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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906343

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the material basis and mechanism of Sangjiang Ganmao injection (SG) in the treatment of common cold by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) and network pharmacology. Method:UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS was used to identify the chemical components of SG with mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-10 min, 4%-15%A; 10-35 min, 15%-30%A; 35-45 min, 30%-33%A; 45-55 min, 33%-60%A; 55-58 min, 60%A), flow rate of 0.2 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, electrospray ionization (ESI) and scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 100-1 500 under positive and negative ion modes. Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) and GeneCards 5.0 database were used to screen and predict the potential targets of chemical components in SG, STRING 11.0 database and Cytoscape 3.7.2 software were used to construct protein-protein interaction (PPI) network model, gene ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were performed on potential targets by Metascape 3.5, Reactome database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used to build the network of "herbs-ingredients-key targets". Result:A total of 54 components in SG were identified, and 80 potential targets of SG for treatment of common cold were predicted and screened based on this. SG exerted therapeutic effects by acting on targets such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-10, and signaling pathways such as IL-17 signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway and interaction of cytokine receptors. Conclusion:SG may interfere with the expression of inflammatory cytokines by acting on related targets and pathways such as inflammation and immune system, and regulate the immune function of the body as a whole, thereby exerting a therapeutic effect.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906333

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe and evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ganduqing Granules in the treatment of common cold due to qi deficiency and pathogen invasion. Method:A multi-center, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. One hundred and twenty patients were randomly divided into an experimental group (<italic>n</italic>=60) and a control group (<italic>n</italic>=60). Patients in the experimental group were treated with oral Ganduqing Granules, 6 g per time, 3 times per day, while those in the control group received placebo, 6 g per time, 3 times per day. After treatment for 5 successive days in both groups, the overall remission rate, total score of primary symptoms, total score of secondary symptoms, total score of all symptoms, time required for overall symptom remission, and therapeutic efficacy against traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome in the two groups were analyzed in both full analysis set (FAS) and per-protocol set (PPS), followed by the evaluation of safety in the safety set (SS). Result:No drop-out was found in the experimental group, whereas 3 cases in the control group dropped out. After 5 days of treatment, the overall remission rate of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The analysis in FAS and PDS revealed identical results. The experimental group was obviously better than the control group in improving the total scores of primary symptoms, secondary symptoms, and all symptoms (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The analysis results in FAS and PDS were consistent. There was no significant difference in overall remission time between the two groups. The experimental group was remarkably superior to the control group in alleviating such symptoms as aversion to wind and cold, nasal congestion, runny nose, fatigue, shortness of breath, laziness to speak, dry throat, sore throat, cough, and expectoration (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). The analysis results in FAS were the same as those in PDS. All the patients did not present with significant abnormalities in vital signs, blood routine test, or liver and kidney function tests after medication. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between the experimental group and the control group. Conclusion:Ganduqing Granules effectively alleviate the symptoms of patients with common cold and shorten the course of disease, without inducing obvious side effects.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-188751

ABSTRACT

Common cold affects the upper airways, sometimes in association with low-grade fever and systemic symptoms, and usually presents with at least two of the following symptoms: cough, dysphonia, throat discomfort, sore throat, nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, sneezing, headaches, myalgia and fever. It also leads to reduction in subjective alertness and impaired psychomotor functioning. A combination of Paracetamol as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyeretic, Chlorpheniramine maleate, an anti-histaminic, and Phenylephrine as a nasal decongestant is popular in the treatment of common cold. Addition of caffeine enhances alertness and psychomotor functioning. Hence the present study was planned to evaluate efficacy and safety of this combination in treatment of common cold. Methods: This was a phase IV, open-labelled, multicentric study in 262 patients. Efficacy assessment was done by analyzing the reduction in mean TSS at each follow-up visit and safety assessment was done by analyzing the adverse events during the study. Results: There was reduction in mean TSS from 7.67 (day 1) to 3.78 (day 3) and 0.66 (day 5). Most of the patients had >50% reduction in total symptom score at visit 3 and 59.16 % patients had complete relief from the symptoms at the end of study. Out of 262 patients, 46 i.e. 17.56% experienced adverse event. Sedation and drowsiness (12.21%) was the most common adverse event seen in patients. Conclusion: A fixed dose combination of Chlorpheniramine maleate, Paracetamol, Phenylephrine and Caffeine is safe and effective in the treatment of common cold.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-199997

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute coryza or common cold affects the upper airways, sometimes in association with low-grade fever and systemic symptoms, and usually presents with at least two of the following symptoms: cough, dysphonia, throat discomfort, sore throat, nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, sneezing, headaches, myalgia and fever. A triple combination of analgesics, decongestants and antihistamines provides better relief for multiple symptoms in common cold and allergic rhinitis according to various studies. A combination of Paracetamol as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic, Chlorpheniramine maleate, an anti-histaminic and Phenylephrine as a nasal decongestant is popular in the treatment of common cold. Hence the present study was planned to evaluate efficacy and safety of this combination in treatment of common cold.Methods: This was a phase IV, open-labelled, multicentric study in 159 patients. Efficacy assessment was done by analyzing the reduction in mean TSS at each follow-up visit and safety assessment was done by analyzing the adverse events during the study.Results: There was reduction in mean TSS from 6.62 (day 1) to 3.56 (day 3) and 0.69 (day 5). Most of the patients had >50% reduction in total symptom score at visit 3 and 58.49% patients had complete relief from the symptoms at the end of study. Out of 159 patients, 26 i.e. 16.36% experienced adverse events. Sedation and drowsiness (6.29%) were the most common adverse event seen in patients.Conclusions: A fixed dose combination of Chlorpheniramine maleate, Paracetamol, and Phenylephrine is safe and effective in the treatment of common cold.

5.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738349

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We investigated the relationship between knowledge of the common cold and desire for medical treatment.Methods: We administered an anonymous self-questionnaire about the common cold to citizens receiving health checkups in City X, Ibaraki Prefecture, between August and September 2012. We assessed citizens' knowledge about the common cold and whether they sought medical treatment for it, in addition to their demographic attributes.Results: We included 1079 citizens (response rate, 74.5%) in the analysis. The majority of participants believed that receiving intravenous (IV) infusions or injections for the common cold led to faster recovery times (75.9%). Roughly half of the participants (42.0%) did not believe that antibiotics are not effective against virus-based colds, while 28.6% were unsure. Finally, endorsement of the questionnaire items "taking cold medications early leads to faster recovery" (OR: 1.61) and "IV infusions or injections lead to faster recovery times" (OR: 1.86) were associated with a desire for medical treatment.Conclusion: Our results indicate that patients' knowledge about the common cold and their understanding of treatment options available at medical institutions were inadequate. Furthermore, we found that an awareness of how cold medicines, IV infusions, or injections may shorten treatment duration was associated with a desire for treatment.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761828

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the experience of the upper respiratory infection of the elite winter sports athletes and its effect on training and competition. METHODS: We conducted survey on elite athletes preparing for the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games. The general characteristics, training and competition loss due to upper respiratory infection were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Multiple regression analysis was performed to find out the factors that influence on training loss due to upper respiratory infection. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant and data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 24.0. RESULTS: A total 65 players answered the questionnaire. Sixteen players (24.7%) reported that they got an upper respiratory infection more than three times a year. The month mainly affected by upper respiratory infection was September to November. Main symptom of upper respiratory infection was rhinorrhea mostly, followed by sore throat, cough, sputum. Six players (9.2%) answered that they were excluded from training more than three times due to upper respiratory infection for 1 year. Seven players (10.7%) answered that they were excluded from competition one time due to upper respiratory infection for 1 year. The factors that influence on training loss due to upper respiratory syndrome were the numbers of getting upper respiratory infection for 1 year and age. CONCLUSION: Elite winter athletes are vulnerable to upper respiratory and it has a bad effect on training and competition. So we need to take care of elite athletes' illness like upper respiratory infection.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Common Cold , Cough , Humans , Pharyngitis , Sports Medicine , Sports , Sputum
7.
Kampo Medicine ; : 333-336, 2019.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811040

ABSTRACT

Shomakakkonto is usually used for the treatment in patients with initial cold or dermatitis symptoms. We herein reported our experience with two cases of common cold accompanied by watery eyes and floating pulse that were successfully treated with shomakakkonto. The patients were an 81-year-old man and a 69-year-old woman who presented with common cold-like symptoms and watery eyes at our clinic, and were diagnosed with common cold of middle yang. Both patients were successfully treated with shomakakkonto. Common cold with watery eyes may be considered as an indication for treatment with shomakakkonto.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710906

ABSTRACT

Common cold is the most common upper respiratory tract infection.No antibiotic use for common cold has been international consensus,while the irrational antibiotic use and subsequent antibiotic resistance become an important issue of public health security.This article reviews the current status of antibiotic use for common cold and its related factors.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-712692

ABSTRACT

Xiangxi (the western part of Hunan province) Liu's infantile tuina,as one main school of current infantile tuina in China,highlights the compatibility of the specific points of Wujing in children,the idea of treatment by syndrome differentiation,and produces unique efficacy in the treatment of common diseases in children.Exogenous fever in children can be treated with this method with excellent efficacy.Based on the clinical experience and effective cases treated by this tuina school,the authors elaborated the clinical thought and experience from the perspective view of tuina,for the promotion of Xiangxi Liu's infantile tuina in clinic.

10.
Medwave ; 18(6): e7260, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-948468

ABSTRACT

Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN: El resfrío común causa una gran morbilidad en todo el mundo y no se cuenta con agentes terapéuticos eficaces contra éste. Existe la creencia de que ingerir vitamina C durante un episodio de resfrío ayuda a disminuir la duración y severidad de los síntomas, sin embargo existe controversia respecto a esta afirmación. MÉTODOS: Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron ocho estudios primarios, de los cuales siete son ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que la vitamina C tiene un impacto mínimo o nulo en la duración del resfrío y en los días en casa o sin trabajar.


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The common cold causes great morbidity throughout the world and there are no effective therapeutic agents against it. There is a belief that consuming vitamin C during a cold episode would help reduce duration and severity of symptoms. However, there is controversy about this claim. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified four systematic reviews that included eight primary studies overall, of which seven were randomized trials. We concluded vitamin C has minimal or no impact on the duration of common cold or in the number of days at home or out of work.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Common Cold/drug therapy , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual , Treatment Outcome
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789787

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: Currently there is very limited data in the literature assessing the prevalence of antihistamine prescription, and there is no local prevalence data about the prescription of antihistamine agents among primary practitioner and emergency physicians. The objectives are 1) to report the prevalence of antihistamine prescription for children less than 6 years old with acute upper respiratory infection and 2) to explore the associated factors for the prescription practice. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. All consecutive cases of paediatric patients aged 6 or below who presented to the emergency department during a study period of one week from April 1 to July 4, 2009 with diagnosis of acute upper respiratory infection were included. Totally 162 patients were included. RESULTS: Among the 162 cases, 141 (87%) patients were prescribed one antihistamine of any group. Sixty (37%) patients were prescribed two or more antihistamines. In multivariate logistic regression model, age was found to be significantly (P<0.001) associated with multiple antihistamine prescription (OR=1.042, 95%CI=1.02 to 1.06). Years of graduation of attending physician for more than 5 years was also a strong predictor of multiple antihistamine prescription (OR=4.654, 95%CI=2.20 to 9.84, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: In the local emergency department, patients' age and the years of graduation from medical school of the attending physician were predictors of multiple antihistamine prescription for acute upper respiratory infections for children aged less than 6.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-511331

ABSTRACT

In this study, retrospective multi-center study on medical records of Uyghur Medicine diagnosis and treatment program of common cold was done and demographic, diagnostic, therapeutic, efficacy evaluation and nursing data and other information were collected, sorted out and analyzed to determine the diagnostic cretiria of Uygur Medicine syndrome factors. Syndrome differentiation standard with the syndrome factors of the enrties of main syndromes and sub-syndromes and symptomatic diagnosis chart was established. Combined with the symptoms of common cold, the efficacy evaluation standards were established. On this basis, in accordance with the technical requirements of the national new medicine review, the study developed clinical research guidelines for the treatment of common cold with new Uyghur Medicine (draft).

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350163

ABSTRACT

Acute upper respiratory tract infection is the most common infectious disease in children's respiratory system. The pathogen to the main virus, can account for more than 90% of the primary upper respiratory tract infectio. However, there is no specific anti-viral drugs specifically for the disease, in addition to the existence of excessive, widespread use or even abuse of antibiotics.Long-term clinical practice has confirmed that Chinese medicine is safe and effective in treating acute upper respiratory tract infection in children. The author reviews the literatures of multiple databases, and analyzes the advantages of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection in children from the perspective of clinical research and experimental basic research. It also puts forward the existing problems and possible research directions of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection in children.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. METHODS: Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. RESULTS: A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. CONCLUSION: Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity.


Subject(s)
Arthralgia , Common Cold , Dizziness , Fatigue , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Headache , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Motor Activity , Myalgia , Odds Ratio , Seoul , Young Adult
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102330

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The authors report a case of bilateral simultaneous acute angle closure attack following administration of an over-the-counter common cold medication (ingredients: chlorpheniramine maleate, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and belladonna alkaloid). CASE SUMMARY: A 67-year-old man visited the emergency room with a sudden onset of bilateral blurred vision and ocular pain accompanied by headache, nausea, and vomiting. He had taken an over-the-counter common cold medication three times per day for three days before the visit. His visual acuity was 0.3 and 0.7 and intraocular pressure (IOP) was 50 mm Hg and 40 mm Hg in right and left eye, respectively. The refraction in manifest refractive test was +0.75 D sph = -0.75 D cyl x 100 in right eye and +1.25 D sph = -1.25 D cyl x 80 in left eye. The anterior chamber depth was three times the corneal thickness in center and less than 1/4 of the corneal thickness in periphery in both eyes on van Herick method. The angles of both eyes were closed on gonioscopy. He was treated with ocular hypotensive medication and miotics followed by withdrawal of common cold medications. After 10 days, bilateral neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser peripheral iridotomies were done. During four months of follow-up, there was no recurrence of angle closure attack, and normal IOP was maintained without glaucoma medications. CONCLUSIONS: Common cold medications which are easily accessible can induce acute angle closure attack in those who are predisposed to develop angle closure attacks, hence attention must be taken in those people when taking common cold medications.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anterior Chamber , Atropa belladonna , Chlorpheniramine , Common Cold , Emergency Service, Hospital , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma , Gonioscopy , Headache , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Miotics , Nausea , Phenylephrine , Recurrence , Visual Acuity , Vomiting , Yttrium
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 884-889, Nov. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764589

ABSTRACT

Although antibiotics are ineffective against viral respiratory infections, studies have shown high rates of prescriptions worldwide. We conducted a study in Brazil to determine the viral aetiologies of common colds in children and to describe the use of antibiotics for these patients. Children up to 12 years with common colds were enrolled from March 2008-February 2009 at a primary care level facility and followed by regular telephone calls and medical consultations. A nasopharyngeal wash was obtained at enrollment and studied by direct fluorescence assay and polymerase chain reaction for nine different types of virus. A sample of 134 patients was obtained, median age 2.9 years (0.1-11.2 y). Respiratory viruses were detected in 73.9% (99/134) with a coinfection rate of 30.3% (30/99). Rhinovirus was the most frequent virus (53/134; 39.6%), followed by influenza (33/134; 24.6%) and respiratory syncytial virus (8/134; 13.4%). Antibiotic prescription rate was 39.6% (53/134) and 69.8% (37/53) were considered inappropriate. Patients with influenza infection received antibiotics inappropriately in a greater proportion of cases when compared to respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections (p = 0.016). The rate of inappropriate use of antibiotics was very high and patients with influenza virus infection were prescribed antibiotics inappropriately in a greater proportion of cases.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Common Cold/drug therapy , Common Cold/virology , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/virology , Health Care Surveys , Nasopharynx/virology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'
17.
Medisan ; 19(2)feb.-feb. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-735271

ABSTRACT

Con este artículo se pretende contribuir a la actualización de aspectos teóricos, así como términos relacionados con las características clínicas, patogénicas, y las dificultades en la atención a niños con catarro común. Existen concepciones erróneas acerca de esta entidad, sin pleno reconocimiento de su importancia como infección nasofaríngea primaria, relacionada con múltiples afecciones de las vías respiratorias y de otros sistemas o aparatos, que pueden o no ser complicadas, por lo cual se le ha denominado "infección portera." Teniendo en cuenta que también genera iatrogenia imperfecta o medidas terapéuticas locales o generales que socavan la integridad física y sicológica del niño, se ha definido como "violencia terapéutica". Ambos términos se derivan de la experiencia acumulada en el desempeño asistencial y del estudio sistemático de esta afección en la población infantil.


This work is aimed at contributing to the updating of theoretical aspects, as well as of terms related to the clinical and pathogenic characteristics, and the difficulties in the care to children with common cold. Erroneous conceptions exist about this entity, without full recognition of its importance as primary nasopharyngeal infection, related to multiple disorders of the airways and of other systems or apparatuses which may or not be complicated, reason why it has been called "door infection". Keeping in mind that it also generates imperfect iatrogenesis or local or general therapeutic measures which undermine the boy's physical and psychological integrity, it has been defined as "therapeutic violence". Both terms are derived from the experience accumulated in the assistance performance and from the systematic study of this disorder in the children population.


Subject(s)
Child , Common Cold
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-465541

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of acupoint application plus modified Yu Ping Feng decoction in treating cold due to weak constitution.MethodNinety-six patients with cold due to weak constitution were divided into two groups. The control group was intervened by regular Western medicine, while the treatment group was by acupointapplication plus modified Yu Ping Feng decoction.ResultThe total effective rate was 91.7% (44/48) in the treatment group, significantly higher than 79.2%(38/48) in the control group. A one-year follow-up study found that the disease duration and relapse frequency in the treatment group were markedly shorter and less than that in the control group (P<0.05).ConclusionAcupoint application plus modified Yu Ping Feng decoction can produce a significant efficacy in treating cold due to weak constitution.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-480176

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the effect of the quality control circle(QCC)activities in reducing the incidence of cold in reflux-enema of children.Methods The QCC team was built,reducing the incidence of cold in reflux-enema of children was named as the theme,to grasp the present situation,set the goal,fix the methods and carry out countermeasures.Results Through the development of QCC,making the standards of reflux-enema,the incidence rate of cold reduced from 25.0%(7/28) down to 3.6%(1/28),the nurses' abilities of technical operation and communication improved significantly.Conclusions Application of QCC in reflux-enema of children is practical.It can effectively improve the nurses' awareness of participating in the implementation management and nursing management system.By making the standardization of reflux-enema,nurses can improve the quality and effect of the reflux-enema and ensure the quality and safety of nursing.

20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128565

ABSTRACT

The common cold is an acute, self-limiting viral infection of the upper respiratory tract involving the nose, sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Drug therapies for the common cold are normally aimed at relieving the symptoms of the illness. Over-the-counter cough and cold medications should not be used in children younger than four years old because of potential harms and lack of benefit. Antibiotics, antitussives, anti-histamines, and inhaled corticosteroids are not effective in children. Products that may improve symptoms in children include expectorants, mucolytics, honey, vitamin C, zinc lozenges, geranium extract, and nasal saline irrigation. In adults, antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, codeine, intranasal ipratopium, and antibiotics are not effective. Decongestants, antihistamine/decongestant combi-nations, expectorants, and mucolytics may improve cold symptoms in adults. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen reduce pain secondary to upper respiratory tract infection in adults. Among complementary and alternative medicinetherapeutics, products containing vitamin C, zinc, or garlic may improve cold symptoms in adults. Prophylactic use of probiotics may decrease the frequency of colds in adults and children.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Antitussive Agents , Ascorbic Acid , Child , Codeine , Common Cold , Complementary Therapies , Cough , Drug Therapy , Expectorants , Garlic , Geranium , Histamine Antagonists , Honey , Humans , Larynx , Nasal Decongestants , Nonprescription Drugs , Nose , Pharynx , Probiotics , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections , Zinc
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