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Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e227932, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1384157


Aim One of the reasons for the failure of adhesion in composite restorations and secondary caries may be the chemical irrigants used during the endodontic treatment. NaOCl is widely used for the biomechanical preparation of root canals due to its antimicrobial properties and capacity to dissolve organic material. In addition, another very effective decontamination solution is chlorhexidine 2%. There are few studies about the effect of root canal irrigation solutions on bond strength of universal adhesives therefore, in this study we have investigated the influence of CHX 2% and NaOCl 5.25% on micro-tensile bond strength of G-Premio Bond. Methods Twenty-four human teeth were randomly allocated to the following groups: G1, immersion in saline solution 0.9% for 30 minutes (control); G2, immersion in CHX 2% for 30 minutes; G3, immersion in NaOCl 5.25% for 30 minutes. After restoration, the dentin/resin interface was tested by micro-tensile bond strength. The surfaces morphology was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey test in SPSS software Version 24. Results There was a statistically significant difference between G3 and G1 (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences among G1 and G2, G2 and G3. Conclusion Root canal irrigation with NaOCl 5.25% significantly reduced the micro-tensile bond strength in the G-Premio Bond at self-etch mode, but the use of CHX did not make a significant difference.

Sodium Hypochlorite , Chlorhexidine , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Endodontics
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226262, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354997


Aim: To evaluate the impact of a dual-cured adhesive system on the in situ degree of conversion (DC), bond strength (BS) and failure mode (FM) of adhesive interfaces in dentin cavities restored with a bulk-fill resin composite. Methods: 4-mm-deep dentin cavities with a 3.1 C-factor were created in 68 bovine incisors (n = 17 per group). The lightcured (Scotchbond™ Universal) or the dual-cured (Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-purpose Plus) adhesive system was applied to the cavities, which were then restored with a bulkfill resin composite (Filtek™ Bulk Fill). In situ DC analysis was performed by means of micro Raman spectroscopy at the top and bottom interfaces. Push-out BS was measured in a universal testing machine after 24-h or 6-month water storage. FM was determined with a stereomicroscope. Data of in situ DC and BS were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (p<0.05), while the FM was analyzed descriptively. Results: The groups that received the dual-cured adhesive system showed statistically higher in situ DC and BS than those that received the light-cured adhesive system. Cohesive failure mode was the most frequent in all conditions. Conclusion: In situ DC and BS were influenced by the curing strategies of the adhesive systems with better performance of the dual-cured material

Aging , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Composite Resins , Physical Phenomena , Polymerization
Braz. dent. j ; 33(3): 82-91, July-Sept. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1384027


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate a Demineralized Human Dentine Matrix (DHDM) as viable biomaterial for alveolar ridge preservation in a rat model. Wistar rats were submitted to the extraction of maxillary first molars bilaterally. Sockets were filled with biomaterials and divided into 4 experimental groups (n=5): blood clot, autogenous bone, bovine-derived xenograft (BDX) and DHDM. Animals were sacrificed at 7, 14 e 28 days. Microtomography (uCT) volumetric evaluation and qualitative histological analyses were performed. Results obtained through the uCT showed similar values between the DHDM and the other experimental groups. The histological evaluation demonstrated DHDM with an unspecific inflammatory process and bone neoformation with slow reabsorption of the material. This result indicates that DHDM implanted in rat sockets is biocompatible and reduces the alveolar ridge volume loss after tooth extraction.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a Matriz Dentinária Humana Desmineralizada (MDHD) como biomaterial viável para preservação do rebordo alveolar, no modelo em rato. Ratos Wistar foram submetidos à exodontias dos primeiros molares superiores bilateralmente. Os alvéolos foram preenchidos com biomateriais e divididos em 4 grupos experimentais (n=5): coágulo sanguíneo, osso autógeno, osso xenógeno de origem bovina e MDHD. Os animais foram sacrificados aos 7, 14 e 28 dias. Foram realizadas avaliações volumétricas por microtomografia (uCT) e análises histológicas qualitativas. Os resultados obtidos por meio do uCT mostraram valores semelhantes entre o MDHD e os demais grupos experimentais. A avaliação histológica demonstrou MDHD com processo inflamatório inespecífico e neoformação óssea com lenta reabsorção do material. Esse resultado indica que a MDHD implantada em alvéolo de rato é biocompatível e reduz a perda de volume do rebordo alveolar após extração dentária.

Braz. dent. j ; 33(4): 62-70, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1394083


Abstract Proanthocyanidin (PA) is a promising dentin biomodifier due to its ability to stabilize collagen fibrils against degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); however, the most effective protocol to incorporate PA into bonding procedures is still unclear. This study evaluated the effect of dentin biomodification with a PA acid etchant on MMP activity, adhesive interface morphology and resin-dentin microtensile bond strength. Sound extracted human molars were flattened to expose dentin and acid-etched for 15 s according to the groups: EXP - experimental phosphoric acid; EXP+PA - experimental phosphoric acid 10% PA; TE - total-etching system; SE - self-etching system. Samples were restored with composite resin and stored in distilled water (37ºC). MMP activity and interface morphology were analyzed after 24 h by in situ zymography (n=6) and scanning electron microscopy (n=3), respectively. The resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was evaluated after 24 h and 6 months storage (n=6). Significantly higher MMP activity was detected in etched dentin compared with untreated dentin (p<0.05), but no difference among acid groups was found. Resin tags and microtags, indicative of proper adhesive system penetration in dentinal tubules and microtubules, were observed along the hybrid layer in all groups. There was no difference in μTBS between 24 h and 6 months for EXP+PA; moreover, it showed higher long-term μTBS compared with TE and EXP (p<0.05). The results suggest that 15 s of biomodification was not sufficient to significantly reduce MMP activity; nonetheless, EXP+PA was still able to improve resin-dentin bond stability compared with total- and self-etching commercial systems.

Resumo A proantocianidina (PA) é um biomodificador dentinário promissor devido a sua capacidade de estabilizar as fibrilas colágenas contra a degradação por metaloproteinases da matriz (MMPs); no entanto, o protocolo mais eficaz para a incorporação de PA em procedimentos adesivos ainda não está claro. Este estudo avaliou o efeito da biomodificação da dentina com um condicionador ácido contendo PA na atividade de MMPs, morfologia da interface adesiva e resistência à microtração resina-dentina. Molares humanos extraídos foram lixados para exposição da dentina e condicionados com ácido por 15 s de acordo com os grupos: EXP - ácido fosfórico experimental; EXP+PA - ácido fosfórico experimental com 10% PA; TE - sistema total-etch; SE - sistema self-etch. As amostras foram restauradas com resina composta e armazenadas em água destilada (37ºC). A atividade de MMP e morfologia da interface foram analisadas após 24 h por zimografia in situ (n=6) e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (n=3), respectivamente. A resistência à microtração resina-dentina (μTBS) foi avaliada após 24 horas e 6 meses de armazenamento (n=6). Atividade de MMP detectada na dentina condicionada foi significativamente maior em comparação com a dentina não tratada (p <0,05), mas não houve diferenças entre os diferentes ácidos. Tags e microtags de resina, indicativos de uma penetração adequada do sistema adesivo nos túbulos e microtúbulos dentinários, foram observadas ao longo da camada híbrida em todos os grupos. Não houve diferença entre os valores de μTBS de 24 h e 6 meses para EXP+PA; além disso, EXP+PA apresentou maiores valores de μTBS após 6 meses em comparação com TE e EXP (p <0,05). Os resultados sugerem que a biomodificação por 15 s não foi suficiente para reduzir significativamente a atividade de MMP; apesar disso, EXP + PA foi capaz de melhorar a estabilidade da interface resina-dentina em comparação com sistemas total- e self-etch comerciais.

Rev. ADM ; 79(4): 204-208, jul.-ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395675


Introducción: la caries es una enfermedad compleja que afecta a cualquier edad. La prevalencia es mayor en la primera dentición, sobre todo en población con baja percepción económica. El fluoruro diamino de plata (FDP) al 38% ha sido utilizado como una alter- nativa de tratamiento para esta enfermedad. Funciona como una solución remineralizante y cariostática. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto remineralizante del FDP al 38% en dentina afectada por lesiones de caries en molares temporales. Material y métodos: estudio clínico, epidemiológico, descriptivo, longitudinal y experimental. Se llevó a cabo en molares de primera dentición de niños de tres a cinco años de edad. Los niños seleccionados tenían molares con lesiones cariosas dentinarias, Pitts las denomina D3. No se incluyeron niños con dientes que presentaron patologías pulpares irreversibles. La aplicación del FDP al 38% la efectuó un operador entrenado para esta finalidad. Se utilizaron los criterios de Nyvad para determinar el grado de dureza de la dentina y con ello deducir su remineraliza- ción. Se observó la permanencia de la remineralización efectuada por un periodo de cinco meses. Resultado y conclusión: el FDP es un compuesto eficaz en 91% de los casos en un periodo de cinco meses o más (AU)

Introduction: dental caries is a complex disease that affects any age. The prevalence is higher in primary dentition, especially in a population with low economic perception. 38% silver diamine fluoride (FDP) has been used as an alternative treatment for this disease. It works as a remineralizing and cariostatic solution. Objective: to evaluate the remineralizing effect of 38% FDP on dentin affected by dental caries, in temporary molars. Material and methods: clinical, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and experimental study. It was carried out in temporary molars of children between three and five years of age. The selected children presented molars with dental carious lesions, Pitts calls them D3. Children with teeth that presented irreversible pulp pathologies were not included. The application of the FDP to 38% was carried out by an operator trained for this purpose. The Nyvad criteria were used to determine the degree of hardness of the dentin and thereby deduce its remineralization. The permanence of the remineralization carried out was observed for a period of five months. Result and conclusion: the FDP is an effective compound in 91% of the cases, in a period of five months or more (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Tooth, Deciduous/injuries , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Silver Compounds/therapeutic use , Dental Caries , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dentin/drug effects , Diamines/therapeutic use
Braz. dent. j ; 33(2): 1-11, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1374628


Abstract The aim was to assess the physicochemical properties and the penetration into dentinal tubules of calcium hypochlorite solution [Ca(OCl)2], with or without surfactants. The surfactants benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide, Tween 80 and Triton X-100 were mixed at different concentrations with sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl), Ca(OCl)2 and distilled water (control). Once the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of the surfactants in Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl was determined, pH, free chlorine, surface tension and free calcium ions were evaluated. The penetration into dentinal tubules of NaOCl and Ca(OCl)2, with or without benzalkonium chloride and Triton X-100 [surfactants that promoted the lowest surface tension of Ca(OCl)2], was assessed using human premolars stained with crystal violet. The statistical tests were one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-test, two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post-test, and t-test; depending on the assay. The addition of surfactants reduced the surface tension of NaOCl and Ca(OCl)2, and did not alter the pH or the free available chlorine of either solution. The addition of all surfactants increased the availability of free calcium ions in Ca(OCl)2, especially benzalkonium chloride. Ca(OCl)2 exhibited lower penetration into dentinal tubules than NaOCl, and the addition of surfactants did not improve the penetration of Ca(OCl)2, but did increase the penetration of NaOCl. It can be concluded that the addition of surfactants to Ca(OCl)2 did not increase the penetration into dentinal tubules, but it did promote lower surface tension, without changing the pH or free available chlorine values, and higher availability of free calcium ions in Ca(OCl)2.

Resumo O objetivo foi avaliar as propriedades físico-químicas e a penetrabilidade nos túbulos dentinários da solução de hipoclorito de cálcio [Ca(OCl)2], com ou sem surfactantes. Os surfactantes cloreto de benzalcônio, cetrimida, Tween 80 e Triton X-100 foram misturados em diferentes concentrações com a solução de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), Ca(OCl)2 e água destilada (controle). Uma vez determinada a concentração micelar crítica (CMC) dos surfactantes em Ca(OCl)2 e NaOCl, foram avaliados o pH, cloro livre, tensão superficial e íons de cálcio livre. A penetrabilidade nos túbulos dentinários de NaOCl e Ca(OCl)2, com ou sem cloreto de benzalcônio e Triton X-100 [surfactantes que promoveram a menor tensão superficial de [Ca(OCl)2] foi avaliada utilizando pré-molares humanos corados com cristal violeta. Os testes estatísticos foram ANOVA de uma via e pós-teste de Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis e pós-teste de Dunn, ANOVA de duas vias e pós-teste de Bonferroni, e teste t; dependendo do ensaio. A adição de surfactantes reduziu a tensão superficial do NaOCl e Ca(OCl)2, e não alterou o pH ou cloro livre das soluções. A adição de todos os surfactantes aumentou a disponibilidade de íons de cálcio livre de Ca(OCl)2, principalmente o cloreto de benzalcônio. Ca(OCl)2 apresentou menor penetrabilidade nos túbulos dentinários do que NaOCl, e a adição de surfactantes não aumentou a penetrabilidade de Ca(OCl)2, mas aumentou a penetrabilidade de NaOCl. Pode-se concluir que a adição de surfactantes no Ca(OCl)2 não aumentou a penetrabilidade nos túbulos dentinários, mas promoveu menor tensão superficial, sem alterar os valores de pH ou cloro livre, e maior disponibilidade de íons de cálcio livre em Ca(OCl)2.

Odovtos (En línea) ; 24(1)abr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386577


Abstract This study evaluated the effects of alternative self-etch application modes on resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of three commercially available "no wait" concept universal adhesives. In this study extracted impacted non-carious human third molars were used. The flat surfaces were prepared in mid-coronal dentin and prepared with a 600-grit SiC paper. The three universal adhesives that were used are as follows: Clearfil Universal Bond Quick (CUQ, Kuraray Noritake, Japan), G-Premio Bond (GPB, GC Corp, Japan), and a self-curing universal adhesive "Tokuyama Universal Bond" (TUB; Tokuyama Dental, Japan). The following three different application procedures were used for the dentin surfaces: the adhesives were applied and immediately subjected to air-dry; the adhesives were applied followed by a 10-second wait; or the adhesives were rubbed for 10 seconds. Then composite resin was applied to the dentin surface and light cured. After storage in 37°C distilled water for 24 h, all the bonded teeth were cut into 1mm² sections using a low-speed diamond saw (Micracut 125 Low Speed Precision Cutter, Metkon, Bursa, Turkey) under running water (n=15). The sections were subjected to a tensile force at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min in a testing apparatus (Microtensile Tester, Bisco, IL, USA) and µTBS values were measured. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Failure modes were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. Prolonged application time significantly affected the µTBS (p<0.005). A significant increase of µTBS on active application was observed for CUQ and GPB. The TUB with an active application had a significantly lower µTBS value compared with the other adhesives. Prolonged application time caused significant improvement of bond strength in all adhesives. The active application is effective at increasing the dentin bond strength except for TUB.

Resumen Este estudio evaluó los efectos de los modos alternativos de aplicación de adhesivos de autograbado en la resistencia de la unión microtensil entre resina y dentina (µTBS) de tres adhesivos universales de concepto "no espera" disponibles en el mercado. En este estudio se utilizaron terceros molares humanos impactados que fueron extraídos. Las superficies planas se prepararon en la dentina coronal media y se prepararon con un papel SiC de 600 granos. Los tres adhesivos universales que se utilizaron son los siguientes: Clearfil Universal Quick Bond (CUQ, Kuraray Noritake, Japón), G-Premio Bond (GPB, GC Corp, Japón), y un adhesivo universal autopolimerizable "Tokuyama Universal Bond" (TUB; Tokuyama Dental, Japón). Se utilizaron los tres procedimientos de aplicación siguientes para las superficies dentinarias: se aplicaron los adhesivos y se sometieron inmediatamente a un secado al aire; se aplicaron los adhesivos y se esperó 10 segundos; o se frotaron los adhesivos durante 10 segundos. Luego se aplicó resina compuesta a la superficie dentinaria y se fotopolimerizó. Después de su almacenamiento en agua destilada a 37°C durante 24 h, todos los dientes unidos se cortaron en secciones de 1mm² utilizando una sierra de diamante de baja velocidad (Micracut 125 Low Speed Precision Cutter, Metkon, Bursa, Turquía) bajo agua corriente (n=15). Las secciones fueron sometidas a una fuerza de tracción a una velocidad de cruceta de 1mm/min en una máquina de prueba universal (Microtensile Tester, Bisco, IL, USA) y se midieron los valores de µTBS. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Los modos de falla fueron analizados bajo un estereomicroscopio. El prolongado tiempo de aplicación afectó significativamente a los µTBS (p<0,005). Se observó un aumento significativo de µTBS en la aplicación activa para el CUQ y el GPB. El TUB con una aplicación activa tuvo un valor de µTBS significativamente más bajo comparado con los otros adhesivos. El tiempo de aplicación prolongado causó una mejora significativa de la fuerza de adhesión en todos los adhesivos. La aplicación activa es efectiva para aumentar la fuerza de adhesión de la dentina, excepto para el TUB.

Dental Cements/analysis
Rev. ADM ; 79(1): 20-27, ene.-feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361506


Los sistemas cementantes han mejorado notablemente, los objetivos que persiguen los nuevos cementos es que la adhesión sea duradera y conseguir siempre que sea posible una interface cerrada con un sellado perfecto. Se han podido desarrollar nuevas técnicas y nuevos materiales de cementación que han ido perfeccionando la unión del material restaurador al diente. En el presente estudio se compara la fuerza de adhesión a dentina de cementos de autograbado y cementos de grabado total para comprobar los efectos positivos en el grabado de la dentina. Para el estudio se utilizaron dos cementos a base de resina (RelyX U200 Clicker 3M y RelyX Ultimate 3M). Se encapsularon 40 molares en acrílico en dos grupos de 20 muestras para la aplicación de dos sistemas cementantes de autograbado (grupo 1) y de grabado total (grupo 2), respectivamente, se desgastaron hasta descubrir la dentina; siguiendo las especificaciones del fabricante se colocó el cemento en cada grupo, y después se sometieron a pruebas de cizalla en una máquina de ensayo universal Instron. La medida expresada en megapascales (MPa) fue: grupo 1 = 7.5569 y grupo 2 = 12.6444. En este caso fueron analizados dos grupos, tomándose la primera significancia bilateral. Se realiza la prueba en t de Student, con 95% de intervalo de confianza en la diferencia, demostrando así que el cemento RelyX Ultimate 3M tiene mayor fuerza de adhesión que el cemento RelyX U200 Clicker 3M. Nuestra investigación fue factible y llegamos a nuestro propósito, en el cual comprobamos la mayor adhesión de cementos de grabado total, los cuales son sometidos a un previo tratamiento del diente (AU)

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Acid Etching, Dental , Cementation , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Resin Cements , Shear Strength , Tensile Strength , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Dentin/drug effects
Braz. dent. j ; 33(1): 68-76, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364479


Abstract This in vitro study evaluated the anti-erosive effect of an experimental varnish containing 5% stannous chloride (SnCl₂) associated with different concentrations of NaF (NaF-free, 2.5% NaF, or 5.2% NaF) on bovine enamel and root dentin. One hundred samples were pre-eroded (0.3% citric acid, pH 2.6, 10 min) and randomized into five groups (n=10 for each substrate): Negative control - milli-Q water; NaF-free - Experimental varnish SnCl₂-free and NaF-free; 2.5 NaF - Experimental varnish 5% SnCl₂ associated with 2.5% NaF; 5.2 NaF: Experimental varnish 5% SnCl₂ associated with 5.2% NaF and positive control - Commercial varnish containing 5% NaF (Duraphat). After the varnishes were applied, the erosive and abrasive challenges were carried out for five days. Loss of tooth structure (TSL) was determined by optical profilometry, and the loss of calcium (ΔCa2+) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dentin analysis was also performed by SEM. A one-way ANOVA/Bonferroni test was performed to analyze the data (α=0.05). The experimental 2.5 NaF and 5.2 NaF groups showed greater effectiveness in preventing TSL when compared to the other groups (p <0.05), regardless of the substrate. In addition, these groups showed lower loss in Ca2+ content when compared to the other groups (p <0.05), for enamel and dentin. Dentin showed greater TSL and ΔCa2+ loss when compared to enamel in all treatments (p <0.05). The 5.2% and 2.5% NaF-containing experimental varnishes showed promising results in both, the prevention of TSL and the loss of Ca2+, regardless of the substrate studied.

Resumo Este estudo in vitro avaliou o efeito anti-erosivo de um verniz experimental contendo 5% de cloreto estanoso (SnCl₂) associado a diferentes concentrações de NaF (sem NaF, 2,5% NaF ou 5,2% NaF) sobre esmalte e dentina radicular bovinos. Cem amostras foram pré-erodidas (ácido cítrico 0,3%, pH 2,6, 10 min) e randomizadas em cinco grupos (n=10 para cada substrato): Controle negativo - água milli-Q; Sem NaF - Verniz experimental sem SnCl2 e sem NaF; 2,5 NaF - Verniz experimental 5% SnCl2 associado a 2,5% NaF; 5,2 NaF: Verniz experimental 5% SnCl2 associado a 5,2% NaF e controle positivo - Verniz comercial contendo 5% NaF (Duraphat). Após a aplicação dos vernizes, os desafios erosivos e abrasivos foram realizados por cinco dias. A perda de estrutura dentária (PED) foi determinada por perfilometria óptica e a perda de cálcio (ΔCa2+) por espectroscopia de absorção atômica. A análise da dentina também foi realizada por MEV. Um teste ANOVA/Bonferroni de uma via foi realizado para analisar os dados (α=0,05). Os grupos experimentais 2,5 NaF e 5,2 NaF apresentaram maior eficácia na prevenção de PED quando comparados aos demais grupos (p<0,05), independentemente do substrato. Além disso, esses grupos apresentaram menor perda no teor de Ca2+ quando comparados aos demais grupos (p<0,05), para esmalte e dentina. A dentina apresentou maior PED e de ΔCa2+ quando comparada ao esmalte em todos os tratamentos (p<0,05). Os vernizes experimentais contendo NaF 5,2% e 2,5% apresentaram resultados promissores tanto na prevenção de PED quanto na perda de Ca2+, independente do substrato estudado.

Rev. estomatol. Hered ; 32(1): 61-67, ene.-mar 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389063


RESUMEN El tratamiento de la dentina como paso previo al procedimiento de adhesión tiene como propósito mejorar las condiciones del sustrato mejorando la fuerza de unión entre la superficie dentaria y el material de restauración, promoviendo mayor longevidad y estabilidad de la restauración. El objetivo del estudio fue realizar una revisión de la literatura que describe las propiedades de diferentes agentes acondicionantes de la dentina. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura incluyendo trabajos publicados entre el 2014 a 2020, de bases de datos médicas como PubMeb, SciELO y ScienceDirect; en idioma inglés, español y portugués. Se seleccionaron un total de 20 artículos que cumplían los criterios de inclusión. Se ha identificado en la literatura el uso de diversos agentes pre tratamiento de la dentina, principalmente agentes químicos como el hipoclorito de sodio, clorhexidina, el ácido etilenodiaminatetraacético (EDTA), las nanopartículas metálicas y las técnicas mecánicas como la abrasión por aire con óxido de aluminio y bicarbonato de sodio.

ABSTRACT Dentin treatment as a prior step to the adhesion procedure is intended to improve the substrate condition by improving the bonding strength between the tooth surfaces and the restorative material, promoting greater longevity and stability of the restoration. The objective of the study was to carry out a review of the literature that describes the properties of different conditioning agents of dentin. A review of the literature was carried out, including works published between 2014 and 2020, from medical databases such as PubMeb, SciELO and ScienceDirect; in English, Spanish and Portuguese. A total of 20 articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The use of various dentin pre-treatment agents has been identified in the literature, mainly chemical agents such as sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), metallic nanoparticles and mechanical techniques such as air abrasion. with aluminum oxide and baking soda.

Braz. dent. sci ; 25(3): 1-9, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1373090


Objective: This in vitro study evaluated the effect of neolignan-containing solutions on dentin biomodification previously applied to the bonding procedure in adhesive restorations. Material and Methods: Neolignans, dehydrodieugenol B­CP1 and dehydrodieugenol B methyl ether­CP2, were isolated from Nectandra leucanthaand two aqueous solutions containing 0.13% neolignans, 0.2% propylene glycol and 3.0% ethanol were prepared. Bovine teeth were ground flat to obtain 2-mm thick specimens which received resin composite restorations (N=10). The neolignan solutions were applied before the bonding procedure (60 s). Experimental groups were: control, untreated group, 0.12% chlorhexidine gel, 0.13% CP1 solution, and 0.13% CP2 solution. A push-out bond strength test was conducted (0.5 mm/min). Bovine tooth sections (0.5×1.7×7.0 mm) were also obtained to assess the modulus of elasticity and mass change after treatment (N=15). A three-point bending test evaluated the elastic modulus of fully demineralized dentine beams after immersion in the solutions. The data were statistically analyzed (α = 0.05). Results: The bond strength of the restorations to dentin was significantly improved by the treatment with neolignan-containing solutions, irrespective of the evaluation time (p<0.05). After 6 months, a significant reduction in the bond strength was observed in the groups treated with the solutions (p>0.05), but the means were significantly higher than the control groups (p<0.05). The elastic modulus of demineralized dentin was significantly improved after the treatment with the solutions (p<0.05). All groups lost mass weight. Conclusion: The solutions improved the in vitro longevity of bonded restorations, possibly due to the dentin biomodification effect of the neolignans.(AU)

Objetivo: Este estudo in vitro avaliou o efeito de soluções contendo neolignanas na biomodificação da dentina aplicadas previamente à restaurações adesivas. Material e Métodos: Neolignanas, desidrodieugenol B­CP1 e éter metílico de desidrodieugenol B-CP2, foram isolados da espécie Nectandra leucantha e duas soluções aquosas contendo 0,13% de neolignanos, 0,2% de propilenoglicol e 3,0% de etanol foram preparadas. Dentes bovinos foram lixados para obter espécimes de 2 mm de espessura e preparos cavitários restaurados com resina composta (N=10). As soluções foram aplicadas em dentina antes do procedimento adesivo (60 s). Os grupos experimentais foram: controle, grupo não tratado, gel de clorexidina 0,12%, solução de CP1 a 0,13% e solução de CP2 a 0,13%. Foi realizado o teste de resistência de união push-out (0,5 mm/min). O módulo de elasticidade e a alteração de massa após tratamento da dentina (0,5×1,7×7,0 mm) foram também avaliados em teste de flexão de três pontos (N=15). Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente (α=0,05). Resultados: A resistência de união das restaurações à dentina melhorou significativamente com o tratamento com as soluções, independentemente do tempo de avaliação (p<0,05). Após 6 meses, foi observada redução significativa da resistência de união nos grupos tratados com as soluções (p>0,05), com médias significativamente maiores do que nos grupos controle (p<0,05). O módulo de elasticidade da dentina desmineralizada aumentou significativamente após tratamento com as soluções (p<0,05). Todos os grupos perderam massa, independentemente do tratamento. Conclusão: As soluções melhoraram in vitroa longevidade das restaurações adesivas, possivelmente devido ao efeito biomodificador da dentina das neolignanas(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Plants, Medicinal , Lignans , Collagen Type I , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Dentin
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(3): 1-8, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1373117


Objective: To evaluate the ability of different separating mediums to prevent adhesion between provisional restorations and hybridized dentin surfaces when used with the Immediate Dentin Sealing technique (IDS). Material and Methods: 120 extracted human teeth ­ 40 premolars and 80 molars ­ were selected to integrate acrylics samples separated into 4 different groups (n=10) according to the separating medium used for IDS protection. Forty samples were made of three teeth mounted in a self-cure acrylic resin block (Jet, Classic, São Paulo, Brazil) arranged side by side, simulating the positioning and proximal contacts present in the dental arch between the second premolar, first molar and second molar. A standard dental preparation for ultra-thin occlusal veneer was performed and complete occlusal dentin exposure was achieved by selective removal of the occlusal enamel with a high-speed conical round burr (Code: 1801.4138 FG, KG Sorensen, Medical Burs Ind. e Com. de Pontas e Brocas Cirúrgicas Ltda, São Paulo, Brazil). Dentin hybridization were performed on the control group and 3 different groups of separating mediums (n=10): PC­commercial provisional separating agent (Pro-V Coat, Bisco, Schaumburg, USA); GG­glycerin gel (K-Y Gel; Johnson & Johnson Industry and Commerce LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil); PJ­petroleum jelly (Rioquímica, São Paulo, Brazil). Provisionalization were manufactured on the prepared teeth. After 2 weeks, the tensile test was performed, and the analysis of the failure pattern was performed by 3D laser confocal microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The data were analyzed with the 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). Results: Significantly lower tensile strength values were found for the commercial provisional separating agent (30.39 ± 10.01 N) compared to others (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The commercial provisional separating agent showed greater effectiveness on protecting hybridized dentin against the provisional restorations (AU)

Objetivo: Avaliar a capacidade de diferentes agentes isolantes em prevenir a adesão entre as restaurações provisórias e a superfícies de dentina hibridizadas quando usados com a técnica do Selamento Dentinário Imediato (IDS). Material e Métodos: 120 dentes humanos extraídos - 40 pré-molares e 80 molares - foram selecionados para integrar as amostras de acrílico divididas em 4 grupos diferentes (n = 10) de acordo com o meio de separação usado para proteção IDS. Foram confeccionadas 40 amostras de três dentes montados em um bloco de resina acrílica autopolimerizável (Jet, Classic, São Paulo, Brasil) dispostos lado a lado, simulando o posicionamento e os contatos proximais presentes na arcada dentária entre o segundo pré-molar, primeiro molar e segundo molar. Um preparo dentário padrão para laminado oclusal ultrafino foi realizado e a exposição completa da dentina oclusal foi obtida pela remoção seletiva do esmalte oclusal com uma broca cônica arredondada de alta rotação (Código: 1801.4138 FG, KG Sorensen, Medical Burs Ind. E Com. de Pontas e Brocas Cirúrgicas Ltda, São Paulo, Brasil). A hibridização da dentina foi realizada no grupo controle e em 3 grupos diferentes de agentes isolantes (n = 10): PC - agente de separação provisório comercial (Pro-V Coat, Bisco, Schaumburg, EUA); GG ­ gel de glicerina (K-Y Gel; Johnson & Johnson Industry and Commerce LTDA, São Paulo, Brasil); PJ ­ vaselina (Rioquímica, São Paulo, Brasil). As restaurações provisórias foram fabricadas nos dentes preparados. Após 2 semanas, foi realizado o teste de tração, e a análise do padrão de falha foi realizada por microscopia confocal a laser 3D e Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV). Os dados foram analisados com a ANOVA de 1 fator e o teste de Tukey (α = 0,05). Resultados: Valores de resistência à tração significativamente menores foram encontrados para o agente separador provisório comercial (30,39 ± 10,01 N) em comparação com os demais (p < 0,05). Conclusão: O agente separador provisório comercial mostrou maior eficácia para a proteção da dentina hibridizada contra as restaurações provisórias (AU)

Humans , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Dental Restoration, Temporary , Dentin
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e076, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1394170


Abstract Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) is a fruit that has an inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) present in dentin and saliva. The inhibition of MMPs has been shown to prevent dentin erosion. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cranberry juice on the reduction of dentin erosion in vitro. Specimens of bovine dentin (4×4×2 mm) were randomized and divided into 4 groups (n = 17/group): distilled water (C-control, pH 7.2); green tea extract solution containing 400 µm epigallo-catechin-gallate (EGCg, positive control, pH 4.5); 10% cranberry extract (CrE, pH 3.9), and cranberry juice (CrJ, Cranberry JuxxTM, pH 2.8). Specimens were submitted to erosive pH cycles for 5 days. Each day, four demineralizations were carried out with 0.1% citric acid (90 s). After the acid challenges, specimens were rinsed and kept in treatment solutions for 1 min; afterwards, they were rinsed and stored in artificial saliva for 1 h at 37°C (or overnight at the end of each day). After the experimental period of 5 days, dentin loss was evaluated by contact profilometry. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Dentin loss (µm ± SD) was significantly lower for all treatments (EGCg = 9.93 ± 2.90; CrE = 12.10 ± 5.44; CrJ = 11.04 ± 5.70) compared to control (21.23 ± 11.96), but it did not significantly differ from each other. These results indicate that the commercial cranberry juice, despite its low pH, is able to reduce dentin erosion, which might be due to the ability of cranberry components to inhibit MMPs.

J. appl. oral sci ; 30: e20220082, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386011


Abstract Objectives To analyze the effect of 5 toothpastes containing different percentages of S-PRG fillers compared to NaF toothpaste and NaF varnish on the dentin hydraulic conductance (Lp). Methodology Dentin disks (1.0±0.2 mm thickness) were cut from third molars, and their Lp values were evaluated using Flodec. The specimens were allocated into 7 groups (n=8). The minimum (smear layer) and the maximum (after acid etching) Lp values were recorded. Lp was also assessed after treatment with either a 0wt.%, 1wt.%, 5wt.%, 20wt.%, or 30wt.% S-PRG toothpaste, a NaF toothpaste, or a NaF varnish. Toothpastes were applied by brushing for 15 s, allowing it to settle for 1 min, and rinsing with deionized water. The NaF varnish was applied for 4 min and was removed with a probe. Specimens were exposed to citric acid (6%, pH 2.1, 1 min) and their final Lp was recorded. The pH of all products was recorded (n=3) and specimens from each group were analyzed by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM). Data were subjected to 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni (a=0.05). Results The highest Lp reduction was noticed for the 5wt.% S-PRG toothpaste, NaF toothpaste, and NaF varnish. However, the toothpastes containing 5wt.%, 20wt.%, and 30wt.% of S-PRG were similar to all toothpastes but differed from the NaF varnish. After erosion, all groups retrieved their maximum Lp values, except for the NaF varnish. The LSCM evidenced deposits on the surface of specimens treated with 5%, 20%, and 30% S-PRG-based toothpastes and NaF toothpaste. Even more deposits were observed for the NaF varnish. After the erosive challenge, the deposits were diminished in all groups. Conclusion Toothpastes containing 5wt.%, 20wt.%, and 30wt.% of S-PRG fillers behaved similarly to a conventional NaF toothpaste, even after an erosive challenge. The NaF varnish promoted better reduction of the Lp, but its effect was also diminished after erosion.

Odontoestomatol ; 24(39)2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386403


Resumen Introducción: En respuesta a la sensibilidad dentinaria, se han desarrollado múltiples productos, entre ellos, Clinpro XT, barniz de vidrio ionómero modificado con resina fotopolimerizable con flúor, calcio y fosfato. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura. La selección fue en base a título, resumen y texto completo de acuerdo a los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Resultados: De 299 artículos, fueron seleccionados revisiones sistemáticas, metaanálisis, estudios in vivo e in vitro y 2 encuestas. Discusión: Clinpro XT reduce la permeabilidad dentinaria, ocluye túbulos dentinarios e inhibe su reapertura, aumenta la biodisponibilidad de minerales en saliva y promueve la remineralización del esmalte. Significando una mayor protección del esmalte y dentina de forma inmediata y a largo plazo. Conclusiones: Clinpro XT demostró disminuir la hipersensibilidad dentinaria incluso después 6 meses posterior a su aplicación.

Resumo Introdução: Em resposta à sensibilidade dentinária, foram desenvolvidos múltiplos produtos, incluindo Clinpro XT, um verniz de vidro de ionómero modificado com resina fotopolimerizável com flúor, cálcio, e fosfato. Metodologia: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura. A selecção foi baseada no título, resumo e texto completo de acordo com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Resultados: De 299 artigos, revisões sistemáticas, meta-análises, estudos in vivo e in vitro e 2 inquéritos foram seleccionados. Discussão: Clinpro XT reduz a permeabilidade da dentina, oclui os túbulos dentinários e inibe a sua reabertura, aumenta a biodisponibilidade dos minerais na saliva e promove a remineralização do esmalte. O que significa uma maior protecção do esmalte e da dentina imediatamente e a longo prazo. Conclusões: Foi demonstrado que o Clinpro XT diminui a hipersensibilidade da dentina mesmo 6 meses após a aplicação.

Abstract Introduction: Multiple products have been developed to treat dentin sensitivity, including Clinpro XT, a lightcuring resinmodified ionomer glass varnish with fluoride, calcium, and phosphate. Methodology: A systematic literature review was conducted. The articles were selected based on title, abstract, and full text according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Of 299 articles, systematic reviews, metaanalysis, in vivo and in vitro studies, and 2 surveys were selected. Discussion Clinpro XT reduces dentin permeability, occludes dentin tubules, inhibits their reopening, increases mineral bioavailability in saliva, and promotes enamel remineralization. This entails greater protection of enamel and dentin immediately and in the long term. Conclusions: Clinpro XT was shown to decrease dentin hypersensitivity even six months after application.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913017


@#Conservative endodontic access cavity (CEC) is the first step of minimally invasive endodontics. After that operation, teeth retain the dental hard tissue, such as crest and peri-cervical dentin, to a large extent. It is of great significance to reduce the tissue excision and achieve a favorable prognosis. There are a variety of approaches and corresponding cavities in CEC. The methods to determine the medullary approach include X-ray localization, micro CT/cone beam CT localization and digital guide plate localization. Among them, X-ray film and micro CT/cone beam CT are simple and commonly used in the clinic. For more complex root canal systems, the use of a digital guide plate can establish a more accurate pulp opening pathway and reduce the unnecessary loss of tooth hard tissue. However, the positioning price of a digital guide plate is high, and it has not been widely used in the clinic. The hole types of CEC include minimally invasive medullary hole type, super conservative minimally invasive medullary hole type, "Truss" hole type and cutting end hole type. The stress analysis of CEC and traditional endodontic access (TEC) cavity are mainly based on the loading of teeth by a universal mechanical testing machine in vitro, finite element analysis and clinical observation. Most scholars’ studies have shown that minimally invasive endodontics can improve the fracture resistance of teeth, but the differential capacities of CEC and TEC remain controversial. How does on balance the purpose of pulp treatment and the maximum retention of tooth tissue? Further exploration is still needed.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904739


@#Universal adhesives have been widely used in dentistry due to their easy application process and wide range of applications. In the literature, the etching modes of universal adhesives, coating methods of universal adhesives, pretreatment of adhesive, and other factors were reported to have an impact on the bonding performance of universal adhesives. This review focused on the factors affecting the bonding performance of universal adhesives and aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice. Current research suggests that the etch-and-rinse mode can achieve a better adhesive strength of enamel and that the etch-and-rinse mode and the self-etch mode exhibit a similar adhesive performance in bonding dentin. The bond strength would be improved by prolonging the application time, applying a double layer of adhesives, and wetting enamel and dentin with water or ethanol before adhesive procedures. Chlorohexidine (0.2%) and metal nanoparticles can inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and improve the long-term bond strength of dentin. Finally, universal adhesives have excellent stability and saliva pollution resistance, although they lack blood pollution resistance. In the clinic, dentists should pay attention to the etching modes of universal adhesives, coating methods of universal adhesives, pretreatment of adhesive, and other factors that may affect the effect strength. universal adhesives will be improved in bonding strength of enamel in self-etch mode and bonding performance in demineralized dentals around caries.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936116


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of a noval radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (RF-APGD) plasma jet on crosslinking of dentin collagen.@*METHODS@#(1) Twenty intact third molars were collected. The middle dentin discs were prepared for each tooth by low-speed water-cooled Isomet saw, and then immersed in 10% (mass fraction) H3PO4 solution for 16 h to obtain fully demine-ralized dentin collagen. The twenty dentin discs were then randomly divided into five groups. The control group was untreated while the four experimental groups were treated by plasma jet with gas temperature of 4 ℃ for different times (20 s, 30 s, 40 s, and 50 s). The structure and crosslinking degree of dentin collagen were characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface morphology of demineralized dentin was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscope. (2) Fourty non-caries third molars were collected to prepare 5 g fine dentin powder, then completely demineralized with 10% H3PO4 solution. The control group was untreated, while the four experimental groups were treated by plasma jet for 20 s, 30 s, 40 s and 50 s. The crosslinking degree of each group was determined by ninhydrin colorimetric method. (3) Forty intact third molars were collected to obtain dentin strips. Only two central symmetrical dentin strips (nasty 80) were taken from each tooth and immersed in 10% H3PO4 solution for 16 h to obtain fully demineralized dentin collagen. Eighty dentine collagen fiber strips were randomly divided into five groups. The control group was untreated and the axial surfaces of dentin collagen fiber strips in the expe-rimental groups were treated with the plasma jet for 20 s, 30 s, 40 s and 50 s. The ultimate tensile strength of dentin was measured by universal mechanical machine.@*RESULTS@#(1) The surface morphology of demineralized dentin observed by scanning electron microscope showed that the network structure of collagen fibers on the surface of demineralized dentin treated with the plasma jet for 20 s, 30 s and 40 s could maintain the uncollapsed three-dimensional structure, and part of the microstructure was destroyed after plasma jet treated for 50 s. After being treated by plasma jet for 20 s, 30 s and 40 s, the three-dimensional structure was uncollapsed, and the typical periodic transverse pattern of natural type Ⅰ collagen fiber could be seen. The results of infrared spectra showed that the secondary conformation of dentin collagen fibers was the same as that of the control group after being treated with the plasma jet, and the intensity of amide band was significantly increased after being treated for 30 s and 40 s. (2) The results of ninhydrin crosslinking test showed that the crosslinking ratio of dentin collagen treated by plasma jet for 30 s and 40 s was the highest, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (3) The results of dentin ultimate tensile strength showed that the control group was (1.67±0.24) MPa, and the plasma jet treated 20 s, 30 s, 40 s and 50 s groups were (4.21±0.15) MPa, (7.06±0.30) MPa, (7.32±0.27) MPa, and (6.87±0.17) MPa, which were significantly different from that of the control group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The novel RF-APGD plasma jet treatment can promote the crosslinking degree of demineralized dentin collagen and improve their ultimate tensile strength.

Collagen , Dental Bonding , Dentin , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Tensile Strength
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942765


@#Dental and craniofacial bone development is a highly coordinated process that is tightly controlled by genetics and influenced by complex environments. The abnormal regulation of many development-related signaling molecules may lead to abnormal tooth development, severe craniofacial bone formation disorders, and developmental deformities. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is widely expressed in vivo and participates in many cellular biological processes, showing complex regulatory roles in mammalian craniofacial bone growth and tooth development. In tooth development, abnormal TGF-β signaling can lead to the failure of tooth germ formation, and its deletion mutation can directly affect odontoblast differentiation and enamel formation defects. However, the current research on TGF-β mainly focuses on the early stage of tooth development, and a comprehensive and systematic study of TGF-β-related tooth development is lacking. TGF-β signal transduction mainly controls the development of teeth and craniofacial bone by regulating the expression of development-related molecules via the classical Smad-dependent signaling pathway. In addition, the nonclassical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway also participates in this process. Abnormal TGF-β signaling may cause jaw development disorders, temporomandibular joint dysplasia and inflammation, and cleft palate. Because the specific regulatory mechanism of TGF-β in craniofacial bone development has not been fully elucidated, its specific application in the treatment of related diseases is also greatly limited. This paper describes the new research progress of TGF-β in the development of teeth, jaws, temporomandibular joints and palate as well as related diseases.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942636


Objective@#To explore the effects of long noncoding-RNA (lncRNA) taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) on the proliferation and osteogenic/odontoblast differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). @*Methods @# hDPSCs were isolated and cultured. The surface antigens CD44, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD133 and STRO-1 were detected by flow cytometry. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and alizarin red staining were used to identify the ability of cells to differentiate. RNA was collected on Days 0, 7 and 14 of the osteogenic induction of hDPSCs, and qRT-PCR was used to detect the relative expression of TUG1. The hDPSCs were stably transfected with a lentiviral vector containing the TUG1-silenced pSLenti-U6-shRNA(TUG1)-CMV-EGFP-F2A-Puro-WPRE to silence TUG1. The ability of hDPSCs to proliferate was assessed with the CCK-8 method. ALP and alizarin red staining and quantitative detection were used to detect the ALP activity and formation of mineralized nodules of hDPSCs. The expression levels of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), Runt-associated transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) genes and proteins were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot.@*Results @#The hDPSCs were successfully isolated and cultured, and TUG1 expression was significantly increased during osteogenic differentiation (P<0.05). The hDPSCs proliferation was suppressed after silencing TUG1(P<0.05). After osteogenic induction, ALP and alizarin red staining showed that ALP activity and mineralized nodules were suppressed by silencing TUG1. The expression levels of the odontogenic differentiation gene DSPP and DMP-1 and the osteogenic differentiation gene Runx2, OCN and OPN were also significantly decreased (P<0.05).@*Conclusion @# Knocking down TUG1 can inhibit the proliferation and osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs.