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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761750

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinochasmus caninus n. comb. (Verma, 1935) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) (syn. Episthmium caninum Yamaguti, 1958) were recovered from 11 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, the cases revealed eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes, hookworms, and in 2 cases echinostome eggs. To recover the adult helminths, praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg and pyrantel pamoate 10–15 mg/kg in a single dose were given and purged with magnesium salts. Various species of trematodes (including O. viverrini and Haplorchis spp.), cestodes, and nematodes were recovered from their diarrheic stools. Among the trematodes, small echinostome flukes (n=42; av. 3.8 specimens per case) of 0.7–1.2 mm in length are subjected in this study. They are morphologically characterized by having 24 collar spines interrupted dorsally and anterior extension of vitellaria from the cirrus sac or genital pore level to the posterior end of the body. Particularly based on this extensive distribution of vitellaria, the specific diagnosis was made as Echinochasmus caninus. The cases were co-infected with various other helminth parasites; thus, clinical manifestations specific for this echinostome infection were difficult to determine. The present paper describes for the first time human E. caninus infections in Lao PDR. Our cases marked the 4–14th human infections with this echinostome around the world following the 3 previous cases reported from Thailand.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Animals , Cestoda , Comb and Wattles , Diagnosis , Eggs , Helminths , Humans , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Parasites , Praziquantel , Pyrantel Pamoate , Rivers , Salts , Spine , Thailand , Trematoda
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742219

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) were recovered from 2 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, they revealed echinostome eggs together with eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini (and minute intestinal fluke eggs) and hookworms. To recover the adult flukes, they were treated with praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg in a single dose and purged with magnesium salts. A total of 658 adult fluke specimens were recovered from the 2 people; 456 from case 1 and 202 from case 2. Specimens from case 1 consisted of 335 echinostomes (301 E. ilocanum and 34 species undetermined), 120 O. viverrini, and 1 Haplorchis taichui, and those from case 2 consisted of 36 E. ilocanum, 134 O. viverrini, and 32 H. taichui. Thus, the number of E. ilocanum specimens was 337 in total (average per person, 168.5). From this study, it is suggested that foodborne intestinal flukes and liver flukes are highly prevalent along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province. The present report describes for the first time human infections with E. ilocanum in Lao PDR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Echinostoma , Echinostomiasis , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Humans , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Praziquantel , Rivers , Salts , Trematoda
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168661

ABSTRACT

The metacercariae of Artyfechinostomum malayanum (Leiper, 1911) Mendheim, 1943 were discovered in Pila sp. snails purchased from a market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. They were isolated from the snails using the artificial digestion technique and were orally fed to 2 hamsters, 1 rat, and 2 mice to obtain the adult flukes. The metacercariae were round, 145–165 μm in diameter, having a cyst wall of 6–10 μm in thickness, a head collar and collar spines, and characteristic features of excretory granules. Adult flukes were recovered in the small intestines of the animals at days 14 and 32 post infection and were morphologically observed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. They were plump or elongated, ventrally curved, 6.0–8.1×1.6–2.0 mm in size, and characterized by the head collar bearing 43 collar spines, including 5 end group ones on each side, a long cirrus sac extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, a submedian ovary, and 2 deeply lobed testes. Eggs in uteri were operculate, ovoid to ellipsoid, and 120–135×68–75 μm in size. In scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent with collar spines looking like horns. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the ventral surface between the head collar and ventral sucker. Sensory papillae were distributed mainly on the tegument around suckers. By this study, it has been first confirmed that the life cycle of A. malayanum exists in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cambodia , Cricetinae , Digestion , Eggs , Female , Head , Horns , Humans , Intestine, Small , Life Cycle Stages , Metacercariae , Mice , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ovary , Ovum , Rats , Snails , Spine , Testis , Trematoda , Uterus
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99317

ABSTRACT

We describe 2 echinostome species recovered from an Eastern cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis coromandus, from Cheongju-si (city), Chungcheongbuk-do (province), Korea. Total 72 Pegosomum bubulcum specimens were recovered from the bile duct. They were 7,566×2,938 μm in average size and had 27 collar spines with vitelline extension from anterior 1/3 level of the esophagus to mid-level of the posterior testis as characteristic features. Total 9 specimens of Nephrostomum ramosum were recovered in the small intestines of the bird. They were ribbon-shaped, 11,378×2,124 μm in average size, and morphologically variable in some organs, i.e., the number of collar spines (47-50), the shape of ovary and testes, and the extension of vitelline follicles. These morphological variations observed in a single host indicated that these features are not critical for the classification of Nephrostomum species and thus were reconsidered taxonomically as synonym of N. ramosum. This study is the first report documenting and describing both flukes and their associated genera in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Ducts , Birds , Cattle , Classification , Esophagus , Female , Intestine, Small , Korea , Ovary , Parasites , Republic of Korea , Spine , Testis , Trematoda , Vitellins
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36484

ABSTRACT

Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Size , Disease Models, Animal , Echinostoma/growth & development , Echinostomiasis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Intestine, Small/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7394

ABSTRACT

Three echinostome species, i.e., Patagifer bilobus, Petasiger neocomense, and Saakotrema metatestis, are newly recorded in the trematode fauna of the Republic of Korea. They were recovered from 3 species of migratory birds (Platalea minor, Podiceps cristatus, and Egretta garzetta), which were donated by the Wildlife Center of Chungbuk (WCC) and the Conservation Genome Resource Bank for Korean Wildlife (CGRB). Only 1 P. bilobus specimen was recovered from the intestine of a black-faced spoonbill (P. minor), and characterized by the bilobed head crown with a deep dorsal incision and 54 collar spines. Twenty P. neocomense were recovered from the intestine of a great crested grebe (P. cristatus), and they had a well-developed head crown with 19 spines and 2 testes obliquely located at the posterior middle of the body. Total 70 S. metatestis were collected from the bursa of Fabricius of 1 little egret (E. garzetta). It is characterized by stout tegumental spines covered in the entire leaf-shaped body, posterior extension of the uterus, presence of the uroproct and a well-developed head crown with 12 pairs of collar spines on each side. By the present study, these 3 echinostome species are newly added to the trematode fauna in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Birds , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Echinostomiasis/epidemiology , Female , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Species Specificity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197166

ABSTRACT

Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Parasites/classification , Prevalence , Rural Population , Sex Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118758

ABSTRACT

Free-grazing ducks play a major role in the rural economy of Eastern Asia in the form of egg and meat production. In Thailand, the geographical location, tropical climate conditions and wetland areas of the country are suitable for their husbandry. These environmental factors also favor growth, multiplication, development, survival, and spread of duck parasites. In this study, a total of 90 free-grazing ducks from northern, central, and northeastern regions of Thailand were examined for intestinal helminth parasites, with special emphasis on zoonotic echinostomes. Of these, 51 (56.7%) were infected by one or more species of zoonotic echinostomes, Echinostoma revolutum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, and Hypoderaeum conoideum. Echinostomes found were identified using morphological criteria when possible. ITS2 sequences were used to identify juvenile and incomplete worms. The prevalence of infection was relatively high in each region, namely, north, central, and northeast region was 63.2%, 54.5%, and 55.3%, respectively. The intensity of infection ranged up to 49 worms/infected duck. Free-grazing ducks clearly play an important role in the life cycle maintenance, spread, and transmission of these medically important echinostomes in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , Ducks/parasitology , Echinostomatidae/anatomy & histology , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Microscopy , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Thailand , Trematode Infections/epidemiology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207826

ABSTRACT

Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Male , Praziquantel/administration & dosage , Prevalence , Rural Population , Young Adult
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107274

ABSTRACT

We detected metacercariae of Echinostoma revolutum in Filopaludina sp. snails purchased from a local market in Nam Dinh Province for the first time in Vietnam. Adult flukes were harvested from experimentally infected hamsters at days 14 and 17 post-infection. The metacercariae were round, 170-190 microm (n=15) in diameter, with a cyst wall thickness of about 12 microm. A total of 37 collar spines were arranged around the head collar, and large excretory granules were seen in 2 canals of the excretory bladder. The 14-day old adult flukes were elongated, ventrally curved, and 5.0-7.2x0.8-1.3 mm (n=20). The head collar had a total of 37 collar spines arranged in 2 alternating rows, including 5 corner spines on each side. The cirrus sac contained a saccular seminal vesicle, a prostatic gland, and an unarmed cirrus. Two tandem testes were smooth or slightly lobed. Eggs were ovoid to elliptical, 110-118x70-75 microm. These morphological characters were similar to those of E. revolutum and E. jurini. We tentatively identified it as E. revolutum because the validity of E. jurini remains to be elucidated. The taxonomic relationship of E. revolutum and E. jurini is discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Echinostomiasis/parasitology , Female , Metacercariae/anatomy & histology , Snails/parasitology , Vietnam
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14768

ABSTRACT

In Southeast Asia, a total of 59 species of foodborne intestinal flukes have been known to occur in humans. The largest group is the family Heterophyidae, which constitutes 22 species belonging to 9 genera (Centrocestus, Haplorchis, Heterophyes, Heterophyopsis, Metagonimus, Procerovum, Pygidiopsis, Stellantchasmus, and Stictodora). The next is the family Echinostomatidae, which includes 20 species in 8 genera (Artyfechinostomum, Acanthoparyphium, Echinochasmus, Echinoparyphium, Echinostoma, Episthmium, Euparyphium, and Hypoderaeum). The family Plagiorchiidae follows the next containing 5 species in 1 genus (Plagiorchis). The family Lecithodendriidae includes 3 species in 2 genera (Phaneropsolus and Prosthodendrium). In 9 other families, 1 species in 1 genus each is involved; Cathaemaciidae (Cathaemacia), Fasciolidae (Fasciolopsis), Gastrodiscidae (Gastrodiscoides), Gymnophallidae (Gymnophalloides), Microphallidae (Spelotrema), Neodiplostomidae (Neodiplostomum), Paramphistomatidae (Fischoederius), Psilostomidae (Psilorchis), and Strigeidae (Cotylurus). Various types of foods are sources of human infections. They include freshwater fish, brackish water fish, fresh water snails, brackish water snails (including the oyster), amphibians, terrestrial snakes, aquatic insects, and aquatic plants. The reservoir hosts include various species of mammals or birds.The host-parasite relationships have been studied in Metagonimus yokogawai, Echinostoma hortense, Fasciolopsis buski, Neodiplostomum seoulense, and Gymnophalloides seoi; however, the pathogenicity of each parasite species and host mucosal defense mechanisms are yet poorly understood. Clinical aspects of each parasite infection need more clarification. Differential diagnosis by fecal examination is difficult because of morphological similarity of eggs. Praziquantel is effective for most intestinal fluke infections. Continued efforts to understand epidemiological significance of intestinal fluke infections, with detection of further human cases, are required.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Food Parasitology , Humans , Intestines/parasitology , Trematoda/classification , Trematode Infections/diagnosis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188650

ABSTRACT

Metacercariae of Acanthoparyphium marilae Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) were discovered in an intertidal clam, Mactra veneriformis, in a southwestern coastal area of the Republic of Korea. A total of 128 metacercariae were detected from 10 clams examined. They were round, 320 m in average diameter, with 23 collar spines. They were fed experimentally to chicks, and 10 days later adult flukes were obtained. The adults were morphologically characterized by the head collar with a single row of 23 dorsally uninterrupted spines, without special end group spines, a round ventral sucker, 2 round and tandem testes, and vitellaria extending at lateral fields from the posterior extremity not beyond the middle level of the posterior testis. The most characteristic feature of this species was the limited distribution of vitellaria, which differs from Acanthoparyphium tyosenense Yamaguti, 1939, the metacercariae of which are encysted in the same mollusk species. This is the first report in which the metacercariae of this species were detected, and the intertidal bivalve, M. veneriformis, has been identified as a second intermediate host for A. marilae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bivalvia/parasitology , Chickens , Echinostomatidae/anatomy & histology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Korea , Trematode Infections/parasitology
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