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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880746


OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the composition of bioactive substances and the antioxidant effects of jujube fruit under gut microbiota fermentation (GMF), and the inhibitory effect on cytotoxicity caused by ethyl carbamate (EC).@*METHODS@#Changes in the contents of flavonoids, polyphenols, total sugars, and reducing sugars of jujube fruit after GMF (0, 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) were determined. The oxidation resistance of fermented jujube fruits (from 0 to 48 h fermentation) was evaluated using in vitro 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Inhibitory effects of 48 h-fermented jujube fruit at various concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 mg/mL) on EC-treated toxicity and DNA damage of Caco-2 cells were estimated using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and nuclear staining assays, respectively. Effects of different concentrations of jujube fruit on EC-treated Caco-2 cells' intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were also evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Jujube fruit has rich bioactive components after GMF and shows strong antioxidant capacity. Fermented jujube fruit can inhibit the cytotoxicity and DNA damage of Caco-2 cells caused by EC and reduce intracellular ROS generation, as well as restoring GSH and MMP.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Fermented jujube fruit extracts produced by GMF still contain biologically active substances which retain biological activity and antioxidation capabilities.

Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1640-1649, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826813


Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a carcinogen detected in fermented foods and alcohol beverages. Excessive intake of EC is possibly harmful to health. Enzymatic degradation is one of the most effective approaches for reducing EC in fermented foods. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of both EC and urea. This confers urease a good application prospect in reducing EC and its precursor urea in fermented foods. Currently, degradation of EC in alcohol beverages by urease is inefficient due to its low urethanase activity and poor affinity to EC. Urease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JP-21 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli at the level of 3 292 U/L urease and 227.3 U/L urethanase. Two key residues M326 and M374 were characterized that might block the binding of enzyme to EC, through simulating docking the structure of catalytic subunit UreC of urease with EC. Three mutants (M374A, M374T and M326V) of urease with improved urethanase activity were obtained by performing point saturated mutagenesis approach. Using EC as the substrate, Km values of M374A, M374T and M326V were detected to be 101.8 mmol/L, 129.5 mmol/L and 121.7 mmol/L, respectively, which were decreased by 37.47%-50.82% compared with that of the wild type urease. These mutants can degrade more than 97% of urea in rice wine and mutant M374T shows the highest degradation of EC in rice wine. EC content in rice wine was reduced from 525 μg/L to 393 μg/L by using M374T, and the EC degradation rate of it is 0.97 folds higher than that of the wild type urease. The results are of great significance for engineering the catalytic properties of urease and improving its industrial properties, and lays a good foundation for developing strategies to reducing microbial metabolic ammonia (amine) hazards in fermented foods.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 26-30, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816743


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the DNA damage response of procarbazine hydrochloride (PCZ) and ethyl carbamate (EC) to different tissues in rats by performing alkaline comet assay, to validate the feasibility of alkaline comet assay of various tissues. METHODS: Totally 30 SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups according to body weight, with 5 rats in each group, such as negative control group (hyperpure water), PCZ 75 mg/kg group, PCZ 150 mg/kg group, EC 400 mg/kg group, EC 800 mg/kg group, positive control group (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea 40 mg/kg). Those rats were given relevant medicine intragasttrically for 4 d; clinical symptoms of rats were observed and body weight was recorded during experiment. Within 3 h after last medication, the rats were sacrificed; liver, renal and lung weight were weighed; liver, kidney, lung and peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected. The single cell suspension was prepared to perform alkaline comet assay. After lysis, unwind, electrophoresis and dying, tail DNA% and tail distance of samples were analyzed by Komet 6.0 software. RESULTS: Compared with negative control group, body weight, liver and renal weight of rats were decreased significantly in PCZ 75 mg/kg group, PCZ 150 mg/kg group and positive control group 4 d after medication (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Body weight of rats were decreased significantly in EC 800    mg/kg 4 d after medication (P<0.05 or P<0.01); there was no statistical significance (P>0.05). Compared with negative control group, tail DNA% and tail distance in liver, kidney and peripheral blood lymphocytes were increased significantly in PCZ 75    mg/kg group, PCZ 150 mg/kg group and positive control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); PCZ showed more significant effects on liver and lung. Tail DNA% and tail distance of liver, kidney and peripheral blood lymphocytes were increased significantly in EC 800 mg/kg group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and tail DNA% and tail distance of renal tissue was increased significantly in EC 400   mg/kg group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PCZ induced stronger DNA damage; liver and lung are the major genotoxicity target of PCZ. EC-induced DNA damage is relatively weak, and kidney is the most sensitive organ for EC-induced genotoxicity.

Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 567-576, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771352


Ethyl carbamate (EC), a carcinogenic and teratogenic chemical that is widely distributed in various alcoholic beverages, has attracted much attention. Microbial enzymatic degradation of EC in rice wine is always efficient and attractive. In this review, we summarize the research progress and problems of microbial enzymatic elimination of EC in rice wine from three aspects: the mechanisms of EC formation in rice wine, the research progress of acid urease, and the research progress of urethanase. Then, we propose the corresponding strategies to solve the problems: screening new urethanase with satisfied enzyme properties, food-grade expression and directed evolution of the bifunctional Fe³⁺-dependent acid urease and acid urease used in combination with urethanase to eliminate both urea and EC in rice wine.

Oryza , Urea , Urease , Urethane , Wine
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 49(8): e20190349, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045413


ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to review technological and toxicological factors related to presence of carbonyl compounds found in wines, including acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrolein, ethyl carbamate (EC) and furfural. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde may be formed through the ethanol and methanol oxidation, respectively. Acrolein may arise as a thermal degradation product of glycerol, amino acids, carbohydrates and triglycerides or by metabolic activity of microorganisms. In addition, acrolein and furfural are formed during wood combustion; therefore, these aldehydes may be present in raw materials due to the environmental contamination. Furfural is also a product of the Maillard reaction formed from sugars and amino acids, while ethyl carbamate occurs through the reaction between urea and ethanol. These compounds may react with SO2 and phenolic compounds to form non-volatile adducts, which positively modulates color stability, astringency and aroma in wine. However, when ingested through wine, electrophilic carbonyl compounds may form adducts with nucleophilic targets, such as DNA, resulting in genotoxicity along the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, carbonyl compounds induce the increase of reactive oxygen species and can trigger apoptosis, in addition to hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma as a consequence of chronic hepatotoxicity. Neurodegenerative diseases may be related to the exposure to carbonyl compounds. Therefore, strategies to reduce the levels of these compounds should be studied in order to get the most out of the beneficial functional properties of wine consumption.

RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar os fatores tecnológicos e toxicológicos relacionados à presença de compostos carbonílicos encontrados em vinhos, incluindo acetaldeído, formaldeído, acroleína, carbamato de etila (CE) e furfural. O acetaldeído e o formaldeído podem ser formados através da oxidação do etanol e do metanol, respectivamente. A acroleína pode surgir como um produto de degradação térmica de glicerol, aminoácidos, carboidratos e triglicerídeos ou pela atividade metabólica de microorganismos. Além disso, a acroleína e o furfural são formados durante a combustão da madeira. Portanto, esses aldeídos podem estar presentes nas matérias-primas devido à contaminação ambiental. O furfural é também um produto da reação de Maillard formado a partir de açúcares e aminoácidos, enquanto o carbamato de etila ocorre através da reação entre uréia e etanol. Estes compostos podem reagir com SO2 e compostos fenólicos para formar adutos não voláteis, que modulam positivamente a estabilidade da cor, adstringência e aroma no vinho. No entanto, quando ingeridos através do vinho, os compostos carbonílicos que são eletrofílicos podem formar adutos com alvos nucleofílicos, como o DNA, resultando em genotoxicidade ao longo do trato gastrintestinal. Além disso, os compostos carbonílicos também induzem o aumento de espécies reativas de oxigênio e podem desencadear a apoptose, além de adenoma e carcinoma hepatocelular como consequência da hepatotoxicidade crônica. Doenças neurodegenerativas podem estar relacionadas à exposição aos compostos carbonílicos. Com isso, estratégias para reduzir os níveis desses compostos devem ser estudadas para obter o máximo das propriedades funcionais benéficas do consumo de vinho.

Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1233-1242, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310544


Ethyl carbamate as a potential carcinogen commonly exists in traditional fermented foods and beverages. Enzymatic removal of ethyl carbamate from fermented foods and beverages is an efficient and safe method. In this study, we mutated urethanase from Lysinibacillus fusiformis SC02 on the Q328 site through computer aided design approaches. The half-life of resulting mutants Q328C and Q328V was detected to be 7.46 and 1.96 folds higher than that of the original enzyme, and Q328R presented better thermal-tolerance than the original urethanase when incubated at high temperature. The tolerance of Q328C to ethanol and acid also increased when compared with that of the original enzyme. The stability and tolerance to acid and ethanol of urethanase could be improved by modification on its Q328 site.

Amidohydrolases , Genetics , Bacillaceae , Genetics , Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Computer-Aided Design , Enzyme Stability , Ethanol , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Protein Engineering
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 362-365, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792398


Objective To evaluate the effects of low dose Ethyl Carbamate (EC)on the immune function of ICR mice and to provide evidences for developing food safety standard.Methods The ICR mice were divided into four groups,and three groups were treated with 0.1 7,0.83,1 .67 mg/kg·bw EC respectively and the control group was treated with distilled water only.The immune function of ICR mice was determined by five aspects,including cellular immunity,humoral immunity,mononuclear macrophages's phagocytosis,natural killer cell activity and the organ coefficients of immune organs. Results Compared with the control group,the 1 .67 mg/kg·bw EC significantly inhibited the proliferation of spleen lymphocyte,natural killer cell activity and the hemolysis plaque -forming ability induced by ConA (P <0.05 ). Conclusion EC can cause the inhibition of normal mouse's immune function.