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1.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 109-112, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005918

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the seasonal and epidemiological characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Chuzhou from 2010 to 2022. Methods The epidemiological data of CAP in Chuzhou from 2010 to 2022 were obtained from the center for diseases control and prevention of Chuzhou City, Anhui Province. After inclusion and exclusion, a total of 1 053 cases were enrolled. General data were collected. Then the characteristics of CAP patients in terms of gender, age, regional and seasonal distribution and pathogenic bacteria distribution were analyzed. Results A total of 316 patients with CAP, with a prevalence rate of 30.01%, including 152 males (48.10%) and 164 females (51.90%). Regarding age, 86 cases (27.22%) at 19-40 years, 106 cases (33.54%) at 41-60 years, and 124 cases (39.24%) at >60 years, suggesting a statistical difference in the CAP detection rate among different genders and ages (P<0.05). Seasonally, 118 cases (37.34%) were detected in spring, 13 cases (4.11%) in summer, 49 cases (15.51%) in autumn, and 136 cases (43.04%) in winter, with the highest CAP detection rate in winter, followed by spring. Pathogenic bacteria were positive in 198 of 316 patients, with a detection rate of 62.66%. A total of 125 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected in sputum culture, of which 138 cases were Gram-negative, mainly Escherichia coli (24.24%, 48/198), and 60 cases were Gram-positive, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae (14.14%, 28/198). Among 198 patients positive for pathogen detection, 41 cases were detected in spring, 37 cases in summer, 56 cases in autumn and 64 cases in winter. The drug sensitivity results showed that Escherichia coli had the highest resistance rate to ampicillin and cefazolin, and was sensitive to imipenem and other antibiotics; Streptococcus pneumoniae has the highest resistance rate to penicillin and erythromycin, and is sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion CAP is quite common in elderly population in Chuzhou from 2010 to 2022, with a high prevalence rate in spring and winter, and the prevention work of high-risk groups should be strengthened.

2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447179

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) es una infección respiratoria en la cual es frecuente observar la indicación de fisioterapia respiratoria (FR). Sin embargo, en la actualidad las recomendaciones respecto a su uso en NAC son controvertidas, no existiendo evidencia que respalde su uso y permita conocer su real alcance. Objetivos: Revisar la evidencia respecto al impacto de la FR en pacientes adultos que cursan internación por NAC. Resultados: 5 estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión de esta revisión. Las maniobras de FR incluyeron ejercicios respiratorios, drenaje postural, percusión, vibración, espirometría incentivada, resistencia espiratoria, asistencia torácica durante movimientos respiratorios, tos dirigida y presión positiva intermitente. En los estudios incluidos la FR no disminuyó la mortalidad ni mejoró los valores espirométricos en los pacientes con NAC, así como tampoco los días hasta la curación ni la estadía hospitalaria. Respecto a los costos, el uso de FR en pacientes con NAC presentó un incremento significativo de los mismos. Conclusión: No hay evidencia que respalde el uso de manera rutinaria de FR en los pacientes adultos con NAC. Consideramos que se requieren de futuras investigaciones que permitan conocer el impacto de la FR en pacientes adultos con NAC, así como establecer consensos respecto a su indicación, selección de maniobras, estandarización de técnicas, tiempos y dosificación.


Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a respiratory infection in which the indication for respiratory physiotherapy (RF) is frequently observed. However, currently the recommendations regarding its use in CAP are controversial, and there is no evidence to support its use and allow us to know its real scope. Objectives: To review the evidence regarding the impact of RF in adult patients who are hospitalized for CAP. Results: 5 studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. RF maneuvers included breathing exercises, postural drainage, percussion, vibration, incentive spirometry, expiratory resistance, chest support during respiratory movements, directed cough, and intermittent positive pressure. In the included studies, RF did not reduce mortality or improve spirometric values in patients with CAP, nor did it improve days to cure or hospital stay. Regarding costs, the use of RF in patients with CAP presented a significant increase in costs. Conclusion: There is no evidence to support the routine use of RF in adult patients with CAP. We believe that future research is required to determine the impact of RF in adult patients with CAP, as well as to establish consensus regarding its indication, selection of maneuvers, standardization of techniques, times, and dosage.

3.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 56(2): 109-116, 20230801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451545

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) es una infección respiratoria en la cual es frecuente observar la indicación de fisioterapia respiratoria (FR). Sin embargo, en la actualidad las recomendaciones respecto a su uso en NAC son controvertidas, no existiendo evidencia que respalde su uso y permita conocer su real alcance. Objetivos: Revisar la evidencia respecto al impacto de la FR en pacientes adultos que cursan internación por NAC. Resultados: 5 estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión de esta revisión. Las maniobras de FR incluyeron ejercicios respiratorios, drenaje postural, percusión, vibración, espirometría incentivada, resistencia espiratoria, asistencia torácica durante movimientos respiratorios, tos dirigida y presión positiva intermitente. En los estudios incluidos la FR no disminuyó la mortalidad ni mejoró los valores espirométricos en los pacientes con NAC, así como tampoco los días hasta la curación ni la estadía hospitalaria. Respecto a los costos, el uso de FR en pacientes con NAC presentó un incremento significativo de los mismos. Conclusión: No hay evidencia que respalde el uso de manera rutinaria de FR en los pacientes adultos con NAC. Consideramos que se requieren de futuras investigaciones que permitan conocer el impacto de la FR en pacientes adultos con NAC, así como establecer consensos respecto a su indicación, selección de maniobras, estandarización de técnicas, tiempos y dosificación.


Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a respiratory infection in which the indication for respiratory physiotherapy (RF) is frequently observed. However, currently the recommendations regarding its use in CAP are controversial, and there is no evidence to support its use and allow us to know its real scope. Objectives: To review the evidence regarding the impact of RF in adult patients who are hospitalized for CAP. Results: 5 studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. RF maneuvers included breathing exercises, postural drainage, percussion, vibration, incentive spirometry, expiratory resistance, chest support during respiratory movements, directed cough, and intermittent positive pressure. In the included studies, RF did not reduce mortality or improve spirometric values in patients with CAP, nor did it improve days to cure or hospital stay. Regarding costs, the use of RF in patients with CAP presented a significant increase in costs. Conclusion: There is no evidence to support the routine use of RF in adult patients with CAP. We believe that future research is required to determine the impact of RF in adult patients with CAP, as well as to establish consensus regarding its indication, selection of maneuvers, standardization of techniques, times, and dosage.


Subject(s)
Physical Therapy Modalities
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 27(6): 103690, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528085

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is the primary cause of hospitalization in the United States and the third leading cause of death in Brazil. The gold standard for diagnosing the etiology of CAP includes blood culture, Gram-stained sputum, and sputum culture. However, these methods have low sensitivity. No studies investigating the etiology of CAP have been conducted in Brazil in the last 20-years, and the empirical choice of antimicrobials is mainly based on the IDSA guidelines. This is the first national study with this aim, and as a result, there's potential for the Brazilian consensus to be impacted and possibly modify its guidelines rather than adhering strictly to the IDSA's recommendations. Methods The aim of this study is to identify the main microorganisms implicated in CAP by employing a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (mPCR) at the foremost public hospital in Brazil. All patients who were admitted to the emergency department and diagnosed with severe CAP underwent an mPCR panel using nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs, with the aim of detecting 13 bacterial and 21 viral pathogens. Results A total of 169 patients were enrolled in the study. The mPCR panel identified an etiological agent in 61.5% of patients, with viruses being the most common (42.01%), led by Rhinovirus, followed by Influenza and Coronavirus (non-SARS-CoV-2). Bacterial agents were identified in 34.91% of patients, with S. pneumoniae being the most common, followed by H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and S. aureus. Additionally, we found that the prescription for 92.3% of patients could be modified, with most changes involving de-escalation of antibiotics and antiviral therapy. Conclusion Our study revealed different etiological causes of CAP than those suggested by the Brazilian guidelines. Using molecular diagnostic tests, we were able to optimize treatment by using fewer antibiotics.

5.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515283

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los neumatoceles y las bulas pulmonares son lesiones que se observan en los niños casi siempre asociadas a neumonías infecciosas, aunque sus causas pueden ser diversas. La importancia clínica de estos procesos radica en el peligro de crecimiento progresivo, que puede comprometer las funciones respiratoria y cardiovascular. Objetivo: Describir las experiencias derivadas del proceso de diagnóstico por imágenes y del tratamiento invasivo de casos atendidos. Presentación de los casos: Desde finales de 2021 y durante un período de un año, se atendieron, en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario de Cienfuegos, cinco niños con neumonías extensas, que desarrollaron bulas de gran tamaño varios días después del tratamiento antimicrobiano adecuado. Estas necesitaron drenaje y aspiración percutáneos debido a su magnitud y a la presencia de síntomas cardiovasculares. Conclusiones: Las bulas que aparecieron como complicación de la neumonía en el niño pueden presentarse con una frecuencia no despreciable, y hay que mantenerse atentos a su evolución, porque, a diferencia de los neumatoceles, pueden crecer progresivamente y comprometer las funciones respiratoria y cardiovascular. El drenaje percutáneo y aspiración continua por cinco días resultó un método seguro y eficaz para tratar estos procesos(AU)


Introduction: Pneumoatoceles and pulmonary bullae are lesions that are observed in children almost always associated with infectious pneumonia, although their causes may be diverse. The clinical importance of these processes lies in the danger of progressive growth, which can compromise respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Objective: To describe the experiences derived from the imaging process and the invasive treatment of treated cases. Presentation of the cases: Since the end of 2021 and for a period of one year, five children with extensive pneumonia were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit of the University Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos, who developed large bullae several days after appropriate antimicrobial treatment. The bullae required percutaneous drainage and aspiration due to their magnitude and the presence of cardiovascular symptoms. Conclusions: The bulla that appeared as a complication of pneumonia in the child can occur with a not negligible frequency, and it is necessary to be attentive to their evolution, because, unlike pneumoatoceles, can grow progressively and compromise respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Percutaneous drainage and continuous aspiration for five days was a safe and effective method to treat these processes(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pleural Effusion/drug therapy , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Asthenia/etiology , Tachycardia/complications , Residence Characteristics , Blister/etiology , Back Pain , Cough , Thoracentesis/methods , COVID-19 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Drainage/instrumentation , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Anemia
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 633-638, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the distribution characteristics of non-bacterial pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 788 CAP children admitted to Shenyang Children's Hospital from December 2021 to November 2022 were selected. Multiple RT-PCR and capillary electrophoresis were used to detect 10 viral pathogens and 2 atypical pathogens, and serum antibodies of Chlamydial pneumoniae (Ch) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) were detected. The distribution characteristics of different pathogens were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1 788 CAP children, 1 295 children were pathogen-positive, with a positive rate of 72.43% (1 295/1 788), including a viral pathogen positive rate of 59.68% (1 067/1 788) and an atypical pathogen positive rate of 22.04% (394/1 788). The positive rates from high to low were MP, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza B virus (IVB), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), influenza A virus (IVA), bocavirus (BoV), human adenovirus (HADV), Ch, and human coronavirus (HCOV). RSV and MP were the main pathogens in spring; MP had the highest positive rate in summer, followed by IVA; HMPV had the highest positive rate in autumn; IVB and RSV were the main pathogens in winter. The positive rate of MP in girls was higher than that in boys (P<0.05), and there were no significant differences in other pathogens between genders (P>0.05). The positivity rates of certain pathogens differed among age groups (P<0.05): the positivity rate of MP was highest in the >6 year-old group; the positivity rates of RSV and Ch were highest in the <1 year-old group; the positivity rates of HPIV and IVB were highest in the 1 to <3 year-old group. RSV, MP, HRV, and HMPV were the main pathogens in children with severe pneumonia, while MP was the primary pathogen in children with lobar pneumonia, and MP, IVB, HMPV, RSV, and HRV were the top 5 pathogens in acute bronchopneumonia.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MP, RSV, IVB, HMPV, and HRV are the main pathogens of CAP in children, and there are certain differences in the positive rates of respiratory pathogens among children of different ages, genders, and seasons.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Female , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Antibodies , Community-Acquired Infections , Hospitalization , Influenza B virus , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 200-204, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-959748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy, safety and economics of bid-winning and original Moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablets in the treatment of outpatient community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS A retrospective cohort study was conducted to screen and include CAP outpatients during the period of January to December 2021 in Lianyungang First People’s Hospital. They were divided into generic drug group (1 058 cases) and bid-winning drug group (1 121 cases) according to the drug source. Two groups were respectively given original and bid-winning Moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablets, 0.4 g each time, once a day. The efficacy indexes (clinical effective rate, remission time, treatment course, revisiting rate) and safety indexes (allergy, nervous system symptoms, etc.) were compared between the two groups; and the influence factors of clinical treatment failure were analyzed with multi-factor modified Poisson regression model. The economic indicators of the two drugs [quantity, consumption sum, defined daily doses (DDDs), defined daily dose cost (DDDc), price ratio, replacement rate] were compared. RESULTS There were no significant differences in the clinical effective rate, treatment course, revisiting rate, the incidence of nervous system symptoms and Q-T interval prolongation between the two groups (P>0.05). The remission time of original drug group was significantly shorter than that of bid-winning drug group, and the incidence of total adverse drug reaction, allergy reaction, gastrointestinal symptom reaction and hyperglycemia were significantly lower than those in bid-winning drug group(P<0.05). Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed that bid-winning drug did not increase the risk of clinical treatment failure in CAP outpatients [RR=1.132, 95%CI (0.883, 1.542), P=0.327]. However, antibiotic exposure history, more than 2 items of abnormal clinical manifestations and auxiliary examination all increased the risk of clinical treatment failure (P<0.05). Compared with before the implementation of centralized volume-based procurement policy, the quantity and DDDs of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablets increased significantly, while the consumption sum decreased significantly, DDDc of bid-winning drug decreased significantly, the price ratio of it to original drug decreased to 0.117, and the replacement rate increased to 69.44% after the implementation of centralized volume- based procurement policy. CONCLUSIONS Compared with original drug, bid-winning Moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablet shows reliable efficacy and obvious price advantage in the treatment of outpatient CAP, but the incidence of adverse drug reactions is higher.

8.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 98-102, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995704

ABSTRACT

There are many serotypes of human adenovirus (HAdV), and different serotypes can cause infections in different systems of the human body, one example being community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the clinical symptoms of HAdV infections are similar to those caused by other pathogens. To detect and serotype adenovirus rapidly and accurately is crucial towards the clinical diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the virus. This can facilitates the control of nosocomial infection and epidemiological monitoring. This article briefly reviews the molecular characteristics, epidemiology, and typing of human adenovirus, aiming to help formulate effective treatments towards HAdV infection in a clinical setting.

9.
Chinese Pediatric Emergency Medicine ; (12): 212-216, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990505

ABSTRACT

Community acquired pneumonia(CAP)has a high morbidity and mortality rate, and can bring a heavy social and economic burden.Its etiology is complex.How to identify high-risk children, early diagnosis, prognosis prediction are the focus of clinical research.Early identification and active intervention of high-risk children who need hospitalization or admission to pediatric intensive care unit by using score scales and biomarkers are crucial to improve the survival rate.This review summarized the assessment of severity and prognosis of CAP in children by different score scales and biomarkers.

10.
Chinese Pediatric Emergency Medicine ; (12): 126-130, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990490

ABSTRACT

Community-acquired pneumonia(CAP) is one of the leading causes of death in children under 5 years of age.Early identification and clarification of its severity and appropriate therapeutic measures can improve survival, but there are limitations in the existing laboratory indices applied to diagnose CAP.Therefore, it is still necessary to find new and highly specific biomarkers that can identify the etiology and predict the severity of the disease before it worsens in children, and provides a basis for more effective therapeutic measures.Metabolomics provides a new way to search for biomarkers and pathogenesis through qualitative and quantitative analysis of metabolite changes in biological samples.This review summarized the latest research progress on metabolomics in childhood CAP, hoping to provide ideas for the early diagnosis and treatment of childhood CAP.

11.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 682-686, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980302

ABSTRACT

@#Pneumonia is a common lower respiratory tract infection, which causes a large disease and economic burden worldwide, and is an important public health problem to be solved urgently. Based on review of publications pertaining to the epidemiology of pneumonia from 2013 to 2023, this article summaries the epidemiological characteristics and main influencing factors of pneumonia. It is found that the epidemiological characteristics of pneumonia vary in different areas; men, the elderly and children are the high-risk groups of pneumonia incidence and mortality; and age, smoking, alcohol consumption, air pollution, comorbidity and vaccination are the main factors affecting the incidence and mortality of pneumonia. Strengthening health education, reducing exposure to risk factors and promoting vaccination are recommended to lower the morbidity and mortality of pneumonia in susceptible populations.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 88-95, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976543

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical efficacy of Qimai Qinlou prescription in the treatment of elderly community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (non-severe) with Qi and Yin deficiency and phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome and its impact on immune-inflammatory factors. MethodA total of 120 eligible patients were randomly divided into an observation group (60 cases) and a control group (60 cases). Both groups received intravenous cefoxitin sodium. In addition, the observation group received oral Qimai Qinlou prescription, while the control group received an oral placebo simulating Qimai Qinlou prescription. The treatment course was 14 days. The disappearance time of major clinical symptoms and signs was recorded. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores and the Clinical Research Outcome (CAP-CRO) scale scores for pneumonia of the two groups were compared. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were performed, and peripheral blood levels of procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum amyloid A (SAA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+/CD8+ were measured. The conversion rate to severe condition during hospitalization, readmission rate within 30 days after discharge, and safety evaluation were recorded. ResultAfter treatment, the observation group showed significantly shorter time of fever, cough, expectoration, and disappearance time of lung moist rales than the control group (P<0.01). The TCM syndrome scores, CAP-CRO scores in all dimensions, and total scores in both groups were significantly reduced as compared with those before treatment (P<0.01). After treatment, the observation group had a more significant reduction than the control group (P<0.01). The levels of PCT, IL-6, SAA, and hs-CRP in both groups were significantly reduced as compared with those before treatment (P<0.01). After treatment, the observation group showed a more significant reduction than the control group (P<0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the changes of CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+/CD8+ in the control group before and after treatment. However, in the observation group, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ levels significantly increased (P<0.01), while CD8+ level significantly decreased (P<0.01) after treatment. After treatment, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ in the observation group significantly increased (P<0.01), and CD8+ significantly decreased as compared with those in the control group (P<0.01). At 7, 10, and 14 days after treatment, the curative rates in the observation group were 53.33% (32/60), 85.00% (51/60), and 91.67% (55/60), respectively, which were higher than 31.67% (19/60), 61.67% (37/60), and 68.33% (41/60) in the control group (χ2=5.763, 8.352, 10.208, P<0.05). After treatment, the total effective rate of CT scanning in the observation group was 93.33% (56/60), higher than 80.00% (48/60) in the control group (χ2=4.615, P<0.05). The conversion rate to severe condition during hospitalization in the observation group was 3.33% (2/60), lower than 15.00% (9/60) in the control group (χ2=4.904, P<0.05). The readmission rate within 30 days after discharge in the observation group was 8.33% (5/60), lower than 23.33% (14/60) in the control group (χ2=5.065, P<0.05). No serious adverse drug reactions were observed in either group during the treatment period. ConclusionQimai Qinlou prescription can enhance immune function, alleviate inflammatory reactions, significantly relieve clinical symptoms, shorten the duration of the disease, improve the curative rate and CT scanning efficacy, prevent disease progression, reduce the readmission rate in the short term, and is clinically safe for the treatment of elderly patients with non-severe CAP with Qi and Yin deficiency and phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome. It is worthy of further research and application.

13.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 791-799, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 (TICAM1) and their interactions with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children.@*METHODS@#Improved multiple ligase detection reaction assay was used for detecting the polymorphisms of nine tagging SNPs of the MyD88 and TICAM1 genes in 375 children with CAP who attended the Department of Pediatrics of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Yan'an University Medical School from August 2015 to September 2017 and 306 healthy children who underwent physical examination. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the distribution of genotypes and their interactions with CAP in children.@*RESULTS@#The polymorphism of the TICAM1 gene at rs11466711T/C locus was closely associated with the susceptibility to CAP in children (P<0.05). The AA genotype of rs35747610G/A locus significantly reduced risk of sepsis in children with CAP (P<0.05). The AA genotype of rs6510826G/A locus was significantly associated with the increase in C-reactive protein level in children with CAP (P<0.05). The GG genotype of the MyD88 gene at rs7744A/G locus significantly increased the risk of respiratory failure and circulatory failure (P<0.05). The multiplicative interactions between MyD88 gene rs7744A/G and TICAM1 gene rs11466711T/C, rs2292151G/A, rs35299700C/T, and rs35747610G/A loci were significantly associated with the susceptibility to CAP, the severity of CAP, and the risk of sepsis in children (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The gene polymorphisms of MyD88 and TICAM1 and their interactions are closely associated with CAP in children, with a synergistic effect on the development and progression of CAP in children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Community-Acquired Infections/genetics , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sepsis
14.
Rev. medica electron ; 44(6)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442009

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las neumonías extrahospitalarias en el anciano son un problema de salud mundial en el marco del envejecimiento poblacional, lo que hace necesario su prevención y diagnóstico precoz. Objetivo: implementar una estrategia de intervención educativa dirigida a elevar los conocimientos sobre el tema, en adultos mayores de 60 años del Consultorio no. 27 del Policlínico Docente Mario Muñoz Monroy. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental de tipo intervención educativa, en el municipio Rafael Freyre, de la provincia de Holguín, entre enero de 2019 y diciembre de 2020. Se trabajó con una muestra de 50 representantes de la comunidad, seleccionados de modo intencional, en los que se indagó su nivel de información sobre el tema antes y después de aplicar la intervención educativa. El método estadístico utilizado fue la prueba de McNemar, utilizando el paquete estadístico SPSS. Resultados: los conocimientos sobre los síntomas y signos de las neumonías extrahospitalarias que fueron evaluados de bueno, se incrementaron de 18 a 80 %, y sobre las medidas preventivas los resultados fueron de 22 a 94 %. El indicador con mejores resultados fue factores de riesgo, donde el valor de la escala de bueno aumentó a 96 % tras la intervención. Conclusiones: la intervención educativa aplicada con la finalidad de elevar los conocimientos de los pacientes mayores de 60 años del Consultorio no. 27 del Policlínico Docente Mario Muñoz Monroy, posibilitó enriquecer su conocimiento sobre las neumonías extrahospitalarias.


Introduction: community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly is a global health problem in the context of population aging, which makes its prevention and early diagnosis necessary. Objective: to implement an educational intervention strategy aimed at increasing knowledge on the subject in elder people over 60 years from the Doctor's Office nr. 27 of the Mario Munoz Monroy Teaching Polyclinic. Materials and methods: a quasi-experimental study of educational intervention type was conducted in the municipality Rafael Freyre, in the province of Holguin, between January 2019 and December 2020. A sample of 50 community representatives, intentionally selected, was worked on to investigate their level of information on the subject before and after applying the educational intervention. The statistical method used was the McNemar's test, using the SPSS statistical package. Results: the knowledge on the symptoms and signs of community-acquired pneumonias that were evaluated as good, increased from 18 to 80%, and on preventive measures the results increased from 22 to 94%. The indicator with the best results was risk factors, where the good value of the scale increased to 96% after the intervention. Conclusions: the educational intervention applied with the aim of increasing the knowledge of patients over 60 years of age from the Doctor's Office nr. 27 of the Mario Muñoz Monroy Teaching Polyclinic, made it possible to enrich their knowledge about community-acquired pneumonias.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217073

ABSTRACT

Background: Pneumonia is one of the most important and serious lower respiratory tract infections, which requires implacable attention. This work aimed to document the causative organisms, antibiotics used, and outcome of pneumonia patients hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in the medical departments of a tertiary care teaching hospital for 5 years. Demographic details and clinical details including pertinent laboratory values of patients diagnosed with pneumonia were documented and analyzed using a specifically designed data collection form. Results: The study was conducted on 190 patients. The average age of the study population was 56.7 ± 22.6 years and there was a male preponderance of 111(58.4%) patients. Klebsiella pneumonia was found to be the most frequently isolated pathogen in 12.5% of the sputum culture, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii in 10.22% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 9.09%. The most commonly prescribed empirical antibiotics were beta-lactam antibiotics mostly in combination with macrolides for synergy irrespective of Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) classes. Definitive therapy was classified based on World Health Organization (WHO) Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification of antibiotics, watch category antibiotics were prescribed according to culture report and reserve antibiotics were prescribed only in those cases where watch category antibiotics were resistant. On analyzing PSI of community-acquired pneumonia (176 patients), most of the patients in the study belong to class 4: 61 patients (34.7%) and class 5: 44 patients (25%). For the high-risk patients (PSI class 4 and 5), mortality was approximately 3.8% (4 of 105) and for low-risk patients, there was zero mortality reported within 30 days. Conclusion: Gram-negative bacteria were the major pathogens causing Pneumonia in the study site contradictory to the data from developed countries. Identifications of pathogens and appropriate antibiotic therapy based on PSI score can bring down the duration of hospital stay and mortality of patients with pneumonia.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225880

ABSTRACT

This article deals with understanding the basis of Mycoplasma Pneumoniaeby studying and understanding its functional modalities. The history along with cellular biology has been looked at for having a broader understanding. Even though the exact pathogenesis that causes these various symptoms are underway, it has been found that the constant rise in cases by this agent especially in children has raised a concern for more data regarding it for sufficient understanding of its incidence and target of more susceptible population. The epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniaeaffectingchildren having community acquired pneumonia is poorly understood and there is a dire need for its in-depth evaluation. Due to all these factors the need to study about this agent has become all the more crucial and this article looks at the rapidity and rising nature of M. pneumoniae as a causative agent and what makes the young school going population of children a susceptibility. The aim of thestudy was to have an insight into the complex pathogenesis it elucidates along with the features seen in children affected. The understanding of its prevalence in children is also looked at so that various treatment options that are available can be established and can provide for the most appropriate remedy.

17.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(2): 96-105, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407775

ABSTRACT

Resumen En la práctica clínica, la radiografía de tórax permite confirmar el diagnóstico y la extensión de la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC). Objetivos: Examinar las características radiográficas de la NAC según el agente causal y el grado de concordancia interobservador (CI) en la descripción de los hallazgos radiográficos. Métodos: Se evaluaron las radiografías de tórax de 300 pacientes adultos inmunocompetentes hospitalizados por NAC, tres residentes de radiología consignaron el patrón de los infiltrados pulmonares, su localización anatómica y extensión, la presencia de derrame pleural y otros hallazgos radiográficos. Se realizaron cultivos de esputo, hemocultivos, pruebas serológicas y técnicas de biología molecular de hisopado nasofaríngeo para identificar los principales patógenos respiratorios. Resultados: Las manifestaciones clínicas y los hallazgos de la radiografía de tórax fueron similares en las neumonías causadas por diferentes patógenos respiratorios: bacterias clásicas, virus respiratorios y microorganismos atípicos. En las neumonías bacterianas predominó el patrón de relleno alveolar de distribución lobar, en las neumonías vírales y atípicas predominó el patrón intersticial o mixto alvéolo-intersticial con opacidades en vidrio esmerilado. La CI fue satisfactoria (kappa > 0,6) para determinar el patrón principal de los infiltrados pulmonares, su localización anatómica y la presencia de derrame pleural, su localización y extensión. La CI fue moderada (kappa 0,4-0,6) para definir la extensión de la neumonía y detectar signos radiológicos asociados a congestión pulmonar. Conclusión: Los hallazgos de la radiografía de tórax no permitieron identificar con precisión el agente causal de la neumonía, siendo útil en la caracterización de los infiltrados pulmonares y para detectar complicaciones como el derrame paraneumónico.


In a clinical setting the chest radiograph is the reference standard in establishing the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Objectives: This study aimed to assess interobserver reliability (IR) of radiographic findings and the relationship to different respiratory pathogens in CAP. Methods: Chest radiographs of 300 immunocompetent adult patients hospitalized with pneumonia, obtained from a database, were reviewed by three residents of radiology without specific clinical information. Main pattern of pulmonary infiltrates, topographic localization, extent of pneumonia, presence of pleural fluid, thickened bronchial walls, lymphadenopathy and air bronchogram were scored. Sputum and blood cultures, serological tests and nasopharyngeal swab for respiratory virus detection by molecular diagnostic techniques were performed to identify the causative pathogen. Results: Clinical manifestations and chest X-ray findings were similar in pneumonias caused by different respiratory pathogens: classic bacteria, respiratory viruses and atypical microorganisms. The alveolar pattern of lobar distribution predominated in bacterial pneumonia; meanwhile, interstitial or mixed alveolar-interstitial pattern with ground glass opacities predominated in viral and atypical pneumonias. IR was fair to good (kappa > 0.6) for determining the main pattern of infiltrates, anatomical location and the presence of pleural effusion, their anatomical location and extension. IR was moderate (kappa 0.4-0.6) for determining the extent of pneumonia and signs of congestive heart failure. Conclusion: Simple features such as main pattern description, anatomical location, identifying the involved lobes and pleural fluid recognition showed fair to excellent interobserver reliability. Chest radiographs was of limited value in predicting the causative pathogen but were of beneficial use to characterize pulmonary infiltrates and to detect complications such as parapneumonic effusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Community-Acquired Infections/etiology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnostic imaging , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Viruses/isolation & purification , Radiography, Thoracic , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Immunocompetence
18.
Salud UNINORTE ; 38(1)ene.-abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536792

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) es una patología inflamatoria que daña la vía respiratoria baja, generalmente de etiología infecciosa. Afecta el parénquima pulmonar, lo cual produce alteración en la hematosis alveolar y ocasiona hipoxemia progresiva. Objetivo: Determinar cómo los factores biológicos, socioambientales, clínico radiológicos y analíticos se asocian al desarrollo de NAC en menores de 5 años hospitalizados en un hospital público del Perú durante 2019. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, analítico, tipo casos y controles. El tamaño muestral se realizó mediante muestreo aleatorio simple, no pareado, y se obtuvieron 71 casos y 71 controles en el Servicio de Pediatría del Hospital San José durante 2019. Resultados: El sexo masculino predominó en los pacientes con NAC (54.9 %); pero no hubo asociación significativa entre este sexo y NAC (OR: 1.67 IC: 0.86-3.23, p: 0.13). Los resultados estadísticamente significativos asociados a NAC fueron lactancia materna no efectiva (OR: 6.85, IC 95 %: 3.18-14.75) y antecedente de enfermedades respiratorias (OR: 5.41, IC 95 %: 2.58-11.34). Conclusiones: Los factores biológicos, lactancia materna no efectiva y antecedente de enfermedades respiratorias se encuentran asociados a NAC en menores de 5 años.


Introduction: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is an inflammatory pathology that damages the lower respiratory tract, usually of infectious etiology. It affects the pulmonary parenchyma producing alteration in alveolar hematosis, causing progressive hypoxemia. Objective: To determine how biological, socio-environmental, clinical radiological and analytical factors are associated with the development of CAP in children under 5 years of age hospitalized in a Public Hospital in Peru during 2019. Materials and methods: Observational, retrospective, analytical, case-control study. The sample size was made by simple, untied random sampling, obtaining 71 cases and 71 controls in the Pediatrics Service of the San José Hospital during 2019. Results: The male sex predominated in patients with CAP (54.9%); but there was no significant association between this sex and NAC (OR: 1.67 CI: 0.86-3.23, p: 0.13). The statistically significant results associated with CAP were ineffective breastfeeding (OR: 6.85, 95 % CI: 3.18-14.75) and history of respiratory diseases (OR: 5.41, 95 % CI: 2.58-11.34). Conclusions: Biological factors, ineffective breastfeeding and history of respiratory diseases are associated with CAP in children under 5 years.

19.
Mali Médical ; 28(3)30/09/2022. Tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1397603

ABSTRACT

Introduction : Les pneumopathies aiguës bactériennes (PAB) communautaires sont des infections respiratoires basses aiguës, non suppurées, non tuberculeuses du parenchyme pulmonaire acquises au sein de la communauté. Elles ont une présentation clinique atypique et un mauvais pronostic chez le sujet âgé. Matériels et Méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale prospective menée au service de pneumologie du centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) du Point-G, du 30 Octobre 2018 au 30 Septembre 2019. L'objectif était de déterminer les particularités cliniques, étiologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives de la PAB chez le sujet âgé. Ont été inclus tout âge ≥ 65 ans, présentant des signes cliniques et radiologiques d'une PAB Résultats : Durant la période d'étude 85 patients répondaient aux critères d'inclusion sur 178 hospitalisés. Le sex-ratio était de 3/1. Environ 2/3 étaient tabagiques et 11% était positif au VIH. La fièvre n'était pas constante enregistrée dans 51,76% des cas. Les signes respiratoires étaient dominés par la toux (96, 47%), la dyspnée (94, 11%) et extra respiratoires par le trouble de la conscience. Le Klebsiellapneumoniae était le germe le plus retrouvé. L'antibiotique le plus utilisé était l'amoxicilline-acide clavulanique. La durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était de 9 jours. La mortalité était de 19%. Conclusion: La PAB chez le sujet âgé est d'une symptomatologie clinique frustre. Elle est grave avec une surmortalité


Introduction: Community-acquired acute bacterial pneumonia (ABP) is an acute, non-suppurative, non-tuberculosis lower respiratory infection of the lung parenchyma acquired within the community. They have an atypical clinical presentation and a poor prognosis in the elderly. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in the Pneumology department of the University Hospital Center (CHU) of Point-G, from October 30, 2018, to September 30, 2019. The objective was to determine the clinical, etiological, therapeutic and progression of BAP in the elderly. Were included any age ≥ 65 years, presenting clinical and radiological signs of a PAB. Results During the study period, 85 patients met the inclusion criteria out of 178 hospitalized. The sex ratio was 3/1. About 2/3 were smokers and 11% were HIV positive. Fever was not constant recorded in 51.76% of cases. Respiratory signs were dominated by cough (96.47%), dyspnea (94.11%) and extra respiratory by impaired consciousness. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most found germ. The most commonly used antibiotic was amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. The average length of hospitalization was 9 days. Mortality was 19%. Conclusion: The PAB in the elderly is of a frustrating clinical symptomatology. It is serious with excess mortality


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Aged , Complementary Therapeutic Methods
20.
International Journal of Pediatrics ; (6): 845-849, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989024

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the value of early pulmonary function tests in children with community acquired pneumonia(CAP)by analyzing the clinical and imaging manifestations and pulmonary function tests of children with CAP.Methods:The clinical data of children diagnosed with CAP and undergoing routine pulmonary ventilation tests within 24 hours of admission were retrospectively collected from January 2016 to June 2018 in the Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine of Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University.The children′s pulmonary ventilation function test data were statistically analyzed with clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging data.Results:A total of 154 children were included in the study, of which 54(35.06%)had normal pulmonary ventilation function, and the remaining 100 children(64.94%)had different degrees of pulmonary ventilation impairment, which were manifested as restrictive ventilation disorder in 54 cases(35.06%), obstructive ventilation disorder in 8 cases(5.19%), mixed ventilation disorder in 30 cases(19.48%), and small airway ventilation dysfunction in 8 cases(5.19%). According to the results of pulmonary ventilation function, the mixed ventilation dysfunction group had a greater probability of pulmonary imaging changes to consolidation than the normal group( χ2=7.83, P=0.007). Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was negatively correlated with forced expiratory volume in the first second, 75% forced expiratory flow, one second rate and maximal mid-expiratory flow level( r=-0.23, r=-0.22, r=-0.25, r=-0.23, all P<0.05), and there was no significant correlation with the level of forced vital capacity. Conclusion:Early pulmonary ventilation test has important clinical significance in the diagnosis and treatment of CAP in children.

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