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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 257-262, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To provide reference for clarifying the action and development direction of China ’s drug safety governance. METHODS Based on governance theory ,an analysis framework of “Motivation-Sharing-Performance and Feedback ” was established to explain the mechanism of cross-sector collaboration governance of drug safety. By constructing the action framework of national drug safety governance of “3 stages+1 incubation period ”,the connotation of each stage and possible challenges were analyzed ,and improvement suggestions were put forward. RESULTS & CONCUSIONS The obstacles that restricted the effectiveness of drug safety governance in China were mainly due to insufficient information ,resource mobilization and power sharing. Therefore ,the“basic collaboration stage ”should expand the scope of information sharing and involve non-governmental entities ;the“legislative coordination stage ”should focuse on the provision of formal legal systems so that non-governmental forces can play a necessary role in governance activities ;the“deepening of the coordination stage ”should promote the formal integration of social forces into governance system ,and truly realize the transition from “passive participation ” to self-management. It is recommended to continuously improve the construction of drug safety governance system in China in terms of governance norms ,communication mechanisms ,capacity development based on a holistic perspective.

2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e233814, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356590

ABSTRACT

Resumo A literatura aponta um crescimento de produções na área das altas habilidades/superdotação (AH/SD), no entanto, há ainda uma lacuna no que tange a estudos de intervenção, falhas na formação docente e mitos que impedem a correta identificação dessa população e dificultam a implementação de políticas públicas efetivas. A formação continuada, por meio da consultoria colaborativa, pode ser efetiva ao levar o conhecimento de especialistas para dentro da escola. Este estudo objetivou analisar os efeitos de um programa de formação continuada, por meio da consultoria colaborativa, para o professor especializado que atua na sala de recursos para altas habilidades/superdotação e descrever e comparar crenças, mitos e conceitos sobre AH/SD de um professor especializado, antes e depois da participação em um programa de formação continuada. A pesquisa foi realizada em uma escola pública estadual de ensino fundamental I de uma cidade do interior de São Paulo com uma professora especializada, que recebeu um programa de formação continuada. Esta intervenção ocorreu em 10 encontros, com duração de 3 horas, totalizando 30 horas de formação, em que foram discutidos aspectos teóricos e práticos a respeito das AH/SD. Os dados foram coletados por meio da Avaliação de conhecimentos acerca da superdotação (ACAS) pré e pós-intervenção e do Diário de campo; posteriormente, foram tabulados e analisados de modo descritivo e comparativo. Os resultados apontam melhora nos resultados pós-intervenção, denotando que o programa de formação continuada teve um efeito positivo. No entanto, é importante salientar que, mesmo com a consultoria, a participante permaneceu com algumas concepções equivocadas a respeito do tema.


Abstract The literature points to a growth of productions about high abilities/giftedness but it still has a gap regarding intervention studies, failures in teacher education, and myths that impede the correct identification of this population, hindering the implementation of effective public policies. Continuing education, through collaborative consultation, can be effective in bringing specialist knowledge into the school. This study aimed to analyze the effects of a teacher continuing education program, by a collaborative consultation, for the specialized teacher who works in the resource room for high abilities/giftedness (HA/G) and describe and compare a specialist teacher's HA/G beliefs, myths, and concepts, before and after participating in a continuing education program. The research was carried out in a state public elementary school in a city in the state of São Paulo with a specialized teacher who received a teacher education program. This intervention occurred in 10 3 hour-meetings, totaling 30 hours of training, in which theoretical and practical aspects regarding HA/G were discussed. The data were collected by the knowledge assessment on giftedness pre- and post-intervention and the field diary and later tabulated and analyzed in a descriptive and comparative manner. The results point to an improvement in post-intervention results, indicating that the teacher continued education program had a positive effect. However, note that, even with the consultancy, the participant kept some misconceptions about the theme.


Resumen La literatura ha registrado un aumento de las producciones académicas en el área de altas capacidades/superdotación (AC/SD), pero todavía hay una brecha con respecto a los estudios de intervención, fracasos en la formación docente y mitos que impiden la identificación correcta de esta población, lo que dificulta la implementación de políticas públicas efectivas. La educación continua a través de la consultoría colaborativa puede ser efectiva para llevar el conocimiento de expertos a la escuela. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar los efectos de un programa de educación continua a través de la consultoría colaborativa para el maestro especialista que trabaja en la sala de recursos de altas capacidades/superdotación, así como describir y comparar creencias, mitos y conceptos sobre AC/SD de un maestro antes y después de participar en un programa de educación continua. La investigación se llevó a cabo en una escuela primaria pública estadual en una ciudad del interior de São Paulo con un maestro especializado, que recibió un programa de educación continua. Esta intervención tuvo lugar en 10 reuniones, de 3 horas de duración, con un total de 30 horas de capacitación, en las que se discutieron aspectos teóricos y prácticos sobre AC/SD. Los datos se recopilaron de la evaluación del conocimiento de superdotación antes y después de la intervención, y del diario de campo; después se les tabuló y analizó de manera descriptiva y comparativa. Los resultados muestran una mejora en los resultados después de la intervención, lo que indica que el programa de educación continua tuvo un efecto positivo. Sin embargo, es importante señalar que, incluso con la consultoría, la participante mantuvo algunos conceptos erróneos sobre el tema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Child, Gifted , Education, Continuing , Education, Special , Interdisciplinary Placement , Aptitude , Psychology , Child , Child Welfare , Knowledge , Education , Faculty , Teacher Training
3.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 26: e210506, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364994

ABSTRACT

En este texto presentamos una aproximación al concepto de autonomía aplicado al campo de la salud mental tomando como marco la "Guía para la gestión autónoma de la medicación" (GAM) y su despliegue en Brasil y España. La estrategia GAM plantea una comprensión de la autonomía alejada de una visión individualista para aproximarse a una perspectiva social y colectiva. En este artículo vamos a evidenciar los posibles desplazamientos y las tensiones generadas, así como los efectos de autonomización que conlleva su implementación en salud mental. En la experiencia brasileña, se observa ese desplazamiento desde el lugar del saber-poder, propio de los profesionales, mientras la experiencia española muestra cómo la adaptación de la herramienta parte de la necesaria implicación de los profesionales, de los usuarios/as, sus familias y su red social en un proceso conjunto de trabajo y cuidado colectivo. (AU)


Neste texto apresentamos o conceito de autonomia aplicado ao campo da saúde mental. Para isso tomaremos como referencial uma experiência denominada "Guia para a gestão autônoma de medicamentos" (GAM) e sua implantação em dois contextos geográficos: Brasil e Espanha. A estratégia GAM propõe uma compreensão da autonomia afastando-se de uma visão individualista para se aproximar de uma perspectiva social e coletiva. Neste artigo iremos evidenciar os possíveis deslocamentos e tensões presentes, bem como os possíveis efeitos da autonomização que sua implementação produziu no contexto do cuidado em saúde mental. Assim, na experiência brasileira, observamos como esse deslocamento se produz a partir desse lugar do poder-saber, típico da experiência do profissional, enquanto a experiência espanhola mostra como a adaptação da ferramenta decorre da implicação necessária dos profissionais, usuários, familiares e rede social em um processo conjunto de trabalho e cuidado coletivo. (AU)


In this article we present the concept of autonomy applied to the field of mental health drawing on experiences of the implementation of the "Autonomous Medication Management Guide" in two different contexts: Brazil and Spain. Autonomous medication management proposes an understanding of autonomy that moves away from an individualistic view towards a social and collective perspective. This article highlights potential shifts and tensions and the possible effects of "autonomization" in the context of mental health care. In the Brazilian experience, we observed how this shift is produced from the place of power-knowledge typical of professional practice, while the Spanish experience shows how the adaptation of the tool derives from the necessary involvement of professionals, service users, families and social networks through a joint process of collective working and care. (AU)

4.
CES odontol ; 34(2): 173-187, jul.-dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374787

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las actividades de promoción y prevención en Salud son relevantes en la Atención Primaria; no obstante, las relacionadas con el Programa de Salud Oral, en Chile, aparecen asociadas a los programas preventivos y no formando parte de ellos, situación que también ocurre en otros países. La presente revisión tiene como objetivos evidenciar las actuales políticas y lineamientos internacionales que indican que se debe propender a una Práctica Colaborativa Interprofesional para una mejor calidad en la atención; y proponer un trabajo interprofesional donde las acciones de promoción y prevención en Salud Bucal se incluyan en los programas preventivos existentes. La Práctica Colaborativa Interprofesional ocurre cuando los miembros del equipo de salud se organizan, planifican, gestionan y proporcionan servicios integrales de salud, evitando la fragmentación de los cuidados. Esto se logra estructurando las competencias comunes, colaborativas y específicas. El trabajo interdependiente permite complementar conocimientos y habilidades que contribuyen a cumplir con las políticas de Calidad de la Atención y Triple Meta en salud. De modo que, se proponen estrategias de trabajo en promoción y prevención de Salud Bucal a incorporar y ejecutar en los diversos programas preventivos ya existentes a lo largo del ciclo vital. En conclusión, es necesario un cambio de paradigma en la atención bucodental donde el foco ya no esté en el programa sino en el individuo, familia y comunidad para lograr una salud integral. Resulta relevante compartir experiencias de atención interprofesional y a incorporar la Educación Interprofesional y Practica Colaborativa en el proceso formativo de las futuras generaciones.


Abstract Health prevention and promotion actions are relevant in primary care; nevertheless, those related to the Oral Health Program in Chile are associated with preventive programs and are not part of them, which occurs in other countries as well. The objectives of this review are to display the current international policies and guidelines that indicate that an Interprofessional Collaborative Practice should be promoted for a better quality of care as well as to propose interprofessional work including promotion and prevention actions in Oral Health in the existing preventive programs. Interprofessional Collaborative Practice occurs when members of the health team organize, plan, manage and provide integral health services, avoiding fragmentation of care. This is achieved by structuring common, collaborative, and specific competencies. Interdependent work allows complementing knowledge and skills that contribute to comply with the policies of Quality of Care and Triple Aim in health. Therefore, work strategies in oral health promotion and prevention are proposed to be incorporated and implemented in the various preventive programs already in place throughout the life cycle. In conclusion, there is a need for a paradigm shift in oral health care, where the focus is no longer on the program but on the individual, family, and community to achieve comprehensive health. Finally, it becomes relevant to share experiences of interprofessional care, and incorporating Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice in the formative process of future generations.


Resumo As atividades de promoção e prevenção da saúde são relevantes na Atenção Básica; no entanto, aqueles relacionados ao Programa de Saúde Bucal no Chile aparecem associados aos programas preventivos e não fazem parte deles, situação que também ocorre em outros países. A presente revisão visa demonstrar as atuais políticas e diretrizes internacionais que indicam que uma Prática Interprofissional Colaborativa deve ser promovida para uma melhor qualidade de atendimento; e propor um trabalho interprofissional onde as ações de promoção e prevenção em Saúde Bucal estejam incluídas nos programas preventivos existentes. A Prática Colaborativa Interprofissional ocorre quando os membros da equipe de saúde organizam, planejam, gerenciam e prestam serviços de saúde integrais, evitando a fragmentação do cuidado. Isso é conseguido através da estruturação de competências comuns, colaborativas e específicas. O trabalho interdependente permite complementar conhecimentos e competências que contribuem para o cumprimento das políticas de Qualidade da Assistência e Triplo Objetivo em saúde. Assim, são propostas estratégias de trabalho na promoção e prevenção da Saúde Bucal a serem incorporadas e executadas nos diversos programas preventivos já existentes ao longo do ciclo vital. Conclui-se que é necessária uma mudança de paradigma na higiene bucal, onde o foco não seja mais o programa, mas sim o indivíduo, a família e a comunidade para o alcance da saúde integral. É relevante compartilhar experiências de cuidado interprofissional e incorporar a Educação Interprofissional e a Prática Colaborativa no processo de formação das futuras gerações.

5.
Medwave ; 21(6): e8218, jul. 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284249

ABSTRACT

Introducción El proceso de aprendizaje demanda la utilización de estrategias pertinentes y efectivas. La utilización de la metodología aprendizaje servicio implica grandes desafíos tanto para el estudiante como para el docente-tutor. Objetivo Develar la experiencia de docentes-tutores a partir del trabajo comunitario con estudiantes de enfermería de la Universidad Austral de Chile, utilizando la metodología aprendizaje servicio. Método Investigación cualitativa descriptiva y exploratoria mediante un estudio intrínseco de casos. Muestra no probabilística e intencionada de casos por criterios y conveniencia. Se entrevistaron a cinco docentes del Instituto de Enfermería de la Universidad Austral de Chile contratados por la universidad, que cumplieron el rol de docente-tutor previa firma del consentimiento informado. La información fue obtenida mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas. El análisis se realizó a través de la metodología de reducción de datos, que considera el análisis de resultados en tres niveles. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité Ético Científico de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Austral de Chile. Resultados En el nivel 1 se identificaron 107 unidades de significado, agrupadas en cinco categorías descriptivas. En el nivel 2 se formaron tres metacategorías: "opinión de las docentes-tutoras con relación al trabajo con la metodología aprendizaje servicio", "factores que inciden en el trabajo con la metodología aprendizaje servicio" y "competencias genéricas desarrolladas con la metodología aprendizaje servicio". En el nivel 3 se identificaron dos dominios cualitativos: "apreciación de las docentes-tutoras para el desarrollo de la metodología aprendizaje servicio" y "aportes de la metodología aprendizaje servicio para el desarrollo de competencias genéricas". Conclusiones La implementación de la metodología de manera eficiente requiere de capacitación y motivación de docentes-tutores, estudiantes y socios comunitarios.


Introduction The learning process demands appropriate and effective strategies. Furthermore, the service-learning methodology implies significant challenges for both the student and the teacher-tutor. Objective To reveal the experience of community-based teacher-tutors work with nursing students from the Austral University of Chile, using the service-learning methodology. Method Descriptive and exploratory qualitative research through an intrinsic case study. Non-probabilistic and intentional sample of cases by criteria and convenience. Five teachers from the Austral University of Chile Nursing Institute hired by the university were interviewed. They fulfilled the role of teacher-tutor after signing the informed consent. The information was obtained through semi-structured interviews, and the analysis was carried out through the data reduction methodology, which considers the analysis of results at three levels. The Scientific Ethics Committee of the Austral University of Chile School of Medicine approved the study. Results At level 1: One hundred and seven (107) units of meaning were identified, grouped into five descriptive categories. At level 2, three meta-categories were formed: "opinion of the tutor-teachers on working with the service-learning methodology", "factors that influence working with the service-learning methodology" and "generic competencies developed with the service-learning methodology. Finally, at level 3, two qualitative domains were identified: "Teacher-tutors appreciation for the development of the service-learning methodology" and "Contributions of the service-learning methodology for developing generic competencies". Conclusions The efficient implementation of the methodology requires training and motivation of tutors, teachers, students and community partners.


Subject(s)
Humans , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Curriculum , Education, Nursing/methods , Faculty, Nursing/psychology , Learning , Interviews as Topic , Qualitative Research , Motivation
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.1): 2415-2430, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278835

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to assess the Baixo Vouga sub-region (Portugal) governance system through 15 interviews with leaders of institutions with decision-making power and provide healthcare. The interviews were subjected to a content analysis, organized in matrices by cases, categories, subcategories, and indicators. Recording units were extracted from the interviews to produce data for each indicator. A Collaborative Place-based Governance Framework systematizing operational definitions of collaborative governance was implemented to serve as a benchmark for assessing the collaborative and place-based dimensions. The Baixo Vouga sub-Region governance system is collaborative because it is based on a shared structure of principles that translates into the services provided. It has a multilevel and multisector collaboration, and can undertake shared decisions. These dimensions could be reinforced through increased participation, autonomy, subsidiarity if more place-based information and practical knowledge were sought. The system would also benefit from an extensive adoption of bottom-up methods to formulate and implement policies.


Resumo Esta investigação tem como objetivo avaliar estas dimensões no sistema de governança da Região de Aveiro (RA) Portugal, através de 15 entrevistas feitas aos responsáveis máximos de instituições que decidem e que prestam cuidados. Na análise das entrevistas, aplicaram-se me- todologias de análise de conteúdo. Para o efeito, criaram-se matrizes por casos, sub-categorias, sucategorias e indicadores. Das gravações das entrevistas, extraíram-se unidades de registo para cada indicador. Propomos um referencial de governança colaborativa de base local que sistematiza definições operativas de governança colaborativa, servindo, depois, de referencial para o exercício de avaliação. O sistema de governança da sub-região do Baixo Vouga é colaborativo porque assenta numa estrutura partilhada de princípios transposta para o modo como os serviços são prestados. Apresenta colaboração multinível e multissetorial e capacidade de construir decisões partilhadas. Reforçar-se-iam estas dimensões com mais participação, autonomia, subsidiariedade e se se recorresse mais à informação e a conhe- cimento prático, localizado. Também beneficiaria com a adoção extensiva de metodologias de base local na formulação e na implementação de políticas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Government Programs , Perception , Portugal
7.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 32(1): e1780, tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280199

ABSTRACT

Los métodos colaborativos permiten desarrollar habilidades y actitudes en los estudiantes para descubrir y construir conocimientos por ellos mismos, a la vez que promueven la interdependencia a la hora de resolver problemas profesionales. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo mostrar las experiencias y los resultados del trabajo con métodos colaborativos en tres asignaturas de la carrera Ciencias de la Información de dos universidades cubanas. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el que se utilizaron métodos empíricos, como un análisis documental clásico, entrevistas semiestructuradas a los jefes de equipos y encuestas estructuradas a 70 estudiantes (100 por ciento) que constituyeron la población. Se constató que, de forma general, la aplicación de técnicas didácticas activas mostró resultados positivos tanto en la evaluación de los resultados docentes como en la asistencia a clases. De igual manera, se logró que los alumnos diseñaran su estructura de interacciones y asumieran diferentes roles para intervenir en las comunidades desde una perspectiva informacional. Las opiniones de los estudiantes se tuvieron en cuenta para realizar mejoras en el diseño de las asignaturas. Por las condiciones impuestas por la pandemia COVID 19, las clases se adaptaron a condiciones no presenciales, lo que conllevó un incremento en el uso de las redes sociales digitales para la comunicación entre los alumnos y los profesores(AU)


Collaborative methods provide students with the skills and attitudes required to discover and build knowledge by themselves, and foster interdependence when solving professional problems. The purpose of the study was to present the experiences and results obtained from the use of collaborative methods in three Information Sciences undergraduate courses taught in two Cuban universities. A descriptive study was conducted based on empirical methods such as classic document analysis, semi-structured interviews with team leaders, and structured surveys to 70 students (100 percengt), who made up the study population. It was found that the use of active didactic techniques generally led to positive academic results and better attendance to class. Students could also design their own structure of interactions, taking on different roles to intervene in communities from an information perspective. Students' opinions were taken into account for curriculum development. Due to the limitations imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, classes were not attended physically, expanding the use of digital social networking for communication between students and teachers(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Information Science/education , Communication , Group Processes , Learning , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cuba
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888196

ABSTRACT

As the most common active brain-computer interaction paradigm, motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) suffers from the bottleneck problems of small instruction set and low accuracy, and its information transmission rate (ITR) and practical application are severely limited. In this study, we designed 6-class imagination actions, collected electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from 19 subjects, and studied the effect of collaborative brain-computer interface (cBCI) collaboration strategy on MI-BCI classification performance, the effects of changes in different group sizes and fusion strategies on group multi-classification performance are compared. The results showed that the most suitable group size was 4 people, and the best fusion strategy was decision fusion. In this condition, the classification accuracy of the group reached 77%, which was higher than that of the feature fusion strategy under the same group size (77.31%


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain-Computer Interfaces , Electroencephalography , Humans , Imagery, Psychotherapy , Imagination
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908117

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of collaborative nursing intervention in moist therapy of patients with chronic wounds, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of chronic wounds.Methods:A total of 120 patients with chronic wounds in Wenchang People's Hospital, Hainan Province, from April 2018 to April 2020 were selected, and divided into two groups by random number table methods, each with 60 cases. The control group was given routine nursing of wet treatment, while the observation group was given collaborative nursing on the basis of the control group. The general data of patients were collected and the wound healing, quality of life, anxiety and depression were compared.Results:The wound healing time of the observation group was (14.36±3.68) d, which was shorter than that of the control group (17. 87±3.71) d, the difference was statistically significant( t value was 5.203, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the total score of pressure ulcer healing before treatment between the two groups( P>0.05). After treatment, the total score of pressure ulcer healing was (4.32± 1.15) points in the observation group and (6.75 ± 1.13) points in the control groups, the difference was statistically significant( t value was 11.675, P<0.01).There was no significant difference in the scores of each dimension in the short form of health survey before treatment between the two groups( P>0.05). After treatment, the scores of physiological function, physiological function, emotional function, physical pain, vitality, mental health, social function, overall health dimensions in the short form of health survey were (47.36 ± 12.48), (68.97 ± 12.46), (54.36 ± 19.48), (78.46 ± 10.12), (75.46 ± 12.54), (69.78 ± 15.64), (89.64 ± 10.14), (72.46±9.48) points in the observation group, and (42.48±12.57), (62.42±12.53), (46.34±20.35), (71.25±10.36), (66.32±12.37), (57.43±16.53), (72.48±11.48), (59.34±10.14) points in the control group, the differences were statistically significant( t values were 5.681-16.903, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the score of Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale before treatment between the two groups( P>0.05). The score of Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale were (38.15±4.32), (39.24±4.25) points in the observation group and (43.42±4.18), (45.17±4.16) points in the control group, the differences were statistically significant ( t values were 6.791, 7.724, P<0.01). Conclusions:Collaborative nursing model can effectively promote wound healing of patients with chronic wound moist therapy, and improve their quality of life.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912699

ABSTRACT

Guangdong province is experimenting with a model composed of various types of medical alliances, having achieved initial success with some of them and preliminarily has formed a holistic governance pattern. Experiences behind such initial success lied in a coordinated top-level design, reasonable and classified guidance, leader role of key governance subjects, and the construction of a telemedical system. However, as analyzed from the angle of collaborative governance, existing medical alliances have not yet formed a community of services, that of responsibility, that of interests, and that of services. In this consideration, the authors recommended to strengthen the collaborative governance of such alliances by respective governance subjects based on the theories of integrated medical service system and collaborative governance, eventually forming an integrated medical and health service system.

11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2554-2562, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887821

ABSTRACT

This study attempts to develop a reference substance for the live bacteria count of Streptococcicosis live vaccines in order to evaluate the validity of live bacterial count in inspection and testing. We prepared a batch of live Streptococcus suis reference substance for live bacterial count, tested their physical property, purity, vacuum degree, remaining moisture, and determined their homogeneity, thermal stability and transportation stability. Moreover, we organized collaborative calibration to assign count values to the reference substance and determine the shelf life of the reference substance in 12 months. The results showed that the physical property, the purity, the remaining moisture and the vacuum degree of the reference substance were all in compliance with the requirements of the Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia. The homogeneity test showed that the coefficient of variation of the count of the reference substance was less than 10%, indicating a good homogeneity. Transportation stability test showed that the reference substance remained active after 72 h transportation in summer and winter with the package of styrofoam boxes and ice packs. Thermal stability test showed that the reference substance could be stored for up to 3 months at -20 °C, or up to 21 days at 4 °C. According to the collaborative calibration, the reference vaccine was assigned a count value range of (8.5-12.1)×107 CFU/ampoule. The shelf life test showed that the reference substance was stable for 12 months when stored at -70 °C. The reference substance could provide a reference for the live bacterial count of Streptococcicosis live vaccines. Moreover, it could also be used as a reference to evaluate the quality of corresponding agar media.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Load , Reference Standards , Vaccines, Attenuated
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886639

ABSTRACT

As a new form of medical industry, internet medicine has not only the endogenous risk of internet industry, but also the blind area and exogenous risk because of lagging regulation. With the continuous progress of internet information technology, online diagnosis and treatment will gradually integrate and reconstruct the traditional medical service. In the history of medical development, the emergence of new technologies generally has the characteristics of risk. Therefore, the supervision of internet medicine should adhere to the rule of inclusiveness and prudence, and take into account the cultivation of the market and standardized development. It should also build a regulatory community, coordinate governance from the four dimensions of legitimacy, compliance, rationality and superiority. Taking the law as the bottom line, we should make full use of early online warning monitoring, off-site supervision, online supervision, reputation mechanism and other measures to promote the innovative development of internet medicine under the framework of legal compliance.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879081

ABSTRACT

At present, the issues regarding multi-center clinical trials of new drugs of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) remain: the lack of agreement on the content and scope of the ethical review among the ethics committee members of the center and the participating units results in repeated review, which leads to a time-consuming ethical review process. Moreover, the review capabilities of the ethics committees of various research centers are uneven, which is not necessarily beneficial to the protection of subjects' rights and safety. In view of the existing problems, to improve the efficiency of ethical review of multi-center clinical trials of new drugs of TCM and avoid repeated reviews, the TCM Clinical Evaluation Professional Committee of Chinese Pharmaceutical Association organized experts to formulate the "Consensus on collaborative ethical review of multi-center clinical trials of new drugs of TCM(version 1.0)"(hereinafter referred to as "Consensus"). The "Consensus" is formulated in accordance with the requirements of relevant documents such as but not limited to "the opinions on deepening the reform of the evaluation and approval system to encourage the innovation of pharmaceutical medical devices", "the regulations of ethical review of biomedical research involving human subjects". The "Consensus" covers the scope of application, formulation principles, conditions for the ethics committee of the center, sharing of ethical review resources, scope and procedure of collaborative review, rights and obligations, etc. The aims of the "Consensus" is to preliminarily explore and establish a scientific and operable ethical review procedure. Additionally, on the basis of fully protecting the rights and interests of the subjects, a collaborative ethical review agreement needs to be signed to clarify the ethical review responsibilities of all parties, to avoid repeated review, and to improve the efficiency and quality of ethical review in multi-center clinical trials of new drugs of TCM.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Clinical Trials as Topic , Consensus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ethical Review , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pharmaceutical Preparations
14.
Cad. Bras. Ter. Ocup ; 29: e2802, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1285794

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción Este texto presenta la experiencia acumulada durante 10 años en las Jornadas de Terapia Ocupacional del Bio Bio en Chile, actividad de extensión académica y recreativa en la cual se tratan temas relevantes para la formación de terapeutas ocupacionales. Objetivo Analizar los principales aprendizajes y contribuciones a la formación profesional de las metodologías de enseñanza que se exponen en estas Jornadas, a través de la opinión de los estudiantes que han participado como asistentes. Método se desarrolla una sistematización, ya que esta metodología permite la reflexión crítica a partir de la experiencia vivida. La información se produce a través de entrevistas a 12 estudiantes. Se realiza análisis del contenido de temas predefinidos, que corresponden a pensamiento crítico, herramientas para la intervención y valores compartidos. Resultados El grupo de estudiantes valoran las metodologías de carácter práctico, participativas y dialogantes que permitan compartir opiniones y experiencias. Las herramientas que se adquieren corresponden a habilidades relacionales que facilitan el trato y manejo terapéutico. Los valores compartidos que los estudiantes identifican se encuentran presentes en las Jornadas incluyen la solidaridad, el respeto a la diversidad y la empatía. Conclusiones Las actividades de extensión académica enriquecen la formación profesional porque acerca a los estudiantes con la realidad social, fortalecen la identidad disciplinar y promoverían su formación ciudadana. Los desafíos de las actividades de extensión son generar transformaciones en las vidas cotidianas de los/as sujetos/as de intervención, y que éstos/as puedan participar activamente en los ajustes curriculares de los planes de estudios.


Resumo Introdução Este texto apresenta a experiência acumulada ao longo de 10 anos na Conferência de Bio Bio Terapia Ocupacional no Chile, uma atividade de extensão acadêmica e recreativa na qual são discutidos temas relevantes para a formação de terapeutas ocupacionais. Objetivo Analisar as principais aprendizagens e contribuições das metodologias de ensino expostas nestes Congressos para a formação profissional, através da opinião dos alunos que participaram como assistentes. Método desenvolveu-se uma sistematização, uma vez que esta metodologia permite a reflexão crítica a partir da experiência vivida. As informações foram produzidas por meio de entrevistas com 12 alunos e efetuada análise de conteúdo de temas predefinidos, que corresponderam ao pensamento crítico, ferramentas de intervenção e valores partilhados. Resultados O grupo de alunos valoriza as metodologias de carácter prático, participativo e dialógico que lhes permitem partilhar opiniões e experiências. As ferramentas adquiridas correspondem a habilidades relacionais que facilitam o tratamento e o manejo terapêutico. Os valores partilhados que os alunos identificaram presentes na Conferência incluem solidariedade, respeito pela diversidade e empatia. Conclusões As atividades de extensão acadêmica enriquecem a formação profissional, pois aproxima os alunos da realidade social, fortalece a identidade disciplinar e promove sua formação cidadã. Os desafios das atividades de extensão são gerar transformações no cotidiano dos sujeitos da intervenção e que eles possam participar ativamente das adequações curriculares dos planos de estudos.


Abstract Introduction This text shows the experience accumulated over 10 years in the Bio Bio Occupational Therapy Conference in Chile, an academic extension and recreational activity in which relevant topics for the training of occupational therapists are discussed. Objective To analyze the main learning and contributions to the professional training of the teaching methodologies that are exposed in this conference, through the opinion of the students who have participated as assistants. Method systematization is developed since this methodology allows critical reflection from the lived experience. The information is produced through interviews with 12 students. Analysis of the content of predefined topics is carried out, which correspond to critical thinking, tools for intervention, and shared values. Results The group of students values the methodologies of a practical, participatory, and dialogue nature that allow them to share opinions and experiences. The tools that are acquired correspond to relational skills that facilitate treatment and therapeutic management. The shared values that the students identify are present in the conference, including solidarity, respect for diversity, and empathy. Conclusions The academic extension activities enrich professional training because it brings students closer to social reality, strengthens disciplinary identity and promotes their citizenship training. The challenges of extension activities are to generate transformations in the daily lives of the intervention subjects, and that they can actively participate in the curricular adjustments of the study plans.

15.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25(supl.1): e210153, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350863

ABSTRACT

O Programa de Educação pelo Trabalho para Saúde (PET-Saúde) é uma política indutora que fomenta o aprendizado por vivências problematizadoras nos locais de trabalho em saúde com foco na interprofissionalidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi relatar a experiência do PET-Saúde Interprofissionalidade durante a pandemia de Covid-19, na perspectiva docente. Desenvolver o PET-Saúde com estudantes, preceptores, equipes dos serviços e usuários demandou (re)descobrir possibilidades das tecnologias de informação e comunicação e o aprendizado da produção de "novas presenças" sem desistir da ação coletiva, participativa e composta pelos diferentes saberes. Apreendeu-se o desenvolvimento de competências como escuta qualificada para resolução de conflitos, comunicação interprofissional e liderança colaborativa. Este PET-Saúde mostrou-se um disparador na formação em saúde, conectando universidade, rede de saúde e comunidade; e contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de competências colaborativas e um espaço de acolhimento para as situações vivenciadas.(AU)


El Programa de Educación por el Trabajo para Salud (PET-Saúde) es una política inductora que fomenta el aprendizaje por vivencias problematizadoras en los locales de trabajo en salud con enfoque en la Interprofesionalidad. El objetivo fue relatar la experiencia del PET-Saúde Interprofesionalidad durante la pandemia de Covid-19, desde la perspectiva docente. Desarrollar el PET-Saúde con estudiantes, preceptores, equipos de los servicios y usuarios demandó (re)descubrir posibilidades de las tecnologías de información y comunicación, aprendiendo a producir "nuevas presencias", sin desistir de la acción colectiva, participativa, compuesta por los diferentes saberes. Se aprendió a desarrollar competencias tales como escuchar de forma calificada para la resolución de conflictos, la comunicación interprofesional y el liderazgo colaborativo. Este PET-Saúde se mostró un gatillo en la formación en salud, conectando universidad, red de salud y comunidad, contribuyendo al desarrollo de competencias colaborativas y un espacio de acogida para las situaciones vividas.(AU)


The Program 'Education through Work for Health' (PET-Health) is a nudging policy that provides learning through problematizing experiences in health workplaces, with a focus on interprofessionality. The aim was to report the experience of PET-Health Interprofessionality during the Covid-19 pandemic, from the teachers' perspective. The development of PET-Health with students, tutors, teams from the health system and users demanded, (re) discovering possibilities of information and communication technologies, learning to produce "new presences", without giving up the collective, participatory action, composed by different knowledge. There was learning of development of skills such as qualified listening for conflict resolution, interprofessional communication and collaborative leadership. This PET-Health proved to be a triggering event towards health education, connecting university, health network and community, and contributed to the development of collaborative skills and constituted a welcoming space for the situations experienced.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Problem-Based Learning , Interdisciplinary Placement , COVID-19 , Interdisciplinary Communication , User Embracement , Faculty
16.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25(supl.1): e200329, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286889

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación estudia los artículos de "Covid-19" y de "Pandemia por Covid-19" en cuatro versiones lingüísticas de Wikipedia (inglés, español, italiano y portugués). El período de estudio comienza con la denominación oficial de la enfermedad como Covid-19, el 11 de febrero de 2020, por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y desde la proclamación por dicha institución de la pandemia causada por esta enfermedad, el 11 de marzo de 2020. En ambos casos se estudia hasta el 11 de abril de 2020. La investigación aborda el modo de creación y de lectura de dichos artículos, analizando si se trata de trabajos construidos desde referencias científicas y sanitarias o prensa generalista. Este proyecto muestra cómo los wikipedistas han reaccionado rápidamente y han generado un gran trabajo colaborativo, con artículos argumentados y construidos desde una perspectiva científica y sanitaria. (AU)


This article studies articles about "Covid-19" and the "Covid-19 pandemic" in four language versions of Wikipedia (English, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese). The study periods start with the official naming of the Covid-19 disease on February 2020 by the World Health Organization and the announcement of the pandemic on March 11 2020, respectively. In both cases, the period goes up to April 11 2020. The study addresses the creation and reading of these publications, analyzing whether they are built upon scientific and health references or information from the general press. The findings show that that the Wikipedists responded quickly and generated collaborative works, with articles based on and built around a scientific and health perspective. (AU)


Este artigo estuda os textos sobre "Covid-19" e "Pandemia por Covid-19" em quatro versões linguísticas da Wikipédia (inglês, espanhol, italiano e português). O período de estudo começa com a denominação oficial da doença como Covid-19, em 11 de fevereiro de 2020, pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e desde a declaração por esta instituição de pandemia causada pela doença, em 11 de março de 2020. Em ambos os casos se estuda até 11 de abril de 2020. A pesquisa aborda o modo de criação e de leitura dessas publicações, analisando se são trabalhos construídos a partir de referências científicas e da saúde ou da imprensa em geral. Este projeto mostra como os wikipedistas reagiram rapidamente e geraram um trabalho colaborativo, com artigos argumentados e construídos a partir de uma perspectiva científica e da saúde. (AU)


Subject(s)
Electronic Publications , Knowledge Management , COVID-19 , Open Access Publishing/trends , Interdisciplinary Placement/methods
17.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 641-647, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909379

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effects and safety of stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) versus no prophylaxis in adult septic patients at risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB).Methods:A retrospective cohort study was conducted, the data was extracted from Electronic Intensive Care Unit-Collaborative Research Database (eICU-CRD). All patients who received proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or H 2 receptor antagonist (H 2RA) or combined/sequential use for SUP within the first 48 hours of intensive care unit (ICU) admission were enrolled in the SUP group, those who did not received any SUP were enrolled in the non-SUP group. The differences of in-hospital mortality, length of ICU stay (LOS), the incidence of GIB and secondary infection complications between the two groups were compared. Propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted to balance the distributions of study variables between the two groups. Further subgroup analysis was performed according to whether SUP was used for more than 3 days. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the factors influencing the outcome of GIB and secondary pneumonia. Results:A total of 11 413 patients were included in the final analysis, with 9 799 patients in SUP group and 1 614 in non-SUP group. A 1∶1 PSM created 1 600 patients in each cohort. ① Baseline characteristics: compared with SUP group, patients in non-SUP group were older [years old: 69.0 (56.0, 80.0) vs. 67.0 (56.0, 78.0)], acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅳ (APACHEⅣ) score and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score were significantly lower [APACHEⅣ score: 65 (50, 73) vs. 72 (58, 87), SOFA score: 5 (4, 7) vs. 7 (5, 9)], higher rates of underlying diseases such as hypertension and diabetes [hypertension: 15.6% (252/1 614) vs. 12.2% (1 196/9 779), diabetes: 4.5% (72/1 614) vs. 3.3% (325/9 779), both P < 0.05], indicating that patients in the SUP group were more severe. ② Comparison of clinical outcome: before PSM, SUP group had significantly higher in-hospital mortality [17.2% (1 688/9 799) vs. 10.9% (176/1 614)], longer LOS [days: 4.4 (2.9, 7.7) vs. 3.1 (2.5, 4.3)], and higher incidence of secondary pneumonia than non-SUP group [11.3% (1 112/9 799) vs. 6.8% (110/1 614)], with significant differences (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of GIB and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) between the two groups. After PSM, no significant differences were observed between the two groups with regard to in-hospital mortality, incidence of GIB and CDI. However, the SUP group had longer LOS [days: 3.9 (2.8, 6.6) vs. 3.1 (2.5, 4.3)], and higher incidence of secondary pneumonia [10.9% (174/1 600) vs. 6.8% (108/1 600)] compared with non-SUP group, the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that compared with SUP < 3 days group, patients in SUP ≥ 3 days group had higher disease severity score [APACHEⅣ score: 66 (51, 79) vs. 62 (48, 72), SOFA score: 6 (4, 8) vs. 5 (4, 7), both P < 0.05], in addition, patients in SUP≥3 days group had higher in-hospital mortality, incidence of GIB and secondary pneumonia (16.4% vs. 10.7%, 6.1% vs. 1.8%, 19.0% vs. 8.6%, respectively), and longer ICU LOS [days: 6.6 (4.1, 11.8) vs. 3.5 (2.6, 5.3), all P < 0.05]. ③ Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that SUP≥3 days group was associated with more GIB than that of non-SUP group [odds ratio ( OR) = 1.84, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.07-3.08, P = 0.030], and the incidence of GIB was less in SUP < 3 days group than that of non-SUP group ( OR = 0.57, 95% CI was 0.34-0.94, P = 0.020). When compared with non-SUP group, the risk of secondary pneumonia was increased both in SUP≥ 3 days group and SUP < 3 days group ( OR values were 2.95 and 1.34, 95% CI were 2.10-4.13 and 1.01-1.77, P values were < 0.001 and 0.040, respectively). Conclusion:Among critically ill adult patients with sepsis at risk for GIB, SUP showed no effect on reducing in-hospital mortality, the rate of GIB and CDI, but was associated with increased risk of secondary pneumonia and prolonged LOS.

18.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 596-599, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909366

ABSTRACT

Objective:To assess the application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) regional treatment pattern in patients with severe cardiopulmonary diseases.Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted. Patients with severe cardiopulmonary disease who were transferred to Henan Provincial People's Hospital after ECMO treatment in cooperative hospitals were selected. The patients who received regular ECMO treatment from June 2017 to May 2018 were enrolled as the control group, and the patients who received ECMO regional treatment from June 2018 to May 2019 were selected as the observation group. The ECMO regional treatment pattern referred to implement a referral program for critical patients in primary hospitals, which mainly included the establishment of ECMO regional cooperative treatment network and ECMO referral team, the formulation of ECMO referral management standards, and the promotion of the merging of high-quality medical resources. Time of establishment of ECMO, ECMO regional treatment satisfaction, and the incidence of adverse events were also compared.Results:There were 27 patients enrolled in the control group and 64 patients in the observation group. There were no significant differences in gender, age, body mass index (BMI), ECMO mode, hypertension or coronary heart disease history between the two groups. Compared with the control group, the time for establishment of ECMO in the observation group was significantly shorter (minutes: 38.10±17.19 vs. 54.67±41.30, t = 2.715, P = 0.008), the ECMO treatment satisfaction of the observation group was also significantly higher than that of the control group (98.4% vs. 88.9%, χ 2 = 4.120, P = 0.042), and the incidence of ECMO referral adverse events was significantly lower than that of the control group (6.25% vs. 25.93%, χ 2 = 6.918, P = 0.009). Conclusion:The ECMO regional collaborative pattern in patients with severe cardiopulmonary diseases can shorten the time for establishment of ECMO, improve the satisfaction of ECMO treatment, and reduce the incidence of adverse events in ECMO referral.

19.
Educ. med. super ; 34(4): e2694, oct.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1154085

ABSTRACT

Las estrategias curriculares que persiguen la integración entre las ciencias básicas y las ciencias clínicas se enriquecen con la introducción de las discusiones de casos desde los primeros años de la carrera de medicina. En este sentido, este trabajo tuvo el objetivo de reflexionar sobre el valor educacional de una propuesta de ambiente de aprendizaje mediante el método de discusión colectiva de los casos clínicos para los estudiantes de los primeros años de la carrera. Al soporte teórico del trabajo se adicionó un ejemplo de caso adaptado para estudiantes que cursan el ciclo básico de la carrera de medicina. Los métodos activos de aprendizaje desplazan el protagonismo al educando; el entregar y el recibir han sido sustituidos por crear juntos. Subdividir la clase en pequeños grupos (equipos), facilitados por un docente, estimula la interacción estudiantil. El caso clínico sitúa al paciente en el centro del proceso, y la dirección de la discusión se negocia a través del análisis de las pistas que la situación ofrece, desde las diversas interpretaciones de los participantes, ayudados por el profesor. Esta reflexión no pretende sustituir otros escenarios necesarios para comprender el contenido de las disciplinas individuales, porque ese, al ser el primer nivel de conocimiento, necesita reactivarse y analizarse durante la discusión de los casos. La evocación de tópicos en casos clínicos diversos, y la elaboración en el equipo, se espera faciliten la penetración en su esencia (abstracción) y en consecuencia su aplicación en nuevos pacientes(AU)


The curricular strategies that pursue integration between basic sciences and clinical sciences are enriched with the introduction of case discussions from the first academic years of the medical major. In this respect, this work had the objective of reflecting on the educational value of a proposal of a learning setting, through the method of collective discussion of clinical cases for students in the first academic years of the major. The theoretical foundations of the work were added a case example adapted for students at the basic cycle of Medicine. Active learning methods shift prominence to the learner; giving and receiving have been replaced by creating together. Subdividing the class into small groups (teams), facilitated by a teacher, stimulates student interaction. The clinical case places the patient at the center of the process, while the direction of the discussion is negotiated through the analysis of the clues offered by the situation, from the different interpretations of the participants, helped by the teacher. This reflection is not aimed at substituting other settings necessary to understand the content of individual disciplines, because that one, as long as it is the first level of knowledge, needs to be reactivated and analyzed during the case discussions. The evocation of topics through various clinical cases, and team creation, are expected to facilitate the penetration in its essence (abstraction) and consequently its application in new patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Interdisciplinary Placement , Clinical Reasoning , Learning , Students, Medical , Teaching Rounds/trends
20.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 25(5): 767-775, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142906

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Diante do crescimento mundial do gerenciamento participativo de bacias hidrográficas e das diversas dificuldades que o modelo de gestão hídrica brasileiro tem enfrentado para se consolidar na prática, este estudo objetivou discutir o modelo colaborativo de gestão de bacias hidrográficas utilizado nos Estados Unidos da América, especialmente o do estado de Ohio, que tem se destacado na promoção da gestão colaborativa no país, a partir da literatura internacional e de um estudo de caso realizado junto a um dos grupos mais atuantes na gestão de bacias hidrográficas. Salienta-se que a experiência americana proporcionou identificar elementos que, se bem utilizados, podem fortalecer a atuação dos comitês de bacias hidrográficas no Brasil e, consequentemente, na Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos Brasileira.


ABSTRACT Faced with the growing of global participatory watershed management and the various difficulties that the Brazilian water management model has faced to consolidate itself in practice, this study aims to discuss the collaborative model of watershed management used in the United States, especially in the state of Ohio, which has excelled in promoting collaborative management in the country, based on international literature and a case study carried out with one of the most active groups in watershed management. It should be noted that the American experience has identified elements that, if well used, can strengthen the performance of watershed committees in Brazil and, consequently, in the Brazilian Water Resources National Policy.

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