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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 484-491, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922913

ABSTRACT

The quality difference of pharmaceutical excipients from different sources affects the molding properties of the powder, resulting in changes in the properties of the final product. In this study, the critical quality attributes of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with different specifications from two manufacturers (manufacturer A and manufacturer B) were characterized including particle size, physical morphology, viscosity and powder physical quality attributes. Aminophylline, diclofenac sodium, and metformin hydrochloride were utilized as model drugs with different solubility to prepare sustained-release tablets, and the effect of HPMC from different sources on drug release of sustained-release tablets in vitro was investigated. The results showed that HPMC with the same viscosity specification from different sources had outstanding differences in the physicochemical properties (including particle size, physical morphology, viscosity, dimension, compressibility and powder flow), which could change the hardness and friability of the sustained-release tablets. The differences in the physicochemical properties of HPMC had different effects on the dissolution of different sustained-release tablets in vitro. It had no significant effect on the release of easily soluble aminophylline and metformin hydrochloride, but had a greater impact on the release of poorly soluble diclofenac sodium. Compared with manufacturer A, the sustained-release effect of matrix tablets prepared by HPMC from manufacturer B was more excellent. The results of this study will provide a theoretical reference on selecting the appropriate excipients for formulation design.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879073

ABSTRACT

Assessment of the status property(boiling time) is a challenge for the quality control of extraction process in pharmaceutical enterprises. In this study, the pilot extraction process of Phellodendron chinense was used as the research carrier to develop an online near-infrared(NIR) quality control method based on the status property(boiling time). First, the NIR spectra of P. chinense were collected during the two pilot-scale extraction processes, and the status property(boiling time) was assessed by observing the state of bubbles in the extraction tank using a transparent window during the extraction process, which was then used as a reference standard. Based on the moving block standard deviation(MBSD) algorithm, the assessment model using online NIR spectra for boiling time during extraction process was established. In addition, the model was optimized as follows: standard normal variable(SNV) for spectral pretreatment, modeling band of 800-2 200 nm, and window size of 4. The results showed that, with 0.002 0 as the MBSD model threshold, the boiling time can be accurately assessed using online NIR spectra during extraction process. Furthermore, the principal component analysis-moving block standard deviation(PCA-MBSD) model was developed by our group to reduce the influence of online NIR spectral noise and background signal on the model, and the number of principal components was optimized into 2 in the PCA-MBSD model. The results showed that, with 0.000 075 as the PCA-MBSD model threshold, the boiling time can be accurately assessed using online NIR spectra during extraction process, with improved reliability. This study can provide a assessment method for boiling time during extraction process using online NIR spectra, which can replace the empirical judgment in manual observation, and realize the digitalization of the extraction process for big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879072

ABSTRACT

The physical properties of powder and granules are the critical quality attributes for the process control of Suhuang Zhike Capsules, a big brand traditional Chinese medicine. This paper took the production of 25 batches of real-world Suhuang Zhike Capsules dry extract powder and granules intermediates as the research object. Firstly, a method for testing the physical properties of Suhuang Zhike Capsules powder and granules with 19 physical indicators was established. The results showed that the granules of dry extract powder after granulation had a smaller particle size, wider particle size distribution range and poor fluidity, which easily caused the problem of over-limit capsule loading. Secondly, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used for mathematical statistics. The correlation analysis showed that the density of dry extract powder could affect the chroma and fluidity. At the same time, the particle size in the granules had a stronger effect on the chroma and fluidity than the density. The study also found that the particle size and hygroscopicity of dry extract powder were potentially key physical properties that affected the physical properties of granules. Furthermore, the results of principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed that the consistency of the physical properties between the dry extract powder and intermediate granules was relatively poor. To this end, similarity analysis was carried out, and the quality control method of powder and granules based on physical fingerprint was established. The results showed that the physical fingerprint similarity of 25 batches of dry extract powder was 0.639-0.976, and the physical fingerprint similarity of the gra-nules was 0.716-0.983. With the similarity of 0.85 as the threshold, the batches with abnormal physical properties could be identified. In this study, the process quality control method of Suhuang Zhike Capsules based on the physical properties of powder and granules was established finally, which realized the identification of abnormal batches, and provided a reference for the process quality control of Suhuang Zhike Capsules.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders , Quality Control
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879071

ABSTRACT

The chemical properties of characteristic components are significant to the manufacturing quality control of big brand traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the Huangjing Zanyu Capsules were used as the research carrier to determine the content of five characteristic components including icraiin, emodin, schisandrin A, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside, and osthole simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The results showed that the chemical properties of five cha-racteristic components had a good linear relationship(r>0.999 9) within the quantitative range; the relative standard deviations(RSD) was 0.11%-2.0% and 0.25%-2.8% respectively for intra-day and inter-day precision; the RSD of repeatability was 1.8%-2.6%; the RSD of stability within 48 hours was 0.19%-2.8%, and the average recovery rate was 95.52%-100.1%, all meeting the requirements of pharmaceutical quantitative analysis. Additionally, the interval estimation method was used to directly reflect the distribution of samples with abnormal chemical properties of characteristic components, and the results showed ten samples were detected beyound the 95% control line of confidence level. Multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) method was used to monitor the abnormal samples of Huangjing Zanyu Capsules collectively, and the results showed that two samples were beyond the 95% control line of Hotelling's T~2 and three samples beyond the 95% control line of squared prediction error(SPE), indicating consistent quality control of Huangjing Zanyu Capsules. In conclusion, the proposed method is not only accurate and efficient but also a compensation for the traditional single-component quality control method, providing a scientific basis for the quality control in manufacturing process of Huangjing Zanyu Capsules. Furthermore, it could also serve as a reference method for the quality control in manufacturing big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879070

ABSTRACT

The physical properties of ginkgo leaves extract(GLE) are the critical quality attributes for the control of the manufacturing process of ginkgo leaves preparations. In this study, 53 batches of GLE with different sources from the real world were used as the objects to carry out the research from 3 levels. First, based on micromeritics evaluation method, a total of 29 physical attribute quality parameters in five dimensions were comprehensively characterized, with a total of 1 537 data points. Further, with use of physical fingerprinting technology combined with similarity evaluation, the powder physical properties of 53 batches of GLE showed obvious differences from an overall perspective, and the similarity of the physical fingerprints was 0.876 to 1.000. Secondly, hierarchical clustering analysis(HCA) and principal component analysis(PCA) models were constructed to realize the reliable identification and differentiation of real-world materials produced by GLE from different sources. Multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) model was used to create GLE material Hotelling T~2 and squared prediction error(SPE) control charts. It was found that the SPE score of B_(21) powder exceeded the 99% confidence control limit by 22.495 9, and the SPE scores of A_1 and C_(10) powder exceeded the 95% confidence control limit by 16.099 2, realizing the determination of abnormal samples in the materials of GLE from the production in real world. Finally, the physical quality control method of GLE in the production process of ginkgo leaves preparations was established in this study, providing a reference for the quality control methods of ginkgo leaves preparations in their manufacturing process.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ginkgo biloba , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves , Powders , Quality Control
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879069

ABSTRACT

Spatial distribution uniformity is the critical quality attribute(CQA) of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets, a variety of big brand traditional Chinese medicine. The evaluation of the spatial distribution uniformity of active pharmaceutical ingredients(APIs) in Ginkgo Leaves Tablets is important in ensuring their stable and controllable quality. In this study, hyperspectral imaging technology was used to construct the spatial distribution map of API concentration based on three prediction models, further to realize the visualization research on the spatial distribution uniformity of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets. The region of interest(ROI) was selected from each Ginkgo Leaves Tablet, with length and width of 50 pixels, and a total of 2 500 pixels. Each pixel had 288 spectral channels, and the number of content prediction data could reach 1×10~5 for a single sample. The results of the three models showed that the Partial Least Squares(PLS) model had the highest prediction accuracy, with calibration set determination coefficient R_(pre)~2 of 0.987, prediction set determination coefficient R_(pre)~2 of 0.942, root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) of 0.160%, and root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) of 0.588%. The classical least-squares(CLS) model had a greater prediction error, with the RMSEP of 0.867%. Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Square(MCR-ALS) model showed the worst predictive ability among the three models, and it couldn't realize content prediction. Based on the prediction results of PLS and CLS models, the spatial distribution map of APIs concentration was obtained through three-dimensional data reconstruction. Furthermore, histogram method was used to evaluate the spatial distribution uniformity of API. The data showed that the spatial distribution of APIs in Ginkgo Leaves Tablets was relatively uniform. The study explored the feasibility of visualization of spatial distribution of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets based on three models. The results showed that PLS model had the highest prediction accuracy, and MCR-ALS model had the lowest prediction accuracy. The research results could provide a new strategy for the visualization method of quality control of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Ginkgo biloba , Least-Squares Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Leaves , Quality Control , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Tablets
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879068

ABSTRACT

Identification of critical quality attribute(CQA) is crucial in quality control of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills(TRNHQXP). In this study, 661 active components in TRNHQXP were selected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) and network pharmacology based on reported data and TCMSP, BATMAN-TCM, and TCMID databases, as well as mass spectrometry data, and 1 413 targets of the active components were obtained through SwissTargetPrediction. The 152 potential targets obtained from the intersection of predicted targets with 456 stroke targets underwent functional enrichment analysis by Metascape. The 27 Chinese medicinals in TRNHQXP were divided into four sets according to efficacies. Thirty-seven key targets in the blood-activating and stasis-resolving set and 41 in the tonifying set were screened out. On the basis of these potential key targets, 137 potential key CQA of TRNHQXP for stroke were reversely predicted. This study revealed the possible mechanism of TRNHQXP in treating stroke and established a modular identification method for the potential CQA of big brand traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) based on efficacies and chemical properties. Consequently, the CQA of TRNHQXP were identified by this method, which has provided a reference for the following experimental studies of CQA.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879066

ABSTRACT

For the field detection problems of critical quality attribute(CQA) of moisture content in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) manufacturing process, big brand TCM Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills were used as the carrier, to establish a moisture content NIR field detection model with or without cellophane in real world production with use of near infrared(NIR) spectroscopy combined with stoichiometry. With the moisture content determined by drying method as reference value, the partial least square method(PLS) was used to analyze the correlation between the spectrum and the moisture reference value. Then the spectral pretreatment methods were screened and optimized to further improve the accuracy and stability of the model. The results showed that the best quantitative model was developed by the spectral data pretreatment of standard normal variate(SNV) with the latent variable factor number of 2 and 7 of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills with or without cellophane samples. The prediction coefficient of determination(R_(pre)~2) and standard deviation of prediction(RMSEP) of the model with cellophane samples were 0.765 7 and 0.157 2%; R_(pre)~2 and RMSEP of the model without cellophane samples were 0.772 2 and 0.207 8%. The NIR quantitative models of moisture content of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills with and without cellophane both showed good predictive performance to realize the rapid, accurate and non-destructive quantitative analysis of moisture content in such pills, and provide a method for the field quality control of the critical chemical attributes of moisture in the manufacturing of big brand TCM.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Least-Squares Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879065

ABSTRACT

The spatial distribution uniformity of valuable medicines is the critical quality attribute in the process control of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. With the real world sample of the mixed end-point powder of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills as the research object, hyperspectral imaging technology was used to collect a total of 32 400 data points with a size of 180 pix×180 pix. Spectral angle matching(SAM), classical least squares and mixed tuned matched filtering(MTMF) were used to identify the spatial distribution of rare medicines. MTMF model showed higher identification accuracy, therefore the spatial distribution of the blended intermediates was identified based on the MTMF model. The histogram method was also used to evaluate the spatial distribution uniformity of rare medicines. The results showed that the standard deviation was 4.78, 6.5, 3.48, 1.96, and 3.00 respectively for artificial bezoar, artificial musk, Borneol, Antelope horn and Buffalo horn; the variance was 22.8, 42.3, 12.1, 3.82, and 9.00, and the skewness was 1.26, 1.71, 0.06,-0.86, and 1.04, respectively. The final results showed that the most even blending was achieved in concentrated powder of Borneol, Antelope horn and Buffalo horn, followed by artificial bezoar, and last artificial musk. A visualization method was established for quality attributes of distribution uniformity in blending process of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. It could provide evidences of quality control methods in the mixing process of big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders , Quality Control
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846660

ABSTRACT

Objective: To improve the quality control level of ethanol extraction process of Corydalis Rhizoma (CR) by using quality by design (QbD), so as to meet the extraction requirements of Kedaling Tablets. Methods: The critical process parameters were solvent multiple, extraction time and soaking time, and the critical quality attributes were dry extract rate, content and transfer rate of dehydrocorydaline. The response surface methodology was used to establish the mathematical model between the critical process parameters and the critical quality attributes. The overlapping design space of multiple index design spaces was established to select the optimal operation space, where the process verification was carried out. Results: The operating space parameters of ethanol extraction of CR was 14-24 h of the immersion time, 3.0-4.0 times of the first time solvent multiple, 1.5-2.0 times of the second and third time solvent multiple, and 1.5-2.5 h of the extraction time. Under this operating space, the extraction yield of CR was ranged from 6%-8%, the content of dehydrocorydaline was more than 2.8%, and the transfer rate was not less than 85%. Conclusion: The concept of QbD is helpful to improve the ethanol extraction process of CR, and to obtain a reliable and suitable extraction operation space for the production of Kedaling Tablets.

11.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 382-389, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-858055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the critical quality attributes of hypromellose (HPMC) on the release profile of diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablets in vitro. METHODS: The characteristics including appearance, particle size, density, compression and specific surface area of HPMC K15M from three manufacturers (A, B and C) were studied and evaluated comprehensively. The compression data of HPMC K15M were non-linear fitted via the pressure-tensile strength curve method, Kawabe equation and Hasano equation. Sustained-release tablets were prepared by using diclofenac sodium as the active ingredient with different HPMC as gel matrix, and the in vitro release behavior of the tablets was determined in order to identify the critical quality attribute of HPMC that affect the in vitro release profile of diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablets. RESULTS: The release rate of diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablets was correlated with the substitution type of HPMC, viscosity, density and specific surface area, but less affected by particle size. CONCLUSION: Substitution, viscosity, density and specific surface area of HPMC are the CQAs factors influencing the release profile of diclofenac sodium sustained- release tablets.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851117

ABSTRACT

Objective: To optimize the lime milk-sulfuric acid process of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) aqueous concentrate in the pretreatment of the manufacture of Danshen Chuanxiongqin Injection (DCI) based on the quality by design (QbD) concept. Methods Fishbone diagram method was applied to conduct preliminary risk assessment of various process parameters in lime milk-sulfuric acid process of SMRR aqueous extracts. Nine potential critical process parameters (CPP), including mass fraction of lime milk, flow rate of the lime milk addition, stirring speed, stirring time after lime milk addition, mass fraction of sulfuric acid, flow rate of the acid addition, stirring time after acid addition, standing time, and standing temperature, were identified. Plackett-Burman (PB) experiment design method was used to further screen the nine potential CPPs. As the result, the mass fraction of lime milk, stirring time after lime milk addition, stirring time after acid addition, and the standing time were filtered as CPPs of the lime milk-sulfuric acid process. A partial least squares regression models of critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were established using the central composite design and the design space methodology. Results: The recommended operation space of the lime milk-sulfuric acid process in the pretreatment of the manufacture of DCI was as follow: mass fraction of lime milk of 12.0%-13.0%, stirring time after lime milk addition of 40-50 min, stirring time after acid addition of 30-35 min, and standing time of 16-20 h. Conclusion: Operation in the design space is helpful to improve the consistency of lime milk-sulfuric acid process. This study is of valuable reference to actual industrial production.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2118-2125, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780292

ABSTRACT

Recently, biosimilar antibodies have become a mainstream component of the biopharmaceutical industry in China. The principle requirements for the development and evaluation of biosimilars are based on proving similarity in product quality (analytical similarity) between a proposed biosimilar candidate and the originator reference drug. However, because the quality of a reference drug often varies during the life cycle and not all reference drug samples are able to collected by a biosimilar sponsor, it has not been practical to accurately determine the critical quality attributes as well as an accurate control range through the characterization of the limited number of reference drug lots that are typically collected. Therefore, the development and evaluation of biosimilars has been challenging both for industry and regulatory agencies. In this article, The Chemistry, Manufacturing and Control (CMC) dossier of the rituximab originator company and the dossiers of 18 biosimilar companieswere retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the assessment criteria to determine quality similarity of rituximab biosimilar candidates have been proposed, which criteria have been used by reviewing the physicochemical and biological properties data obtained from 123 lots of the reference drug. Moreover, some case studies have been provided that illustrate the application of the proposed analytical similarity criteria in the practice of drug evaluation.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275422

ABSTRACT

Quality by design (QbD) highlights the concept of "begin with the end", which means to thoroughly understand the target product quality first, and then guide pharmaceutical process development and quality control throughout the whole manufacturing process. In this paper, the Ginkgo biloba granules intermediates were taken as the research object, and the requirements of the tensile strength of tablets were treated as the goals to establish the methods for identification of granules' critical quality attributes (CQAs) and establishment of CQAs' limits. Firstly, the orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) model was adopted to build the relationship between the micromeritic properties of 29 batches of granules and the tensile strength of ginkgo leaf tablets, and thereby the potential critical quality attributes (pCQAs) were screened by variable importance in the projection (VIP) indexes. Then, a series of OPLS models were rebuilt by reducing pCQAs variables one by one in view of the rule of VIP values from low to high in sequence. The model performance results demonstrated that calibration and predictive performance of the model had no decreasing trend after variables reduction. In consideration of the results from variables selection as well as the collinearity test and testability of the pCQAs, the median particle size (D₅₀) and the bulk density (Da) were identified as critical quality attributes (CQAs). The design space of CQAs was developed based on a multiple linear regression model established between the CQAs (D₅₀ and Da) and the tensile strength. The control constraints of the CQAs were determined as 170 μm< D₅₀<500 μm and 0.30 g•cm⁻³<Da<0.44 g•cm⁻³ according to the design space, which provided a basis for controlling and optimizing the wet granulation process of the ginkgo leaf tablet..

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1121-2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779286

ABSTRACT

The critical attribute was analyzed in clavulanate potassium tablet of amoxicillin according to the principle QbD. By investigation of the drug impurity profile, the cycle-closed dimer and penicilloic acid of amoxicillin were considered to be the critical impurities, and the sources and the degradation pathways of these two impurities were discussed. The research confirmed that crystal form was the critical attribute of drug substance. The drying process in the tablet granulation was regarded as the critical process parameter. The tablet formulation was also another factor in the impurity generation. This study provides a new idea for the evaluation of drug quality.

16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146388

ABSTRACT

Lacidipine (LCDP) is a dihydropyridine derivative categorized as an Anti-hypertensive Ca+2 channel blocker belonging to BCS class IV drug with low solubility and low permeability which presents a challenge to the formulation scientists. The development of a solid dispersion by solvent evaporation is a practically viable method to enhance dissolution of LCDP from oral dosage form. Solvent evaporation by Fluidized Bed Process (FBP) was the method of choice for SD as it improves wettability with simultaneous increase in porosity of granules resulting enhanced surface area producing higher dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug. Thus, the main object of the present invention is to provide stable pharmaceutical dosage form of LCDP with desired dissolution rate i.e. at least 80% drug release within 45 minutes, without use of disintegrant(s) and/or surfactant(s) or without micronization of the active ingredient per se. One more object of this invention is to provide a sophisticated robust process for the preparation of said pharmaceutical dosage form by Quality by Design (QbD) concept focusing on thorough understanding of the product and process by which it is developed and manufactured along with a knowledge of the risks involved in manufacturing by IRMA & FMEA study of the product with process and how best to mitigate those risks by developing design space with DoE & MVDA with outlined control strategy.

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