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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(6): e2021, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513691

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This case report identified paracentral acute middle maculopathy as the cause of severe and irreversible vision loss after cataract surgery. Cataract surgeons should be aware of known risk factors for the development of paracentral acute middle maculopathy. In those patients, extra care regarding anesthesia, intraocular pressure, and some other aspects of cataract surgery must be taken. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy is currently understood as a clinical sign evident on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and it is probably evidence of deep ischemic insult to the retina. It should be a differential diagnosis in cases of marked low vision acuity associated with no fundus abnormalities in the immediate postoperative period, as demonstrated in the presented case.


RESUMO O presente relato de caso identificou a maculopatia média aguda paracentral como a causa de baixa de acuidade visual severa e irreversível após cirurgia de catarata. Existem fatores de risco bem estabelecidos para o desenvolvimento da maculopatia média aguda paracentral que devem ser conhecidos pelos cirurgiões de catarata. Nesse contexto cirúrgico, precauções extras no tocante a procedimentos anestésicos, pressão intraocular e alguns outros aspectos da cirurgia devem ser consideradas. A maculopatia média aguda paracentral é descrita como um sinal clínico observado no exame de tomografia de coerência óptica por domínio espectral e se trata, provavelmente, da evidência de um evento isquêmico no tecido vascular retiniano. Esse diagnóstico deve ser cogitado nos casos de perda de acuidade visual súbita no pós-operatório imediato associada com exame fundoscópico normal, como evidenciado no caso apresentado.

2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(2): e2021, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527828

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the effects of the preoperative application of artificial tears combined with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor on the ocular surface function and inflammatory factor levels after operation in cataract patients complicated with dry eyes. Methods: A total of 118 cataract patients (118 eyes) complicated with dry eyes treated from February 2019 to February2020 were assigned to control and observation groups (n=59 eyes/group) using a random number table. One week before the operation, the control group was administered 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops (artificial tears), based on which the observation group received Beifushu eye drops (recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor), both 6 times daily for 1 week. A comparison was made between the scores of clinical symptoms and the indices of ocular surface function, inflammatory factors in tears, and oxidative stress indices before and after the operation. The ocular surface function was evaluated by an ocular surface disease index questionnaire, tear film breakup-time assay, Schirmer's I test, and corneal fluorescein stain test. The inflammatory factors in tears were measured. Results: No significant differences were noted in the general data and clinical symptom score, ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup-time, Schirmer's I test score, fluorescein stain score, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxide, and total antioxidant capacity before treatment between the 2 groups (p>0.05). After treatment, the clinical symptom score, ocular surface disease index, fluorescein stain score, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, malondial-dehyde and lipid peroxide declined significantly, and tear film breakup-time, Schirmer's I test score, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity increased in both the groups. The improvements in the clinical symptom score as well as in the indices of ocular surface function, inflammatory factors, and oxidative stress were more prominent in the observation group than in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions: Artificial tears combined with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor before operation. significantly improved the ocular surface function, reduced inflammatory factors in tears, and alleviated dry eye symptoms after operation in cataract patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da aplicação pré-operatória de lágrimas artificiais combinadas com o fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básicos bovinos recombinantes na função da superfície ocular e níveis de fator inflamatório após cirurgia em pacientes com catarata complicada com olhos secos. Métodos: Um total de 118 pacientes com catarata complicada com olhos secos (118 olhos), tratados entre fevereiro de 2019 e fevereiro de 2020, foram divididos em grupos de controle e de observação (n=59, 59 olhos) usando uma tabela de números aleatórios. Uma semana antes da cirurgia, o grupo controle recebeu colírio de hialuronato de sódio a 0,1% (lágrimas artificiais), enquanto o grupo de observação recebeu colírio Beifushu (fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básicos bovinos recombinantes), ambos, seis vezes ao dia, por uma semana. Antes do tratamento e um mês após a cirurgia, os escores de sintomas clínicos, índices de função da superfície ocular, níveis de fatores inflamatórios nas lágrimas e índices de estresse oxidativo foram comparados. A função da superfície ocular foi avaliada pelo questionário do índice de doença da superfície ocular, ensaio de tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, teste I de Schirmer e teste de coloração por fluoresceína da córnea. Os níveis de fatores inflamatórios nas lágrimas foram medidos. Resultados: Não houve diferenças significativas nos dados gerais e no escore de sintomas clínicos, índice de doença da superfície ocular, tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, escore do teste I de Schirmer, pontuação do teste de coloração por fluoresceína da córnea, interleucina-6, fator de necrose tumoral alfa, malondialdeído, superóxido dismutase, peróxido lipídico e capacidade antioxidante total antes do tratamento entre os dois grupos (p>0,05). Após o tratamento, o escore de sintomas clínicos, índice de doença da superfície ocular, escore do teste de coloração por fluoresceína da córnea, fator de necrose tumoral alfa, interleucina-6, malondialdeído e peróxido lipídico diminuíram significativamente, e o tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, escore do teste I de Schirmer, superóxido dismutase e a capacidade antioxidante total aumentou em ambos os grupos. As melhorias no escore de sintomas clínicos, bem como os índices de função da superfície ocular, fatores inflamatórios e estresse oxidativo foram mais proeminentes no grupo de observação do que no grupo controle (p<0,05). Conclusões: Lágrimas artificiais combinadas com fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básicos recombinantes antes da cirurgia melhoram notavelmente a função da superfície ocular, diminuem os níveis de fatores inflamatórios nas lágrimas e aliviam os sintomas de olho seco após a cirurgia em pacientes com catarata complicada com olhos secos.

3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(2): e2021, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527833

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A 59-year-old man presented with a unilateral blurring of vision in his left eye. His left eye's visual acuity was hand movements level. He underwent phacoemulsification surgery, and an intrastromal posterior chamber intraocular lens was implanted. The intrastromal intraocular lens was extracted and a new intraocular lens was implanted. Usinge the Snellen chart, the final best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40. With this case report, we wish to emphasize that a single stepwise clear corneal incision merged with wound-assisted intraocular lens injections can result in intraocular lens misdirection into the corneal stroma. As a result, while performing a misdirected intraocular lens removal, we recommend that the wound be carefully constructed.


RESUMO Um homem de 59 anos apresentou embaçamento visual unilateral no olho esquerdo. Sua acuidade visual nesse olho era no nível de movimentos da mão. O paciente havia se submetido a uma cirurgia de facoemulsificação em que foi feita a implantação intraestromal de uma lente intraocular de câmara posterior. Foi feita a extração dessa lente intraestromal intraocular e uma nova lente intraocular foi implantada. A melhor acuidade visual corrigida final foi de 20/40 pela tabela de Snellen. Com este relato de caso, os autores desejam apontar que uma incisão de degrau único em córnea clara, quando combinada com a injeção de uma lente ocular através da incisão, pode levar a um direcionamento incorreto da lente intraocular para dentro do estroma corneano. Portanto, recomenda-se uma construção cuidadosa da incisão ao se remover uma lente intraocular direcionada incorretamente.

4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(5): e2022, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527848

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The regulatory effect of microRNA on diseases has been confirmed. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of microRNA-210-3p in age-related cataracts and assess the effect of abnormal miR-210-3p expressions on H2O2-induced SAR01/04 cells. Methods: Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was performed to assess the levels of miR-210-3p in aqueous humor samples. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was employed to assess the discrimination ability of miR-210-3p between patients with age-related cataracts and healthy people, and Pearson correlation analysis was used to identify the correlation between miR-210-3p and oxidative stress indices such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malonaldehyde. Cell counting kit-8 assay and Transwell assay were used to estimate the biological function of H2O2-induced age-related cataract cell model. The levels of oxidative stress indices such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malonaldehyde were measured to evaluate the degree of oxidative stress damage in the age-related cataract cell model. The relationship between miR-210-3p and its target gene was verified by luciferase reporter gene analysis. Results: The miR-210-3p expression was elevated in the aqueous humor of patients with age-related cataracts. A high miR-210-3p expression showed a high diagnostic value for age-related cataracts and was significantly associated with the level of oxidative stress markers in patients with age-related cataracts. The inhibition of miR-210-3p can reverse oxidative stress stimulation and adverse effects on H2O2-induced cell function. Conclusions: The results suggested that miR-210-3p could promote cell viability, cell migration, and oxidative stress by targeting autophagy-related gene 7 in in vitro age-related cataract cell model.


RESUMO Objetivo: O efeito regulador do microRNA em doenças tem sido confirmado, e este artigo tentou avaliar a expressão do microRNA-210-3p na catarata relacionada à idade e avaliar o efeito da expressão anormal do miR-210-3p em células SAR01/04 induzidas por H2O2. Métodos: O método de transcrição reversa seguida de reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR) quantitativa foi realizado para avaliar os níveis de miR-210-3p em amostras de humor aquoso. Análise de características operacionais do receptor foi feita para avaliar a capacidade de discriminação do miR-210-3p entre pacientes com catarata relacionada à idade e pessoas saudáveis. A análise de correlação de Pearson identificou a correlação do miR-210-3p e índices de estresse oxidativo, como superóxido dismutase, glutationa peroxidase, malonaldeído. O ensaio de contagem de células kit-8 (cck-8) e o ensaio no sistema Transwell foram utilizados para estimar a função biológica do formato de células de catarata relacionada com a idade induzida por H2O2. Os níveis de índices de estresse oxidativo como superóxido dismutase, glutationa peroxidase e malonaldeído foram detectados para avaliar o grau de dano do estresse oxidativo em formato de células de catarata relacionada à idade. A relação entre miR-210-3p e seu gene alvo foi verificada por análise do gene repórter luciferase. Resultados: A expressão miR-210-3p foi elevada no humor aquoso de pacientes com catarata relacionada à idade. A expressão miR-210-3p altamente expressiva mostrou alto valor diagnóstico para catarata relacionada à idade e foi significativamente associado ao nível de marcadores de estresse oxidativo em pacientes com catarata relacionada à idade. A inibição de miR-210-3p pode reverter a estimulação do estresse oxidativo e os efeitos adversos da função celular induzida por H2O2. Conclusões: Esses dados sugeriram que a expressão miR-210-3p poderia promover a viabilidade celular, migração celular e estresse oxidativo ao direcionar genes ATG 7 relacionados à autofagia em modelo in vitro de células de catarata relacionadas à idade.

5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(3): e2021, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520213

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the quality of life and stress level related to visual function following pediatric cataract surgery in a Brazilian public hospital. Methods: This prospective study analyzed children aged 6-14 years old who underwent cataract surgery. The Childhood Stress Scale and Children's Visual Function Questionnaire (CVFQ) were used to assess stress levels and quality of life, respectively. Both instruments were applied by two psychologists before and after the surgery. Eye examination was performed by two ophthalmologists. Preoperative and postoperative data were compared. Results: In total, 23 children (32 eyes) were enrolled in the study, of which 9 had bilateral cataracts. The average age group at the time of surgery was 9.65 ± 2.26 (6-14) years old. One month after the surgery, the spherical equivalent was -0.90 ± 1.66D, and the corrected distance visual acuity was 0.13 ± 0.10 (0-0.3) LogMAR in bilateral cases and 0.50 ± 0.39 (0-1.3) LogMAR in unilateral cases (p<0.01). According to the Childhood Stress Scale, 77.7% of the bilateral cases and 57.1% of the unilateral cases had stable stress levels, and 34.7% of the children improved their stress level. The analysis of the CVFQ was based on scores for general health, general vision health, competence, personality, and treatment. After cataract surgery, 78.2% of the patients had improved or maintained CVFQ scores in the general health domain; 82.6%, general vision health; 95.6%, competence; 56.5%, personality; and 78.2%, treatment. Conclusion: Pediatric cataract surgery improves the visual function and the quality of life even in patients undergoing surgical procedures, without increasing the stress levels.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida e o nível de estresse relacionada à função visual após a cirurgia de catarata pediátrica em um hospital público brasileiro. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo em crianças de seis a 14 anos submetidas à cirurgia de catarata. A Escala de Stresse Infantil e o Questionário de Função Visual em Crianças foram usados para avaliar o nível de estresse e a qualidade de vida, respectivamente. Ambos os instrumentos foram aplicados por duas psicólogas antes e após a cirurgia. O exame oftalmológico foi realizado por dois oftalmologistas. Os dados coletados no pré e pós-operatório foram comparados. Resultados: Vinte e três crianças (32 olhos) foram incluídas no estudo, nove delas apresentavam catarata bilateral. A média de idade na cirurgia foi de 9,65±2,26 (6 a 14) anos. Um mês após a cirurgia, o equivalente esférico foi de -0,90 ± 1,66D e a acuidade visual corrigida a distância foi de 0,13 ± 0,10 (0-0,3) LogMAR em casos bilaterais e 0,50 ± 0,39 (0-1,3) LogMAR em casos unilaterais (p<0.01). De acordo com a Escala de Stresse Infantil, 77,7% dos casos de catarata bilaterais, e 57,1% dos casos unilaterais mantiveram o nível de estresse e 34,7% das crianças melhoraram o nível de estresse. A análise do Questionário de Função Visual em Crianças foi baseada em pontuações para saúde geral, saúde geral da visão, competência, personalidade e tratamento. Após a cirurgia de catarata, 78,2% dos pacientes melhoraram ou mantiveram o escore do Questionário de Função Visual em Crianças na saúde geral, 82,6% na saúde geral da visão, 95,6% na competência, 56,5% na personalidade e 78,2% no tratamento. Conclusão: A cirurgia de catarata pediátrica melhora a função visual e a qualidade de vida em pacientes submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico, sem aumentar o nível de estresse.

6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(3): e2021, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520220

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the long-term ocular findings of children that were operated of congenital cataract before the age of two and that received an intraoperative intracameral triamcinolone injection or used postoperative oral prednisolone to modulate ocular inflammation. Methods: All patients who had previously participated in a clinical trial that analyzed the 1-year surgical outcomes of congenital cataract surgery utilizing intracameral triamcinolone (study group) or oral prednisolone (control group) were eligible to participate in this prospective cohort research. Patients' medical records were reviewed, and the children underwent a complete ophthalmologic exam on final follow-up. Biomicroscopic findings, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, the need for additional surgical interventions, and findings compatible with glaucoma were the primary end measures. Results: Twenty-six eyes (26 patients) were included (study group = 11 eyes; control group = 15 eyes). The mean follow--up was 8.2 ± 1.2 years and 8.1 ± 1.7 years in the study and control groups, respectively (p=0.82). All eyes presented a centered intraocular lens. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with regards to the presence of posterior synechia (p=0.56), intraocular pressure (p=0.49), or central corneal thickness (p=0.21). None of the eyes fulfilled the glaucoma diagnostic criteria, presented secondary visual axis obscuration, or were reoperated. Conclusion: The long--term ocular findings of children that underwent congenital cataract surgery and received an intraoperative intracameral triamcinolone injection were similar to those that used postoperative oral prednisolone to modulate ocular inflammation. This suggests that intracameral triamcinolone may substitute oral prednisolone in congenital cataract surgery, facilitating the postoperative treatment regimen and compliance.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os achados oculares em longo prazo de crianças que se submeteram à cirurgia de catarata congênita antes dos dois anos de idade e receberam uma injeção intracameral de triancinolona no intraoperatório ou usaram prednisolona oral no pós-operatório para modular a inflamação ocular. Métodos: Neste estudo prospectivo de coorte, todos os pacientes que participaram de um ensaio clínico anterior, que analisou os resultados cirúrgicos de 1 ano da cirurgia de catarata congênita usando triancinolona intracameral (Grupo de Estudo) ou prednisolona oral (Grupo Controle), eram elegíveis para participar. Os prontuários médicos dos pacientes foram revisados e as crianças foram submetidas a um exame oftalmológico completo no acompanhamento final. As principais medidas de desfecho foram: achados biomicroscópicos, pressão intraocular, espessura central da córnea, a necessidade de intervenções cirúrgicas adicionais e achados compatíveis com glaucoma. Resultados: Vinte e seis olhos (26 pacientes) foram incluídos (Grupo de Estudo = 11 olhos; Grupo de Controle = 15 olhos). O seguimento médio foi de 8,2 ± 1,2 anos e 8,1 ± 1,7 anos nos Grupos de Estudo e Controle, respectivamente (p=0,82). Todos os olhos apresentavam lente intraocular centrada. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos com relação à presença de sinéquia posterior (p=0,56), pressão intraocular (p=0,49) ou espessura central da córnea (p=0,21). Nenhum dos olhos preencheu os critérios diagnósticos para glaucoma, apresentou opacificação secundária do eixo visual ou foi reoperado. Conclusão: Os achados oculares em longo prazo de crianças que se submeteram à cirurgia de catarata congênita e receberam uma injeção intracameral de triancinolona no intraoperatório foram semelhantes aos que usaram prednisolona oral no pós-operatório para modular a inflamação ocular, sugerindo que a triancinolona intracameral pode substituir a prednisolona oral na cirurgia de catarata congênita, facilitando o tratamento pós-operatório e a adesão ao mesmo.

7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(3): e2021, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520222

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We report a case of bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris in which satisfactory intraocular pressure control was obtained after resolution of the acute disease with a trabecular implant (iStent®). A 62-year-old woman presented with bilateral simultaneous acute eye pain, photophobia, increased intraocular pressure (34 mmHg), circulating pigment in the anterior chamber, areas of depigmentation in the iris, and posterior synechiae. She had received oral amoxicillin-clavulanate and moxifloxacin for pneumonia 2 months previously. Bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris was suspected as well as a viral etiology. She received oral acetazolamide, aciclovir, and prednisone, besides topical prednisolone, betaxolol, brimonidine, dorzolamide, and atropine. The disease gradually resolved in 4 months but, after 1 year, she developed bilateral cataracts, and still needed three drugs for intraocular pressure control (16/18 mmHg). Cataract-iStent® combined surgery was performed in both eyes. One year after surgery, intraocular pressure was 11/12 mmHg, without medication. iStent® was safe and effective on this secondary glaucoma.


RESUMO Relatamos um caso de despigmentação aguda bilateral da íris, no qual obtivemos adequado controle da pressão intraocular com o implante do iStent®, após resolução da fase aguda da doença. Paciente feminina, 62 anos, atendida com quadro agudo, bilateral e simultâneo de dor ocular, fotofobia, hipertensão ocular (34 mmHg), pigmentos circulantes na câmara anterior, áreas de despigmentação iriana e sinéquias posteriores. Havia recebido amoxicilina-clavulanato e moxifloxacina orais para pneumonia 2 meses antes. Suspeitando-se de despigmentação aguda bilateral da íris ou de etiologia viral, recebeu acetazolamida, aciclovir e prednisona orais, e colírios prednisolona, betaxolol, brimonidina, dorzolamida e atropina. O quadro se resolveu gradualmente em 4 meses, porém, após 1 ano, desenvolveu catarata bilateral e ainda usava 3 colírios hipotensores (pressão intraocular 16/18 mmHg). A cirurgia combinada de catarata-iStent® foi realizada em ambos os olhos. Um ano depois, a pressão intraocular mantinha-se 11/12 mmHg, sem medicação. O iStent® foi seguro e eficaz no controle deste glaucoma secundário.

8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(3): e2022, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520226

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purposes: This study aimed to determine the association of the long-term refractive outcomes of cataract surgery with self-reported visual function obtained using Catquest-9SF. Methods: Patients recruited from the cataract outpatient clinic of VER MAIS Oftalmologia underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Patients who were diagnosed with cataract with indications for phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation received the Catquest-9SF questionnaire before and after surgery at 30 days and 1 year. Results: A total of 133 patients were recruited, but 32 patients were lost to follow-up; finally, data from 101 patients (48 men, 53 women) were analyzed. The crude variance explained by the data was 69.9%, and the unexplained variance in the first contrast was 2.39 eigenvalues (>2); thus, these results are different from those expected from random data. The people separation index was 2.95 (>2), and the people trust value was 0.9 (>0.8). These indices were evaluated in the assessment of skill levels. Visual acuity was the main variable that correlated with the Catquest score. Conclusions: The Catquest-9SF translated into Portuguese proved to be a one-dimensional and psychometrically valid tool to assess visual dysfunction in patients with cataract, and it is successful in objectively quantifying improvements after surgery. The results of this tool could be predictive and concordant of visual acuity improvement.


RESUMO Objetivo: Associar os resultados refrativos a longo prazo da cirurgia de catarata e a função visual autorreferida pelo questionário Catquest-9SF. Métodos: Paciente recrutados no ambulatório de catarata da VER MAIS Oftalmologia, foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico completo. Após diagnóstico de catarata com indicação de tratamento cirúrgico com facoemulsificação e implante de lente intraocular, o questionário foi aplicado antes da intervenção, 30 dias após cirurgia e 1 ano após, novamente. Resultados: Foram recrutados 133 pacientes. No decorrer do seguimento, 32 pacientes foram perdidos e ao final foram analisados os dados de 101 pacientes, dos quais 48 foram homens e 53 foram mulheres. A variância bruta explicada por dados foi de 69,9% e a inexplicada em primeiro contraste por 2,39 eigenvalores, sendo maior que 2, o que nos mostra que são resultados differentes dos esperados de dados aleatórios. O índice de separação de pessoas foi de 2.95 (>2) e o valor de confiança de pessoas foi de 0,9 (>0,8). Estes índices são os valores mínimos aceitáveis na diferenciação de níveis de habilidade. Acuidade visual foi a principal variável correlacionada com o score do Catquest. Conclusões: O Catquest-9SF traduzido para o português se demonstrou unidimensional e uma ferramenta psicometricamente válida para avaliar disfunção visual em pacientes com catarata, além de ter tido sucesso para quantificar objetivamente melhoras após a intervenção cirúrgica. Essa ferramenta pode ser utilizada como preditiva e concordante da melhora da acuidade visual.

9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(4): e2022, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520238

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A 69-year-old female was referred with sudden unilateral painless decreased vision that began 2 days after uncomplicated cataract surgery in the left eye. Visual acuity was hand motion and biomicroscopy showed a mild anterior chamber reaction, no hypopyon, and an intraocular lens that had been placed within the capsular bag. A dilated fundus examination revealed optic disk edema, widespread deep and superficial intraretinal hemorrhages, retinal ischemia, and macular edema. A cardiological evaluation was normal and thrombophilia tests were negative. After surgery, prophylactic vancomycin (1mg/0.1ml) had been injected intracamerally. The patient was diagnosed with hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis likely secondary to vancomycin hypersensitivity. Recognition of this entity is important to ensure early treatment and the use of intracameral vancomycin in the fellow eye should be avoided after cataract surgery.


RESUMO Esse caso se refere a uma paciente de 69 anos, sexo feminino, com relato de baixa acuidade visual súbita e indolor no olho esquerdo, de início 2 dias após cirurgia de catarata sem complicações. A acuidade visual era de movimento de mãos e a biomicroscopia mostrou reação de câmara anterior moderada, sem hipópio, e lente intraocular posicionada dentro do saco capsular. A fundoscopia evidenciou edema de disco óptico, hemorragias difusas intrarretinianas superficiais e profundas, isquemia retiniana e edema macular. A avaliação cardiológica foi normal e os testes para trombofilia foram negativos. Ao final da cirurgia foi injetado antibioticoprofilaxia com vancomicina (1mg/0,1ml) na câmara anterior. A paciente foi diagnosticada com vasculite hemorrágica oclusiva da retina secundária à hipersensibilidade a vancomicina. O reconhecimento dessa entidade é importante para o tratamento precoce e para evitar o uso de vancomicina intracameral em caso de cirurgia de catarata no olho contralateral.

10.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(2): e2022, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533792

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Capsulotomy with neodymium-doped yttrium--aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser is an effective treatment for posterior capsule opacification following cataract surgery. A wide opening of the posterior capsule associated with the ruptured anterior hyaloid can cause anterior chamber vitreous prolapse. Two patients who developed angle-closure glaucoma associated with vitreous prolapse following Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy were successfully treated with antiglaucoma medication and peripheral iridotomies. Patient identification for potential risk factors and a careful postoperative follow-up are essential to avoid these serious complications.

11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(2): e2023, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533798

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on cataract surgery by residents who had mandatory surgical simulator training during residency. Methods: In this retrospective, observational analytical study, the total number of cataract surgeries and surgical complications by all senior residents of 2019 (2019 class; prepandemic) and 2020 (2020 class; affected by the reduced number of elective surgeries due to the COVID-19 pandemic) were collected and compared. All residents had routine mandatory cataract surgery training on a virtual surgical simulator during residency. The total score obtained by these residents on cataract challenges of the surgical simulator was also evaluated. Results: The 2020 and 2019 classes performed 1275 and 2561 cataract surgeries, respectively. This revealed a reduction of 50.2% in the total number of procedures performed by the 2020 class because of the pandemic. The incidence of surgical complications was not statistically different between the two groups (4.2% in the 2019 class and 4.9% in the 2020 class; p=0.314). Both groups also did not differ in their mean scores on the simulator's cataract challenges (p<0.696). Conclusion: Despite the reduction of 50.2% in the total number of cataract surgeries performed by senior residents of 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, the incidence of surgical complications did not increase. This suggests that surgical simulator training during residency mitigated the negative effects of the reduced surgical volume during the pandemic.

12.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 83: e0011, 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535606

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar os aspectos clínicos e patológicos da catarata congênita secundária às infecções por sífilis, toxoplasmose, rubéola, citomegalovírus e herpes simples. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura, na qual foram incluídos artigos de periódicos indexados às bases de dados PubMed®, Cochrane, Lilacs, Embase e SciELO de 2010 a 2023. Resultados: Foram encontrados 45 artigos, e, após seleção, restaram 9 artigos. Além disso, foram adicionados artigos para enriquecer a discussão. A infecção por sífilis está relacionada a alterações corneanas. O citomegalovírus e a toxoplasmose estão relacionados com a coriorretinite e/ou microftalmia. A rubéola é responsável por causar catarata, glaucoma, microftalmia e retinite em sal e pimenta. Conclusão: Foram abordadas as principais etiologias infecciosas e seu quadro clínico na CC. O melhor tratamento para CC é cirúrgico associado a acompanhamento clínico, mas a prevenção é a maneira mais eficaz de combater a CC de etiologia infecciosa. O diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento efetivo previnem alterações e sequelas visuais irreversíveis. Nesse contexto, mostram-se importantes as ações de políticas públicas para o melhor desfecho clínico e melhor qualidade de vida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To review the clinical and pathological aspects of CC secondary to infections by syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex. Methods: This is a literature review. Articles from journals indexed to PubMed, COCHRANE, LILACS, EMBASE and SCIELO from 2010 to 2023 were included. Results: A total of 45 articles were found, which, after selection, remained in 9 articles. Some articles were included to enrich the discussion in this topic. The infection caused by syphilis is related to corneal changes. Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasmosis due to chorioretinitis and/or microphthalmia. Rubella is responsible for causing cataracts, glaucoma, microphthalmia, and salt and pepper retinitis. Conclusion: The main infectious etiologies and their clinical status in CC were addressed. The best treatment for CC is surgery associated with clinical follow-up, but prevention is the most effective way to combat CC of infectious etiology. Early diagnosis and effective treatment prevent irreversible visual changes and sequelae. In this context, public policy actions are important for the best clinical outcome and better quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Rubella/complications , Cataract/congenital , Cataract/etiology , Syphilis/complications , Toxoplasmosis/complications , Cytomegalovirus , Herpes Zoster/complications
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(4): e2022, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557096

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We present a case report detailing the successful phacoemulsification surgery with artificial iris implantation for two individuals with oculocutaneous albinism. These women suffered from cataracts, resulting in reduced visual acuity and heightened photophobia due to iris pigmentary epithelium deficiency. The patients underwent phacoemulsification along with prosthetic artificial iris implantation into the posterior chamber. This intervention resulted in improved visual acuity, reduced photophobia and glare, and an overall enhanced quality of life. Our report highlights two cases of successful phacoemulsification and artificial iris implantation in patients with oculocutaneous albinism and cataracts, leading to improved visual acuity, reduced photophobia, and enhanced quality of life. Notably, there are no prior records in South American literature of cataract surgery combined with artificial iris implantation for oculocutaneous albinism patients up to the time of this publication.

14.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 1-8, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006602

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pediatric cataract is one of the most common preventable cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Early and timely intervention of pediatric cataract is important to maximize the visual outcomes and start prompt visual rehabilitation.@*Objectives@#This study aimed to determine the average time from the day of initial consult at the outpatient clinic to the day of the cataract surgery and compare the effects of delayed surgery on visual outcomes of patients.@*Methods@#This is a retrospective chart review of medical records from January 2015 to June 2022. The dates of the different steps in the process up to the day of intervention were noted and the average interval duration and the total waiting time were determined. Patients operated on within 2 weeks from initial consult was defined as no delay while those operated >2 weeks had delayed surgery. Pre-operative and post-operative best corrected log MAR visual acuity were compared within each group to determine if delay in surgical intervention has a significant effect on the visual outcomes of patients.@*Results@#Median age at initial consult was 4.9 years while median age at surgery was 5.2 years. Ninety-nine (99) patients had developmental cataract and 123 patients had bilateral cataract. Leukocoria was the most common chief complaint (63.45%). Pre-operatively, 94 patients had strabismus, 49 had eye preference, 48 had nystagmus, and 43 had amblyopia in the diagnosis. There was significantly faster admission to cataract surgery during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic period but there was no difference in the total waiting time. Patients with congenital cataract had the least total waiting time followed by developmental, and rubella cataract. There is no significant difference in visual outcomes between patients operated without delay and with delay.@*Conclusion@#There is delayed age at diagnosis and surgery of pediatric cataract patients in the Philippine General Hospital. Early surgery did not reflect better visual outcomes compared to delayed surgery probably due to delay in consultation of patients.


Subject(s)
Cataract
15.
International Eye Science ; (12): 264-269, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005393

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of 0.01% hypochlorous acid as a conjunctival sac disinfectant before cataract phacoemulsification and its impact on the ocular surface.METHODS: Randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 285 patients who were scheduled for cataract phacoemulsification surgery were randomly divided into the hypochlorous acid group and the povidone iodine group. Before and after disinfection, conjunctival sac swabs were taken, and bacterial culture and colony-forming units(CFUs)testing were performed using blood agar and chocolate agar media, respectively. All patients were evaluated for ocular symptom scores and pain severity scores 2 h, 1 d, and 1 wk after disinfection, and underwent corneal fluorescein staining, eye redness index, tear meniscus height, and noninvasive breakup time(NIBUT)examination. The incidence of endophthalmitis after surgery was recorded.RESULTS: Conjunctival sac disinfection with 0.01% hypochlorous acid significantly reduced the rate of positive bacterial cultures and colony-forming ability of the conjunctival sac, with statistically significant differences compared with the pre-disinfection period(both P&#x0026;#x003C;0.01), and the disinfecting ability of hypochlorous acid was comparable to that of povidone-iodine(χ2=0.811, P=0.368). The scores of ocular symptoms and pain severity in the hypochlorous acid group were significantly lower than those in the povidone-iodine group(both P&#x0026;#x003C;0.01). The corneal fluorescein staining and eye redness index in the hypochlorous acid group were significantly lower than those in the povidone-iodine group(all P&#x0026;#x003C;0.01). No endophthalmitis occurred in either group of patients. CONCLUSION: As a conjunctival sac disinfectant, 0.01% hypochlorous acid is safe and effective, with minimal discomfort and damage to the ocular surface in patients.

16.
International Eye Science ; (12): 182-188, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005378

ABSTRACT

AIM:To assess the evolving burden of cataracts in China from 1990 to 2019.METHODS: Data on disease burden related to cataracts in China were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease(GBD)2019 study based on large public databases. Utilizing data from the GBD 2019 study, we extracted information on cataract-related disease burden in China from extensive public databases. Analysis of prevalence and disability-adjusted life years(DALYs)associated with cataracts in China was conducted based on GBD 2019 findings. The variable characteristics of age-standardized prevalence rates(ASPR)and age-standardized DALYs rates(ASDR)in China and its neighboring countries were also explored.RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2019, the number of prevalent cases of blindness and vision loss caused by cataracts in China increased by 223.54%, and the corresponding DALYs raised by 142.14%. Over the past 30 years, females exhibited higher age-standardized prevalence and DALYs rates compared to males. Meanwhile, individuals aged 65 to 84 years were found to be more susceptible to cataracts than other age groups. Compared with neighboring countries, China ranked from the 9th position in 1990(867.09, 95%UI: 761.36 to 975.42, per 100 000 population)to the 11th in 2019(991.56, 95%UI: 861.52 to 1131.04, per 100 000 population)in ASPR, while from the 9th in 1990(65.85, 95%UI: 46.39 to 89.41, per 100 000 population)to the 10th position in 2019(59.16, 95%UI: 41.70 to 80.15, per 100 000 population)in ASDR. However, on a global scale, China maintained relatively low ASDR and ASPR for cataracts in 2019.CONCLUSION: The study highlights a substantial rise in the prevalence and DALYs associated with blindness and vision loss due to cataracts from 1990 to 2019 in China, and underscores the urgent need for increased early screening of cataracts, particularly among the elderly and females.

17.
International Eye Science ; (12): 136-139, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003522

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore a more convenient and accurate method for evaluating the anterior chamber angle width based on the Van Herick method.METHODS:A total of 58 patients(69 eyes)with age-related cataract who visited our hospital between January and December 2021 were included. They were divided into the chamber angle width ≥1/2 corneal thickness(CT)group(44 eyes of 37 cases)and &#x0026;#x003C;1/2CT group(25 eyes of 21 cases)according to the Van Herick method. The central anterior chamber depths and the peripheral anterior chamber angle degrees were measured by ultrasound biomicroscopy.RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in central anterior chamber depth between the two groups(2.64±0.27 mm vs. 2.23±0.29 mm, P&#x0026;#x003C;0.01), and the differences of chamber angle degrees of quadrants of superior, temporal, inferior and nasal compared between two groups were all statistically significant(P&#x0026;#x003C;0.01). The difference of chamber angle degrees of quadrants of superior and inferior in chamber angle width ≥1/2CT group was not statistically significant(P&#x0026;#x003E;0.05), while the differences of chamber angle degrees of other quadrants were all statistically significant(P&#x0026;#x003C;0.05). The differences of chamber angle degrees of quadrants of superior and nasal, temporal and the chamber angle degrees of quadrants of inferior and temporal were all statistically significant in chamber angle width &#x0026;#x003C;1/2CT group(P&#x0026;#x003C;0.05).CONCLUSION: In the overall evaluation of the anterior chamber angle, it would be more simple, fast and accurate when evaluating the temporal chamber angle width and inferior quadrant of chamber angle width by using the Van Herick method under silt lamp.

18.
International Eye Science ; (12): 93-96, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003513

ABSTRACT

With the wide application of phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, many cataract patients have effectively recovered vision. Postoperative intraocular lens opacification is an important indicator for evaluating biocompatibility, as it affects the visual quality of patients. The manifestation and risk factors of opacification vary among different materials used for intraocular lenses. However, better visual quality after surgery is not determined by a single factor. The material of the intraocular lens and the patient's response to the intraocular lens are all factors that affect the postoperative visual quality. With the continuous advancement of technology, an increasing number of new materials are being applied in the field of intraocular lenses. Fully understanding the characteristics of intraocular lens materials, selecting suitable intraocular lens for patients and reducing complications caused by materials will be beneficial to patients. The characteristics of different intraocular lens materials and the risk factors of opacification after intraocular lens implantation were discussed in this paper.

19.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 58-63, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016683

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective@#The Philippines does not have a national congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) surveillance or registry. Regular monitoring of CRS cases in hospitals, including in a Philippine tertiary hospital, helped in the past to provide clinico-epidemiologic data on CRS. This study aimed to continue providing clinico-epidemiologic data on CRS cases seen in the Philippine tertiary hospital from 2009-2012 and 2019-2022 and compare the cases seen from said timelines.@*Methods@#A cross-sectional study was used, employing chart review of patients newly diagnosed with CRS from 2009-2012 and 2019-2022 in the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at the Philippine tertiary hospital.@*Results@#Forty-two patients newly diagnosed with CRS from 2009-2012 and 2019-2022 were included. Only 14 (33%) were serologically-confirmed cases (albeit qualitatively). Median age (first and third interquartile ranges) at consult was 1 year (0.4, 2.5). Twenty-four (57%) patients had maternal history of rashes and/or fever. Trimester of pregnancy when mother became symptomatic was not significantly correlated with chief complaint (p=0.20) and numbers of ophthalmic (p=0.68) and systemic manifestations (p=0.32). Cataract was the most common ophthalmic manifestation present in 40 (95%) patients. Twenty-six (62%) patients had other associated systemic findings of which hearing loss was the most common. Only 29 of 40 patients with cataract underwent lensectomy, with 23 patients having poor visual prognosis prior to surgery (5 with nystagmus alone, 10 with nystagmus and strabismus, and 8 with strabismus alone). @*Discussion@#Using ophthalmic manifestations as primary indicator, this study provided an update on the CRS cases in the country. Laboratory confirmation remains a challenge in diagnosing CRS as the tests are costly and not widely available. There was increase from 2009-2012 compared to 2019-2022 in number of patients who underwent surgical treatment for cataract but visual outcomes were suboptimal due to delay in consultation. Although there was a decrease in number of CRS cases seen in the Philippine tertiary hospital, this cannot be attributed to increased rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) coverage alone. @*Conclusion@#Provision of data from individual hospital-based studies similar to this highlights the need for a national CRS surveillance system or registry. This can better gauge the burden of CRS and identify the gap in RCV coverage.


Subject(s)
Rubella Syndrome, Congenital , Retinitis Pigmentosa
20.
International Eye Science ; (12): 816-820, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016602

ABSTRACT

AIM:To compare the differences of ocular biometric parameters of age-related cataract between Tibetan and Han ethnic groups, and to analyze the distribution characteristics of ocular biometric parameters in Tibetan cataract patients.METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. A total of 661 patients(1 030 eyes)with age-related cataract confirmed in the hospital between January 2019 and December 2020 were enrolled. The parameters of axial length, anterior chamber depth, keratometry, corneal astigmatism and astigmatic axis were measured by IOL Master 500 in 483 cases(739 eyes)of Tibetan age-related cataract patients and 178 cases(291 eyes)of Han patients.RESULTS:The axial length, anterior chamber depth and corneal astigmatism of the Tibetan patients with age-related cataract were 23.33(22.81, 23.86)mm, 3.04(2.79, 3.30)mm and 0.73(0.47, 1.07)D. The mean keratometry was 43.89±1.35 D. The results indicated that Tibetan cataract patients had shorter axial lengths and smaller keratometry compared to Han patients(all P&#x003C;0.05). Age in Tibetan patients was negatively correlated with axial length and anterior chamber depth, and positively correlated with keratometry(all P&#x003C;0.05). Tibetan male patients had longer axial lengths, deeper anterior chambers, and flatter corneas compared to female patients(all P&#x003C;0.05).CONCLUSION:There were differences in ocular biometric parameters between age-related cataract patients of Tibetan and Han ethnicities. The distribution of ocular biometric parameters in Tibetan cataract patients varied across different age groups and gender groups.

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