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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 34-41, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of asperuloside on cervical cancer based on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial pathway.@*METHODS@#Different doses (12.5-800 µg/mL) of asperuloside were used to treat cervical cancer cell lines Hela and CaSki to calculate the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of asperuloside. The cell proliferation was analyzed by clone formation assay. Cell apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by flow cytometry. The protein expressions of cleaved-caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-c, cleaved-caspase-4 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were analyzed by Western blot. And the inhibitor of ER stress, 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) was used to treat cervical cancer cells to further verify the role of ER stress in the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells induced by asperuloside.@*RESULTS@#Asperuloside of 325, 650, and 1300 µg/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation and promoted apoptosis of Hela and CaSki cells (P<0.01). All doses of asperuloside significantly increased intracellular ROS levels, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, significantly reduced Bcl-2 protein expression level, and increased Bax, Cyt-c, GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-4 expressions (P<0.01). In addition, 10 mmol/L 4-PBA treatment significantly promoted cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis (P<0.05), and 650 µg/mL asperuloside could reverse 4-PBA-induced increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis and cleaved-caspase-3, -4 and GRP78 protein expressions (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Our study revealed the role of asperuloside in cervical cancer, suggesting that asperuloside promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells through ER stress-mitochondrial pathway.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , HeLa Cells , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Cell Line, Tumor
2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 226-235, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006288

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory pathological process in which lipid and/or fibrous substances are deposited in the intima of arteries, and it is one of the pathological bases of many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is a protective mechanism of cell adaptation. Moderate ERS can reduce abnormal protein aggregation and increase the degradation of misfolded proteins to repair and stabilize the internal environment, while excessive ERS can cause unfolded protein reaction, activate inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and other downstream pathways, and lead to cell damage, or even apoptosis. A large number of studies have shown that ERS mediates a variety of pathological processes related to AS, affects endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, endothelial progenitor cells, and other cell components closely related to its occurrence and development, influences the progress of AS by regulating cell function, and promotes the formation of AS plaque, the transformation of stable plaque to unstable plaque, and the rupture of unstable plaque. Regulation of ERS may be a key target for the prevention and treatment of AS, and it is a research hotspot at present. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) believes that the origin of AS is the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the disharmony of Zangfu organs, and the abnormal operation of Qi, blood, and body fluid, which leads to the accumulation of phlegm, blood stasis, and other pathological products in the pulse channels, making the blood flow blocked or misfunction and causing the disease, which belongs to the syndrome of deficiency in origin and excess in superficiality. As the pathogenesis of AS is complex, and the symptoms are diverse, TCM has significant advantages in treating AS because of its multiple targets, multiple pathways, stable efficacy, strong individualization, and high safety. This paper systematically elaborated on the role of ERS in the occurrence and development of AS and summarized the mechanism research on the regulation and control of ERS by Chinese herbal monomer, Chinese herbal extract, Chinese herbal compound, and proprietary medicine, so as to provide a theoretical basis for clinical research and drug development in the prevention and treatment of AS.

3.
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ; (12): 22-28, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003440

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To study the effect of low concentrations of sodium fluoride on the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) in vitro.@*Methods@#This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee. hDPCs were cultured using a modified tissue explant technique in vitro. The effects of different concentrations of sodium fluoride on the proliferation of hDPCs were measured by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Appropriate concentrations were added to the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation induction medium, and the cells were induced in vitro. Alizarin red S staining was used to detect the osteoblastic/odontogenic differentiation ability of the cells, and the mRNA expression of the key differentiation factors was detected by RT-qPCR. Moreover, the expression of key molecules of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. The data were analyzed with the SPSS 18.0 software package.@*Results@#Low concentration of NaF (0.1 mmol/L) could stimulate cell proliferation in vitro, while a high concentration (5-10 mmol/L) could inhibit cell proliferation (P<0.05). According to the literature and the experimental data, 0.1 mmol/L NaF was selected as the following experimental concentration. The levels of alizarin red S staining were increased after NaF induction of mixed osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation in vitro. The mRNA expression levels of key molecules for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN), were increased (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of ERS markers (splicing x-box binding protein-1 (sXBP1), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and activating transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) were increased in NaF-treated cells. The protein expression levels of key ER stress molecules (phosphorylated RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER-resident kinase (p-PERK), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (p-eIF2α) and ATF4) were higher in NaF-treated cells.@*Conclusion@#A low concentration of NaF promotes the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs and increases the level of ER stress.

4.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 26-36, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003405

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Yishen Tongluo prescription (YSTLP) on apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells and explore the mechanism based on endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)/transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). MethodThe db/db mice were randomly divided into model group, valsartan group (10 mg·kg-1), and low, middle, high-dose YSTLP groups (1, 2.5, 5 g·kg-1). Samples were collected after eight weeks of drug intervention. In addition, db/m mice in the same litter served as the control group. Human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) were cultured in vitro and divided into the control group, advanced glycated end-product (AGE) group, and AGE + low, middle, and high-dose YSTLP groups (100, 200, 400 mg·L-1). TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was used to detect the apoptosis rate of HK-2 cells. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was conducted to detect the viability of HK-2 cells. Calcium fluorescence probe staining and luciferase reporter gene method were adopted to detect the luciferase activity of folded protein response element (UPRE) and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was carried out to measure the protein expressions of phosphorylated PKR (p-PERK), CHOP, and ATF4. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to measure the mRNA expression levels of CHOP and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in mouse kidney and HK-2 cells. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression level of p-PERK, PERK, CHOP, ATF4, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), and cleaved Caspase-3 in mouse kidney and HK-2 cells. ResultIn the cellular assay, HK-2 cell viability was significantly reduced, and the apoptosis rate was elevated in the AGE group compared with the control group (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of apoptosis-related factor Bcl-2 were significantly reduced (P<0.01), and those of Bax were significantly increased (P<0.01). The protein expression level of cleaved Caspase-3 was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the AGE group, YSTLP administration treatment resulted in elevated cell viability and reduced apoptosis rate (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were significantly elevated in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01), and those of Bax were significantly reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The protein expression level of cleaved Caspase-3 was significantly reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). The intracellular Ca2+ imbalance and UPRE luciferase fluorescence intensity were increased in the AGE group compared with the control group (P<0.01). The mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors CHOP and XBP1 were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of p-PERK, CHOP, and ATF4 were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the AGE group, YSTLP effectively improved intracellular Ca2+ imbalance in HK-2 cells and decreased UPRE luciferase fluorescence intensity in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). It reduced the mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors CHOP and XBP1 (P<0.01) and the protein expression levels of intracellular p-PERK, CHOP, and ATF4 in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.01). In animal experiments, the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly reduced(P<0.01), and that of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax was significantly increased in the model group compared with the control group (P<0.05). The protein expression level of Bcl-2 was dose-dependently elevated, and that of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax was dose-dependently decreased in the YSTLP groups compared with the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression levels of CHOP and XBP1 were significantly elevated in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of p-PERK, CHOP, and ATF4 were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, YSTLP significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of CHOP and XBP1 (P<0.01) and the protein expression levels of p-PERK, CHOP, and ATF4 (P<0.01). ConclusionYSTLP can effectively inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress and improve apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the PERK/AFT4/CHOP pathway.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 269-278, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016656

ABSTRACT

Non-infectious chronic diseases in human including diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), atherosclerosis (AS), neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis, as well as malignant tumors may have some common pathogenic mechanisms such as non-resolved inflammation (NRI), gut microbiota dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondria dysfunction, and abnormality of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. These pathogenic mechanisms could be the basis for "homotherapy for heteropathy" in clinic. Some commonly used clinical drugs, such as metformin, berberine, aspirin, statins, and rapamycin may execute therapeutic effect on their targeted diseases,and also have the effect of "homotherapy for heteropathy". The mechanisms of the above drugs may include anti-inflammation, modulation of gut microbiota, suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress, improvement of mitochondria function, and inhibition of mTOR. For virus infectious diseases, as some viruses need certain commonly used replicases, the inhibitors of the replicases become examples of "homotherapy for heteropathy" for antiviral therapy in clinic (for example tenofovir for both AIDS and HBV infection). Especially, in case of outbreak of new emerging viruses, these viral enzyme inhibitors such as azvudine and sofibuvir, could be rapidly used in controlling viral epidemic or pandemic, based on the principle of "homotherapy for heteropathy". In this review article, we show the research progress of the biological basis for "homotherapy for heteropathy" and the possible mechanisms of some well-known drugs, in order to provide insights and new references for innovative drug R&D.

6.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; (12): 1-10, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014562

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the relationship between vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) injury, organelle stress response and autophagic cell death (autophagy) and ferroptosis induced by the chemical hypoxia inducer cobalt chloride (CoCl2) through the bioinformatics analysis and in vitro cell experimentation. METHODS: The dataset GSE119226 of VSMC treated with cobalt chloride was acquired from the gene expression database (GEO). The R language was used to investigate the relationship between CoCl2 treatment and organelle stress response (Golgi stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress) and two forms of cell death (ferroptosis and autophagic cell death). With primary cultured rat VSMC (rVSMC) and CoCl2-induced anoxia model, the changes in cell viability were detected by CCK-8 method, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using DCFH-DA method. The expression levels of HIF-1α (a key molecule in hypoxia), Golgi stress markers GM130 and p115, endoplasmic reticulum stress markers GRP78 and CHOP, autophagy markers LC3-II / LC3-I and Beclin1, and ferroptosis markers GPx4 and xCT were detected by Western blot. The effect of inducing or inhibiting organelle stress and cell death on the CoCl2-induced cell damage was also observed. RESULTS: Differentially expressed genes analysis of GSE119226 dataset showed that CoCl2 treatment of VSMCs had significant effects on organelle function and stress response, autophagy and ferroptosis-related genes, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, regulation of Golgi to plasma membrane protein transport, autophagy / autophagic cell death, and ferroptosis pathways were remarkably enriched. The results of in vitro experiment showed that compared with normal rVSMC, cell viability was significantly decreased after CoCl2 treatment, as well as HIF-1α protein expression and ROS levels in rVSMCs were increased. In rVSMC treated with Co-Cl2, the expression levels of Golgi structural proteins GM130 and p115 (reflecting the occurrence of Golgi stress) were decreased, while the markers GRP78 and CHOP (reflecting the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress) were increased. At the same time, CoCl2 treatment also reduced the expression of autophagy markers LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin1 (indicating the decrease levels of autophagy), while the expression of ferroptosis markers GPx4 and xCT were decreased (indicating the occurrence of ferroptosis). Compared with CoCl2 treatment group, induced Golgi stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or ferroptosis could further reduce cell viability, while inhibition of these processes could improve cell viability. On the other hand, increasing the level of autophagy can improve the cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia induced by cobalt chloride can lead to VSMC injury. Golgi stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, ferroptosis, and the reduction of autophagy level play an important role in it. Inhibition of organelle stress response and ferroptosis, or increase of autophagy level can improve VSMC injury caused by cobalt chloride.

7.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Practice ; (6): 121-126, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012792

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effect and mechanism of the thapsigargin combined with gefitinib on the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma gefitinib resistance cell line PC9/GR. Methods The cell viability of PC9/GR treated with gefitinib alone or gefitinib combined with thapsigargin was evaluated by CCK8 assay. The flow cytometry was used to analyze the PC9/GR cell apoptosis indued by the two group drugs. The ATF-6 and IRE1α protein expression of PC9/GR cells treated with the two group drugs were detected by Western blotting. Results The group of drug combination exhibited enhanced ability to inhibit cell proliferation, promote cell apoptosis and upregulate the ATF-6 and IRE1α protein expression of the PC9/GR compared with the group gefitinib used alone. Conclusion The sensitivity of PC9/GR to gefitinib was increased when the cells were treated by thapsigargin, which may be related with the state of endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS) induced by thapsigargin.

8.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 220-228, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012492

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury of mouse renal tubular epithelial cells and unravel underlying mechanism. Methods Mouse renal tubular epithelial cells were divided into adenovirus negative control group (Ad-shNC group), targeted silencing XBP1s adenovirus group (Ad-shXBP1s group), Ad-shNC+H/R group and Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group. The apoptosis level, mitochondrial reactive oxygen activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial calcium ion level were detected in each group. Chromatin immunocoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) was employed to analyze the binding sites of XBP1s in regulating the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR) family. The expression levels of XBP1s and ITPR family messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were determined in each group. Results Compared with the Ad-shNC group, the apoptosis level was higher, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level was increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and mitochondrial calcium ion level was elevated in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, the apoptosis level was lower, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level was decreased, mitochondrial membrane potential was elevated, and mitochondrial calcium ion level was decreased in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 mRNAs and proteins were down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 proteins were up-regulated in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 were down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). ChIP-seq results showed that XBP1s could bind to the promoter and exon of ITPR1, the exon of ITPR2, and the exon of ITPR3. Conclusions XBP1s may affect mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane structure and function by directly regulating ITPR transcription and translation. Down-regulating XBP1s may inhibit ITPR expression and mitigate mitochondrial damage.

9.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 140-146, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011512

ABSTRACT

The biosynthesis and maturation of proteins are primarily regulated by the endoplasmic reticulum in its physiological state. Thus, the disruption of physiological homeostasis initiates the buildup of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and unfolded protein response (UPR). One of the important pathways by which UPR maintains intracellular homeostasis under ERS is activating protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK). The activation of the PERK pathway stimulates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit-α (eIF2α) phosphorylation and the selective translation of active transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and PERK induces cell apoptosis by directly binding to the promoter of pro-apoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). This signaling pathway is also one of the important mechanisms by which UPR participates in the regulation of hematological malignancies and immune cells in a tumor microenvironment. This article provides an overview of advancements in research into the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway in hematological malignancies and the potential therapeutic benefits of targeting this signaling pathway.

10.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 591-599, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440342

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity is commonly associated with chronic tissue inflammation and skeletal muscle dysfunction. The study aimed to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval training (HIIT) on myokines and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress of diet- induced obese (DIO) mice. Three-month-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed a control (C) diet (n=20) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n=20) for 16 weeks. Then, half of the groups underwent HIIT (treadmill running) for an additional four weeks. HIIT increased calf muscles' contribution to BW (+24 %) and reduced weight gain in HF/HIIT than in HF (-120 %). Intramuscular fat accumulation was observed in HF and HF/ HIIT. Peak velocity was higher in HF/HIIT compared to HF (+26 %). Plasma insulin did not change, but glycemia was lower in HF/HIIT than in HF (-30 %). Fndc5 (+418 %) and Irisin (+72 %) were higher in HF/HIIT than in HF. Muscle Fgf21 was higher in HF/HIIT compared to HF (+30 %). In addition, NfKb (-53 %) and Tnfa (-63 %) were lower in HF/HIIT than in HF. However, Il1b (-86 %), Il6 (- 48 %), Il7 (-76 %), and Il15 (-21 %) were lower in HF/HIIT than in HF. Finally, HIIT reduced ER stress in HF/HIIT compared to HF: Atf4, -61 %; Chop, -61 %; Gadd45, -95 %. In conclusion, HIIT leads to weight loss and avoids muscle depletion. HIIT improves blood glucose, Irisin-Fndc5, and peak velocity. In addition, HIIT mitigates muscle inflammation and ER stress.


La obesidad es asociada comúnmente con inflamación tisular crónica y disfunción del músculo esquelético. El estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos del entrenamiento de intervalos de alta intensidad (HIIT) en las mioquinas y el estrés del retículo endoplásmico (ER) de ratones obesos inducidos por dieta (DIO). Se alimentó a ratones macho C57BL/6 de tres meses de edad con una dieta control (C) (n=20) o una dieta rica en grasas (HF) (n=20) durante 16 semanas. Luego, la mitad de los grupos se sometieron a HIIT (carrera en una trotadora) durante cuatro semanas más. HIIT aumentó la contribución de los músculos de la pantorrilla al BW (+24 %) y redujo el aumento de peso en HF/HIIT en HF (-120 %). Se observó acumulación de grasa intramuscular en HF y HF/HIIT. La velocidad máxima fue mayor en HF/HIIT en comparación con HF (+26 %). La insulina plasmática no cambió, pero la glucemia fue menor en HF/HIIT que en HF (-30 %). Fndc5 (+418 %) e Irisin (+72 %) fueron mayores en HF/HIIT que en HF. El Fgf21 muscular fue mayor en HF/ HIIT en comparación con HF (+30 %). Además, NfKb (-53 %) y Tnfa (-63 %) fueron menores en HF/HIIT que en HF. Sin embar- go, Il1b (-86 %), Il6 (-48 %), Il7 (-76 %) e Il15 (-21 %) fueron más bajos en HF/HIIT que en HF. Finalmente, HIIT redujo el estrés de RE en HF/HIIT en comparación con HF: Atf4, -61 %; Picar, - 61 %; Gadd45, -95 %. En conclusión, HIIT conduce a la pérdida de peso y evita el agotamiento muscular. HIIT mejora la glucosa en sangre, Irisin-Fndc5 y la velocidad máxima. Además, HIIT mitiga la inflamación muscular y el estrés ER.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cytokines/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training , Obesity , Gene Expression , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Biology
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2970-2978, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999039

ABSTRACT

Inositol requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1α), a widespread transmembrane protein in mammals, is an endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) receptor. Among the three signaling pathways of the unfolded protein response (UPR), the IRE1α pathway is the most conservative. And there is a growing body of evidence that the occurrence and development of tumors is closely related to the over-expression of IRE1α. Therefore, the study of the IRE1α inhibitors is of great significance to the discovery of new anti-tumor drugs and has been attracting more and more attention. In the hope of providing ideas for the research of targeting IRE1α for cancer therapy, this paper reviewed the data of representative IRE1α inhibitors, including inhibitory activity, the mechanism of action, structural characteristics, and so on.

12.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 531-536, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the improvement mechanism of caudatin on liver injury of rats. METHODS SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, caudatin low-dose and high-dose groups (25, 50 mg/kg), with 6 rats in each group. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was injected intraperitoneally three times per week for eight weeks to establish liver injury model of rats. At 5th week of modeling, the rats received relevant medicine or 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose intragastrically for 4 weeks. The levels of liver function indexes [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total protein (TP) and total bilirubin (TBI)] and inflammatory factors [interleukin (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-1β] in serum were detected; the histopathological morphological changes of rat liver were observed; the positive protein expressions of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and 78 kDa glucose regulatory protein (Grp78) in liver tissue were also determined; the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related protein Grp78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and inositol requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) and the level of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase robertluoyi@126.com (PERK) in liver tissue were detected. RESULTS Compared with blank group, serum levels of ALT, AST, TBI, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β and positive expressions of NF-κB and Grp78 in liver tissue as well as protein expressions of Grp78, CHOP, ATF6 and IRE1α, PERK protein phosphorylation level were all increased significantly in model group (P<0.05), while the serum level of TP was decreased significantly (P<0.05). The disordered structure of liver lobule, swollen liver cells, unclear intercellular boundary were observed and accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration. Compared with model group, most of the above indexes were significantly reversed in caudatin groups (P<0.05); the structure of hepatic lobule was relatively complete and clear, the cells were arranged orderly, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells was also reduced. CONCLUSIONS Caudatin has a significant improvement effect against DEN-induced liver injury in rats, the mechanism of which may be associated with inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory reaction.

13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2657-2666, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981370

ABSTRACT

Renal tubular injury in patients with diabetic kidney disease(DKD) may be accompanied by glomerular and microvascular diseases. It plays a critical role in the progression of renal damage in DKD, and is now known as diabetic tubulopathy(DT). To explore the multi-targeted therapeutic effects and pharmacological mechanisms in vivo of total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot(TFA), an extract from traditional Chinese medicine for treating kidney disease, in attenuating DT, the authors randomly divided all rats into four groups: a normal control group(normal group), a DT model group(model group), a DT model+TFA-treated group(TFA group) and a DT model+rosiglitazone(ROS)-treated group(ROS group). The DT rat model was established based on the DKD rat model by means of integrated measures. After successful modeling, the rats in the four groups were continuously given double-distilled water, TFA suspension, and ROS suspension, respectively by gavage every day. After 6 weeks of treatment, all rats were sacrificed, and the samples of their urine, blood, and kidneys were collected. The effects of TFA and ROS on various indicators related to urine and blood biochemistry, renal tubular injury, renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS), as well as the activation of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase(PERK)-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α(eIF2α)-activating transcription factor 4(ATF4)-C/EBP homologous protein(CHOP) signaling pathway in the kidney of the DT model rats were investigated. The results indicated that hypertrophy of renal tubular epithelial cells, renal tubular hyperplasia and occlusion, as well as interstitial extracellular matrix and collagen deposition occurred in the DT model rats. Moreover, significant changes were found in the expression degree and the protein expression level of renal tubular injury markers. In addition, there was an abnormal increase in tubular urine proteins. After TFA or ROS treatment, urine protein, the characteristics of renal tubular injury, renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and ERS, as well as the activation of the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway in the kidney of the DT model rats were improved to varying degrees. Therein, TFA was superior to ROS in affecting the pathological changes in renal tubule/interstitium. In short, with the DT model rats, this study demonstrated that TFA could attenuate DT by multiple targets through inhibiting renal tubular ERS-induced cell apoptosis in vivo, and its effect and mechanism were related to suppressing the activation of the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway in the kidney. These findings provided preliminary pharmacological evidence for the application of TFA in the clinical treatment of DT.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Abelmoschus , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Flavones/pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Apoptosis , Diabetes Mellitus
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 899-908, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978773

ABSTRACT

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing protein 2 (NOD2) is a member of intracellular pattern recognition receptor. After being activated, it will induce the release of inflammatory factors through a series of signal cascade transduction, thus playing an important role in the innate immune response. The abnormal NOD2 signaling pathway is involved in the occurrence and development of many diseases, especially the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NOD2 gene have been identified to be closely associated with autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs). Therefore, inhibitors targeting NOD2 pathway have great potential in the treatment of inflammatory immune diseases. This review presents the recent progress of NOD2 receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways and its regulation mechanisms, the relationship between NOD2 and AIDs, and the inhibitors of NOD2 pathway.

15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1437-1442, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To explore the antitumor effect and mechanism of total alkaloids of Gelsemium elegans (TA) and sempervirine (SPV) in vitro. METHODS The effects of low, medium and high concentrations of TA (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and SPV (10, 30, 50 μmol/L) on the morphology of human hepatoma cells (HepG2, Bel-7402), human lung cancer cells (A549) and human colon cancer cells (HCT-8) were observed, and the toxicity of TA and SPV to four tumor cells was monitored. The effects of TA and SPV on the contents of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the supernatant of HCT-8 cells, the protein expressions of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) (Thr308, Ser473), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-related X protein (Bax), survivin, C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), immunoglobulin binding protein (Bip) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3Ⅱ (LC3Ⅱ) in HCT-8 cells were detected. RESULTS After the intervention of TA and SPV, the volume reduction and nuclear shrinkage were founded in four tumor cells; the cell activity decreased to varying degrees, among which TA and SPV had the best inhibitory effect on HCT-8 cells. After the intervention of TA and SPV, the contents of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the supernatant of HCT-8 cells, the protein expressions of Bax, CHOP, Bip and LC3Ⅱ all increased to different degrees, while the protein expressions of p-Akt (Thr308, Ser473), Bcl-2 and survivin in HCT-8 cells all decreased to different degrees. CONCLUSIONS TA and SPV have inhibitory effects on the above four tumor cells, and the inhibitory effect on HCT-8 cells is the best. The mechanism of their action on HCT-8 cells may be related to promoting apoptosis, activating endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy.

16.
World Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (4): 386-392, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997723

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: To determine the protective role of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) in regulating sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (S-AKI). METHODS: A total of 96 mice were randomly divided into the control group, control+MANF group, S-AKI group, and S-AKI+MANF group. The S-AKI model was established by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally. MANF (200 μg/kg) was administered to the control+MANF and S-AKI+MANF groups. An equal dose of normal saline was administered daily intraperitoneally in the control and S-AKI groups. Serum and kidney tissue samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of MANF in the kidney, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine expression of MANF in the serum, pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]). Serum creatinine (SCr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were examined using an automatic biochemical analyzer. In addition, the kidney tissue was observed for pathological changes by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The comparison between two groups was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test, and statistics among multiple groups were carried out using Tukey’s post hoc test following one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: At the early stage of S-AKI, MANF in the kidney tissue was up-regulated, but with the development of the disease, it was down-regulated. Renal function was worsened in the S-AKI group, and TNF-α and IL-6 were elevated. The administration of MANF significantly alleviated the elevated levels of SCr and BUN and inhibited the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in the kidney. The pathological changes were more extensive in the S-AKI group than in the S-AKI+MANF group. CONCLUSION: MANF treatment may significantly alleviate renal injury, reduce the inflammatory response, and alleviate or reverse kidney tissue damage. MANF may have a protective effect on S-AKI, suggesting a potential treatment for S-AKI.

17.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 346-352, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996237

ABSTRACT

Objective:To screen the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) signature-related differentially expressed genes (DEG) in gastric cancer and to construct a prognostic risk model based on a bioinformatics.Methods:Transcriptome sequencing data (RNA-seq) of 375 gastric cancer and 32 paracancerous tissue samples downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and the corresponding clinical information were obtained as training set samples; data of 387 gastric cancer patients (GSE84437) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were downloaded as validation set samples. All data were obtained on December 25, 2021. A total of 785 ERS signature-related genes (ERS-RG) were obtained from the GeneCards database. DEG between gastric cancer tissues and paracancerous tissues in the TCGA database was analyzed. The identified gastric cancer DEG were intersected with ERS-RG from the GeneCards database to obtain gastric cancer ERS signature-related DEG, which were analyzed for gene ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment. Univariate Cox proportional risk model was used to screen ERS signature-related DEG with prognostic value in gastric cancer, and LASSO regression analysis was performed to construct a polygenic prognostic risk model, and to calculate the prognostic risk score. The patients in training set and validation set were divided into high-risk group and low-risk group according to the median of the prognostic risk score (2.369); Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare the overall survival (OS) and to draw time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of patients in the two groups; nomogram was drawn based on the prognostic independent influencing factors of gastric cancer. The characteristic immune cell infiltration abundance between the two groups was analyzed by using the inverse convolution-based CIBERSORT algorithm. Cytolytic activity scores were calculated by using the geometric mean of granzyme A and perforin 1 expression. According to the median prognostic risk score (2.369) and median tumor mutation burden (TMB) (3.000), all patients with gastric cancer were divided into high risk score-high TMB group, high risk score-low TMB group, low risk score-high TMB group and low risk score-low TMB group to compare the OS of patients in each group.Results:A total of 444 ERS signature-related DEG in gastric cancer including 168 down-regulated genes and 276 up-regulated genes were obtained, which were mainly enriched in biological processes such as protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor interactions and unfolded protein responses (all P < 0.05). Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that 12 prognostic-related ERS signature-related DEG in gastric cancer were screened out. LASSO regression analysis was performed to obtain a prognostic risk score = 0.052×NOS3+0.137×PON1+0.067×CXCR4+0.131×MATN3+0.116×ANXA5+0.090×SERPINE1. The results of Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the OS of the low-risk group in both the training and validation sets was better than that of the high-risk group (all P < 0.01). The results of the time-dependent ROC curve analysis showed that the AUC for the 3-year, 5-year, 8-year OS rates was 0.695, 0.786, 0.698, respectively in the training set, while the AUC for the 3-year 5-year, 8-year OS rates was 0.580, 0.625, 0.627, respectively in the validation set. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that prognostic risk score ( HR = 3.598, 95% CI 2.290-5.655, P < 0.001) and tumor stage ( HR = 1.344, 95% CI 1.057-1.709, P < 0.05) were independent factors influencing the prognosis of gastric cancer. Among 375 gastric cancer patients in the TCGA database, the expression levels of ATF6, HSPA5, XBP1 and ATF4 in the high-risk group were higher than those in the low-risk group (all P < 0.05); CIBERSORT results showed that the abundance of activated CD4 memory T cells in the high-risk group was lower than that in the low-risk group, and the abundance of both M0 and M2 macrophages in the high-risk group was higher than that in the low-risk group (all P < 0.05). The expression levels of common immune checkpoints (CD274, CTLA4, TNFRSF9, TIGIT, PDCD1, LAG3) in the high-risk group were all higher than those in the low-risk group (all P < 0.05). Cytolytic activity score in the high-risk group was higher than that in the low-risk group ( P < 0.05). The prognostic risk score was negatively correlated with TMB ( r = -0.20, P < 0.001). Patients in the low-risk score-high TMB group had the best OS and those in the high-risk score-low TMB group had the worst OS (both P < 0.001). Conclusions:The prognostic risk score model is established based on 6 ERS signature-related DEG in gastric cancer and its prognostic risk score may be effective as an independent prognostic factor to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer patients.

18.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 196-202, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995274

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the cytopathic effect of amino acids 86-175 of rotavirus non-structural protein 4 (NSP4 86-175) on rat cardiomyocytes and the possible mechanism. Methods:Rat H9C2 cardiomyocytes were treated with NSP4 86-175 protein. Changes in the growth and morphology of the cells were observed. The activity of LDH in the cell culture medium was detected. Fluo-3AM was used to label intracellular free calcium ions and the concentrations of calcium ions in rat cardiomyocytes with and without NSP4 86-175 treatment were detected by confocal laser microscopy. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12 at mRNA level was detected by real-time PCR. The expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12 at protein level was detected by Western blot. Results:Normal cardiomyocytes showed a typical myoblast-like morphology, presenting as spindle-shaped cells with clear boundaries. Obvious cytopathic effect, vacuolar degeneration, shriveled and rounded cells, and cell fragmentation were observed after the treatment with purified NSP4 86-175 protein. The activity of LDH in cell culture medium was enhanced by NSP4 86-175 protein. NSP4 86-175 protein also enhanced the fluorescence of the calcium ions in rat cardiomyocytes, promoted cell apoptosis, up-regulated the expression of apoptotic factors including caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and Bax-2, and increased the expression of classical markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress such as GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12. Conclusions:NSP4 86-175 had a cytopathic effect on rat cardiomyocytes, which might be related to the induced intracellular calcium overload, endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis and necrosis. These results might be used as theoretical reference for further study on rotavirus infection and myocardial injury.

19.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 814-818, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994264

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NORAD in ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal neurons and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress.Methods:Primary mouse hippocampal neurons were isolated and cultured and then divided into 5 groups ( n=36 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), ketamine group (group K), ketamine+ pcDNA3.1-NORAD plasmid group (group K+ NORAD), ketamine+ control plasmid group (group K+ NC), and ketamine+ NORAD+ tunicamycin group (group K+ NORAD+ TM). Group C was cultured with normal medium for 24 h. Group K was cultured with 40 μmol/L ketamine for 24 h. Group K+ NORAD was transfected with pcDNA3.1-NORAD overexpressing plasmid for 48 h, followed by treatment with 40 μmol/L ketamine for 24 h. Group K+ NC was transfected with pcDNA3.1 (+ ) plasmid for 48 h, followed by treatment with 40 μmol/L ketamine for 24 h. Group K+ NORAD+ TM was transfected with pcDNA3.1-NORAD overexpressing plasmid, 24 h later endoplasmic reticulum stress activator tunicamycin 1 μg/ml was added and the neurons were cultured for 24 h, and then ketamine 40 μmol/L was added and the neurons were cultured for another 24 h. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. The amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released was analyzed. Cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL and flow cytometry methods. The NORAD expression was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), phosphorylated PERK (p-PERK) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) was detected by Western blot. Results:Compared with group C, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the amount of LDH released, percentage of apoptotic neurons and apoptosis rate were increased, NORAD expression was down-regulated, CHOP expression was up-regulated, and p-PERK/PERK was increased in group K ( P<0.05). Compared with group K, the cell viability was significantly increased, the amount of LDH released, percentage of apoptotic neurons and apoptosis rate were decreased, NORAD expression was up-regulated, CHOP expression was down-regulated, and p-PERK/PERK was decreased in group K+ NORAD ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group K+ NC ( P>0.05). Compared with group K+ NORAD, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the amount of LDH released, percentage of apoptotic neurons and apoptosis rate were increased, CHOP expression was up-regulated, and p-PERK/PERK was increased ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the NORAD expression in group K+ NORAD+ TM ( P>0.05). Conclusions:Over-expressed NORAD can alleviate ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal neurons via inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum stress.

20.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 463-467, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994216

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of caveolin 3 (Cav-3) in diabetic cardiomyopathy and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice.Methods:This experiment was performed in two parts. Part Ⅰ in vivo experiment Sixteen clean-grade healthy adult male wild type mice weighing 18-20 g, were divided into 2 groups ( n=8 each) using a random number table method: control group(Control group) and diabetic cardiomyopathy group (DCM group). Another 8 Cav-3 KO mice were selected and served as Cav-3 KO + diabetic cardiomyopathy group (Cav-3 KO+ DCM group). Type 2 diabetic models were developed by high fat diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg). The left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular short axis shortening rate (FS), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) were measured by B ultrasound at 8 weeks. Then the mice were sacrificed, and the myocardial histomorphology was observed using HE staining. Part Ⅱ in vitro experiment HL-1 cardiomyocytes were divided into 3 groups ( n=6 each)using a random number table method: normal glucose group (NG group), high glucose group (HG group) and high glucose+ methyl-β-cyclodextrin group (HG+ β-CD group). The high glucose model was prepared by adding 50% glucose to a specialized culture medium until the final concentration reached 30 mmol/L, and HL-1 cardiomyocytes were continuously cultivated for 36 h. The cellular injury was assessed using LDH and CCK8 kits. The expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1-s) in myocardial tissues and HL-1 cells was detected by Western blot. Results:In vivo experiment Compared with Control group, the food intake, water intake, and heart mass/body mass were significantly increased, EF and FS were decreased, LVESD and LVEDD were increased, the expression of BiP, CHOP and XBP1-s was up-regulated, the expression of Cav-3 was down-regulated ( P<0.05), and the pathological damage was aggravated in DCM group and Cav-3 KO+ DCM group. Compared with DCM group, EF and FS were significantly decreased, LVESD and LVEDD were increased, the expression of BiP, CHOP and XBP1-s was up-regulated, the expression of Cav-3 was down-regulated ( P<0.05), and the pathological damage was aggravated in Cav-3 KO+ DCM group. In vitro experiment Compared with NG group, the cell viability was significantly decreased, LDH activity was increased, the expression of BiP, CHOP and XBP1-s was up-regulated, and the expression of Cav-3 was down-regulated in HG group and HG+ β-CD group ( P<0.05). Compared with HG group, the cell viability was significantly decreased, LDH was increased, the expression of BiP, CHOP and XBP1-s was up-regulated, and the expression of Cav-3 was down-regulated in HG+ β-CD group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Down-regulation of Cav-3 expression aggravates myocardial injury in diabetes mellitus, and the mechanism is related to excessive activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice.

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