacteriana, duração da hospitalização, complicações e taxas de mortalidade. No estudo, culturas bacterianas anaeróbias, difíceis de obter rotineiramente, mesmo considerando-se condições especiais de transporte e meios, foram obtidas. Foram avaliados prospectivamente 74 pacientes internados no Departamento de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade de Mersin, entre 01.07.2016 e 07.07.2017, devido a infecção cervical profunda. O estudo incluiu 37 pacientes do sexo feminino e 37 do masculino. A idade dos pacientes variou de 1 a 69 anos e a média foi de 31. Resultados: De acordo com a análise dos dados obtidos, houve uma relação estatisticamente significante entre os pacientes com doenças adicionais e as modalidades de tratamento dos pacientes (p = 0,017). A taxa de tratamento cirúrgico foi maior nesse grupo de pacientes. Em pacientes com histórico de uso de antibióticos, verificou-se que aqueles do grupo pediátrico permaneceram mais tempo hospitalizados em comparação aos adultos (p = 0,036). Nos pacientes adultos submetidos à cirurgia, verificou-se que o eixo longo absortivo era mais longo em mm do que nos pacientes que receberam tratamento médico isolado (p = 0,008). Conclusão: As infecções cervicais profundas constituem um grupo de doenças que são preocupantes na saúde pública, com sua mortalidade e morbidade. Garantir a segurança das vias aéreas dos pacientes deve ser a primeira intervenção. Os abscessos localizados lateralmente à cápsula tonsilar podem não apresentar drenagem sem a tonsilectomia.

11.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386945

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la enfermedad diarreica es una de las principales causas de muerte en niños menores de cinco años. Uno de los agentes etiológicos bacterianos más reconocido es Escherichia coli, que puede causar infecciones a través de diversos mecanismos asociados a la adquisición de genes de virulencia. Metodología: se recolectaron muestras de aguas residuales en los afluentes y los efluentes de cinco plantas de tratamiento de la Gran Área Metropolitana, durante tres días consecutivos, en los meses de marzo, mayo, octubre y diciembre del año 2013, a fin de cuantificar la concentración de E. coli, mediante la técnica de fermentación en tubos múltiples, y evaluar la presencia de los genes de virulencia aatA, bfpA, eaeA, ipaH, lt, st, stx1 y stx2, vinculados con patotipos de E. coli diarrogénica, con la técnica de PCR punto final. Resultados: el estudio reveló niveles de E. coli similares a los encontrados en afluentes de otras regiones del mundo, en cambio, los efluentes presentaron concentraciones superiores a los 4 Log10 NMP/100 mL. La circulación anual de genes de virulencia fue relacionada con los patotipos enterotoxigénica, productores de toxina Shiga/enterohemorrágica, enteroagregativa y enteropatógena. No se detectaron genes referentes a la variedad enteroinvasora. Además, se determinó que no todas las plantas de tratamiento remueven significativamente la carga de E. coli. Conclusiones: el flujo de E. coli diarrogénica es común en nuestro país y su diseminación en el ambiente es posible cuando los efluentes se descargan en cuerpos de aguas superficiales


Abstract Introduction. Diarrheic disease is one of the most important diseases causes in children under five years. One of the most recognized etiological agents is Escherichia coli. This bacterium has the capacity of causing infections by multiple mechanisms associated with the acquisition of different virulence genes. Methodology: water samples were collected from the affluents and effluents of five wastewater treatment plants located in the Costa Rican Great Metropolitan Area, during three sequential days, in March, May, October, and December from 2013. The aim was to quantify E. colis concentration by multiple tubes fermentation method and to evaluate the presence of aatA, bfpA, eaeA, ipaH, lt, st, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes, related with diarrheagenic E. coli, by PCR end-point method. Results: The study revealed that the levels of E. coli into the affluents are similar to those reported in other world regions. The effluents concentration presented higher than 4 Log10 NMP/100 mL level of E. coli. A year-round circulation of virulence genes was demonstrated, and it was associated with enterotoxigenic, Shiga-toxin producers/ enterohemorrhagic, enteroaggregative, and enteropathogenic pathotypes. Genes related to enteroinvasive variety did not were detected. Not all wastewater treatment plants removed E. coli efficiently. Conclusions: Diarrheagenic E. coli circulation is common in our county with the possibility of dissemination to the environment by effluents wastewater discharge in surface water bodies.


Subject(s)
Water Pollution , Colimetry , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Costa Rica
12.
Entramado ; 18(1): e218, ene.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384884

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bacteria isolated from food contact surfaces, can transfer resistance factors when exposed to pressure exerted by inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents. This study aimed to evaluate bacterial resistance against antibiotics and disinfectants commonly used (NaOCl and CH3COOH) in bacteria isolated from food contact surfaces. Additionally, using PCR, the presence of tetracycline resistance genes was evaluated. Results showed that 47% of the isolates exhibit resistance against more than one antibiotic, being Tetracycline the antibiotic that most isolates were resistant to (35.3%). A PCR analysis found that the tet M gene is the most frequent of the genes tested. Likewise, it was evidenced that although NaOCl is effective as a surface disinfectant, Aerococcus urinae and Kocuria kristinae isolates could resist up to 10 min of exposure. Likewise, all isolates were resistant to CH3COOH, demonstrating the low inhibitory capacity of this disinfectant. Finally, the observed correlation between resistance to antibiotics and resistance to disinfectants is confirmed. An important factor that should be studied since the generalized use of disinfectants can increase the spectrum of antibiotic resistance.


RESUMEN Bacterias aisladas de superficies en contacto con alimentos pueden transferir factores de resistencia cuando se exponen a presiones ejercidas por el uso inadecuado de agentes antimicrobianos. En este estudio se evaluó la resistencia bacteriana frente a antibióticos y desinfectantes de uso común (NaOCl y CH3COOH) en bacterias aisladas de superficies en contacto con alimentos. Adicionalmente, mediante la PCR se evaluó la presencia de genes de resistencia a la Tetraciclina. Los resultados mostraron que el 47% de los aislados presentaron resistencia a más de un antibiótico, siendo la Tetraciclina al que la mayoría de los aislamientos fueron resistentes (35,3%). El análisis de PCR encontró que el gen tet M fue el más frecuente. Además, se evidenció que, si bien el NaOCl es efectivo como desinfectante de superficies, Aerococcus urinae y Kocuria kristinae pudieron resistir hasta 10 minutos de exposición. Igualmente, todos los aislados fueron resistentes a CH3COOH, demostrando la baja capacidad inhibitoria de este desinfectante. Finalmente, se confirma una correlación entre la resistencia a antibióticos y desinfectantes. Un factor importante que conviene estudiar ya que el uso generalizado de desinfectantes podría incrementar el espectro de resistencia a los antibióticos.


RESUMO Bactérias isoladas de superfícies em contacto com alimentos podem transferir factores de resistência quando expostas a tensões exercidas pela utilização inadequada de agentes antimicrobianos. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos e desinfectantes comummente utilizados (NaOCl e CH3COOOH) em bactérias isoladas de superfícies em contacto com alimentos. Além disso, a presença de genes de resistência à tetraciclina foi avaliada por PCR. Os resultados mostraram que 47% dos isolados mostraram resistência a mais do que um antibiótico, sendo a Tetraciclina a que a maioria dos isolados era resistente (35,3%). A análise PCR constatou que o gene tet M era o mais frequente. Além disso, era evidente que, embora NaOCl seja eficaz como desinfectante de superficie, Aerococcus urinae e Kocuria kristinae foram capazes de resistir até l0 minutos de exposição. Da mesma forma, todos os isolados eram resistentes ao CH3COOH, demonstrando a baixa capacidade inibitória deste desinfectante. Finalmente, é confirmada uma correlação entre a resistência aos antibióticos e a resistência aos desinfectantes. Este é um factor importante que deve ser estudado uma vez que a utilização generalizada de desinfectantes poderia aumentar o espectro da resistência aos antibióticos.

13.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 17-17, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396575

ABSTRACT

Homeopathy is a therapy that uses medications prepared with infinitesimal and dynamized dilutions. Current studies demonstrate in vitro activity of homeopathy on gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureusand Streptococcus pyogenes. Among bacterial infections, urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequent, leads to later consequences and the main causal agent is Escherichia coli(E. coli). In other publications, it has been reported inactivity of homeopathy on E. colicultures. Due to the divergence in the literature, the objective of this study was to evaluate gram-negative bacteria growth under homeopathy treatment. Methods:The medicines Atropabelladona, Cantharis, Staphysagria,and Colibacillinumwere tested at 6CH, 12CH and 30CH inE. coliATCC 25922 and EPEC (Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) ATCC 43887. Two hundred and fifty microliters of the medicines in alcohol 30% were incubated at 37ºC with 3 mL of Müller Hinton broth (MH), 10 µL of cultures at 0.5 Macfarland and subsequent dilution at 1/10. Bacterial growth was evaluated in a spectrophotometer at 600nm, in the periods of 6, 12,and 20 hours of incubation. Resultsand Discussion:The results showed no inhibition of bacterial growth under the studied conditions. These data corroborate with studies already published that indicate the absence of action of homeopathy on E. colicultures. Considering other studies, it can be suggested that homeopathic medicines have direct activity on the growth of Gram-positive and not Gram-negative bacteria. Evaluating the two bacterial groups, it is possible to assume that the difference in homeopathy activity could be linked to differences in the bacterial wall structure. This hypothesis should be evaluated by other tests with the same bacterialstrains. Conclusion:The homeopathic medicines tested have no direct activity on Gram-negative bacteria cultures.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Homeopathic Remedy , Escherichia coli
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(1): 54-66, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374507

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La creciente resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos representa una amenaza mundial de salud pública. Las excreciones y secreciones larvarias derivadas de moscas necrófagas de la familia Calliphoridae podrían configurar una fuente promisoria para contrarrestar sus efectos. Objetivo. Comparar la actividad antimicrobiana de las excreciones y secreciones larvarias nativas, y de las mayores y menores de 10 kDa de Calliphora vicina y Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Materiales y métodos. El bioensayo se hizo a partir de la técnica de turbidimetría y en el caso de las excreciones y secreciones menores de 10 kDa se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM). Resultados. Las excreciones y secreciones nativas y las menores de 10 kDa de C. vicina y S. magellanica, evidenciaron una potente actividad antibacteriana contra tres cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y cuatro bacterias Gram negativas, siendo las menores de 10 kDa más efectivas que las nativas en las dos especies de moscas evaluadas. Además, las menores de 10 kDa presentaron la misma efectividad, aunque en las pruebas de CIM se observó que las de S. magellanica fueron más potentes en todas las bacterias evaluadas, excepto contra la cepa de S. aureus ATCC 25923. Las mayores de 10 kDa no inhibieron el crecimiento bacteriano. Conclusión. Los resultados validaron, en general, que estas sustancias son fuente importante para el aislamiento y la caracterización de agentes antimicrobianos.


Introduction: The growing resistance to antibiotics worldwide represents a global threat to public health. The larval excretions and secretions derived from necrophagous flies from the Calliphoridae family could represent a promising source for counteracting their effects. Objective: To compare the antimicrobial activity of Calliphora vicina and Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) native excretions and secretions and those weighing more than 10 kDa and less. Materials and methods: We used the turbidimetry technique for the bioassay; we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for excretions and secretions weighing less than 10 kDa. Results: Calliphora vicina and S. magellanica native excretions and secretions and those weighing less than 10 kDa exhibited potent antibacterial activity against three Staphylococcus aureus strains and four Gram-negative bacteria; those weighing less than 10 kDa were more effective than the native ones in the two species of flies evaluated here. Furthermore, excretions and secretions weighing less than 10 kDa had the same effectiveness, except in the MIC trials where S. magellanica excretions and secretions weighing less than 10 kDa were more potent against all the bacteria evaluated, except for S. aureus ATCC 25923. Excretions and secretions weighing more than 10 kDa did not inhibit bacterial growth. Conclusions: These results potentially validate these substances as an important source for isolating and characterizing antimicrobial agents.


Subject(s)
Modalities, Secretion and Excretion , Diptera , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Larva , Anti-Bacterial Agents
15.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 22(1): 13-16, jan.-mar. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391391

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O seguinte estudo é uma análise de prontuários para traçar um perfil epidemiológico de pacientes acometidos por infecções odontogênicas e/ou angina de Ludwig em um serviço hospitalar público. Metodologia: Foi realizado um estudo observacional de 37 prontuários com diagnóstico de infecção odontogênica e/ou Angina de Ludwig no Hospital da Restauração, na cidade do Recife, Pernambuco, entre os meses de julho a novembro de 2021. Resultados: Dos 37 prontuários, a maioria foi do sexo masculino (55%; n=20), a faixa etária mais acometida foi dos 18 aos 40 (45%; n=17); abaixo dos 10 anos foram acometidos 27% (n = 10). 21% (n = 8) foram internados e dos 37 prontuários, 13% (n = 5) evoluíram para Angina de Ludwig. Conclusão: O perfil mais acometido por infecções odontogênicas no período proposto foram pacientes do sexo masculino adultos e a internação não prevaleceu na maioria dos casos. O alto acometimento de crianças é um sinal de alerta, sugerindo uma atenção maior dos responsáveis. A angina de Ludwig acometeu menos da metade dos pacientes e a Ceftriaxona e o Metronidazol foram os antibióticos de escolha para a maioria dos casos... (AU)


Objetivo: El siguiente estudio es un análisis de historias clínicas para trazar un perfil epidemiológico de los pacientes afectados por infecciones odontogénicas y/o angina de Ludwig en un servicio hospitalario público. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio observacional en 37 historias clínicas con diagnóstico de infección odontogénica y/o Angina de Ludwig en el Hospital da Restauração, en la ciudad de Recife, Pernambuco, entre julio y noviembre de 2021. Resultados: De las 37 historias clínicas, la mayoría eran hombres (55%; n=20), el grupo de edad más afectado fue el de 18 a 40 años (45%; n=17); menores de 10 años, el 27% (n = 10) estaban afectados. El 21% (n = 8) fueron hospitalizados y de las 37 historias clínicas, el 13% (n = 5) progresó a Angina de Ludwig. Conclusión: El perfil más afectado por infecciones odontogénicas en el periodo propuesto fueron pacientes adultos del sexo masculino y no predominó la hospitalización en la mayoría de los casos. La alta participación de los niños es una señal de advertencia, lo que sugiere una mayor atención por parte de los responsables. La angina de Ludwig afectó a menos de la mitad de los pacientes y la ceftriaxona y el metronidazol fueron los antibióticos de elección en la mayoría de los casos... (AU)


Objective: The following study is an analysis of medical records to trace an epidemiological profile of patients affected by odontogenic infections and/or Ludwig's angina in a public hospital service. Methodology: An observational study was carried out on 37 medical records with a diagnosis of odontogenic infection and/or Ludwig's Angina at Hospital da Restauração, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, between July and November 2021. Results: Of the 37 medical records, the most were male (55%; n=20), the age group most affected was from 18 to 40 (45%; n=17); under 10 years of age, 27% (n = 10) were affected. 21% (n = 8) were hospitalized and of the 37 medical records, 13% (n = 5) progressed to Ludwig's Angina. Conclusion: The profile most affected by odontogenic infections in the proposed period were adult male patients and hospitalization did not prevail in most cases. The high involvement of children is a warning sign, suggesting greater attention from those responsible. Ludwig's angina affected less than half of the patients and Ceftriaxone and Metronidazole were the antibiotics of choice for most cases... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Medical Records , Focal Infection, Dental , Ludwig's Angina , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Hospitals, Public , Infections
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 20-28, feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388328

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevalencia de microorganismos multirresistentes es un problema de salud pública que continúa creciendo a lo largo del mundo. Existe una población principalmente susceptible de ser colonizada y posteriormente infectarse, son los pacientes oncológicos. OBJETIVO: Identificar las características clínicas y patológicas de los pacientes oncológicos y su relación con la infección con microorganismos productores de BLEE y EPC. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se condujo un estudio retrospectivo y de carácter analítico entre el primero de enero de 2019 y el 30 de junio de 2020 en tres unidades hemato-oncológicas. RESULTADOS: Incluyó a 3.315 pacientes, de los cuales 217 (6,5%) se encontraban colonizados por microorganismos productores de BLEE y EPC; de éstos, 106/217 (48,8%) presentaron al menos un episodio de infección. El microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado fue Klebsiella pneumoniae, en 29/106 (27,4%). De los infectados, 18/106 (17%) presentaron infección por el mismo microorganismo colonizador. La mucositis (p = 0,002), edad mayor a 65 años (p = 0,041), hipoalbuminemia (p < 0,01), neutropenia (p < 0,01) y la presencia dispositivos invasivos (p < 0,01) demostraron una relación con el desarrollo de infección. CONCLUSIÓN: La presencia de hipoalbuminemia (OR 3,3, IC 1,5-7,1, p < 0,01), dispositivos invasivos (OR 5,8, IC 3.0-11,4, p < 0,01) y neutropenia (OR 4,1, IC 1,5-11,4, p < 0,01) predicen el desarrollo de infecciones.


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of multi-resistant microorganisms is a public health problem that continues to grow globally. There is a population that is mainly susceptible to being colonized and subsequently infected, and these are cancer patients. AIM: To identify the clinical and pathological characteristics of cancer patients and their relationship with infection with ESBL and CPE producing microorganisms. METHODS: A retrospective and analytical study was conducted between January 1, 2019 and June 30, 2020 in three hematooncological units. RESULTS: We included 3315 patients of which 217 (6.5%) were colonized by microorganisms producing ESBL and CPE. Of these, 106/217 (48.8%) had at least one episode of infection. The most frequently isolated microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae 29/106 (27.4%). Of those infected, 18/106 (17%) presented infection by the same colonizing microorganism. Mucositis (p = 0.002), age over 65 years (p = 0.041), hypoalbuminemia (p < 0.01), neutropenia (p < 0.01) and the presence of invasive devices (p < 0.01) demonstrated a relationship with development of infection. The presence of hypoalbuminemia (OR 3.3, CI 1.5-7.1, P < 0.01), invasive devices (OR 5.8, CI 3.0-11.4, p < 0.01) and neutropenia (OR 4.1, CI 1.5-11.4, p < 0.01) predict the development of infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hypoalbuminemia/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy , beta-Lactamases , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(1): 36-40, jan./mar. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1393208

ABSTRACT

Hemoparasitoses vêm se tornando cada vez mais importantes na clínica médica de pequenos animais. Dentre os agentes causadores encontramos Ehrlichiacanis, Anaplasmaplatys., e Mycoplasma spp., torna-se de grande importância conhecer a epidemiologia nos gatos domésticos. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa fazer um levantamento retrospectivo de fichas de gatos advindos de consultas no Hospital Veterinário Mário Dias Teixeira (HOVET) que realizaram exame de Reação de Cadeia da polimerase (PCR) no laboratório de biologia molecular, na Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, no ano de 2018 e 2019. No total foram 72 amostras de gatos domésticos processadas, sendo 33 machos e 39 fêmeas, 70 animais SRD e 2 Siameses, todos com trombocitopenia, além de outros sinais clínicos que os levaram a precisar de atendimento veterinário, foram categorizados os meses de entrada e processamento das amostras, bairros dos animais e grupos etários. De todos os animais testados, 34,7% obtiveram diagnóstico positivo para uma das enfermidades, sendo o gênero Mycoplasma spp. o que mais prevaleceu em amostras positivas, com maior frequência em fêmeas adultas, bem como foi descrita ocorrência de E. canis apenas nesse sexo, já A. platysfoi descrito com maior frequência em machos, além de achados de infecções concomitantes observado entre os agentes Anaplasmae Mycoplasma. Concluímos que os gatos atendidos no HOVET possuíam parasitismo por diferentes agentes infecciosos.


Hemoparasitosis have become increasingly important in the small animals' internal medicine. Among the causal agents, there are Ehrlichiacanis, Anaplasmaplatys. and Mycoplasma spp., which give the understanding of the epidemiology in domestic cats a great significance. This research aimed to make a retrospective survey of records from cats that came from appointments at the Veterinary Hospital Mário Dias Teixeira (HOVET) and underwent the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test at the molecular biology laboratory, at the Amazônia Federal Rural University (UFRA), in the years of 2018 and 2019. In total, 72 samples of domestic cats were processed, from which 33 were males and 39 females, 70 of them were mongrel cats and 2 siamese, all of them showed thrombocytopenia amongst other clinical signs that led them to need a veterinary appointment, the months of admission, processing of the samples, districts the animals came from and age group were categorized. 34,7% of all the animals tested showed positive results for one of the diseases, with the genus Mycoplasma spp. being the most prevalent in positive samples, showing a higher rate in adult females, as the occurrence of E. canis was reported only in females, while A. platys was reported with a higher rate in males, as well as concomitant infections following the observation of the agents Anaplasma and Mycoplasma. In conclusion, the cats admitted at HOVET showed parasitism by different infectious agents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Parasitic Diseases/blood , Blood/parasitology , Epidemiologic Studies , Cats/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Ehrlichia canis , Parasite Load/veterinary , Anaplasma , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary
18.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 934-936, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934842

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the level and trend of microbial contamination in food in rural compulsory education schools in Baiyin City, so as to provide a reference for playing an early warning role in eliminating potential food safety hazards as soon as possible.@*Methods@#According to the "National Food Contaminants and Harmful Factors Risk Monitoring Workbook", etc., 8 pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, total bacterial count, and 2 hygienic indicator bacteria of coliform were tested.@*Results@#A total of 908 food samples were collected from 2013 to 2021, 47 were positive and the overall positive rate was 5.18%. The positive rate of samples collected in different years showed a downward trend year by year. The detected pathogenic bacteria ranked from high to low as follows: Escherichia coli (1.87%), Bacillus cereus (0.99%), Staphylococcus aureus (0.44%), mold (0.33%), Listeria monocytogenes (0.22%). Hygiene indicator bacteria total number of bacteria exceeded the standard rate was higher (2.09%). Among all kinds of food, milk and dairy products, frozen food, cold food, barbecue, rice and flour products had higher positive rates. According to quarterly statistics, the positive rate in the first and second quarters was relatively high.@*Conclusion@#There are different degrees of microbial contamination risks in the food of rural compulsory education schools. All relevant departments should pay attention to the current situation of school food hygiene and safety in poverty stricken areas, and strengthen rural compulsory education school food, especially for milk and dairy products, frozen food, cold food, Supervision of key foods such as barbecue, rice and flour products, and efforts to improve their safety standards, do a good job in school food hygiene and safety, and ensure the healthy growth of young people.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933644

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the distribution, drug resistance and clinical significance of bacteria and fungi in pancreatic juice of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).Methods:Data of patients with severe acute pancreatitis receiving ERCP treatment and pancreatic juice bacterial culture at Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from Jan 2019 to Jun 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Results:A total of 97 patients were included. Pathogens were isolated from 46 (47.42%) pancreatic juice samples, with 71 strains including 43 (60.56%) gram negative bacteria, 26 (36.62%) gram positive bacteria, and 2 (2.82%) fungi. The C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer and Balthazar CT Score in the culture positive group were higher than those in the culture negative group ( P < 0.05). The incidence of complications and pancreatic infection in the culture positive group was also significantly higher ( P < 0.05). Conclusions:The positive rate of pancreatic juice bacterial culture in the early stage of severe acute pancreatitis is high, in which Gram-negative bacteria are most common, followed by Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The presence of pathogens in pancreatic juice predicts ensuing infections.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933608

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the effectiveness and safety of Morinidazole combined laparoscopic appendectomy for acute purulent appendicitis and acute gangrene appendicitis.Methods:We retrospectively retrieved 387 acute appendicitis patients who have received surgery or conservative treatment from Jan 2017 to Jun 2019. Firty four patients with Morinidazole + Etimicin bigeminy combined laparoscopic surgery were set to experimental group. The other 54 cases using ornidazole + levofloxacin bigeminy combined laparoscopic appendectomy were enrolled into control group after Propensity Score Matching.Results:After 1∶1 propensity score matching, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups and control group in clinical features. The white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and calcitonin original inflammation index change were higher in experimental group than in the control group,both preoperatived and on post-op day1 and day 3 (all P<0.05). In the experimental group the length of hospital stay and analgesic drug usetime were shorter than in the control group (all P<0.05). Conclusion:Morinidazole combined laparoscopic appendectomy can effectively control the intra-abdominal infection caused by acute purulent appendicitis and acute gangrene appendicitis with less adverse reactions.

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