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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249104, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339389

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the strength of association of raised plasma homocysteine concentration as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factor. It was a case control study conducted at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. A total of 210 subjects aged 25 to 60 years comprising of 105 newly admitted patients of CHD as cases and 105 age and sex matched healthy individuals with no history of CHD as control were recruited for the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from cases and controls. Plasma homocysteine was analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method on automated immunoassay analyzer (Abbott IMX). Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were analyzed using calorimetric kit methods. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. The patients were also assessed for traditional risk factors such as age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking and physical activity, and were compared with control subjects. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 24 for analysis and interpretation.The mean age in controls and experimental groups were 43.00± 8.42 years and 44.72± 8.59 years with statistically same distribution (p- value= 0.144). The mean plasma homocysteine for cases was 22.33± 9.22 µmol/L where as it was 12.59±3.73 µmol/L in control group. Highly significant difference was seen between the mean plasma level of homocysteine in cases and controls (p˂0.001).Simple logistic regression indicates a strong association of coronary heart disease with hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 7.45), which remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease by multivariate logistic regression (OR 7.10, 95%C1 3.12-12.83, p=0.000). The present study concludes that elevated levels of Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factors and can be used as an indicator for predicting the future possibility for the onset of CVD.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a força da associação da concentração elevada de homocisteína no plasma como um fator de risco para doença cardíaca coronária independente do fator de risco convencional. Foi um estudo de caso-controle realizado no Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. Um total de 210 indivíduos com idade entre 25 e 60 anos, compreendendo 105 pacientes recém-admitidos de CHD como casos e 105 indivíduos saudáveis ​​pareados por idade e sexo sem histórico de CHD como controle, foi recrutado para o estudo. Amostras de sangue em jejum foram obtidas de casos e controles. A homocisteína plasmática foi analisada pelo método de imunoensaio de polarização de fluorescência (FPIA) em analisador de imunoensaio automatizado (Abbott IMX). Colesterol total, triglicerídeos e colesterol HDL foram analisados ​​usando métodos de kit calorimétrico. A concentração de colesterol LDL foi calculada pela fórmula de Friedewald. Os pacientes também foram avaliados para fatores de risco tradicionais, como idade, sexo, história familiar de DCV, hipertensão, tabagismo e atividade física, e foram comparados com indivíduos de controle. Os dados coletados foram inseridos no SPSS versão 24 para análise e interpretação. A média de idade nos grupos controles e experimentais foi de 43,00 ± 8,42 anos e 44,72 ± 8,59 anos com distribuição estatisticamente igual (p-valor = 0,144). A homocisteína plasmática média para os casos foi de 22,33 ± 9,22 µmol / L, enquanto no grupo controle foi de 12,59 ± 3,73 µmol / L. Diferença altamente significativa foi observada entre o nível plasmático médio de homocisteína em casos e controles (p ˂ 0,001). A regressão logística simples indica uma forte associação de doença cardíaca coronária com hiper-homocisteinemia (OR 7,45), que permaneceu significativamente associada com doença cardíaca coronária por multivariada regressão logística (OR 7,10, 95% C1 3,12-12,83, p = 0,000). O presente estudo conclui que níveis elevados de homocisteína plasmática são fator de risco independente para doença cardíaca coronária, independentemente dos fatores de risco convencionais, e pode ser usado como um indicador para prever a possibilidade futura de aparecimento de DCV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Coronary Disease/embryology , Hyperhomocysteinemia/diagnosis , Hyperhomocysteinemia/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Fasting
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248910, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339342

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study determines the associations among serum lipid profiles, risk of cardiovascular disease, and persistent organic pollutants. Using Gas chromatography technique, the intensity of toxic pollutant residues in serum samples of Hypertensive patients were measured. Based on statistical analysis, the effects of different covariates namely pesticides, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profile duration was checked using the logistic regression model. Statistical computation was performed on SPSS 22.0. The P-values of F-Statistic for each lipid profile class are greater than 0.01 (1%), therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis for all cases. The estimated coefficients, their standard errors, Wald Statistic, and odds ratio of the binary logistic regression model for different lipid profile parameters indicate if pesticides increase then the logit value of different lipid profile parameters changes from -0.46 to -0.246 except LDL which increases by 0.135. The study reports a significantly increased threat of cardiovascular disease with increased concentrations of toxic pollutants.


Resumo Este estudo determina as associações entre o perfil lipídico sérico, o risco de doença cardiovascular e os poluentes orgânicos persistentes. Por meio da técnica de cromatografia gasosa, mediu-se a intensidade dos resíduos de poluentes tóxicos em amostras de soro de pacientes hipertensos. Com base na análise estatística, os efeitos de diferentes covariáveis ​​- ou seja, pesticidas, idade, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica e duração do perfil lipídico - foram verificados usando o modelo de regressão logística. O cálculo estatístico foi realizado no SPSS 22.0. Os valores P da estatística F para cada classe de perfil lipídico são maiores que 0,01 (1%), portanto não podemos rejeitar a hipótese nula para todos os casos. Os coeficientes estimados, seus erros padrão, estatística de Wald e odds ratio do modelo de regressão logística binária para diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico indicam se os pesticidas aumentam, então o valor logit de diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico muda de -0,46 para -0,246, exceto LDL, que aumenta em 0,135. O estudo relata um aumento significativo da ameaça de doença cardiovascular com aumento das concentrações de poluentes tóxicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides , Environmental Pollutants , Persistent Organic Pollutants , Lipids , Lipoproteins
3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(2): 133-136, Mar-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365698

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Some experimental research has proved that long-term basketball exercises can effectively improve physical fitness, promote growth and improve motor functions. However, studies exploring the specific effects of this sport on cardiac and cerebral vascularization are still scarce. Objective: We aimed to study, through experimental analysis, if the activities derived from basketball sport can have some influence on cardiac and cerebral vascularization. Methods: Twelve students with no family history of genetic diseases and in good health, who regularly practice amateur basketball, were followed for 8 weeks. Weight, height, body mass index, body fat rate, maximum oxygen consumption, hemoglobin, and indicators of lipid metabolism were analyzed. Results: After long-term basketball exercises, the body fat rate of these college students decreased significantly, and total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein also show significant differences compared with the control group. Conclusion: Through the processing and analysis of the experimental data, it can be concluded that basketball can effectively reduce the human body fat rate, maintain a healthy body shape, and indirectly reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: Algumas pesquisas experimentais provaram que exercícios de basquetebol a longo prazo podem efetivamente melhorar a aptidão física, promover o crescimento e melhorar as funções motoras. Porém, ainda são escassos os estudos que exploram os efeitos específicos desse esporte na vascularização cardíaca e cerebral. Objetivo: Objetiva-se estudar, através de análise experimental, se as atividades derivadas do esporte basquete podem ter alguma influência sobre a vascularização cardíaca e cerebral. Métodos: Houve acompanhamento por 8 semanas de doze alunos sem histórico familiar com doença genética e em boa saúde com prática regular do basquete de forma amadora. Foram analisados peso, altura, índice de massa corporal, taxa de gordura corporal, consumo máximo de oxigênio, hemoglobina e indicadores de metabolismo lipídico. Resultados: Após exercícios de basquetebol de longa duração, a taxa de gordura corporal destes estudantes universitários diminuiu significativamente, e o colesterol sérico total e a lipoproteína de baixa densidade também apresentam diferenças significativas em comparação com o grupo de controle. Conclusão: Através do processamento e análise dos dados experimentais, pode-se concluir que o basquetebol pode efetivamente reduzir a taxa de gordura do corpo humano, manter uma forma corporal saudável e, indiretamente, reduzir o risco de doenças cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: Algunas investigaciones experimentales han demostrado que los ejercicios de baloncesto a largo plazo pueden mejorar eficazmente la aptitud física, promover el crecimiento y mejorar las funciones motoras. Sin embargo, los estudios que exploran los efectos específicos de este deporte en la vascularización cardíaca y cerebral son todavía escasos. Objetivo: El propósito de este trabajo es estudiar, mediante un análisis experimental, si las actividades derivadas del deporte del baloncesto pueden tener alguna influencia en la vascularización cardíaca y cerebral. Métodos: Se realizó un seguimiento de 8 semanas a doce estudiantes sin antecedentes familiares de enfermedad genética y en buen estado de salud con práctica regular de baloncesto amateur. Se analizaron el peso, la altura, el índice de masa corporal, el índice de grasa corporal, el consumo máximo de oxígeno, la hemoglobina y los indicadores del metabolismo de los lípidos. Resultados: Después de realizar ejercicios de baloncesto a largo plazo, el índice de grasa corporal de estos estudiantes universitarios disminuyó significativamente, y el colesterol sérico total y la lipoproteína de baja densidad también muestran diferencias significativas en comparación con el grupo de control. Conclusión: Mediante el procesamiento y el análisis de los datos experimentales, se puede concluir que el baloncesto puede reducir eficazmente la tasa de grasa corporal del ser humano, mantener una forma corporal saludable y reducir indirectamente el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 230-242, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364972

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Objective To provide population-based data on prevalence and factors associated with CVD risk factors. Methods Individuals aged ≥20 years from two editions of the cross-sectional Health Survey of São Paulo focusing on Nutrition (ISA-Nutrition), performed in Sao Paulo city in 2008 (n=590) and 2015 (n=610), were evaluated for: obesity, central obesity, waist/height ratio, high blood pressure (HBP), dyslipidemia, diabetes, and number of CVD risk factors ≥3. Prevalence was estimated according to complex survey procedures. Factors associated with cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using logistic regression, with statistical significance of p<0.05. Results Obesity and older age were associated with higher odds of all cardiovascular risk factors investigated, except for dyslipidemia. HBP was positively associated with being Black/Brown and negatively associated with being physicaly active in leisure time. Women were more likely to have increased adiposity indicators and three or more cardiovascular risk factors than men. Those with higher education had lower chances of having diabetes, HBP and dyslipidemia, and those with higher income had higher chances of having three or more risk factors. Former smokers had higher odds of diabetes, obesity, and high waist/height ratio, and smokers had higher odds of high non-HDL cholesterol levels. From 2008 to 2015, there was an increase (p<0.001) in the prevalence of diabetes (6.9% to 17.3%), HBP (31.9% to 41.8%), dyslipidemia (51.3% to 67.6%), and number of CVD risk factors ≥3 (18.9% to 34.1%). Conclusion This study shows increasing prevalence of CVD risk factors in adult population in Sao Paulo and may support the definition of target groups and priority actions on CVD prevention and treatment.

7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 184-190, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364983

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a pathological process that involves cardiac muscle tissue death. Intravenous thrombolysis with fibrinolytics or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), an invasive technique, can be performed for tissue revascularization. PCI has been preferred as compared to non-invasive methods, although few studies have described its use in Brazil. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze data on the use of primary PCI and investigate the relevance of hospitalizations for the treatment of STEMI in the country. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional analysis of data from the Brazilian Unified Health system (SUS) Department of Informatics (DATASUS) from 2010 to 2019 was conducted. Results: Hospitalizations for STEMI represented 0.6% of all hospital admissions in Brazil in the analyzed period, 0.9% of hospital costs, and 2.1% of deaths. The number of hospitalizations due to STEMI was 659,811, and 82,793 for PCIs. Length of hospital stay was 36.0% shorter and mortality rate was 53.3% lower in PCI. The mean cost of PCI was 3.5-fold higher than for treatment of STEMI. Conclusions: Data on hospitalizations for STEMI treatment in Brazil revealed high hospitalization and mortality rates, elevated costs, and long hospital stay. Although primary PCI is a more expensive and less used technique than other methods, it can reduce the length of hospital stay and mortality in the treatment of STEMI.

8.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 152-158, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364987

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The implementation of Telecardiology in primary care in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, is a viable and promising strategy. It would decrease the distance between patient and specialized professional services by reducing unnecessary referrals and improving the quality of primary care and satisfaction of patients and health professionals. Objective: To implement a Telecardiology service and assess user satisfaction using the CARDIOSATIS scale. Methods: This was a pilot study developed by a partnership between the Institute of Cardiology and the Telehealth Center of Rio Grande do Sul. The study was carried out at Eri Flores-Vila Vargas health center in the city of Porto Alegre, from May to October 2019, and included 21 patients attending the health center. The descriptive analysis of data was performed using the SPSS program (Statistical Package for the Sciences) version 23. Data normality was checked using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Statistical significance was set at 10%. Results: Mean age of participants was 43.8 ± 16.1 years. The most common risk factors in the sample were physical inactivity (81%) and smoking (43%). Most patients had normal electrocardiogram (ECG) readings. The time elapsed from the performance of the ECG test, transmission of the ECG traces to Telehealth, and return of the final ECG report to the health center was 0-7 days. The CARDIOSATIS scale revealed a high prevalence of "very satisfied" users for the general satisfaction domain, and only 14.3% of patients were dissatisfied with their health. Conclusions: Telecardiology reduced the distance between patient and the specialized professional, with a high level of patient and health professional satisfaction. Our study can serve as a basis for the implementation of a telecardiology network in the city of Porto Alegre in the future.

9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 634-645, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364356

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Embora se saiba que a fração de ejeção (FE) do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) medida por eletrocardiograma seja preservada em pacientes com acromegalia, não há informação suficiente sobre deformação longitudinal global e deformação do átrio esquerdo (SLG-VE e SAE). Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as funções do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) e do átrio esquerdo (AE) por ecocardiograma strain (ES) em pacientes com acromegalia. Métodos Este estudo incluiu 50 pacientes com acromegalia na forma ativa da doença e 50 controles saudáveis com idade, sexo e área de superfície corporal similares. Além dos ecocardiogramas de rotina, medições de SLG-VE e SAE foram realizadas com o ES. Resultados Os valores dos SAE e SLG-VE foram significativamente mais baixos em pacientes com acromegalia (p<0,05 para todos). Na análise bivariada, a pressão arterial sistólica, o pró-hormônio N-terminal do peptídeo natriurético cerebral, o fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina tipo 1, e detectou-se que os níveis de IMVE tinham correlação positiva com SAE e SLG-VE (p<0,05). O nível de IGF-1 tinha forte correlação com SAE e SLG-VE (p<0,001 e β=0,5 vs. p<0,001 e β=0,626, respectivamente); 48% dos pacientes com acromegalia têm SLG-VE reduzido (<20%). O índice de massa do ventrículo esquerdo (IMVE) determina independentemente a presença de SLG-VE reduzido, e cada 1g/m2 de aumento no nível de IMVE aumenta a probabilidade de redução de SLG-VE em 6%. Conclusão Embora a fração de ejeção de VE seja normal em pacientes com acromegalia, os valores de SAE e SLG-VE são significativamente mais baixos. Além do aumento em IMVE, outro achado do envolvimento cardíaco pode ser a redução de SAE e SLG-VE. Portanto, além do ecocardiograma de rotina, SAE e SLG-VE podem ser úteis para avaliar os sinais iniciais de envolvimento cardíaco antes da ocorrência de alterações cardíacas irreversíveis.


Abstract Background Although it is known that the left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) measured by echocardiography is preserved in patients with acromegaly, there is not enough information about the LV and left atrial strain (LV-GLS and LAS). Objective This study aimed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) functions with strain echocardiography (SE) in patients with acromegaly. Methods This study included 50 acromegaly patients with active disease and 50 healthy controls with similar age, gender, and body surface area. In addition to routine echocardiography examinations, LV-GLS and LAS measurements were performed with SE. Results LAS and LV-GLS values were significantly lower in patients with acromegaly (p<0.05 for all). In bivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, Insulin-like growth factor-1, LA diastolic diameter, and LVMI levels were found to be positively correlated with both LAS and LV-GLS (p <0.05). IGF-1 level was strongly correlated with LAS and LV-GLS (p<0.001 and β=0.5 vs. p<0.001 and β=0.626, respectively); 48% of patients with acromegaly have reduced LV-GLS (<20%). Left ventricular mass-index (LVMI) independently determines the presence of reduced LV-GLS and each 1g/m2increase in LVMI level increases the likelihood of reduced LV-GLS by 6%. Conclusion Although LV ejection fraction is normal in patients with acromegaly, LAS and LV-GLS values were significantly reduced. Apart from LVMI increase, another finding of cardiac involvement may be LAS and LV-GLS decrease. Therefore, in addition to routine echocardiography, LAS and LV-GLS may be useful to evaluate early signs of cardiac involvement before the occurrence of irreversible cardiac changes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acromegaly/complications , Acromegaly/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 607-613, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364344

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A ventriculografia esquerda é um método invasivo para avaliar a função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo. Depois do advento de métodos não invasivos, o seu uso tem sido questionado por resultar em algum risco para o paciente. Objetivos Avaliar quais fatores associam-se independentemente com a decisão de realizar ventriculografia em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Métodos Tratou-se de um estudo analítico, retrospectivo, avaliando prontuários eletrônicos e banco de dados e comparando 21 variáveis de interesse pré-definidas entre pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia. Foi considerado significante p < 0,05. Resultados Avaliamos 600 pacientes consecutivos, e a ventriculografia esquerda foi realizada na maioria dos pacientes submetidos a uma cineangiocoronariografia (54%). Depois da análise multivariada, os pacientes com síndromes coronarianas crônicas ( odds ratio [OR] 1,72; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,20-2,46; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de serem submetidos ao procedimento. Os pacientes com função ventricular conhecida (OR = 0,58; IC 95%: 0,40-0,85; p < 0,01), os revascularizados (OR 0,31; IC 95% 0,14-0,69; p < 0,01), os hipertensos (OR 0,58; IC 95%: 0,36-0,94; p = 0,02) e aqueles com maiores valores de creatinina (OR 0,42; IC 95% 0,26-0,69; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de não realizar ventriculografia. Conclusões Nos pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia, o diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana crônica associou-se de modo independente com uma maior realização da técnica, enquanto ter a função ventricular previamente conhecida, ser hipertenso, ter sido submetido a revascularização cirúrgica prévia e ter valores de creatinina mais elevados associaram-se a uma maior chance de não realizar o método.


Abstract Background Left ventriculography is an invasive method for assessment of left ventricular systolic function. Since the advent of noninvasive methods, its use has been questioned, as it carries some risk to the patient. Objective To assess which factors are independently associated with the decision to perform ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Analytical, retrospective, database review study of electronic medical records comparing 21 predefined variables of interest among patients undergoing coronary angiography. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results We evaluated 600 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Left ventriculography was performed in the majority of cases (54%). After multivariate analysis, patients with chronic coronary syndrome (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46; p < 0.01) were more likely to undergo the procedure. Patients with known ventricular function (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.85; p < 0.01); those with a history of CABG (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14-0.69; p < 0.01) or hypertension (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36-0.94; p = 0.02); and those with higher creatinine levels (OR 0.42; 95% CI: 0.26-0.69; p < 0.01) had greater odds of not undergoing ventriculography. Conclusions In patients undergoing coronary angiography, a diagnosis of chronic coronary syndrome was independently associated with greater likelihood of left ventriculography, while having previously determined ventricular function, a history of hypertension or CABG, and higher creatinine levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of undergoing this procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Angiography , Heart
11.
J. health sci. (Londrina) ; 24(1): 52-56, 20220322.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362854

ABSTRACT

Abstract Identified in China in December 2019 as a new class of viral pneumonia of unknown origin, the new Coronavirus has already passed the milestone of 100 million people infected worldwide. The clinical course of this infection is characterized by fever, cough, upper airway congestion and complications related to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. In addition, the virus can have repercussions that go beyond the impairment of the respiratory system, affecting other systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the correlation between Covid-19 and thromboembolic and cardiovascular events. It is a Systematic Review that was submitted to searches in the PubMed, SciELO, Lilacs and Bireme databases. Six observational studies comprising 1539 patients were included in this review. The quality of the articles was evaluated according to the New Castle-Ottawa scale. After extracting data from the studies, it was observed that hospitalized patients diagnosed with Covid-19 infection are more likely to develop Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE), as well as cardiovascular events, although the latter are less frequent. These patients also have alterations in the pulmonary parenchyma, being proportional to the severity of the case, as well as the prevalence of d-dimer, the rate of thrombosis in the pulmonary artery, the need for intensive care and the mortality rate. Thus, the severe form of infection by Covid-19 manifests consequences that do not only involve the respiratory system, compromising the blood clotting of affected patients, leading to a higher incidence of thromboembolic and cardiovascular events. (AU)


Resumo Identificado na China em dezembro de 2019 como uma nova classe de pneumonia viral, de origem desconhecida, o novo Coronavírus já ultrapassou o marco de 100 milhões de pessoas infectadas em todo o mundo. A evolução clínica desta infecção é caracterizada por febre, tosse, congestão das vias aéreas superiores e complicações relacionadas a um quadro de Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório Agudo. Além disso, o vírus pode apresentar repercussões que vão além do comprometimento do sistema respiratório, afetando outros sistemas. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo é descrever a correlação entre a Covid-19 e os eventos tromboembólicos e cardiovasculares. Trata-se de uma Revisão Sistemática que foi submetida a pesquisas nos bancos de dados PubMed, SciELO, Lilacs e Bireme. Foram incluídos 6 estudos observacionais envolvendo 1539 pacientes nesta revisão. A qualidade dos artigos foi avaliada de acordo com a escala New Castle-Ottawa. Após a extração de dados dos estudos, observou-se que pacientes hospitalizados e diagnosticados com infecção por Covid-19 apresentam maior predisposição a desenvolver Tromboembolismo Venoso (TEV) e Embolia Pulmonar (EP), bem como eventos cardiovasculares, apesar destes últimos serem menos frequentes. Estes pacientes também cursam com alterações do parênquima pulmonar sendo proporcionais a gravidade do caso, assim como a prevalência de d-dímero, a taxa de trombose na artéria pulmonar, a necessidade de cuidados intensivos e a taxa de mortalidade. Assim, a forma grave da infecção por Covid-19 manifesta consequências que não envolvem apenas o sistema respiratório, comprometendo a coagulação sanguínea dos pacientes acometidos levando a maior incidência de eventos tromboembólicos e cardiovasculares. (AU)

12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 135-138, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365541

ABSTRACT

Abstract The modality of repeat revascularization due to late graft failure is a debated topic. The latest available European guidelines recommend redo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for cases of extensively diseased and/or occluded grafts and those with diffuse native vessel disease. We present the case of a patient being relieved of recurrent unstable angina pectoris with redo CABG using no-touch saphenous vein grafts after repeated and unsuccessful attempts with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This could be an alternative to PCI in patients with a complex medical history. Teamwork between cardiologists and surgeons is pivotal in deciding the best treatment modality.

13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 127-134, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356306

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world. People living in vulnerable and poor places such as slums, rural areas and remote locations have difficulty in accessing medical care and diagnostic tests. In addition, given the COVID-19 pandemic, we are witnessing an increase in the use of telemedicine and non-invasive tools for monitoring vital signs. These questions motivate us to write this point of view and to describe some of the main innovations used for non-invasive screening of heart diseases. Smartphones are widely used by the population and are perfect tools for screening cardiovascular diseases. They are equipped with camera, flashlight, microphone, processor, and internet connection, which allow optical, electrical, and acoustic analysis of cardiovascular phenomena. Thus, when using signal processing and artificial intelligence approaches, smartphones may have predictive power for cardiovascular diseases. Here we present different smartphone approaches to analyze signals obtained from various methods including photoplethysmography, phonocardiograph, and electrocardiography to estimate heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart murmurs and electrical conduction. Our objective is to present innovations in non-invasive diagnostics using the smartphone and to reflect on these trending approaches. These could help to improve health access and the screening of cardiovascular diseases for millions of people, particularly those living in needy areas.

14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 80-87, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed measures of social distancing and, during this time, there has been an elevation in cardiovascular mortality rates and a decrease in the number of emergency visits. Objectives To assess and compare in-hospital mortality for cardiovascular diseases and emergency department visits during the COVID-19 pandemic and the same period in 2019. Methods Retrospective, single-center study that evaluated emergency visits and in-hospital deaths between March 16, 2020 and June 16, 2020, when the steepest fall in the number of emergency admissions for COVID-19 was registered. These data were compared with the emergency visits and in-hospital deaths between March 16 and June 16, 2019. We analyzed the total number of deaths, and cardiovascular deaths. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results There was a 35% decrease in the number of emergency visits and an increase in the ratio of the number of deaths to the number of emergency visits in 2020. The increase in the ratio of the number of all-cause deaths to the number of emergency visits was 45.6% and the increase in the ratio of the number of cardiovascular deaths to the number of emergency visits was 62.1%. None of the patients who died in the study period in 2020 tested positive for COVID-19. Conclusion In-hospital mortality for cardiovascular diseases increased proportionally to the number of emergency visits during the COVID-19-imposed social distancing compared with the same period in 2019. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 39-45, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356317

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Abdominal obesity has been associated with cardiovascular disease and may be modulated by dietary intake. The deep abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (dSAT) is a body fat compartment that can be estimated by using mathematical formulas. Objectives: To evaluate the association between dSAT estimated by the Deep-Abdominal-Adipose-Tissue (DAAT) index and dietary intake in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to a tertiary hospital. Sociodemographic, clinical, and anthropometric (body weight [kg], height [m], waist, hip and neck circumferences [cm]) data were evaluated. A food frequency questionnaire was applied to identify each patient's nutrient intake. The DAAT index was calculated according to specific formulas for men and women. Possible association between food intake and the DAAT index was evaluated by multiple linear regression. The level of significance adopted was 0.05. Results: This study evaluated 138 patients, with a mean age of 61.2±10.8 years. Prevalence of obesity was 29.4% in men and 37.7% in women. Regarding waist circumference, 83% of the women showed values considered to be very high. The DAAT index was significantly higher in men when compared to woman (P < 0.0001) and proved to be positively correlated with proteins (r= 0.22, P= 0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acid (r= 0.18, P= 0.04) intake in the entire sample. After adjustment for sex, alcohol consumption, and levels of physical activity, the DAAT index was associated with the female sex (B= −129.84, P <0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (B= 57.99, P <0.001). Conclusion: dSAT estimated by the DAAT index was not associated with dietary intake in patients with ACS.

18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 1-10, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356319

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The lower frequency of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors observed in vegetarians compared to omnivores may be due to more appropriate nutrient intake according to recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To compare the dietary adequacy according to the recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in apparently healthy vegetarian (VEG) and omnivorous (OMN) men. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, conducted with apparently healthy men (44 omnivorous and 44 vegetarians, ≥ 35 years), who were assessed for daily food consumption, anthropometric data, physical exercise status, and clinical data. Multiple logistic regression was used to test the association between the type of diet and the dietary adequacy. Significant values were considered for p<0.05. Results Several clinical CV risk markers were significantly lower in VEG when compared to OMN: body mass index (BMI) (23.1 vs. 27.3 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (119.5 vs. 129.2 mmHg), and diastolic blood pressure (75.7 vs. 83.9 mmHg). VEG presented significant lower values of blood lipids and glucose. No significant difference was observed in caloric intake; however, VEG consumed significantly more carbohydrates, dietary fibers, and polyunsaturated fats. VEG presented an adequate consumption of dietary cholesterol and saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, regardless of caloric intake and age. Conclusion VEG were more likely to consume saturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol, and fibers according to the recommendations of NCEP, factors that may contribute to lower levels of CV risk markers than OMN.

19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 108-114, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357455

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) barriers are well-understood in high-resource settings. However, they are under-studied in low-resource settings, where access is even poorer and the context is significantly different, including two-tiered healthcare systems and greater socioeconomic challenges. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in characteristics of patients attending publicly versus privately funded CR and their barriers to adherence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational, cross-sectional study in public and private CR programs offered in Brazil. METHODS: Patients who had been attending CR for ≥ 3 months were recruited from one publicly and one privately funded CR program. They completed assessments regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and the CR Barriers Scale. RESULTS: From the public program, 74 patients were recruited, and from the private, 100. Participants in the public program had significantly lower educational attainment (P < 0.001) and lower socioeconomic status (P < 0.001). Participants in the private program had more cognitive impairment (P = 0.015), and in the public program more anxiety (P = 0.001) and depressive symptoms (P = 0.008) than their counterparts. Total barriers among public CR participants were significantly higher than those among private CR participants (1.34 ± 0.26 versus 1.23 ± 0.15/5]; P = 0.003), as were scores on 3 out of 5 subscales, namely: comorbidities/functional status (P = 0.027), perceived need (P < 0.001) and access (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Publicly funded programs need to be tailored to meet their patients' requirements, through consideration of educational and psychosocial matters, and be amenable to mitigation of patient barriers relating to presence of comorbidities and poorer health status.

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