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1.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936640

ABSTRACT

Many acute and subacute complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported. However, the recovery process in severely ill patients is not clear. Here, we report three patients with favorable physical function after severe COVID-19. All three patients were older than 65 years and had comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking habits. During respiratory failure, they received mechanical ventilation support for more than 4 days. Two patients had undergone tracheostomy, and one had undergone extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). At the time of transfer to our hospital, they had lower-limb muscle weakness, respiratory distress on exertion, exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH), and complications from immobility, such as peroneal nerve palsy. During rehabilitation, we monitored peripheral blood oxygen saturation, adjusted the workload, and administered temporary orthotic therapy. The patients improved within 150 days after the onset of the disease, and they were discharged home and were able to walk as a practical means of transportation. Even after severe COVID-19, the patients achieved good physical function. Interventions for EIH and complications due to immobility were additionally necessary. In the future, we must examine the relationship between improvements in physical function and rehabilitation.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940781

ABSTRACT

Because of the frequent occurrence of epidemics in Jiangnan since ancient times, the local medical schools have accumulated rich experience in epidemic prevention, among which Yushan medical school, Wumen medical school, and Qiantang medical school are famous. The physicians have inherited the theory in Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases and developed the therapies for febrile diseases. Adhering to the idea of integrating cold and febrile diseases, the physicians in Jiangnan flexibly adapt ZHANG Zhongjing's theory by combining regional climate, patient physique and other factors to explain the pathogenesis, which is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of epidemics. Therefore, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has demonstrated good curative effect on coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, the SARS-CoV-2 variants (Delta and Omicron) characterized by strong infectivity, pathogenicity, and immune escape capacity keep emerging, which bring great challenges to the global prevention and control of this pandemic. To this end, we studied the ways of Jiangnan medical school for the prevention and treatment of epidemics, reviewed the evolution of TCM treatment protocols for COVID-19, and summarized China's experience in fighting against the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Further, we explored the measures of TCM in treating SARS-CoV-2 variants from prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation according to the theory for epidemic prevention of Jiangnan medical school. This paper provides reference for the prevention and treatment of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant and facilitates the development of TCM epidemiology.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940629

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the efficacy and safety of Fuzheng Huayu tablets (FHT) for treating pulmonary inflammation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MethodA total of 70(4 cases were lost to follow-up, and 66 cases were finally completed) COVID-19 patients were recruited from February 1 to April 15 in 2020. They were assigned to a control group (35 patients) and a FHT group (31 patients). The patients in the control group received routine treatment alone and those in the FHT group received FHT in addition to routine treatment. The primary outcome was the ratio of patients showing improvement in chest computed tomographic manifestations after 14 days. The secondary outcome measures included remission rate or progression rate of critical illness, clinical remission rate of respiratory symptoms, routine blood examination, C-reactive protein (CPR) level, procalcitonin (PCT) level, and blood oxygen saturation (SPO2). The safety was assessed based on liver and kidney functions and adverse events. ResultAfter the 14-day treatment, the ratio of patients showing improvement in the FHT group (100%) was higher than that in the control group (77.1%) (χ2=8.063,P<0.01). The ratio of disease stages after treatment showed no significant difference between two groups. In the FHT group, the symptoms including cough, dyspnea, and fatigue were alleviated after treatment (P<0.01). In the control group, the symptoms including fever, cough, and dyspnea were alleviated (P<0.01), while the fatigue was not relieved after treatment. No significant difference was observed in the clinical symptoms between the two groups after treatment. After treatment, the FHT group showed decreased white blood cell (WBC) count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (P<0.01), elevated platelet (PLT) level (P<0.05), lowered CRP level (P<0.05), and no significant difference in lymphocyte (LYM), hemoglobin (Hb), SPO2 or PCT level. The control group showed decreased NLR (P<0.05) and WBC count (P<0.01), elevated PCT level (P<0.05), and no significant change in LYM, Hb, PLT, SPO2 or CRP level after treatment. Furthermore, the FHT group had higher PLT level than the control group (P<0.05) after treatment, and other indicators had no significant differences between the two groups. The liver and kidney functions had no significant difference between the two groups after treatment. ConclusionFHT can safely promote the absorption of acute pulmonary inflammation in COVID-19 patients.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940471

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played an important role in the prevention and treatment of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Qingfei Paidu decoction,as a general prescription of Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia from the sixth to eighth versions,has been proved effective clinically and is suitable for mild,moderate,severe,and critical patients. It can significantly improve clinical symptoms such as fever, cough,asthma,fatigue, etc. On the basis of the findings of relevant research papers,this paper summarized the TCM understanding of COVID-19, including etiology,pathogenesis, disease location, and treatment,and concluded that the disease is caused by the pestilential Qi,localized in the lungs, and can affect the five organs. It is mainly characterized by coldness,dampness,heat,toxicity,stasis,and deficiency. In response to the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease,the therapeutic principles at all stages are dominated by the elimination of pathogens and removal of toxicity. According to the stages of disease development,the treatment should combine the severity of the disease and the course of the disease with the TCM syndromes. Furthermore,from the clinical application of Qingfei Paidu decoction,this paper discussed the therapeutic intention of "Qingfei (clearing of lungs)" and "Paidu (removal of toxicity)". Qingfei Paidu decoction can clear the pathogenic toxin in the lungs and eliminate external pestilential Qi,which is in line with the therapeutic principles for this pandemic by regulating the triple energizer and protecting healthy Qi using both coldness and warmth to treat both the symptoms and the root cause. Additionally,the experimental research progress on Qingfei Paidu decoction and its modified prescriptions were summarized. As studied, this prescription can inhibit cytokine storm,moderate the overactive immune response,potentiate the immune function and anti-viral ability of the body,and exert its effect on COVID-19 with multiple components,multiple targets,multiple pathways, and multiple biological functions. In conclusion,Qingfei Paidu decoction,as a core prescription for the treatment of COVID-19,can rapidly contain the development of COVID-19, which has been confirmed in terms of TCM theory,clinical efficacy, and experimental research.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940299

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo retrospectively analyze the clinical data of 52 patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and explore the clinical efficacy of modified Sanxiaoyin on mild/moderate COVID-19 patients. MethodThe propensity score matching method was used to collect the clinical data of mild or moderate COVID-19 patients enrolled in the designated hospital of the Second Hospital of Jingzhou from December 2019 to May 2020. A total of 26 eligible patients who were treated with modified Sanxiaoyin were included in the observation group, and the 26 patients treated with conventional method were the regarded as the control. The disappearance of clinical symptoms, disappearance time of main symptoms, efficacy on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms, hospitalization duration, laboratory test indicators, and CT imaging changes in the two groups were compared. ResultThe general data in the two groups were insignificantly different and thus they were comparable. After 7 days of treatment, the disappearance rate of fever, cough, fatigue, dry throat, anorexia, poor mental state, and poor sleep quality in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), and the difference in the disappearance rate of expectoration and chest distress was insignificant. For the cases with the disappearance of symptoms, the main symptoms (fever, cough, fatigue, dry throat, anorexia, chest distress) disappeared earlier in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.01). After 7 days of treatment, the scores of the TCM symptom scale of both groups decreased (P<0.01), and the decrease of the observation group was larger that of the control group (P<0.01). All patients in the two groups were cured and discharged. The average hospitalization duration in the observation group [(12.79±2.68) d] was shorter than that in the control group [(15.27±3.11) d] (P<0.01). The effective rate in the observation group (92.31%, 24/26) was higher than that in the control group (76.92%, 20/26) . After 7 days of treatment, the lymphocyte (LYM) count increased (P<0.05), and white blood cell (WBC) count and neutrophil (NEUT) count decreased insignificantly in the two groups. Moreover, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and procalcitonin (PCT) reduced in the two groups after treatment (P<0.01) and the reduction in the observation group was larger than that in the control group (P<0.01). Through 7 days of treatment, the total effective rate on pulmonary shadow in the observation group (90.00%, 18/20) was higher than that in the control group (77.27%, 17/22) (P>0.05) and the improvement of lung shadow in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.01). ConclusionModified Sanxiaoyin can significantly alleviate fever, cough, fatigue, anorexia, chest distress, poor sleep quality, and other symptoms of patients with mild or moderate COVID-19, improve biochemical indicators, and promote the recovery of lung function. This paper provides clinical evidence for the application of modified Sanxiaoyin in the treatment of mild or moderate COVID-19.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939819

ABSTRACT

Although the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is still ongoing, vaccination rates are rising slowly and related treatments and drugs are being developed. At the same time, there is increasing evidence of preexisting immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in humans, mainly consisting of preexisting antibodies and immune cells (including T cells and B cells). The presence of these antibodies is mainly due to the seasonal prevalence of four common coronavirus types, especially OC43 and HKU1. The accumulated relevant evidence has suggested that the target of antibodies is mainly the S2 subunit of S protein, followed by evolutionary conservative regions such as the nucleocapsid (N) protein. Additionally, preexisting memory T and B cells are also present in the population. Preexisting antibodies can help the body protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce the severity of COVID-19, and rapidly increase the immune response post-infection. These multiple effects can directly affect disease progression and even the likelihood of death in certain individuals. Besides the positive effects, preexisting immunity may also have negative consequences, such as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and original antigenic sin (OAS), the prevalence of which needs to be further established. In the future, more research should be focused on evaluating the role of preexisting immunity in COVID-19 outcomes, adopting appropriate policies and strategies for fighting the pandemic, and vaccine development that considers preexisting immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of filiform-fire needling of "Biaoben acupoint combination" on the sequelae of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the recovery period.@*METHODS@#A total of 33 patients with COVID-19 during the recovery period were treated with filiform-fire needling at the acupoints of Mingmen (GV 4), Shenzhu (GV 12), Gaohuang (BL 43), Zusanli (ST 36) and Shangjuxu (ST 37), etc., once every other day, 3 times a week, and 3 times was one course of treatment and totally 2 courses of treatment were required. The TCM symptom, Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) scores, pulmonary function indexes (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], peak expiratory flow [PEF]) and chest CT imaging change were observed before and after treatment, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the scores of TCM symptom, HAMA and HAMD were decreased compared with those before treatment (P<0.05), and the levels of FVC, FEV1 and PEF were increased compared with those before treatment (P<0.05), and the recovery rate of 22 patients with pulmonary ventilation dysfunction was 86.4% (19/22). After treatment, the lung shadow area was smaller than that before treatment (P<0.05). The effective rate of 25 patients with lung CT abnormalities was 84.0% (21/25). After treatment, 23 cases were cured, 5 cases were markedly effective, 4 cases were effective, 1 case was ineffective, the cured and markedly effective rate was 84.8%.@*CONCLUSION@#The filiform-fire needling of "Biaoben acupoint combination" could significantly reduce the sequelae of cough, fatigue, chest tightness, etc. and mental symptoms such as anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 during the recovery period, and promote inflammatory exudation absorption of pulmonary lesion and improve lung ventilation function.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Lung , Vascular Surgical Procedures
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical effect of acupuncture on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on the conventional treatment.@*METHODS@#A total of 35 patients with COVID-19 of mild or ordinary type were involved (3 cases dropped off). Acupuncture was applied on the basis of western medicine and Chinese materia medica treatment. Dazhui (GV 14), Fengchi (GB 20), Kongzui (LU 6), Hegu (LI 4), etc. were selected as the main acupoints, the supplementary acupoints and the reinforcing and reducing manipulations were selected according to syndrome differentiation. Acupuncture treatment was given once a day, 5 times a week. On day 3 and day 7 of acupuncture, relief condition of the main symptoms was observed. Before acupuncture and on day 3 and day 7 of acupuncture, efficacy evaluation scale of TCM on COVID-19 (efficacy evaluation scale) score was recorded. The effects of different intervention time of acupuncture on patients' hospitalization time were compared, the understanding of acupuncture treatment of patients discharged from hospital was recorded, the clinical efficacy and safety of acupuncture treatment were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#On day 3 and day 7 of acupuncture, the symptoms of lung system and non lung system were both relieved; the scores of efficacy evaluation scale were both decreased compared before acupuncture (P<0.05), and the efficacy evaluation scale score of day 7 of acupuncture were lower than day 3 of acupuncture (P<0.05). The average hospitalization time of patients received early acupuncture was shorter than late acupuncture (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 84.4% (27/32) on day 7 of acupuncture, which was higher than 34.4% (11/32) on day 3 of acupuncture (P<0.05). During the acupuncture treatment, there were neither adverse reactions in patients nor occupational exposures in doctors. The patients generally believed that acupuncture could promote the recovery of COVID-19 and recommended acupuncture treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#On the basis of the conventional treatment, acupuncture can effectively relieve the clinical symptoms in patients with COVID-19, early intervention of acupuncture can accelerate the recovery process. Acupuncture has good safety, clinical compliance and recognition of patients.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939474

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Endophthalmitis is an uncommon but serious ocular infection often resulting in probable visual loss. Bacteroides fragilis is a rare cause of endophthalmitis. Patient concerns: A 46-year-old male patient complained of eye pain and low vision after pars plana vitrectomy. Diagnosis: Bacteroides fragilis endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy was diagnosed. Interventions: Pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil implantation were performed. Outcomes: Early treatment and choice of tamponade in endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy may possibly prevent evisceration and progression of endophthalmitis. Lessons: Bacteroides fragilis can be seen in cases of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939473

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify unique immunogenic epitopes of Zika virus non-structural 1 (NS1) antigen and produce immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for potential use in he diagnosis of of Zika virus infection. Methods: Immunogenic epitopes were identified using in silico B-cell epitope prediction. A synthetic peptide analog of the predicted epitope was used to induce antipeptide IgY production in hens which was purified using affinity chromatography. Presence of purified IgY and its binding specificity were performed by gel electrophoresis and ELISA, respectively. Results: Out of the nine continuous epitopes identified, the sequence at position 193-208 (LKVREDYSLECDPAVI) was selected and used to produce anti-peptide IgY. The produced IgY was found to bind to the synthetic analog of the Zika virus NS1 immunogenic epitope but not to other flaviviruses and random peptides from other pathogens. Conclusions: In this study, we identified an immunogenic epitope unique to Zika virus that can be used to develop a serodiagnostic tool that specifically detect Zika virus infection.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939472

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the spatiotemporal distribution of Schistosoma (S.) japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and Oncomelania (O.) hupensis across the endemic foci of China. Methods: Based on multi-stage continuous downscaling of sentinel monitoring, county-based schistosomiasis surveillance data were captured from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2005 to 2019. The data included S. japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and O. hupensis. The spatiotemporal trends for schistosomiasis were detected using a Joinpoint regression model, with a standard deviational ellipse (SDE) tool, which determined the central tendency and dispersion in the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis. Further, more spatiotemporal clusters of S. japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and O. hupensis were evaluated by the Poisson model. Results: The prevalence of S. japonicum human infections decreased from 2.06% to zero based on data of the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2005 to 2019, with a reduction from 9.42% to zero for the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in livestock, and from 0.26% to zero for the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis. Analysis using an SDE tool showed that schistosomiasis-affected regions were reduced yearly from 2005 to 2014 in the endemic provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, and Anhui, as well as in the Poyang and Dongting Lake regions. Poisson model revealed 11 clusters of S. japonicum human infections, six clusters of S. japonicum infections in livestock, and nine clusters of S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis. The clusters of human infection were highly consistent with clusters of S. japonicum infections in livestock and O. hupensis. They were in the 5 provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, and Jiangsu, as well as along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Humans, livestock, and O. hupensis infections with S. japonicum were mainly concentrated in the north of the Hunan Province, south of the Hubei Province, north of the Jiangxi Province, and southwestern portion of Anhui Province. In the 2 mountainous provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan, human, livestock, and O. hupensis infections with S. japonicum were mainly concentrated in the northwestern portion of the Yunnan Province, the Daliangshan area in the south of Sichuan Province, and the hilly regions in the middle of Sichuan Province. Conclusions: A remarkable decline in the disease prevalence of S. japonicum infection was observed in endemic schistosomiasis in China between 2005 and 2019. However, there remains a long-term risk of transmission in local areas, with the highest-risk areas primarily in Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake regions, requiring to focus on vigilance against the rebound of the epidemic. Development of high-sensitivity detection methods and integrating the transmission links such as human and livestock infection, wild animal infection, and O. hupensis into the surveillance-response system will ensure the elimination of schistosomiasis in China by 2030.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939471

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents of wound-isolated Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa among Chinese burn patients. Methods: Electronic databases and manual search were used to identify eligible studies published since 2010. The objectives were pooled resistance rates for eleven common antimicrobial agents, estimated by a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying the studies into three four-year periods based on year of isolation. Results: A total of 35 studies were included. Gentamicin had the highest pooled resistance rate (56%, 95% CI 48%-64%), while meropenem had the lowest pooled resistance rate (29%, 95% CI 20%-40%). There was an increasing trend of resistance to common antimicrobial agents of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa over a span of twelve years (2009-2020). There remained the highest risk of gentamicin resistance over time in China. Subgroup analyses indicated significantly higher resistances to ceftazidime and levofloxacin from 2017 to 2020. Conclusions: Enhanced resistance to common antimicrobial agents in wound-isolated P. aeruginosa presents a challenge in burn wound management in mainland China. Effective stewardship programs should be established based on corresponding resistance profiles, thereby optimizing treatment options for hospitalized burn patients.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939470

ABSTRACT

Liposomes are phospholipid bilayer vesicles, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic vehicles suitable for numerous drug and gene delivery applications. In this review, we discuss the prospect of using liposome technology in the development of a vaccine for tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains an important health problem that requires the development of an effective vaccine, especially since the only approved vaccine for it continues to be the Bacille Calmette-Geurin (BCG) one developed 100 years ago. This review focuses on the different applications of liposomes toward achieving this goal. Numerous liposomal formulations showing prospect in the research stage and in clinical trials are discussed.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939469

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Human myiasis is the invasion of tissue or organs by fly larvae. This could be obligatory, facultative, or accidental. Patient concerns: A 4-year-old Saudi boy complained of fever over the past three days with multiple inflamed painful dermal furuncles and worms-like discharge. Diagnosis: Furuncular obligatory myiasis caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Interventions: Maggots were removed for identification. The wounds were cleaned with antiseptic dressings. Topical and oral antibiotics were applied. Outcomes: Seven days later, the wounds completely healed. Lessons: Although several reports correlated human myiasis with old age, low health status, mental retardation, and low socioeconomic status, but the patient in our case was a healthy child from a family with good socioeconomic status, good hygiene, no history of diseases or mental disability, but traveled to a village where the climate is suitable for fly breeding.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939468

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate 11 Cuban native Bacillus (B.) thuringiensis isolates in order to select one with the best larvicidal activity against Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and low cytotoxicity. Methods: The cry and cyt genes of the isolates (A21, A51, L95, L910, M29, R84, R85, R87, R89, U81 and X48) were amplified by PCR. The influence of organic matter and NaCl on the larvicidal activity was tested by bioassays. Cytotoxicity was assayed on peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice. Results: The cyt1 (Aa, Ab, Ba), cyt2, cry4aA, cry4Ba, cry11 (Aa, Ba, Bb) and cry10 genes were identified in all native Cuban isolates. The larvicidal activity (LC90) of seven isolates was affected by the presence of organic matter in the water, while A21, A51, L910, R84, U81 and X48 had better LC50, LC90, LC95 than the 266/2 9-VI-98 control strain. The LC50 of two isolates was affected by the presence of NaCl and A21, A51, R85 isolate had better larvicidal activity than the 266/2 9-VI-98 control strain. In terms of toxicity against macrophages, the extracts of nine isolates were less cytotoxic than the control strains. Conclusions: Native isolate A21 had the main virulence factors against Ae. aegypti larvae, displayed a good larvicidal activity in presence of different factors related with Ae. aegypti breeding sites, and had low citotoxicity against macrophages. These results can contribute to the improvement of existing biological control strategies and the development of new biolarvicides.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939467

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the morphological structure of ovarian follicular cells and biochemical parameters of both ovaries and fat bodies (sites of vitellogenesis) from Rhodnius (R.) prolixus infected with Trypanosoma (T.) rangeli. Methods: Adult virgin females of R. prolixus were fed upon a membrane apparatus containing heat-inactivated citrated rabbit blood and a suspension of T. rangeli epimastigotes (Macias strain). Females from the control group and all the males received parasitefree blood. Transmission electron microscopy was used to reveal the morphological aspects of ovarian follicle cells in both control and parasite-infected groups. Protein profile, proteolytic activities and Western blotting analyses were performed in either ovary or fat body samples of control and parasite-infected groups. Results: According to the ultrastructural data, T. rangeli infection elicited a degeneration process in the ovarian follicular cells of R. prolixus. Proteolytic assays indicated a reduction in the activity of aspartic peptidases in the ovary and fat body from parasite-infected group, while a significant increase in the cysteine peptidase activity was measured in both insect organs. Additionally, immunoblotting revealed that vitellogenin was overexpressed in the ovary of parasite-infected insects. Conclusions: T. rangeli infection seems to elicit an early programmed cell death in the ovarian follicle cells as well as induces the modulation on the activities of different peptidase classes in either ovaries or fat bodies and the overexpression of the vitellogenin in the ovary of R. prolixus.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939466

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the residue determinants of the serospecificity and sero-cross-reactivity of dengue virus (DENV) envelope protein domain 3 (ED3), which contains two major putative epitopes of DENV. Methods: We constructed ED3 from DENV3 (3ED3) and DENV4 (4ED3), and six epitope-grafted variants, where we transferred epitope 1 (L304I, K305D, V309M, and S310A) and/or epitope 2 (D383N, K384S, K387T, and N389H) of 4ED3 onto 3ED3 and vice-versa. Swiss albino mice aged 3-4 weeks were immunized against wildtype and epitope-grafted ED3 variants and anti-ED3 IgG antibody responses were determined using ELISA. Results: Mouse immunization using 3ED3 and 4ED3 generated serotype-specific antisera, as expected. Similarly, most epitopegrafted ED3s produced antisera serospecific to the template ED3 with little or no cross-recognition of ED3 of the serotype from which the epitopes were taken. These indicated that a mere grafting of the epitope was not sufficient to transfer serospecificity, contrary to our expectations. However, one epitope-grafted ED3 mutant, where epitope 1 of 3ED3 was grafted onto 4ED3 (4ED3epi1), generated antisera that was serospecific to both 4ED3 and 3ED3. Conclusions: The 4ED3epi1 is a chimeric ED3 that produces antisera possessing serospecificity to both 3ED3 and 4ED3 onto a common 4ED3 scaffold. The 4ED3epi1, therefore, provides a unique tool for analyzing serospecificity and sero-cross-reactivity in dengue. We believe that chimeric ED3 may provide a template for future recombinant ED3 possessing serospecificity of multiple DENVs onto a single scaffold and may pave a way developing tri-and/or tetravalent anti-DENV antisera.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939465

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) sent to Ethiopia's pharmacovigilance (PV) database system. Methods: The descriptive and retrospective study analysed spontaneous ADR complaints reported to the PV database by healthcare professionals between 2013 and 2018. Spontaneous ADR reports that reached the PV center and met the minimum reporting criteria were identified and assessed in terms of reporting rate, patient characteristics, type of ADRs, suspected drugs, report sources, and reporters profession. Results: A total of 657 spontaneous ADR reports were filed to the PV center between 2013 and 2018. During the study period, the reporting pattern of ADRs changed dramatically. The number of reports increased from 2013 (n=12) and peaked in 2015 (n=205), and then declined from 2016 to 2018 (n=144, 142 and 65 in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively). Females had a higher percentage of reported cases (56.3%) than males (43.7%). The highest number of ADRs was reported in the age categories of 15-64 years (475, 72.3%), followed by 0-14 years (154, 23.4%), and 65 years and above (21, 3.2%). Pharmacists reported the majority of ADRs (81.7%), followed by health officers (7.2%), nurses (5.8%), and physicians (5.2%). Skin and subcutaneous tissue abnormalities were the most commonly reported ADRs. The anatomical therapeutic chemicals code class "anti-infective for systemic use"was the most usually suspected medication. Trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole as a combination ADRs was the most commonly reported drug that cause ADRs (14.2%). Conclusions: The number of ADRs reported in Ethiopia was small and unpredictable compared to developed countries, indicating the performance of PV system and level of awareness of health care professionals towards ADR reporting was not satisfactory. In order to increase the frequency of spontaneous reports, more efficient PV methods and public policies must be implemented.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939464

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed sex-based differences in anti-viral responses, with a higher rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections as well as a higher rate of morbidity and mortality in men than in women. Males and females also show disparate immune responses to COVID-19 infection, which may be important contributors to lower rates of infection, disease severity and deaths in women than in men. Here, the authors review sex differences in SARSCoV- 2 infections, anti-viral immunity and vaccine responses, putting forth the importance of sex, the underappreciated variables in vaccine response and disease infectivity.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939463

ABSTRACT

To assess the larvicidal activity of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) against larval stages of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Methods: A crude extract was prepared in ethanol from powdered mangosteen pericarps. A concentration gradient (0.01-4.92 g/ L) was prepared from the stock solution. Seven batches of 25 third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were used for larval bioassays. Larval mortality rates were observed after one and 24 hours. Cholesterol and total lipid contents in 20 randomly selected dead larvae at each trial were assessed by colorimetric method. The experimental setup was repeated five times. The General Linear Model and Probit analysis were used to evaluate the relationship of mortality with cholesterol level, total lipid level and cholesterol to total lipid ratio. Results: The percentage mortalities significantly varied with different concentrations (F7,32=385.737; P<0.001). The LC50 and LC99 values were (0.041 0.006) g/L and (10.616 1.758) g/ L, respectively after 24 hours. There was no mortality recorded within the one-hour exposure time. Only the cholesterol content (F5,24=173.245; P<0.001) in larvae exposed to different concentrations denoted a significantly decreasing trend within 24- hour exposure. Larvae that were exposed to the lowest concentration (0.55 g/L) showed a higher cholesterol level (22.67 1.33) g. Conclusions: The Garcinia mangostana extract acts as an effective sterol carrier protein inhibitor that inhibits cholesterol uptake in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Hence, it could be explored for use as a key source for the development of an environment-friendly plantbased larvicide.

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