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1.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 41: e2021197, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387511

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this current report was to present a critical review of the use of cannabidiol (CBD) in the treatment of refractory epilepsies in the pediatric population. Data source: Literature review was carried out in the Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) databases with the descriptors "Cannabidiol" and "Epilepsy." The search was not limited by the date of publication, language, or study design. A total of 69 articles were included in the review. Data synthesis: The efficacy of CBD in treating epileptic seizures has been confirmed by randomized controlled trials for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, Dravet syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis complex. The incidence of side effects reported in subjects of the studies is high. However, most studies indicate a good safety profile and tolerance to the drug, with most of the adverse effects being mild to moderate and transient. Conclusions: There is no consensus on the release of CBD as a therapeutic tool by the drug regulatory agencies worldwide. However, the use of CBD is promising since it has presented satisfactory results in crisis control in well-designed studies. In addition, this drug has a good safety and tolerance profile. However, further studies with a long follow-up period are needed to confirm its usefulness and the long-term safety in pediatric patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar uma revisão crítica do uso de canabidiol no tratamento de epilepsias refratárias na população pediátrica. Fontes de dados: Revisão da literatura realizada nas bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline/PubMed), Cochrane e Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), com os descritores "cannabidiol" e "epilepsy". A busca não foi limitada por data de publicação, idioma ou desenho do estudo. Sessenta e nove artigos foram incluídos na revisão. Síntese dos dados: A eficácia do canabidiol no tratamento de crises epilépticas foi confirmada por ensaios clínicos randomizados para síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut, síndrome de Dravet e complexo de esclerose tuberosa. A incidência de efeitos colaterais relatados nos indivíduos dos estudos é alta. No entanto, a maioria dos estudos indica um bom perfil de segurança e tolerância ao medicamento, com efeitos adversos leves a moderados e transitórios. Conclusões: Não há consenso sobre a liberação do canabidiol como ferramenta terapêutica nas diversas agências reguladoras de medicamentos em todo o mundo. Entretanto, seu uso é promissor, uma vez que apresentou resultados satisfatórios no controle de crises em estudos bem delineados. Além disso, esse medicamento apresenta um bom perfil de segurança e tolerância. No entanto, mais estudos com longo período de acompanhamento são necessários para confirmar sua utilidade e sua segurança em longo prazo em pacientes pediátricos.

2.
Interdisciplinaria ; 39(2): 89-104, ago. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385919

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se han revisado artículos que estudiaron la calidad de vida en las personas con crisis no epilépticas psicógenas (CNEP) y crisis epilépticas. Se siguió la guía PRISMA y, previo a la búsqueda, se realizó un protocolo publicado en PROSPERO. Se incluyeron estudios aleatorizados y no aleatorizados, de tipo cuantitativo o mixtos, de corte transversal o longitudinal, escritos en lengua inglesa o española publicados hasta el año 2020, y cuyos participantes fueran mayores de 16 años. Luego de filtrar los resultados según los criterios de selección, se incluyeron 11 artículos y una tesis doctoral cuyos años de publicación datan de 1998 a 2020. En su mayoría, se informaba que las personas con CNEP tenían menor calidad de vida, asociadas a presencia de psicopatología, así como también a la toma de medicación antiepiléptica, factores sociodemográficos y relacionados con las crisis (frecuencia, severidad y duración de enfermedad), funcionamiento familiar, trauma y somatización.


Abstract Psychogenic non epileptic seizures (PNES) are disruptive changes in behaviour, thought, or emotion that resemble an epileptic seizure, but without paroxysmal neuronal discharge detectable by electroencephalography (EEG), and are not caused by another medical condition. On the other hand, epileptic seizures (ES) are defined as clinical events that reflect the presence of hypersynchronous discharges of neurons located in the cerebral cortex, which have the particularity of starting and ending abruptly. The diagnosis of epilepsy is made when an epileptic seizure was experienced and there is a risk of having another. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a systematic review of articles that have studied quality of life in people with PNES and ES. This review has been performed following the PRISMA guide (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). Prior to the beginning of the search, a protocol was carried out and it is published for consultation in the International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). The review includes randomized and non-randomized, quantitative or mixed, cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in English or Spanish until 2020. In addition, participants had to be over 16 years old. PNES diagnosis must have been confirmed by video-electroencephalography (VEEG) or a similar procedure-which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of PNES.

3.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(2): 66-70, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383398

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: Las crisis epilépticas son la manifestación clínica inicial en un 30-50 % de los pacientes con tumores cerebrales. Algunos de los tumores más frecuentes, como los gliomas y los meningiomas se asocian con manifestaciones epilépticas. En el país no hay estudios que especifiquen cuáles son los tumores del encéfalo más frecuentemente relacionados con epilepsia. OBJETIVO: Determinar los tumores del encéfalo más frecuentes relacionados con epilepsia en pacientes del hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz, en Cúcuta, Colombia entre los años 2015 y 2018. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio retrospectivo. Se recolectaron historias clínicas de pacientes mayores de 18 años que ingresaron al servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz, en Cúcuta, Colombia con diagnóstico de tumor del encéfalo entre el año 2015 y el 2018. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 220 historias, el 56 % correspondió al sexo femenino y la media de edad fue de 48 años; 98 (45 %) de los casos presentó crisis epilépticas. El tumor del encéfalo más frecuente relacionado con epilepsia fue el glioma (46 casos). El tipo de glioma que más se relacionó con crisis epilépticas fue el glioblastoma (27 casos); 82 % de los gliomas de bajo grado se manifestaron con epilepsia, y 71 % de los de alto grado (70,6 %). En los hombres el tumor más frecuente relacionado con epilepsia fue el glioblastoma y en las mujeres el meningioma. La localización tumoral más frecuente fue la región frontal (27 %). CONCLUSIONES: Los gliomas son el tipo de tumor cerebral más común relacionado con epilepsia, siendo el glioblastoma el tumor más frecuente de este grupo.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Seizures are the initial clinical symptom in 30 to 50 % of patients with brain tumors. With a high percentage, gliomas and meningiomas have been reported as tumors associated with epilepsy, these also being frequent tumors in Colombia. Currently in the country there are no studies that specify which are the most frequent brain tumors related to epilepsy, an investigation being necessary to clarify these data. OBJECTIVE: To determine the most frequent brain tumors associated with epilepsy in patients at the Erasmo Meoz University Hospital in Cúcuta. METHODS: Medical records were collected from all patients over 18 years of age who were admitted to the Neurosurgery service of the Erasmo Meoz University Hospital in Cúcuta with a diagnosis of brain tumor between 2015 and 2018. RESULTS: 220 patients were included, 56% were female. The mean age was 48 years; 98 cases (45%) presented with epilepsy. The most frequent brain tumor related to epilepsy were gliomas (46 cases). The glioma with the highest frequency of seizures was glioblastoma (27 cases). Low-grade gliomas had a higher percentage of epilepsy (82%) than high-grade gliomas (71%). In men, the most frequent tumor related to epilepsy was glioblastoma and in women, meningioma. The most frequent location was the frontal region (27%). CONCLUSIONS: Gliomas are the most common type of brain tumor associated with epilepsy, with the most common tumor in this group being glioblastoma.

4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(5): 675-679, May 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376184

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the concept of health professionals affiliated with the Brazilian League of Epilepsy on whether or not to inform patients about the risk factors related to the occurrence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. METHODS: A descriptive research of inquiry was conducted with direct survey on the Brazilian neurologist's view, regarding medical behavior in the health area to report or not about the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Data collection consisted of a structured questionnaire available online. RESULTS: The study population consisted of a sample of 44 Brazilian League of Epilepsy members who answered the questionnaire, of which 25 (56.8%) were men and 19 (43.2%) were women. Among the analyzed questionnaires, 79.5% reported that they were aware of the risk factors for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and 18.2% admitted not knowing the potential risk factors for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Notably, 59.1% of these professionals thought that an early discussion with the patient about sudden unexpected death in epilepsy must be considered. The majority (70%) felt that the neurologist should do this, and 22% believed that the subject should be discussed with psychologists. It was noted that 84.1% of respondents did not discuss or discussed only with some of their patients about the risk factors for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for encouraging early discussion of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy with epilepsy patients if the patient asks about the risks related to epilepsy and its treatment, when treatment adherence is low, in cases of intractable epilepsy with strong indication for surgical treatment, and when polytherapy is needed.

5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5,supl.1): 296-306, May 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393925

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a serious public health problem in several developing countries, including those in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. NCC is considered to be the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in endemic areas. Objective: This review summarizes recent advances in diagnosis and therapy of NCC. Methods: Relevant articles and books were reviewed and used as a source of information for this review. Results: The diagnosis of NCC is based upon neuroimaging studies (MRI and computed tomography) and laboratory analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Praziquantel and albendazole are considered parasiticidal drugs against NCC, but there is an intense debate over the value and safety of these drugs. Conclusion: Given the relative scarcity of clinical trials, more comparative interventional studies, especially randomized controlled trials in long-term clinical evolution, are required in order to clarify the controversy over the validity of parasitic therapy in patients with NCC.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A neurocisticercose (NCC) é grave problema de saúde pública nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente na América Latina, Ásia e África. A NCC é considerada a principal causa de epilepsia de início tardio nas regiões endêmicas. Objetivo: Este artigo pretende discutir os recentes avanços no diagnóstico e tratamento da NCC. Métodos: Artigos científicos e livros relevantes serviram de fonte de informação para esta revisão. Resultados: O diagnóstico da NCC é fundamentado nos exames de neuroimagem (ressonância magnética e tomografia computadorizada) e do líquido cefalorraquiano (LCR). Atualmente, praziquantel e albendazole são considerados eficazes na terapêutica etiológica da NCC, mas há intenso debate quanto à validade e segurança desses medicamentos. Conclusão: Pela relativa carência de ensaios clínicos, são necessários novos estudos particularmente randomizados, controlados e com análise de desfechos clínicos a longo prazo para o esclarecimento da polêmica envolvendo a validade da terapêutica parasiticida na NCC.

6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5,supl.1): 182-192, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393941

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) has become a promising therapeutic option in the treatment of epilepsy. Recent studies provide robust evidence that CBD is effective and safe. Limitations in current knowledge and regulatory issues still limit CBD use. CBD use regarding epilepsy types still lacks clear guidelines. Objective: To critically review the main current pharmacological features and clinical issues regarding CBD use in epilepsy, to provide current regulatory background regarding CBD use in Brazil, and to suggest a practical CBD therapeutic guide in Brazil. Methods: Non-systematic literature review (up to February 2022) of current concepts of CBD and epilepsy, including the authors' personal experience. Results: Five pivotal trials have led to CBD approval as an adjunctive treatment for Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes, and for the tuberous sclerosis complex. Efficacy of CBD in other drug-resistant epilepsies remains not completely understood. CBD adverse event profile and drug interactions are better understood. CBD is well tolerated. In Brazil, CBD is not classified as a medication, but as a product subject to a distinct regulatory legislation. CBD is still not offered by the National Brazilian health system, but can be purchased in authorized pharmacies or imported under prescription and signed informed consent. Conclusion: CBD is a recognized novel treatment for epilepsy. Future well-designed studies and public health strategies are needed to offer widespread access to CBD, and to improve the quality of life of people living with epilepsy in Brazil.


RESUMO Antecedentes: O canabidiol (CBD) é uma terapêutica promissora no tratamento da epilepsia. Estudos recentes trouxeram evidências robustas sobre a eficácia e segurança do CBD. Lacunas no conhecimento atual e questões legais limitam seu uso. Não há consenso sobre o manejo do CBD nos diferentes tipos de epilepsia. Objetivo: Revisar criticamente os principais aspectos farmacológicos e clínicos atuais do uso do CBD em epilepsia e sugerir um guia terapêutico prático no Brasil. Métodos: Revisão não-sistemática da literatura até fevereiro de 2022 de conceitos atuais sobre CBD e epilepsia, associado a experiência dos autores. Resultados: Cinco estudos principais levaram à aprovação do CBD como tratamento adjuvante nas síndromes de Dravet, Lennox-Gastaut e na esclerose tuberosa. A eficácia em outras epilepsias fármaco-resistentes ainda não está bem estudada. Eventos adversos e interações medicamentosas são comuns. O CBD é bem tolerado. No Brasil, o CBD não é classificado como medicamento, mas como produto sujeito a diferente regras regulatórias. O acesso ao CBD ainda é restrito, e este não é fornecido pelo sistema público de saúde brasileiro. O CBD pode ser adquirido no Brasil em farmácias autorizadas ou por importação, sob prescrição especial e termo de consentimento informado. Conclusão: O CBD é uma realidade no tratamento da epilepsia. Estudos futuros e políticas públicas são necessários para permitir amplo acesso do CBD melhoraria da qualidade de vida de pessoas com epilepsia no Brasil.

7.
Med. UIS ; 35(1): 71-79, ene,-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394434

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la hipovitaminosis D es un problema prevalente en la población general y muy frecuente en niños; relacionado a diferentes patologías o factores como el uso de medicamento antiepilépticos (MAEs), principalmente aquellos inductores enzimáticos del citocromo P450, ampliamente relacionados con la salud ósea. Razón por la que este estudio busca determinar la distribución de insuficiencia de Vitamina D en niños tratados farmacológicamente para la epilepsia, así como establecer factores asociados basándose en características sociodemográficas, clínicas y terapéuticas. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo con 103 pacientes con epilepsia en manejo con MAEs, asistentes a la consulta de neuropediatría en un hospital de tercer nivel, se tomó información de las historias clínicas de niños entre 0 y 18 años durante enero del 2016 y junio del 2019. Se construyó un modelo multivariado en relación a la presencia de insuficiencia de vitamina D y valores normales de esta. Resultados: el 44,7% presentaron insuficiencia de vitamina D, mientras 6,8% de pacientes presentó deficiencia, de los cuales 4 tenían historia de fracturas. Se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa con la insuficiencia en pacientes que residen en área rural (ORa=4,2 (IC95=1,3-13,4) p=0,013), pertenecen a nivel socio económico bajo (Ora=2,9 (IC95%=1,1-77) p=0,030) y padecen epilepsia refractaria (Ora=3,1 (IC95%=1-8,7) p=0,033). Conclusiones: la hipovitaminosis D es frecuente en paciente con epilepsia en manejo farmacológico con MAE. La insuficiencia se asoció con epilepsia refractaria, nivel socioeconómico bajo y provenir de área rural, por lo que se recomienda vigilancia rutinaria de los niveles de vitamina D y suplementación en aquellos pacientes con déficit. MÉD.UIS.2022;35(1): 71-9


Abstract Hypovitaminosis D is a prevalent problem in the general population and very common in children; related to different pathologies or factors such as the use of antiepileptic drugs (MAEs), mainly those enzymatic inducers of cytochrome P450, broadly related with bone health. Reason why this study seeks to determine the distribution of vitamin D insufficiency in children with epilepsy in pharmacological treatment and to establish associated factors based on sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics. Methodology: descriptive, cross- sectional, retrospective study with 103 patients with epilepsy in management with MAEs, attending the neuropaediatric consultation in a third-level hospital, information was taken from the medical records of children between 0 and 18 years of age during January 2016 and June 2019. A multivariate model was built in relation to the presence of vitamin D insufficiency and its normal values. Results: 44.7% of patients had vitamin D insufficiency, while 6.8% had deficiency, of which 4 had a history of fractures. A statistically significant association with insufficiency was found in patients residing in rural areas (ORa=4.2 (IC95=1.3-13.4) p=0.013), they belong to a low socio-economic level (Ora=2.9 (95% CI=1.1-77) p=0.030) and suffering from refractory epilepsy (Ora=3.1 (95% CI=1-8.7) p=0.033). Conclusions: hypovitaminosis D is frequent in a patient with epilepsy under pharmacological management with MAE. Insufficiency was associated with refractory epilepsy, low socioeconomic status and coming from rural areas, so routine monitoring of vitamin D levels is recommended in those patients with deficits. MÉD.UIS.2022;35(1): 71-9

8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 131-155, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393364

ABSTRACT

Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieri in the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieri using Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieri improves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnieri have been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.


Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), también conocida como Brahmi, se ha utilizado para mejorar los procesos cognitivos y las funciones intelectuales que están relacionadas con la preservación de la memoria. El objetivo de esta investigación es revisar las aplicaciones etnobotánicas, composición fitoquímica, toxicidad y actividad de B. monnieri en el sistema nervioso central. Se revisaron artículos sobre B. monnieri utilizando Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline y PubMed. Las saponinas son los principales compuestos de los extractos de B. monnieri. Los estudios farmacológicos mostraron que B. monnieri mejora el aprendizaje y la memoria y presenta efectos biológicos contra la enfermedad de Alzheimer, la enfermedad de Parkinson, la epilepsia y la esquizofrenia. No se informó toxicidad aguda preclínica. Sin embargo, se informaron efectos secundarios gastrointestinales en algunos ancianos sanos. La mayoría de los estudios con B. monnieri han sido evaluaciones preclínicas de los mecanismos celulares en el sistema nervioso central y es necesario realizar más investigaciones clínicas traslacionales para evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de la planta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Bacopa/chemistry , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Saponins/analysis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Triterpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Cognition/drug effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Phytochemicals
9.
Rev. neuropsiquiatr ; 85(1): 55-65, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377164

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los adultos mayores tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar epilepsia. Con un aumento progresivo de la expectativa de vida, este grupo muestra el más rápido incremento entre los pacientes con epilepsia. El tratamiento en sí se complica debido a los cambios fisiológicos relacionados con el envejecimiento, las comorbilidades, los problemas cognitivos concomitantes, las interacciones farmacológicas complejas y las dificultades en la adherencia a regímenes medicamentosos. Las crisis epilépticas se pueden controlar en la mayoría de los pacientes adultos mayores con dosis bajas de un solo fármaco anticrisis epiléptica de efecto específico. La tolerabilidad es un factor importante en la selección del fármaco, ya que los pacientes adultos mayores tienden a ser muy sensibles a los efectos secundarios. Para los fármacos anticrisis epiléptica que operan como inductores enzimáticos se debe valorar su retiro del arsenal terapéutico en favor de nuevos agentes que han demostrado similar eficacia y mejor tolerabilidad. Lamotrigina y levetiracetam son los fármacos anticrisis epiléptica más recomendados actualmente para el manejo de este cuadro en los adultos mayores. Aun cuando puede tratarse de una epilepsia fácilmente controlable, es recomendable mantener el tratamiento de forma indefinida en los adultos mayores dada la tendencia recurrente de las crisis. Se requieren más estudios que aborden los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la epilepsia en este grupo etario y una mayor inclusión de los adultos mayores en ensayos clínicos, así como el desarrollo de modelos de atención integral que optimice el cuidado de estos pacientes.


SUMMARY Elderly people are at a higher risk of developing epilepsy. With a progressive increase in life expectancy, this is the fastest growing group of epilepsy patients. Their treatment is complicated by the presence of physiological changes related to aging, comorbidities, concomitant cognitive problems, complex drug interactions, and difficulties in the adherence to medication regimes. Seizures can be controlled in elderly people patients with low doses of a single epileptic seizure drug. Tolerability is an important factor in drug selection, as elderly people patients tend to be very sensitive to side effects. Enzyme-inducing anti-seizure drugs should gradually be left out of the therapeutic arsenal in favor of new anti-seizure drugs that have shown similar efficacy and better tolerability. Levetiracetam and lamotrigine are the most recommended anti-seizure drugs for older adults with epilepsy nowadays. Although it could be easily controlled, it is recommended that older adults continue their treatment indefinitely, due to the recurrent seizures' proclivity. More studies are needed to address the pathophysiological mechanisms of epilepsy in this age group, and greater inclusion of elderly people in clinical trials is needed, as is the development of comprehensive care models to provide optimal patient care.

10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 43-47, Jan. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360137

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: In light of the established challenges of resident EEG education worldwide, we sought to better understand the current state of neurology resident EEG education in Brazil. Objective: To define Brazilian EEG practices including in-residency requirements for EEG training and competency. Methods: We assessed the perspectives of adult residents (PGY1-3) on EEG education and their level of confidence interpreting EEG with a 24-question online survey. Results: We analyzed 102 responses from 52 Brazilian neurology residency programs distributed in 14 states. There were 18 PGY1s, 45 PGY2s, and 39 PGY3s. Ninety-six percent of participants reported that learning how to read EEG during residency was very or extremely important. The most commonly reported barriers to EEG education were insufficient EEG exposure (70%) and ineffective didactics (46%). Residents believed that standard EEG lectures were the most efficient EEG teaching method followed by interpreting EEG with attendings' supervision. Roughly half of residents (45%) reported not being able to read EEG even with supervision, and approximately 70% of all participants did not feel confident writing an EEG report independently. Conclusion: Despite the well-established residency EEG education requirements recommended by the Brazilian Academy of Neurology (ABN), there seems to be a significant lack of comfort interpreting EEG among Brazilian adult neurology residents. We encourage Brazilian neurology residency leadership to re-evaluate the current EEG education system in order to ensure that residency programs are following EEG education requirements and to assess whether EEG benchmarks require modifications.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Diante dos desafios da educação em EEG estabelecidos em todo o mundo, buscamos compreender melhor o estado atual da educação em EEG durante a residência de neurologia no Brasil. Objetivo: Investigar práticas de EEG no Brasil, incluindo requisitos para treinamento e competência durante a residência de neurologia. Métodos: Avaliamos as perspectivas dos residentes (R1-3) de neurologia (adulto) sobre educação em EEG e nível de confiança ao interpretá-lo através de questionário online de 24 perguntas. Resultados: Foram analisadas 102 respostas de 52 programas de residência distribuídos em 14 estados. Dezoito R1s, 45 R2s e 39 R3s responderam à pesquisa. Noventa e seis por cento dos participantes relataram que aprender a ler EEG durante a residência é muito ou extremamente importante. As barreiras mais relatadas para educação em EEG foram exposição insuficiente ao EEG (70%) e didática ineficaz (46%). Os participantes apontaram aulas como método de ensino mais eficaz, seguido pela interpretação do EEG supervisionada pelos chefes. Aproximadamente metade dos residentes (45%) relatou não ser capaz de ler EEG mesmo com supervisão e cerca de 70% não se sente confiante para escrever um laudo de EEG de forma independente. Conclusões: Apesar dos requisitos estabelecidos pela Academia Brasileira de Neurologia (ABN) sobre ensino de EEG durante a residência, há significativa falta de confiança na sua interpretação pelos residentes de neurologia (adulto). Incentivamos as lideranças a reavaliar o sistema de educação para garantir que os programas de residência sigam requisitos de educação em EEG e se os benchmarks de EEG requerem modificações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Internship and Residency , Neurology , United States , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Educational Status , Electroencephalography/methods
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 48-55, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360131

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Epilepsy has neuropsychiatric comorbidities such as depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety. Drugs that target epilepsy may also be useful for its neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Objective: To investigate the effects of serotonergic modulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines and the seizures in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with serotonin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan, or saline 30 min prior to PTZ treatment. Behavioral seizures were assessed by the Racine's scale. Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum and brain tissue were determined by ELISA. Results: Serotonin and fluoxetine, but not sumatriptan, alleviated PTZ-induced seizures by prolonging onset times of myoclonic-jerk and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The anti-seizure effect of fluoxetine was greater than that of serotonin. Likewise, serotonin and fluoxetine, but not sumatriptan, reduced PTZ-induced increases in the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in both serum and brain tissue. None of the administered drugs including PTZ affected TNF-α concentrations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that endogenous and exogenous serotonin exhibits anticonvulsant effects by suppressing the neuroinflammation. It seems that 5-HT1B/D receptors do not mediate anticonvulsant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of serotonin.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A epilepsia apresenta comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas como depressão, transtorno bipolar e ansiedade. Os medicamentos que visam o tratamento da epilepsia podem ser úteis para a epilepsia e suas comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas. Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da modulação serotonérgica em citocinas pró-inflamatórias e as convulsões no modelo de convulsão induzida por pentilenotetrazol (PTZ) em ratos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram injetados intraperitonealmente com serotonina, inibidor seletivo da recaptação da serotonina fluoxetina, sumatriptano agonista do receptor 5-HT1B / D ou solução salina 30 min antes do tratamento com PTZ. As crises comportamentais foram avaliadas pela escala de Racine. As concentrações de IL-1β, IL-6 e TNF-α no soro e tecido cerebral foram determinadas por ELISA. Resultados: A serotonina e a fluoxetina, mas não o sumatriptano, aliviaram as convulsões induzidas por PTZ ao prolongar os tempos de início das convulsões mioclônicas e tônico-clônicas generalizadas. O efeito anticonvulsivo da fluoxetina foi maior do que o da serotonina. Da mesma forma, a serotonina e a fluoxetina, mas não o sumatriptano, reduziram os aumentos induzidos por PTZ nos níveis de IL-1β e IL-6 no soro e no tecido cerebral. Nenhum dos medicamentos administrados, incluindo PTZ, alterou as concentrações de TNF-α. Conclusões: Nossos achados sugerem que a serotonina endógena e exógena exibe efeitos anticonvulsivantes por suprimir a neuroinflamação. Aparentemente, os receptores 5-HT1B / D não medeiam os efeitos anticonvulsivantes e anti-neuroinflamatórios da serotonina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/drug therapy , Serotonin/adverse effects , Fluoxetine/adverse effects , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Sumatriptan/adverse effects , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
12.
South African Family Practice ; 64(3): 1-7, 19 May 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380566

ABSTRACT

The rational use of medicine is fundamental to ensure effective and safe patient medicine treatment, and hence, should be monitored. Undisputable evidence exists for the teratogenic risk factors associated with sodium valproate. Consequently, the Western Cape Department of Health introduced a policy (2019) recommending alternatives for valproate in women of childbearing age, including lamotrigine or levetiracetam as alternatives for patients on antiretrovirals. This study aimed to describe the change in the consumption of valproate, lamotrigine and levetiracetam after a policy implementation in public sector health facilities of the Western Cape, South Africa. Methods: This observational study followed a quasi-experimental design. Consumption data from the Cape Medical Depot over the period 01 April 2018 to 31 March 2020 were analysed retrospectively. Consumption was presented as a defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 population per quarter for sodium valproate, levetiracetam and lamotrigine for the Western Cape province, urban and rural areas. Consumption 12 months before was compared with consumption 12 months after policy implementation. Results: Post-policy implementation, valproate consumption remained unchanged provincially (3.3%; p = 0.255), in urban (7.8%; p = 0.255) and rural (1.5%; p = 0.701) areas. Lamotrigine consumption increased significantly provincially (30.7%; p = 0.020) and in urban areas (54.5%; p = 0.002); however, rural (26.1%; p = 0.108) areas did not show significant change. Provincially, valproate consumption remained substantially higher (209 DDDs/1000 population per quarter) compared with lamotrigine consumption (32.22 DDDs/1000 population per quarter). Conclusion: In the Western Cape public sector, the consumption of sodium valproate remained unchanged 12 months after policy implementation. Although there were significant increases in lamotrigine and levetiracetam consumption, the consumption was considerably less compared with sodium valproate consumption.


Subject(s)
Valproic Acid , Epilepsy , Lamotrigine , Economics , Levetiracetam
13.
South African Family Practice ; 64(1): 1-9, 21 September 2022. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1396530

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a chronic and debilitating condition affecting people of all ages in many nations. Healthcare practitioners look for effective ways to track patients' seizures, and a seizure diary is one of the methods used. This scoping review sought to identify current norms and practices for using seizure diaries to manage epilepsy. Method: A scoping review was performed by screening relevant studies and identifying themes, categories and subcategories. Results: A total of 1125 articles were identified from the database; 46 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, of which 23 articles were selected. The majority (48%) of the studies were prospective studies. The majority (65%) of the articles were studies conducted in the United States. The themes identified were types of seizure diaries used in clinical practice, contents and structure of a standardized seizure diary, the use and efficacy of seizure diaries in medicine and challenges relating to using a seizure diary for patient management. Conclusion: The study revealed that a seizure diary remains a relevant tool in managing epilepsy. The two forms of diaries in use are electronic and paper-based diaries. The high cost of data and the expensive devices required to access electronic diaries make it unsuitable in a resource-limited setting. Despite its disadvantages, imperfections and inadequacies, the paper-based diary is still relevant for managing patients with epilepsy in resource-limited settings. Contribution: This study reviewed the literature to find the current norms and practices in using seizure diaries. The benefits of the different formats were emphasized


Subject(s)
Seizures , Delivery of Health Care , Epilepsy , Household Articles , Patients , Review , Literature
14.
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ; 32(5): 905-912, 5 September 2022. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398219

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in epileptic patients in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to characterize the EEG patterns, indications, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and epilepsy risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective observational review of EEG test records of 433 patients referred to our electrophysiology unit between July 01, 2020, and December 31, 2021. Results: The age distribution in the study participants was right skewed unipolar age distribution for both sexes and the mean age of 33.8 (SD=15.7) years. Male accounted for 51.7%. Generalized tonic clonic seizure was the most common seizure type. The commonest indication for EEG was abnormal body movement with loss of consciousness (35.2%). Abnormal EEG findings were observed in 55.2%; more than half of them were Interictal epileptiform discharges, followed by focal/or generalized slowing. Phenobarbitone was the commonest AEDs. A quarter (20.1%) of the patients were getting a combination of two AEDs and 5.2% were on 3 different AEDs. Individuals taking the older AEDs and those on 2 or more AEDs tended to have abnormal EEG findings. A cerebrovascular disorder (27.4%) is the prevalent risk factor identified followed by brain tumor, HIV infection, and traumatic head injury respectively. CONCLUSION: High burden of abnormal EEG findings among epileptic patients referred to our unit. The proportion of abnormal EEG patterns was higher in patients taking older generation AEDs and in those on 2 or more AEDs. Stroke, brain tumor, HIV infection and traumatic head injury were the commonest identified epilepsy risk factors


Subject(s)
Patient Discharge , Trigeminal Neuralgia , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Risk Factors , Ethiopia
15.
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ; 32(5): 913-922, 5 September 2022. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398380

ABSTRACT

Medication adherence is a fundamental determinant of effective treatment. However, people with epilepsy have poor compliance with their treatment because of the chronic nature of the disease. Limited studies have been conducted to address antiepileptic medication adherence in Africa, including Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess antiepileptic drug adherence and its asociated factors among patients with epilepsy attending outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted on 439 patients with epilepsy in Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. Medication adherence reporting scale-5 (MARS-5) was used to assess adherence to antiepileptic drugs. The Oslo social support, Jacob perceived stigma scale, and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) were the instruments used to assess associated factors. Simple and multiple linear regression analysis models were fitted. Then, the adjusted unstandardized beta (ß) coefficient at a 95% confidence level was used. RESULTS: The mean (SD) score of antiepileptic medication adherence was 16.38(±3.76) with 95%CI:(16.03, 16.72). Depressive symptoms (ß= -1.35, 95% CI: (-2.04, -0.65)), anxiety symptoms (ß=-1.12,95%CI:(-1,79, -0.44), perceived stigma (ß= -1.64, 95% CI: -2.16, -1.12), being single (ß=-0.67, 95%CI: -1.20, -0.14), presence of seizure per month (ß=-2.11,95% CI: (-2.81, -1.41) and antiepileptic drug adverse effect (ß=-0.07,95%CI: -0.11, -0.03) were factors associated with anti-epileptic medication adherence. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the mean score of adherences to antiepileptic drugs was poor as compared to other settings. Antiepileptic medication adherence screening tool should be included in the patient's treatment protocol


Subject(s)
Epilepsy , Medication Adherence , Health Services Accessibility , Anticonvulsants
16.
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 252-262, March 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400550

ABSTRACT

Background: Epilepsy is associated with stigma and negatively impacts the lives of people living with epilepsy (PLWE) and their immediate families. More understanding of the stigma and discrimination experienced by PLWE in sub-Saharan Africa is needed. Methods: In a cross-sectional, mixed methods study, forty- eight PLWE who met the study inclusion criteria were enrolled. In depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted and were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was conducted using a thematic, constant comparative approach with an emphasis on dominant themes. Perceived stigma was measured using the Kilifi epilepsy stigma score. Associations between socio-demographic factors and Kilifi epilepsy stigma score were assessed. Results: The median age of the study participants was 25 years, with median age (IQR) of epilepsy onset of 12 (6-18) years. The prevalence of high-perceived stigma was 31.9% (15/48). Seizure frequency was associated with high levels of perceived stigma (p-value of 0.038). Psychological abuse, rejections at home, places of employment and schools, poor relationships and intimacy and unmet engagements in social activities were cited as the perceived stigmatizing aspects among PLWE. Conclusion: In this Ugandan sample perceived stigma remains unacceptably high and interventions to address it are urgently needed in our settings.


Subject(s)
Discrimination, Psychological , Epilepsy , Social Stigma , Anthropogenic Effects , Uganda
17.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 672-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941491

ABSTRACT

Heart transplantation is the main treatment of end-stage heart failure. With the advancement of heart transplantation and rational use of postoperative immunosuppressants, the survival rate of recipients has been gradually enhanced. However, a variety of central nervous system complications may still occur following heart transplantation, including immunosuppressant-associated neurotoxicity, epilepsy, stroke, encephalopathy, central nervous system infection and de novo malignant tumors in the central nervous system. These complications will severely affect the quality of life of heart transplant recipients. Consequently, prompt imaging diagnosis plays a significant role in the prevention and treatment of central nervous system complications. In this article, main imaging manifestations of central nervous system complications after heart transplantation were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for prompt diagnosis and differential diagnosis of complications, guide clinical treatment and management, and improve the long-term prognosis of the recipients.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940631

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal mixture for dispelling stasis and resolving phlegm combined with western medicine in the treatment of epilepsy combined with cognitive impairment by randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. MethodA total of 123 inpatients and outpatients with epilepsy complicated with cognitive impairment admitted to the department of neurology at Longhua Hospital from October 2020 to October 2021 were randomly assigned into a control group (62 cases, carbamazepine + placebo) and a treatment group (61 cases, carbamazepine + Quyu Dingxian Zhengtong mixture) by random number table method. In the treatment group, 4 cases were exfoliated and eliminated. In the control group, 3 cases fell off. Finally, 57 cases in the treatment group and 59 cases in the control group were included. The total course of treatment for both groups was 12 weeks. The clinical efficacy, efficacy for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes, and incidence of adverse reactions were compared between two groups. The changes of seizure frequency, abnormal rate of electroencephalogram (EEG), cognitive function score, serum homocysteine (HCY), folic acid, and vitamin B12 (B12) were measured and compared before and after treatment. ResultAfter 12 weeks of treatment, the treatment group had higher clinical efficacy [92.98% (53/57) vs 79.66% (47/59), χ2=4.327, P<0.05] and efficacy for TCM syndromes [96.49% (55/57) vs 84.75% (50/59), χ2=4.660, P<0.05] than the control group. The treatment group was superior to the control group in reducing the seizure frequency (Z=-3.938, P<0.01) and improving the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) score (t=4.333, P<0.01) and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score (t=9.531, P<0.01). The variations in serum HCY, folic acid, and B12 in the treatment group were less than those in the control group (t=-7.233, t=-7.972, t=-6.871, P<0.01). After treatment, the abnormal rate of EEG in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group (χ2=4.437, P<0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in the treatment group (1.75%, 1/57) was lower than that (13.56%, 8/59) in the control group (corrected χ2=4.116, P<0.05). ConclusionChinese medicinal mixture for dispelling stasis and resolving phlegm in combination with western medicine had better efficacy and safety than western medicine alone in the treatment of epilepsy complicated with cognitive impairment. Specifically, the combination outperformed western medicine alone in terms of clinical efficacy, efficacy for TCM syndromes, reduction in seizure frequency, abnormal rate of EEG, adverse reactions, improvement of cognitive function, and variations in serum folic acid, B12, and HCY values. Chinese medicinal mixture for dispelling stasis and resolving phlegm may improve the clinical efficacy and safety by changing the metabolism of folic acid, B12, and HCY in serum of the patients with epilepsy complicated with cognitive impairment.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940231

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a recurrent neurological disease with synchronous abnormal high discharge of neurons in the brain. The pathogenesis of this disease is extremely complex, which is closely related to neurotransmitter regulation, oxidative stress response, inflammatory factors, neuroglial cell, and abnormal gene expression. Western medicine mainly uses phenobarbital, phenytoin sodium, carbamazepine, and other drugs, but long-term use also produces certain toxic and side effects. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) believes that the pathogenesis of epilepsy is related to wind, fire, phlegm, and blood stasis, which leads to dysfunction of viscera, disorder of Qi movement, and finally uncontrolled spirit. In recent years, TCM has achieved certain curative effects on the treatment of epilepsy. As a high-frequency antiepileptic drug, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma has the effects of opening orifices and eliminating phlegm, awakening spirit and benefiting intelligence, and removing dampness and opening stomach, which has been widely used in clinic. In this paper, the pathogenesis of epilepsy and the pharmacological mechanism of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma extract and chemical components in the treatment of epilepsy were expounded by referring to relevant pharmacological studies and animal experiments. It was found that Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma played a role in regulating the neurotransmitter level, antioxidant stress response, scavenging oxygen free radicals, regulating the expression of c-fos gene, reducing the level of inflammatory mediators, resisting neuronal apoptosis, and regulating the neuroglial cells and the permeability of blood-brain barrier. This paper summarizes the positive effects of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma on the treatment of epilepsy, and provides a scientific basis for the popularization and application of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma in the prevention and treatment of epilepsy.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940134

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a recurrent neurological disease with synchronous abnormal high discharge of neurons in the brain. The pathogenesis of this disease is extremely complex, which is closely related to neurotransmitter regulation, oxidative stress response, inflammatory factors, neuroglial cell, and abnormal gene expression. Western medicine mainly uses phenobarbital, phenytoin sodium, carbamazepine, and other drugs, but long-term use also produces certain toxic and side effects. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) believes that the pathogenesis of epilepsy is related to wind, fire, phlegm, and blood stasis, which leads to dysfunction of viscera, disorder of Qi movement, and finally uncontrolled spirit. In recent years, TCM has achieved certain curative effects on the treatment of epilepsy. As a high-frequency antiepileptic drug, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma has the effects of opening orifices and eliminating phlegm, awakening spirit and benefiting intelligence, and removing dampness and opening stomach, which has been widely used in clinic. In this paper, the pathogenesis of epilepsy and the pharmacological mechanism of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma extract and chemical components in the treatment of epilepsy were expounded by referring to relevant pharmacological studies and animal experiments. It was found that Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma played a role in regulating the neurotransmitter level, antioxidant stress response, scavenging oxygen free radicals, regulating the expression of c-fos gene, reducing the level of inflammatory mediators, resisting neuronal apoptosis, and regulating the neuroglial cells and the permeability of blood-brain barrier. This paper summarizes the positive effects of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma on the treatment of epilepsy, and provides a scientific basis for the popularization and application of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma in the prevention and treatment of epilepsy.

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