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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210421, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375121

ABSTRACT

Dog bite is one of the major public health problems involving people worldwide. Although, several studies have investigated this phenomenon in different countries, little information about the incidence of dog bite episodes in Italy is available. We analysed data about dog biting events between 2010 and 2019 provided by the CRIUV, the Regional Reference Centre for Veterinary Urban Hygiene in the largest city of Southern Italy, namely. Naples. We observed severe and profound inconsistencies in the data collection that reveal structural and significant weaknesses of the current data collection system. Given the multifactorial nature of dog bite, we highlight the need to improve the gathering of all the information related to the factors affecting the occurrence of biting episodes for an accurate assessment of the biting phenomenon.


A mordida de cães é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública que envolve pessoas em todo o mundo. Embora vários estudos tenham investigado esse fenômeno em diferentes países, poucas informações sobre a incidência de episódios de mordidas por cães na Itália estão disponíveis. Analisamos dados sobre eventos de mordidas de cães entre 2010 e 2019 fornecidos pelo CRIUV, Centro de Referência Regional para Higiene Veterinária Urbana na maior cidade do sul da Itália, Nápoles. Observamos inconsistências graves e profundas na coleta de dados que revelam fragilidades estruturais e significativas do sistema de coleta de dados atual. Dada a natureza multifatorial da mordida canina, destaca-se a necessidade de melhorar a coleta de todas as informações relacionadas aos fatores que afetam a ocorrência de episódios de mordida para uma avaliação precisa deste fenômeno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Bites and Stings/veterinary , Human-Animal Bond , Aggression , Risk , Retrospective Studies , Italy
2.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210543, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375117

ABSTRACT

Prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are useful tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of coagulation disorders in Veterinary Medicine. Our objectives were: to establish reference intervals (RI) for PT and a PTT for the dog using the Start®4 (Stago), to compare the obtained RI with literature; to evaluate the effects of gender and age on the coagulation profile. Plasma samples of 122 healthy dogs (57 males; 65 females) aged between 4 months and 18 years, divided into three age groups (0-2 years old; 3-10 years old; > 10 years old) and grouped in to males and females were analysed. The RI were estimated following the ASVCP guidelines with the Reference Value Advisor software. The RI were: PT 6.7'' to 10.8''; aPTT 9.0'' to 14.8''. PT was significantly higher in females than in males. Dogs aged 10 years or older have significantly higher mean aPTT times than younger dogs. RI comparison showed a considerable percentage of cases outside the reference RI of the literature (PT - 79.3%; aPTT - 77.1%), demonstrating the need of each laboratory to calculate its own RI. The RI established in this study are applicable for the coagulation profile assessment in dogs.


O tempo de protrombina (TP) e o tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa) são ferramentas úteis para o diagnóstico e monitorização das alterações da coagulação em Medicina Veterinária. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: estabelecer intervalos de referência (IR) para TP e TTPa para o cão utilizando o Start®4 (Stago), de modo a comparar os IR obtidos com a literatura; avaliar os efeitos do sexo e da idade no perfil da coagulação. Foram usadas amostras de plasma de 122 cães saudáveis (57 machos; 65 fêmeas) com idades entre quatro meses e 18 anos, divididos em três grupos (0-2 anos; 3-10 anos; > 10 anos) e agrupados em machos e fêmeas. Os IR foram calculados seguindo as diretrizes da ASVCP com o software Reference Value Advisor. Os IR obtidos foram: PT 6,7 '' a 10,8 ''; TTPa 9,0 '' a 14,8 ''. O TP foi significativamente maior nas fêmeas do que nos machos. Os cães com 10 anos ou mais apresentaram tempos médios de TTPa significativamente maiores do que cães mais jovens. A comparação de IR mostrou uma percentagem considerável de casos fora do IR de referência da literatura (TP - 79,3%; TTPa - 77,1%), confirmando a necessidade de cada laboratório calcular seu próprio IR. Os IR estabelecidos neste estudo são aplicáveis na avaliação do perfil hemostático em cães.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Partial Thromboplastin Time/veterinary , Prothrombin Time/veterinary , Hemostatics/analysis , Reference Values , Sex Factors , Age Factors
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241162, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278483

ABSTRACT

Abstract Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies and a major zoonotic disease in Brazil. Due to the southward expansion of the disease within the country and the central role of dogs as urban reservoirs of the parasite, we have investigated the occurrence of CVL in two municipalities Erval Velho and Herval d'Oeste in the Midwest region of Santa Catarina state. Peripheral blood samples from 126 dogs were collected in both cities and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIF) and for the presence of parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood. From examined dogs, 35.71% (45/126) were positive for at least one of the three tests and two (1.6%) were positive in all performed tests. Twelve dogs (9.5%) were positive for both ELISA and IIF, while 21 dogs were exclusively positive for ELISA (16.7%), and 15 (11.9%) for IIF. L. infantum k-DNA was detected by PCR in 9 out of 126 dogs (7.1%) and clinical symptoms compatible with CVL were observed for 6 dogs. Taken together, these results indicate the transmission of CVL in this region, highlighting the needs for epidemiological surveillance and implementation of control measures for CVL transmission in this region.


Resumo A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) causada pela Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum e transmitida por flebotomíneos e é uma das principais zoonoses do Brasil que se encontra em expansão em estados da região sul do país, sendo os cães o principal reservatório urbano do parasito. O presente estudo investigou a ocorrência de LVC em dois municípios, Erval Velho e Herval d'Oeste localizados no meio-oeste de Santa Catarina. Para tanto, amostras de sangue periférico de 126 cães foram coletadas em ambas as cidades e submetidas à detecção de anticorpos anti-L. infantum por meio de testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFI), bem com a detecção de k-DNA pela reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR). Além disso, também foram observados os sintomas clínicos e as condições ambientais associadas a esses animais. Dos cães examinados, 35,7% (45/126) foram positivos para pelo menos um dos três testes, dois cães (1,6%) foram positivos em todos os três testes, 12 cães (9,5%) foram positivos tanto no ELISA quanto na IFI, enquanto 21 cães (16,7%) foram positivos para ELISA e 15 (11,9%) para o IFI. A amplificação do k-DNA de L. infantum foi positiva em 9 dos 126 cães (7,1%). Entre os cães positivos seis apresentaram um ou mais sintomas clínicos correlacionados com a LVC. Esses resultados confirmaram a ocorrência de LVC na região e destacaram a importância do monitoramento e implementação de medidas de controle para a LVC nessa região


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(1): e016821, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360927

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to verify the occurrence of Dioctophyme renale in stray dogs in the city of Pelotas, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas received 146 wandering dogs for necropsy, sent by the City Hall of Pelotas from March 2012 to January 2020. Among the necropsied animals, seventeen dogs (11.64%) were diagnosed with dioctophymosis. Among these dogs, 11 were parasitized with one specimen in the right kidney, two dogs presented two specimens in the right kidney, and in other two dogs, the parasites were in the abdominal cavity. In one dog, two parasites were found in the left kidney; in another dog, both kidneys were parasitized, with two parasites in the right kidney and one in the left kidney. The data obtained in this study showed that the occurrence of D. renale in stray dogs in the city of Pelotas is high, and D. renale mainly parasitizes the right kidney.


Resumo Este trabalho possui como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de D. renale em cães errantes do município de Pelotas, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Universidade Federal de Pelotas recebeu 146 cães errantes para necropsia, encaminhados pela Prefeitura Municipal de Pelotas, no período de março de 2012 a janeiro de 2020. Dentre os cães necropsiados, 17 animais foram diagnosticados com dioctofimose, determinando uma ocorrência de 11,64%. Desses animais, onze estavam parasitados com um exemplar no rim direito, dois animais possuíam dois exemplares no rim direito. Em dois animais, os parasitas estavam na cavidade abdominal; em um animal havia, dois parasitas no rim esquerdo e noutro animal os dois rins estavam parasitados, tendo dois exemplares no rim direito e um exemplar no rim esquerdo. Os dados obtidos neste trabalho permitem concluir que é elevada a ocorrência de D. renale nos cães errantes do município de Pelotas, parasitando principalmente o rim direito.

5.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative rod that is part of the commensal microbiota of dogs' and cats' mouths. In this case, we report an 85-year-old man with COVID-19 who had his right arm bitten by a dog. His symptoms were impaired consciousness, agitation and aggressive behavior. Physical examination revealed neck stiffness and Brudzinski's sign. The cerebrospinal fluid culture was compatible with Capnocytophaga canimorsus. He required intensive care and received a 14-day prescription of meropenem. After 40 days of hospitalization, the patient was fully recovered and was discharged. This case highlights the importance of physician and microbiologist be awareness of this disease, mainly in patients with neurological symptoms after a dog or cat bite.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2191-2196, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936558

ABSTRACT

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the plasma concentration of progesterone in Beagle dogs, and apply it to the study of the pharmacokinetics of progesterone sustained-release formulation in Beagle dogs. The plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation method and megestrol acetate was used as an internal standard (IS). The quantitation analysis was performed using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode at the specific ion transitions of m/z 315.2→97.0 for progesterone and m/z 385.2→267.1 for megestrol acetate (IS) under the positive ion condition. Male Beagle dogs were injected intramuscularly with progesterone sustained-release microspheres and the plasma samples were collected at different time points after administration. The relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by WinNonlin 8.1 software. A good linearity over the range of 0.1-500.0 ng·mL-1 was yielded by this method. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) were all less than 13.25% and the accuracy (RE) was within 8.92%. Stability test showed that progesterone in dog plasma was stable at room temperature for 12 h, up to 60 days at -20 ℃ and after three cycles of freeze-thaw. The recovery of it ranged from 71.43%-77.97%. After intramuscular injection of progesterone sustained-release microspheres in Beagle dogs, tmax was 19.00 ± 25.36 h, Cmax was 137.72 ± 11.59 ng·mL-1, t1/2 was 83.83 ± 26.43 h. The drug was released continuously in vivo and in a continuous absorption process for many times with good sustained-release effect. The method developed in this study is sensitive, rapid and stable. It is suitable for the determination of progesterone plasma concentration in Beagle dogs, and can be applied to the preclinical pharmacokinetic study of progesterone-related formulations. The animal experiment scheme of this study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences.

7.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(4): 211-217, out./dez. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363493

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi validar intervalos de referências (IRs) para hematologia e bioquímica sanguínea de cães domiciliados da Amazônia Oriental e estabelecer novos IRs para os parâmetros não validados. Foram utilizadas amostras de 44 cães adultos clinicamente saudáveis de diferentes raças e sexos. Na validação, foi utilizada a metodologia proposta pelo Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) e na determinação dos IRs dos parâmetros não validados foi utilizada a metodologia estatística proposta pela American Society for Clinical Veterinary Pathology (ASCPV). Os IRs foram determinados por meio do programa Excel com o suplemento Reference Value Advisor (versão 2.1). O software realiza os cálculos de acordo com as recomendações CLSI, conforme sugerido pelas diretrizes da ASCVP. Um total de 25 parâmetros (13 hematológicos e 12 bioquímicos) foram submetidos ao processo de validação. Desse total, seis (24%) parâmetros não foram validados (Hemoglobina, CHGM, eosinófilos, linfócitos, albumina e GGT) e para estes foram estabelecidos novos intervalos. Para a maioria dos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos (76%), os IRs estabelecidos previamente na literatura ainda são válidos para utilização em cães criados na Amazônia Oriental. Para os parâmetros não validados, apenas para eosinófilos e linfócitos recomendamos que outros trabalhos, com um número maior de animais, sejam realizados para confirmar os nossos resultados ou estabelecer novos IRs. Os IRs estabelecidos para hemoglobina, CHGM, albumina e GGT podem ser utilizados em substituição aos intervalos antigos.


The aim of the present study was to validate reference intervals (RIs) for hematology and blood biochemistry of dogs domiciled in the Eastern Amazon and to establish new RIs for parameters not yet validated. Samples from 44 clinically healthy adult dogs of different breeds and sexes were used. The methodology proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) was used for validation, and the statistical methodology proposed by the American Society for Clinical Veterinary Pathology (ASCPV) was used to determine the RIs of the non-validated parameters. The IRs were determined using the Excel program with the Reference Value Advisor add-in (version 2.1). The software performs calculations according to CLSI recommendations as suggested by the ASCVP guidelines. A total of 25 parameters (13 hematological and 12 biochemical) were submitted to the validation process. Of this total, six (24%) parameters were not validated (Hemoglobin, CHGM, eosinophils, lymphocytes, albumin and GGT) and new intervals were established for these. For most hematological and biochemical parameters (76%), the RIs previously established in the literature are still valid for use in dogs raised in the Eastern Amazon. For non-validated parameters, just for eosinophils and lymphocytes, we recommend that other studies, with a larger number of animals, be carried out to confirm our results or establish new IRs. The established IRs for hemoglobin, CHGM, albumin and GGT can be used in place of the old ranges.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Reference Values , Dogs , Reference Standards , Hematologic Tests/veterinary , Biochemistry , Amazonian Ecosystem , Hematology
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(4): 548-554, ago. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388270

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las rickettsiosis son enfermedades emergentes transmitidas por vectores artrópodos cuyos agentes etiológicos corresponden a bacterias patógenas del género Rickettsia y Orientia . Bacterias de este género han sido descritas en el norte y sur de Chile. OBJETIVO: Determinar presencia de Rickettsia spp. en garrapatas colectadas a partir de perros domésticos en Rapa Nui-Isla de Pascua, Región de Valparaíso. MÉTODOS: Fueron muestreados 20 perros callejeros durante octubre del año 2018. Se colectaron ocho garrapatas adultas desde siete animales (prevalencia: 35%); luego de su identificación taxonómica fueron sometidas a amplificación y secuenciación del gen ADNm 16S para garrapata y gltA (citrato sintetasa) para Rickettsia . RESULTADOS: Todos los ejemplares de garrapatas adultas correspondieron genéticamente a Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu stricto lo cual fue confirmado mediante un análisis filogenético. En dos garrapatas (25%) se encontraron secuencias idénticas de gltA compatibles con " Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae", que formaron un clado monofilético con aislados obtenidos en Brasil, Chile y Perú. CONCLUSIÓN: Se documenta la presencia de " Ca. R. andeanae" s. s. en Rapa Nui-Isla de Pascua, asociado por primera vez a garrapatas del complejo R. sanguineus en Chile.


BACKGROUND: Rickettsioses are vector-borne emerging diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Orientia . Bacteria of these genera have been described in northern and southern Chile, respectively. AIM: To determine the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from domestic dog in Rapa Nui-Easter Island, Valparaíso Region. METHODS: 20 stray dogs were sampled during October 2018. Overall, eight adult ticks were collected from seven animals (prevalence: 35%); after morphological identification, were submitted to DNA extraction and amplification and sequencing of the tick mitochondrial 16S DNA gene. The screening for Rickettsia was performed targeting the gltA (citrate synthetase) gene. RESULTS: A phylogenetic analysis confirmed the identity of the ticks as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu stricto. In two ticks (25%), we retrieved identical sequences of gltA compatible with " Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae", which formed a monophyletic group with conspecific isolates obtained in Brazil, Chile and Peru. CONCLUSION: This study proves the presence of " Ca . R. andeanae" in R. sanguineus s. s. at Rapa Nui-Easter Island, which also corresponds to the first report of this Rickettsia spp. in R. sanguineus complex for Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Rickettsia/genetics , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiology , Dog Diseases , Phylogeny
9.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 126-131, jul./set. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363897

ABSTRACT

Este estudo objetivou avaliar o comportamento de cães de responsáveis brasileiros, através do Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) e estabelecer se estes comportamentos apresentam relação significativa com a idade, sexo e castração do animal. O questionário foi respondido pelos participantes entre novembro de 2018 a abril de 2020. As amostras foram divididas de acordo com o sexo (fêmeas ou machos), a idade (um ano ou menos, de um a três anos, de três a sete anos, de sete a dez anos ou mais de dez anos) e o status reprodutivo do animal (castrados ou inteiros). Para cada questionário respondido, foram calculados os escores das 14 categorias de comportamento investigados pelo C-BARQ e, através do programa Biostat 5.3, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman com nível de significância de 5% para avaliar a correlação entre estes escores com os fatores idade, sexo e status reprodutivo dos animais. Os resultados sugerem maiores escores de comportamentos agressivos em cães mais velhos e em cães castrados. A castração também obteve associação com maiores escores de medo de outros cães. Os achados evidenciam necessidade de estudos que busquem investigar de que modo a castração se vincula com estes comportamentos que podem comprometer a convivência entre o responsável e seu cão.


This study investigated Brazilian's dogs behavior through the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) and establish if these behaviors have a significant relationship with the age, sex and neutering status of the animal. The questionnaire was answered by owners between November 2018 and April 2020. The sample was divided according to sex (female or male), age (one year or less, from one to three years, from three to seven years, from seven to ten years or more than ten years) and the reproductive status of the animal (neutered or not). For each questionnaire answered, the scores of the 14 behavior categories investigated by C-BARQ were calculated and Spearman's correlation coefficient with a significance level of 5% was used to assess the correlation between these scores with the factors age, sex and reproductive status of the animals (Biostat 5.3 program). The results suggest higher scores for aggressive behavior in older dogs and in neutered dogs. Neutering was also associated with higher scores of fear from other dogs. The findings suggest the need for studies that seek to investigate how castration is linked to these behaviors that can deteriorate the owner-dog relationship.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Behavior, Animal , Dogs/psychology , Castration/veterinary , Aggression , Human-Animal Interaction
10.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 167-173, jul./set. 2021. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366793

ABSTRACT

Hematological and serum biochemical characteristics and prevalence of microorganisms in the uterine content of bitches with pyometra were described, according to type and age. This study was carried out at the Veterinary Medicine Hospital Renato Rodenburg de Medeiros Netto of the UFBA with 132 patients diagnosed with pyometra through imaging and laboratory tests, divided into two groups: Group 1 - less than eight years (n=72) and Group 2 - more than eight years (n=60). Both groups were submitted to Ovariohysterectomy (OH), in which blood and uterine lumen secretion samples were collected. The highest incidence of pyometra was found in bitches under 8 years (54.5%), Poodle breed (31.8%) and mixed-breed (27.3%). Open pyometra represented 80.3% of all cases. The death rate (6.0%) did not show significant difference between the types. Anemia (73.0%), thrombocytopenia (41.2%) and leukocytosis (77.0%) were observed. Urea and ALP were above the reference values in 41.8% and 52.2% of each group, respectively, while ALT (94.0%) and creatine (82%) remained normal in most animals. Serum biochemistry did not show significant differences (P<0.05). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. grew in 33.3% and 16.7% of the samples, respectively. Therefore, no significant hematological and serum biochemical differences were observed in bitches with pyometra in both age categories.


Descreveu-se características hematológicas, bioquímicas séricas e prevalência de microrganismos no conteúdo uterino de cadelas com piometra, de acordo com o tipo e idade. Realizou-se este estudo no Hospital de Medicina Veterinária Renato Rodenburg de Medeiros Netto da UFBA com 132 pacientes diagnosticadas com piometra, por exames de imagem e laboratoriais, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 ­ menos de oito anos (n=72) e Grupo 2 ­ mais de oito anos (n=60), submetidas a Ovariectomia (OH), quando se coletou amostras de sangue e secreção do lúmen uterino. A incidência maior deu-se em cadelas abaixo de 8 anos (54,5%), da raça Poodle (31,8%) e sem raça definida (SRD) (27,3%), sendo 80,3% de piometra aberta. A taxa de óbito (6,0%) não apresentou diferença significativa entre os tipos. Observou-se a ocorrência de anemia (73,0%), trombocitopenia (41,2%) e leucocitose (77,0%). Os valores de ureia e FA estiveram acima dos valores de referência em 41,8% e 52,2% das cadelas respectivamente, enquanto a ALT (94,0%) e a creatina (82%) mantiveram-se dentro dos valores de referência na maioria dos animais. A bioquímica sérica não apresentou diferenças significativas (P<0,05). Observou-se crescimento de Escherichia coli e Klebsiella sp. em 33,3% e 16,7% das amostras, respectivamente. Sendo assim, não se observou diferenças significativas hematológicas e na bioquímica sérica de cadelas com piometra nas categorias de idade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases , Pyometra/veterinary , Biochemistry , Age Factors , Endometrial Hyperplasia/veterinary , Hematologic Tests/veterinary
11.
Rev. med. vet. (Bogota) ; (42): 93-98, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365915

ABSTRACT

Abstract This clinical report describes a 1-year-old Golden Retriever dog weighing 24 kg that developed gastroenteritis as a result of the unprescribed and random use of a syrup Hedera helix extract, which is for human use only. Diagnosis was made after ruling out other factors that could cause gastroenteritis. An improvement in clinical findings was observed as a result of supportive treatment. It is already widely recognized that triterpene saponins, biological active compounds of Hedera helix, cause gastroenteritis in dogs and it is considered that unprescribed and random use of syrup Hedera helix at high doses, may cause severe gastroenteritis symptoms that will endanger life. It is concluded that successful management of Hedera helix extract poisoning depends on a good anamnesis, physical exams, and laboratory tests, rapidly ruling out other causes of gastroenteritis, quitting the use of syrup immediately and a supportive treatment.


Resumen En este informe clínico, se describe un cuadro de gastroenteritis desarrollada por un Golden Retriever de 1 año de edad que pesaba 24 kg, como resultado del uso aleatorio y sin receta de un extracto de jarabe de Hedera helix, que es solo para uso por humano. El diagnóstico se realizó después de que se descartados otros factores que podrían causar gastroenteritis. Se observó una mejora en los hallazgos clínicos como resultado del tratamiento de apoyo. Ya se ha reconocido ampliamente que las saponinas triterpénicas, que son compuestos biológicos activos de Hedera helix, causan gastroenteritis en perros y se considera que el uso aleatorio y sin receta de jarabe de extracto de Hedera helix en dosis altas puede provocar síntomas de gastroenteritis más graves que pondrán en peligro la vida. Se concluyó que el manejo exitoso de la intoxicación por Hedera helix depende de una buena anamnesis, exámenes físicos y de laboratorio, descartar rápidamente las otras causas de gastroenteritis, dejar inmediatamente el jarabe y tratamiento de apoyo.

12.
Rev. colomb. cienc. pecu ; 34(2): 126-144, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394936

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The results from automated equipment and peripheral blood smears allow correlating clinical data with cellular blood counts (CBC), generating information on pathologies of hematological and non-hematological origin in dogs. Objective: To describe qualitative and quantitative magnitudes of CBC in healthy donor dogs of a blood- bank in Medellín (Colombia). Methods: A descriptive-prospective study was carried out from 146 records of CBC results from a blood-bank. The samples were processed by automated equipment, and trained personnel performed the observation of peripheral blood smears to collect qualitative information. Variables such as age, sex, breed, quantitative results, and observations of the peripheral blood smears were considered. For the definition of biological intervals (BIs), the mean and two standard deviations were used for the data with a normal distribution. Otherwise, the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were used. Results: The size, granularity, and cytoplasmic vacuoles in monocytes and polymorphonuclear eosinophils, as well as the presence of Barr chromatin and occasional circulating erythroblasts, were remarkable findings to the peripheral blood smear. With the standardization of data obtained from dogs of large and giant breeds, the present work provides BIs for some of the CBC data in the studied population. Conclusion: The findings of the present study allow approximations to the definition of alterations in blood cells and their counts, which can guide the veterinarian towards an early diagnosis in dogs.


Resumen Antecedentes: Los datos obtenidos de equipos automatizados y extendidos de sangre periférica permiten correlacionar la clínica y los resultados del hemograma, generando información de interés sobre patologías de origen hematológico y no hematológico en perros. Objetivo: Describir las magnitudes cualitativas y cuantitativas del hemograma en perros sanos, donantes de un banco de sangre en Medellín (Colombia). Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-prospectivo a partir de 146 registros de resultados de hemograma remitidos por un banco de sangre. Las muestras fueron procesadas por un equipo automatizado y personal entrenado realizó la observación del extendido de sangre periférica para la colección de información de corte cualitativo. Variables como edad, sexo, raza, resultados cuantitativos de las muestras y observaciones al extendido de sangre periférica fueron consideradas. Para la definición de intervalos biológicos (IBs) se utilizaron la media y dos desviaciones estándar para los datos con distribución normal. De lo contrario, se utilizaron los percentiles 2,5 y 97,5. Resultados: El tamaño, granularidad y vacuolas citoplasmáticas en monocitos y polimorfonucleares eosinófilos, así como la presencia de Cromatina de Barr y eritroblastos circulantes ocasionales fueron hallazgos llamativos al extendido de sangre periférica. Con la normalización de los datos para caninos de razas grandes y gigantes, el presente trabajo aporta IBs para algunos de los datos del hemograma en la población estudiada. Conclusión: Los hallazgos del presente estudio permiten aproximaciones a la definición de alteraciones en las células hemáticas y sus conteos, que pueden orientar al médico veterinario hacia un diagnóstico temprano en perros.


Resumo Antecedentes: As informações obtidas de equipamentos automatizados e esfregaços de sangue periférico permitem correlacionar os resultados clínicos e de hemogramas, gerando informações interessantes sobre patologias de origem hematológica e não hematológica em cães. Objetivo: Descrever as magnitudes qualitativa e quantitativa do hemograma em cães saudáveis, doadores de um banco de sangue em Medellín (Colômbia). Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo-prospectivo a partir de 146 registros de resultados de hemograma encaminhados por um banco de sangue. As amostras foram processadas por uma equipe automatizada e pessoal treinado observou o esfregaço de sangue periférico para a coleta de informações qualitativas. Foram consideradas variáveis como idade, sexo, raça, resultados quantitativos das amostras e observações do esfregaço de sangue periférico. Para a definição de intervalos biológicos (IBs), foram utilizados a média e dois desvios-padrão para os dados com distribuição normal. Caso contrário, foram utilizados os percentis 2,5 e 97,5. Resultados: O tamanho, a granularidade e os vacúolos citoplasmáticos dos monócitos e das células polimorfonucleares dos eosinófilos, bem como a presença da cromatina de Barr e ocasionais eritroblastos circulantes foram achados marcantes na disseminação do sangue periférico. Com a normalização dos dados para cães de raças grandes e gigantes, o presente trabalho fornece IBs para alguns dos dados de hemograma na população estudada. Conclusão: Os achados do presente estudo permitem aproximações à definição de alterações nas células sanguíneas e suas contagens, o que pode orientar o médico veterinário responsável pelo diagnóstico precoce em cães.

13.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 24(1): 141-153, Jan.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278130

ABSTRACT

Resumen Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar las representaciones sociales y las prácticas de consumo conspicuo en propietarios de perros en Colombia. Por tanto, se realizó un estudio mixto en una muestra de 96 hombres y mujeres mayores de 18 años, con, primero, una fase cualitativa en la que se exploraron las asociaciones dadas a las representaciones sociales de perros criollos y de raza por parte de propietarios de mascotas y se abordaron los significados atribuidos a las prácticas de consumo conspicuo; y, segundo, una fase cuantitativa en la que se hicieron análisis descriptivos, con lo cual se confirmó la estructura de las representaciones sociales. Como resultados se encontró que se reconoce a los perros criollos y de raza con alto valor afectivo, y que el perro criollo se asocia a condiciones de vulnerabilidad y se reconoce como perro "todo terreno", mientras que el perro de raza involucra cuidado e inversión económica y se identifica como un perro "visible" en la sociedad. Al final se discute respecto a cómo las representaciones sociales acerca de la tenencia de un perro, además del valor afectivo, involucran actividades exhibitorias, de demostración social y, a su vez, un estatus social y moral.


Abstract This research aimed to identify social representations and conspicuous consumption practices in dog owners in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. The sample included 96 men and women over the age of 18. A mixed study was carried out including first, a qualitative phase in which the social representations of dogs' owners - both creole and breed- were explored, as well as the meanings attributed to conspicuous consumption practices. Secondly, in the quantitative phase, descriptive analyses were carried out and thus the structure of social representations was confirmed. The results showed that the affective value of both the creole and breed dogs was acknowledged and that the creole dog is associated with conditions of vulnerability and regarded as an all-terrain dog, whereas breed dogs imply care and economic investment and are identified as "visible" dogs in society. It is discussed how social representations about dog ownership, in addition to the affective value, involve exhibition activities, social demonstration, and in turn, social and moral status.

14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 469-476, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248951

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the nutrient digestibility of grain-inclusive and grain-free commercial dry dog foods using the method of total fecal collection and also explore their effects on fecal consistency. 21 different foods, including 14 grain-inclusive (7 grain-chicken meat, 7 grain-lamb meat) and 7 grain-free were investigated. 12 adult Golden retriever dogs (age 3-4 years, body weight=22.5±1.7kg) were divided into 3 groups. The results of digestibility trials indicated that the grain-lamb meat foods showed the highest digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude fiber. Overall, in the grain-inclusive and grain-free group evaluation, grain-inclusive foods showed higher digestibility of crude fibers while grain-free foods had higher ether extract digestibility whereas the differences in the scores of fecal consistencies between the groups were insignificant. Contrary to popular belief, grain-inclusive foods were more digestive than grain-free foods in terms of dry matter and organic matter. There are studies involving starch sources in the dog food formulations, but there is a need to study the digestibility of complete dog food to supply them with adequate nutrients. Also, each diet should be assessed based on its overall nutrient profile and digestibility rather than individual ingredients.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar as digestibilidades de nutrientes de alimentos secos para cães comerciais, com grãos e livres de grãos, usando o método de coleta fecal total, bem como explorar seus efeitos na consistência fecal. Vinte e um alimentos diferentes, incluindo 14 grãos inclusivos (sete grãos de carne de frango, sete grãos de carne de cordeiro) e sete livres de grãos, foram investigados. Doze cães Golden Retriever adultos (idade de três-quatro anos, peso corporal = 22,5 ± 1,7kg) foram divididos em três grupos. Os resultados dos ensaios de digestibilidade indicaram que os alimentos cárneos de cordeiro apresentaram as maiores digestibilidades de matéria seca, matéria orgânica e fibra bruta. Em geral, na avaliação do grupo com grãos inclusivos e do grupo sem grãos, os alimentos com grãos inclusivos mostraram maior digestibilidade das fibras brutas, enquanto os alimentos sem grãos tiveram maior digestibilidade do extrato etéreo; já as diferenças nos escores de consistência fecal entre os grupos foram insignificantes. Ao contrário da crença popular, os alimentos com inclusão de grãos eram mais digestivos do que os sem grãos, em termos de matéria seca e matéria orgânica. Existem estudos envolvendo fontes de amido em formulações de rações, mas é necessário estudar a digestibilidade de rações completas para fornecer nutrientes adequados. Além disso, cada dieta deve ser avaliada com base em seu perfil geral de nutrientes e digestibilidade, em vez de ingredientes individuais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Nutrients/analysis , Edible Grain , Digestion , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Feed/classification
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 55-61, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153051

ABSTRACT

The number of domestic animals living with human beings is rapidly increasing in parallel with an enhanced risk of transmission of their parasites and the pathogens they might carry. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of hematophagous arthropods infesting domestic animals from Northeastern Brazil and to remark the implications of their occurrence on the epidemiology and control of selected veterinary and human diseases. From January 2017 to April 2019, ectoparasites infesting domestic cats, dogs and horses were collected for their respective hosts and identified. Overall, ectoparasites were sampled from 86 domestic animals, living in different anthropic settings. A total of 401 specimens (344 ticks and 57 fleas) were collected from different hosts [i.e., 10 (2.49%), 96 (23.94%) and 295 (73.57%) from cats, dogs and horses, respectively]. Two flea (i.e., Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides felis) and 5 tick species (i.e., Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma sculptum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) were identified. This study provides data on the ectoparasite fauna infesting domestic animals from Northeastern Brazil. The diagnosis and treatment of these parasites should not be underestimated, considering the role that hematophagous arthropods display as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary concern.(AU)


O número de animais domésticos infestados por ectoparasitos vivendo em estreito contato com seres humanos está aumentando, elevando o risco de infecção pelos patógenos transmitidos por vetores. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a ocorrência de ectoparasitos infestando animais do nordeste do Brasil e discutir as implicações desse parasitismo na epidemiologia e no controle de doenças de importância médico-veterinária. De janeiro de 2017 a abril de 2019, artrópodes foram coletados de gatos, cães e cavalos, e identificados morfologicamente. Ectoparasitos foram removidos de 86 animais infestados provenientes de áreas urbanas e rurais. Foram identificados 401 espécimes (344 carrapatos e 57 pulgas) coletados de diferentes hospedeiros (10 (2,49%), 96 (23,94%) e 295 (73,57%) de gatos, cães e cavalos, respectivamente. Duas espécies de pulgas (Ctenocephalides canis e Ctenocephalides felis) e cinco espécies de carrapatos (Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma sculptum, Dermacentornitens, Rhipicephalus microplus e Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) foram identificadas. Este estudo fornece informações sobre a ectofauna de animais domésticos do nordeste do Brasil. Portanto, o diagnóstico e o tratamento desses parasitos não devem ser subestimados, considerando que os artrópodes aqui relatados podem veicular patógenos de importância médico-veterinária.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Ticks , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Siphonaptera , Horses/parasitology , Brazil , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Rhipicephalus , Ctenocephalides , One Health , Amblyomma
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 239-246, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153047

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) dos nutrientes, a palatabilidade das dietas e as características fecais de cães alimentados com uma dieta controle e uma dieta contendo 20% de gérmen desengordurado (GD), com e sem adição de complexo enzimático (amilase, xilanase, betaglucanase e mananase). Para o experimento de digestibidade e das características fecais, foram utilizados 12 cães adultos, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dieta x enzima). O segundo experimento avaliou a palatabilidade, por meio da primeira escolha e da razão de ingestão (RI) da dieta DC vs. 20% de GD, utilizando-se 16 cães. O teste de palatabilidade contou com três dias consecutivos, totalizando 48 repetições. A dieta com inclusão de 20% de GD teve os menores valores de CDA da MS, da EB e da EM (P<0,05). A inclusão do complexo enzimático melhorou o CDA da MS, da EB e da EM (P<0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças nas características fecais (P>0,05). Em relação à palatabilidade, os cães preferiram a dieta 20% de GD, tanto na primeira escolha como na RI (P<0,05). A inclusão de enzimas às dietas melhora a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e da EM, sendo um aditivo com potencial uso na alimentação de cães.(AU)


The objective was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of nutrients, diet palatability and fecal characteristics of dogs fed diets containing degreased germ (DG), and a control diet (DC) - both with and without the addition of enzyme complex (amylase, xylanase, betaglucanase and mananase). For the digestibility and fecal characteristics experiment 12 adult dogs were used, distributed in a randomized block design, in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme (diet x enzyme). The second experiment evaluated palatability using the first choice and ingestion ratio (IR) of DC diet vs. 20%gD, using 16 dogs. The palatability test had three consecutive days, totaling 48 repetitions. The diet with inclusion of 20% DG had the lowest ADC values of DM, GE and ME (P <0.05). Inclusion of the enzyme complex improved ADC of DM, GE and ME (P <0.05). No differences in fecal characteristics were observed (P >0.05). Regarding palatability, dogs preferred the 20% DG diet in both first choice and IR (P <0.05). Inclusion of enzymes in diets improves nutrient digestibility and ME, being an additive with potential use in dog food.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/administration & dosage , Zea mays/embryology , Enzymes/administration & dosage , Animal Feed/analysis , Feces , Amylases/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(1): 23-29, jan./mar. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1368354

ABSTRACT

Na procura por material alternativo no tratamento de feridas cutâneas, buscou-se com este estudo avaliar o comportamento da túnica vaginal canina conservada em glicerina a 98% como curativo biológico no tratamento de feridas cutâneas provocadas experimentalmente em ratos. Foram utilizados 16 ratos Wistar, nos quais foram induzidas experimentalmente duas lesões cutâneas na região dorsal, sendo uma cranial e a outra caudal. Uma ferida serviu de controle, a qual não recebeu tratamento, a outra recebeu a túnica vaginal recobrindo toda extensão da lesão. A seleção de qual das feridas, cranial ou caudal, iria receber a membrana foi feita de forma aleatória. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de igual número para análises clínicas, macroscópicas e histológicas decorridos três, sete, 14 e 21 dias de pós-operatório. Na avaliação clínica e macroscópica pode-se observar que o processo de reparação teve evolução semelhante tanto no grupo controle quanto no grupo membrana. Na análise histopatológica foi constatada grande quantidade de infiltrado inflamatório nos períodos iniciais, no entanto, decorridos 21 dias, a epiderme já se encontrava reparada, e em todos os momentos foi observada maior presença de tecido conjuntivo no grupo membrana, sugerindo maior precocidade na cicatrização. Deste modo, concluiu-se que a túnica vaginal canina pode ser utilizada como nova alternativa no tratamento de feridas cutâneas.


In the search for alternative material in the treatment of cutaneous wounds, this study aimed to evaluate the behavior of canine vaginal tunic conserved in glycerin 98% as a biological dressing in the treatment of cutaneous wounds provoked experimentally in rats. Sixteen animals were used in which two cutaneous lesions were caused in the dorsal region, one cranial and the other caudal. One wound served as a control which did not receive treatment, the other received the vaginal tunic covering all extension of the lesion. The selection of which of the wounds, cranial or caudal, would receive the membrane was made at random. The animals were divided into four groups of equal numbers for clinical, macroscopic, and histological analyzes after three, seven, 14 and 21 postoperative days. In the clinical and macroscopic evaluation, it can be observed that the healing process had similar evolution in both the control group and the membrane group. In the histopathological analysis, a large amount of inflammatory infiltrate was observed in the initial periods; however, after 21 days the epidermis was already healed, and at all times a greater presence of connective tissue was observed in the membrane group, suggesting a greater precocity in healing. Thus, it was concluded that the canine vaginal tunic can be used as a new alternative in the treatment of cutaneous wounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Wound Healing/physiology , Biological Dressings/veterinary , Rats, Wistar/injuries , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use
18.
FAVE, Secc. Cienc. vet. (En línea) ; 20(1): 47-49, ene. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375459

ABSTRACT

Resumen Un paciente canino macho Kangal de 4 meses que fue llevado a nuestra clínica con antecedentes de tos severa, disestrés respiratorio y anorexia. En el examen clínico se determinó que el paciente tenía dificultad para respirar y una masa firme a la palpación de la región del cuello. Se observó que el reflejo del vómito estaba estimulado en el animal. Como resultado del examen radiográfico y endoscópico, se encontró un cuerpo extraño en la región caudal de la laringe. Una vez realizado el diagnóstico, se anestesió al paciente y se extrajo el cuerpo extraño con la ayuda de un laringoscopio. En el postoperatorio, se le administró al paciente antibióticos parenterales y antiséptico oral durante una semana. Se debate el abordaje de casos de cuerpos extraños en el tracto respiratorio de caninos.


Abstract The subject of this study was a dog brought to our clinic with complaints of severe cough, dyspnea and anorexia. During the clinical examination, a hard mass was detected by palpation of the neck area. Vomiting reflex was observed. As a result of radiographic and endoscopic examination, a foreign body was found in the caudal part of the larynx. After the diagnosis was made, the patient was anesthetized and the foreign body was removed with forceps from the oral cavity. During the postoperative period, the patient was administered parenteral antibiotics and intraoral antiseptic for a week. The approach to foreign body cases in the respiratory tract of dogs is discussed.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that hypoxia has different effects on the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and secretion of cytokines, but the effect of hypoxia on canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells has not been seen. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of hypoxic environment on the biological characteristics of canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. METHODS: Canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated and cultured by enzyme digestion. Passage 2 adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells could be divided into normoxia group (21% oxygen volume fraction) and hypoxia group (5% oxygen volume fraction). Morphological characteristics, proliferation speed, cell surface marker expression, differentiation capacity, and cytokine secretion level were compared between the two groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The growth of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured in hypoxic environment was good. The cell morphology was fusiform and polyhedral, the same as that of the normoxia group. (2) The proliferation rate of cells in the hypoxia group was accelerated, and the cell doubling time was shorter than that in the normoxia group (all P < 0.05). The differentiation time of lipogenesis and osteogenesis was shortened. (3) The expression of CD90, CD44 and CD105 was high in both normoxia group and hypoxia group, while the expression of CD45 was low. (4) The mRNA expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in the hypoxia group were 2.3 times (P < 0.05) and 3.0 times (P < 0.05) higher than those in the normoxia group. (5) The results indicated that the hypoxic environment had no significant effect on the morphology and surface marker of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, but promoted cell proliferation, differentiation and cytokine secretion.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910066

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of Dog-Bone double button in the treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocation under shoulder arthroscopy.Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted of the 20 patients with acute acromioclavicular dislocation who had been treated at Department of Sports Medicine, Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital of Jiangsu Province from November 2018 to December 2020 by Dog-Bone double button under shoulder arthroscopy. They were 11 males and 9 females, aged from 31 to 63 years. Recorded were their visual analogue scale (VAS), Constant-Murley shoulder function score and range of shoulder anteflexion at preoperation and the last follow-up, as well as complications and the X-ray parameters at one month postoperation and the last follow-up [including coracoclavicular distance (CCD), distance between the upper and lower Dog-Bone titanium plates (DDD), angle between the coracoid process tunnel and the tangent line of the superior clavicle (CTCA), and widths of the clavicle tunnel and the coracoid process tunnel].Results:The 20 patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months (average, 10.5 months). Their preoperative VAS score, Constant score, and range of shoulder anteflexion were 3.0 (3.0, 4.0), 57.0 (54.3, 61.5) and 130° (110°, 140°), which were significantly improved to 0 (0, 0.8), 90.0 (86.5, 91.0) and 170° (170°, 180°) at the last follow-up ( P<0.05). Their CCD, DDD, CTCA, and widths of the clavicle tunnel and the coracoid process at one month postoperation were (5.0±1.0) mm, (32.4±3.5) mm, 91.7° (88.5°, 104.9°), 3.0 (3.0, 3.0) mm and 3.0 (3.0, 3.0) mm, which were significantly improved to (6.3±1.3) mm, (32.8±3.7) mm, 84.8° (81.8°, 92.0°), 3.5 (3.4, 3.6) mm and 3.2 (3.1, 3.3) mm with the exception of DDD at one month postoperation ( P<0.05). The last follow-up observed postoperative reduction loss in only one patient. Conclusion:For acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation, the Dog-Bone fixation technique under shoulder arthroscopy can lead to fine surgical efficacy and patient satisfaction, because it has advantages of limited trauma, good functional recovery of the shoulder, and effective prevention of reduction loss.

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