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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906320

ABSTRACT

Perilla frutescens is a traditional medicinal and edible plant widely distributed in China and enjoys an extensive usage. P. frutescens contains multiple essential oils, which are composed of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their oxygen-containing derivatives. Compared with other parts of P. frutescens, Perillae Folium produce more oils, with volatile oils as the main constituents. There are many active substances in the volatile oils from Perillae Folium, mainly including perillaldehyde, perillaketone, perillaalcohol, D-limonene, β-caryophylene, etc. Such factors as germplasm, growth environment, extraction method, cultivation time, and harvest period all can trigger changes in volatile oil constituents and content from Perillae Folium. The volatile oils from Perillae Folium have diverse pharmacological effects like anti-oxidation, anti-bacteria, anti-inflammation, vasodilation, anti-tumor, and anti-depression, implying its high clinical application value. However, the chemical constituents in volatile oils from Perillae Folium are complex and unstable and their pharmacological activities are affected by many factors, so the safety and effectiveness of clinical medication fail to be guaranteed, which may has impeded the rational and effective use of these volatile oils. Many scholars in China and abroad have conducted a lot of research on the volatile oils from Perillae Folium, but there is currently no systematic and comprehensive research report on the chemical constituents of volatile oils from Perillae Folium and their pharmacological effects. This paper reviewed the relevant domestic and foreign literature, analyzed the development status of volatile oils from Perillae Folium, and summarized their extraction process, chemical constituents, and pharmacological actions, aiming to provide a reference for their further development, clinical application, and risk assessment.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882067

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an HPLC method for simultaneous assay of macrocyclic polyphenols from Penthorum chinense Pursh, pinocembrin-7-O-[4'', 6''-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-β-D-glucose (PHG), pinocembrin-7-O-[3''-O-galloyl-4'', 6''-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-β-D-glucose (PGHG) and pinocembrin dihydrochalcone-7-O-[3''-O-galloyl-4'', 6''-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-β-D-glucoside or thonningianin A (THA), and optimize the extraction process. Methods The total extraction rate of PHG, PGHG, THA was used as an investigated index to analyze the extracts from Penthorum chinense Pursh. Orthogonal design was applied to evaluate solvent amount, extraction time, solvent concentration and extraction times as the influencing factors for the optimal extraction process of macrocyclic polyphenols from Penthorum chinense Pursh. Results When this content assay method was adopted, there were good linear relationships for PHG, PGHG, THA in the linear range. The recoveries were between 100.90% to 102.04% with the RSDs below 1.5%. The optimal extraction process was involved in cutting Penthorum chinense Pursh into 3-5 cm, adding 10 times 80% ethanol aqueous solution by volume and refluxing 2 hours twice. The extraction rate of macrocyclic polyphenols was above 90% with this process. Conclusion This assay method is accurate, stable, and repeatable. The optimized extraction process is stable and feasible for further development and utilization.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879073

ABSTRACT

Assessment of the status property(boiling time) is a challenge for the quality control of extraction process in pharmaceutical enterprises. In this study, the pilot extraction process of Phellodendron chinense was used as the research carrier to develop an online near-infrared(NIR) quality control method based on the status property(boiling time). First, the NIR spectra of P. chinense were collected during the two pilot-scale extraction processes, and the status property(boiling time) was assessed by observing the state of bubbles in the extraction tank using a transparent window during the extraction process, which was then used as a reference standard. Based on the moving block standard deviation(MBSD) algorithm, the assessment model using online NIR spectra for boiling time during extraction process was established. In addition, the model was optimized as follows: standard normal variable(SNV) for spectral pretreatment, modeling band of 800-2 200 nm, and window size of 4. The results showed that, with 0.002 0 as the MBSD model threshold, the boiling time can be accurately assessed using online NIR spectra during extraction process. Furthermore, the principal component analysis-moving block standard deviation(PCA-MBSD) model was developed by our group to reduce the influence of online NIR spectral noise and background signal on the model, and the number of principal components was optimized into 2 in the PCA-MBSD model. The results showed that, with 0.000 075 as the PCA-MBSD model threshold, the boiling time can be accurately assessed using online NIR spectra during extraction process, with improved reliability. This study can provide a assessment method for boiling time during extraction process using online NIR spectra, which can replace the empirical judgment in manual observation, and realize the digitalization of the extraction process for big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878946

ABSTRACT

To verify the appropriate preparation process of extracts for the solid substance benchmark of Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The extracts were prepared by different preparation processes, namely the traditional process(process 1), the extract combined with volatile oil separated from traditional process extract liquid(process 2), the modern secondary reflux extraction process(process 3) and the process that volatile oil was extracted first, then prepared according to the traditional process, and combined with extract(process 4); based on the characteristic spectrum, index components of cinnamaldehyde, glycyrrhizin, ammonium glycyrrhizinate, cinnamic acid, and the dry extract rate of process 1, the differences and similarities of four extracts were compared. The results showed that the similarity of the characteristic spectrum of process 2, process 4 and process 1 were all greater than 0.97, while there was no significant difference for the content of 4 quality control components and dry extract rate; the similarity of the characteristic spectrum of process 3 and process 1 was 0.91, the absolute peak area of 13 out of 21 peaks and the relative peak area of 7 peaks increased significantly, and the content of 3 out of 4 quality control components and dry extract rate also significantly increased. In conclusion, the material standards of extracts by the process 2 and 4 are consistent with that of the traditional process, so the two processes are suitable.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Oils, Volatile , Quality Control , Reference Standards
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846005

ABSTRACT

The time of decocting plays an important role in ensuring the clinical efficacy of Chinese medicine decoction and the quality of traditional Chinese medicine, but from ancient times to the present, the judgment of the endpoint of Chinese medicine decoction has always been a technical problem. In this paper, the decocting time and the judgment methods in the Chinese medicine classics "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" and "Treatise on Differentiation and Treatment of Epidemic Febrile Disease" were analyzed. Certain laws of decocting time were found. It was demonstrated that the main factors affecting the decocting time were the disease, the efficacy of the prescriptions, the drug properties, and the characteristics of the medicine, etc. Combined with modern research results, the judgment method of the endpoint of traditional Chinese medicine decoction was expounded, hoping to seek a reasonable scientific basis for the boiling time of Chinese medicine decoction and the extraction process of modern Chinese medicine preparation, and provide a theoretical basis for ensuring the clinical efficacy of Chinese medicine decoction and the quality of Chinese medicine preparations.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-845978

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a rapid and accurate analytical method for the identification of complex system of traditional Chinese medicine, and to systematically clarify the chemical composition of sesquiterpenes in Alpinia oxyphylla. Method: On the basis of optimizing the extraction process of sesquiterpenes, the accurate molecular weight and secondary fragment ions information of unknown compounds were captured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS). Compared with the relative retention time and mass spectrometry data of the reference substance, combined with relevant references and databases, the sesquiterpene unknown compounds in the fruits of A. oxyphylla were accurately and rapidly characterized. Results: A total of 24 sesquiterpenes were identified and classified into four categories according to their skeleton structure, including nine eudesmane-type, six cadinane-type, eight eremophilane-type, and one oplopanone-type. Conclusion: In this study, the established analytical method was used to realize the rapid and accurate identification of sesquiterpenes in the fruits of A. oxyphylla, which provided a theoretical basis for the research on the pharmacodynamic substance basis and quality control of the fruits of A. oxyphylla.

7.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 883-888, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the extraction process of thymol and carvacrol in Origanum vulgare by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology. METHODS: On the basis of single factor experiment, taking the sum of extraction rates of thymol and carvicol as the evaluation index, Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effects of ethanol concentration, liquid-solid ratio and medicinal powder on the extraction rate. RESULTS: The optimal extraction parameters were as follows: ethanol concentration was 80%, liquid to solid ratio was 13∶1 (mL/g), medicinal powder passing through 40 meshes was used, and the highest extraction rate was 694.80 μg•g-1, with a small deviation from the predicted value. CONCLUSION: The optimal extraction method is simple, with low cost and good predictivity, and it can provide experimental basis for further large-scale production of thymol and carvacrol in Origanum vulgare.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851203

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the significance of each influencing factor and optimize the process of extracting indirubin from Isatidis Folium by Plackett-Burman design combined with central composite design-response surface methodology (CCD-RSM). Methods: Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the main influencing factors, and CCD-RSM was used to optimize the extraction process of indirubin. With the concentration of ethanol, the ratio of material to liquid, and the extraction time as independent variables and the extraction amount of indirubin as dependent variable, the optimum extraction process of indirubin from Isatidis Folium was predicted and analyzed by multiple linear regression and binomial fitting models with independent and dependent variables and the three-dimensional surface graph. Results; The optimal extraction process of indirubin was as follows: ethanol concentration 62%, solvent/sample ratio of 26, and extraction time 9 min. Under these conditions, the maximal extraction rate of indirubin was 4.37 mg/g which was consistent with model predictions. Conclusion: The optimal process is simple and convenient for extracting indirubin from Isatidis Folium with high precision, reproducibility, and predictability.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851055

ABSTRACT

Objective: To optimize the extraction process of Modified Yangyin Qingfei Decoction (MYQD). Methods: The effects of ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction times on the optimization of extraction process of MYQD were investigated by multiple indicators comprehensive scoring and Box-Behnken response surface methodology. The content of verbascoside, chlorogenic acid, paeonol, and glycyrrhizic acid was simultaneously determined by HPLC, and the method of analytic hierarchy process was used to calculate the weight coefficient. Results: The optimum extraction process was as follow: using 69% ethanol for once extraction for 68 min. Conclusion: The optimum extraction process is simple and feasible, and the extraction efficiency of components is high, which can provide reference for the extraction process of MYQD.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850980

ABSTRACT

Objective: To optimize the extraction process parameters of seven herbs in Xiaoruzeng Capsules (XC). Methods: The content of paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, hesperidin, imperatorin and ligustilide was determined by HPLC. The extraction rate of five kinds of index components, the dry extract yield of extracted herbs and the fingerprint similarity of extracts were comprehensively evaluated. The orthogonal experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of ethanol concentration, extraction solvent, extraction time and extraction times on the extraction process. The information entropy weighting method was used to determine the objective weight of each index, and the extraction process parameters of seven herbs in XC were optimized. Results: According to the comprehensive scoring results, it was determined that the best extraction process of the preparation was to add six times the amount of 50% ethanol, and decocted two times for 2 h each time. The average score of the three batches of verification scores was 99.72, and the RSD was 0.24%. Conclusion: The preferred process has high extraction rate, with good stability and repeatability, which is suitable for mass production of the preparation.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850951

ABSTRACT

Objective: The optimum extraction process parameters of Cistanche deserticola were selected to study the effects of different drying methods on five phenylethanoid glycosides. Methods: Single factor screening combined with Box-Behnken response surface method was used to optimize the extraction process. After optimal conditions were extracted, HPLC method was used to detect the content of echinacoside, cistanche A, verbascoside, isoacteoside, and 2’-acetylacteoside in different drying methods, and one-way ANOVA, cluster analysis, principal component analysis and close value analysis were used to analyze the content of five phenylethanoid glycosides to choose the best drying method. Results: Optimal extraction process was as following: methanol volume fraction was 55.14%, liquid to material ratio was 46.39, extraction time was 38.50 min. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and close value analysis showed that the quality of C. deserticola obtained by freeze-drying method was the best, followed by drying at 80 ℃ and the lowest at 40 ℃. Conclusion: Using this process to extract C. deserticola, the five phenylethanoid glycosides are completely and fully extracted. Although the freeze-drying method of C. deserticola has the highest active ingredient retention, from the production point of view, the 80 ℃ drying method can achieve a balance of cost and efficiency.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850840

ABSTRACT

Objective: To optimize the water extraction process of Siwu Decoction by BP neural network combined with orthogonal experiment. Methods: The water amount, the extraction time, and the extraction times were taken as factors. Entropy weight method was used to calculate the comprehensive scores of the multi-indicators of eight active components of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, verbascoside, senkyunolide A, and ligustilide in R language environment. Using comprehensive score as an evaluation indicator, the BP neural network model was established by orthogonal experiment design, and the optimal water extraction process of Siwu Decoction was predicted through network training. Results: The optimized extraction process of Siwu Decoction was carried out by adding 8 times of water and extracting 3 times for 1 h. The relative error between the network predicted value and the actual measured value of the test sample was less than 1%. Conclusion: The established mathematical model can analyze and predict the water extraction process of Siwu Decoction. The obtained process is stable and feasible, and can effectively extract the active ingredients in Siwu Decoction.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-845303

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a method for the determination of oleanolic acid(OA)in Pfaffia glomerata to compare the contents of OA in different parts of P. glomerata from Guangxi, China, with different growth years and different habitats. Methods: HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on Phenomenex Luna C18(250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm)column with mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-glacial acetic acid-triethylamine(285:15: 0.2:0.1, V/V) at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The column temperature was set at 30℃. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm, and the injection volume was 20 μl. The content of OA in P. glomerata was determined by the established method, and the extraction process of OA was optimized by the orthogonal test. Results: The linear range of OA was 0.0206-2.060 mg/ml(r2=1.0000). RSDs for the precision, repeatability and stability tests were all lower than 2%(n=6 or n=7). The average recovery of OA was 100.89%(RSD=1.69%, n=9). The optimum extraction conditions of OA were as follows: 20-fold ethanol(80%, V/V), extracting for three times, refluxing 1.5 hour each time, and processing acid hydrolysis with 3.0% sulfuric acid(g/g)for 1 hour. Under these conditions, the OA had the highest extraction efficiency. The contents of OA in reed head, root, old stem, tender stem, leaf and flower of P. glomerata were 4.87, 4.61, 2.67, 0.99, 0.24 and 1.13 mg/g, respectively. The average contents of OA in the roots of P. glomerata aged 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years in Guangxi were 3.08, 4.07, 4.71, 4.62 and 4.46 mg/g, respectively. Conclusion: The established extraction process and detection method is suitable for the extraction and content determination of OA in P. glomerata. Although OA is distributed in all parts of P. glomerata, the contents significantly vary in different parts. The content of OA is highest in reed head and lowest in leaves. The OA content in P. glomerata becomes stable after 3 years of growth in Guangxi.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-845300

ABSTRACT

Objective: To optimize the extraction process of effective components in Lycii Fructus using central composite design(CCD)-response surface method(RSM). Methods: The yield of main effective components, polysaccharides, flavonoids, rutin and chlorogenic acid as well as the yield of total extract were used as indicator for evaluating the effect of extraction solvent, extraction time, solid- liquid ratio, extraction temperature and other factors. The single factor experiment was conducted to determine the range of various factor parameters, the factor design experiment was performed for the screening of the factors that had significant influence on the extraction efficiency of effective components, the maximum velocity rise experiment was carried out to determine the central value of the factors, and finally the optimal extraction process was optimized by the central composite design- response surface methodology. Results: The optimum extraction conditions of Lycii Fructus were obtained as follows: the extraction with 60% aqueous ethanol solution by ultrasound sonication at room temperature for 40.5 minutes, and the solid- liquid ratio was 1:27. Conclusion: The present optimal extraction process could effectively improve the extraction efficacy of effective components from Lycii Fructus, and the created CCD-RSM model and related conditions have good predictability and repeatability, which provides experimental and theoretical reference for further development and research of Lycii Fructus.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-845235

ABSTRACT

Objective: To optimize the extraction process of total flavonoid from different kinds of teas and com- pare the total flavonoid content in teas. Methods: The UV spectrophotometry was used to determine the total flavonoids in tea. The effects of ethanol concentration,material-liquid ratio,extraction temperature and extraction time on the ex- traction rate were investigated. The extraction processes were optimized by the orthogonal experiment and variance analy- sis,and the total flavonoid content was compared for different extraction processes. Results: The conditions for the opti- mal extraction processes were as follows:60% ethanol concentration,1:40(g/ml)material-liquid ratio,80℃ extraction temperature and 70 min extraction time for black tea;60% ethanol concentration,1:40(g/ml)material-liquid ratio, 90℃ extraction temperature and 70 min extraction time for oolong tea;and 70% ethanol concentration,1:40(g/ml)ma- terial-liquid ratio,80℃ extraction temperature and 70 min extraction time for green tea. Under the conditions of the opti- mized extraction processes,the content of total flavonoids in black tea was the highest,followed by the oolong tea,with the least content in green tea. Conclusion: The optimization of the extraction process could significantly increase the ex- traction of in tea,and the total flavonoid content obviously differed in the different kinds of teas. The present results pro-vide an experimental basis for future studies on the extraction of total flavonoid in teas to further explore the influencing factors to the extraction.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-790902

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a method for determination and optimize the extraction process of the content of plantamajoside in plantain.Methods Plantamajoside content was determined by HPLC.The effects of ethanol concentration, ethanol amount and extraction time on the extraction of plantamajoside from plantain were studied by orthogonal design.Results The calibration curve was linear (r=0.999 6) over the range of 12.52-125.10μg/ml.The average recovery was 98.57% (RSD=1.45%).The optimum extraction process was as follows:60%ethanol, 10times volumes, extracted 2times, 1heach time.Conclusion The established method was simple, accurate and reproducible for determination of the content of plantamajoside in plantain.The optimal extraction process was stable and feasible.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773257

ABSTRACT

To establish and validate the design space of the Digeda-4 flavored decoction( DGD-4D) extraction process by using the quality by design( Qb D) concept. With DGD-4D decoction pieces as a model drug,with the transfer rate of aesculin,picroside I,picroside Ⅱ,geniposide and the yield of extract as critical quality attributes( CQAs),the single factor experiment design was used to determine the level of each factor; the Plackett-Burman experiment design was used to select the critical process parameters( CPPs);and the Box-Behnken experiment design was used to optimize the extraction process. The design space of the DGD-4D extraction process was established,and finally,four experimental points were selected to verify the established model. The single factor experiment determined the levels of each factor,including soaking time 60 min and 30 min,water adding volume 12 times and 8 times,extraction time 90 min and 30 min,number of extraction times 3 times and 1 time,as well as extraction temperature 100 ℃ and 90 ℃.By Plackett-Burman experimental design,the DGD-4D water addition,extraction time and number of extraction times were determined to be CPPs. The Box-Behnken experimental variance analysis showed that P of the regression model was less than 0. 01 and the misstated value was more than 0. 01,indicating that the model had good predictive ability,and the operation space of CPPs in the DGD-4D extraction process was determined as follows: the amount of water addition was 10-12 times; extraction time 50-80 min; and number of extraction times was 3 times. The design space of DGD-4D extraction process based on the concept of Qb D is conducive to improving the stability of product quality and laying a foundation for the future development of DGD-4D.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Research Design
18.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 28(2): 151-155, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-958853

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this study, we optimized the baicalin water extraction process from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Lamiaceae (a traditional Chinese medicine). Orthogonal test design L9(3)4 was used to analyze the optimization of water extraction process of baicalin from S. baicalensis. The effect of solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and soaking time on the yield of baicalin were investigated and optimized by orthogonal test. High-performance liquid chromatography was employed for the determination of extraction yield of baicalin. Analysis of variance was carried out to study the effects of the above three factors. The results showed that solid-liquid ratio plays a significant role in attaining maximum extraction yields of baicalin. However, the other two factors had some effect (not statistically significant) on the extraction yield of baicalin. Conclusively, the optimum experimental conditions such as the solid-liquid ratio (1:12), extraction time (30 min) and soaking time (1 h) for the water extraction of baicalin were proposed which can provide the maximum extraction yield of baicalin. In addition, the score based on the content of baicalin and total solid residues yield were used as evaluation indexes for baicalin uterus suppositories evaluation.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707127

ABSTRACT

Objective To optimize extraction process of walnut quinone from Juglans green peel. Methods On the basis of single factor tests, taking material-liquid ratio, extracting temperature and ethanol concentration as independent variables, yield of walnut quinone in response to as a value, according to Box-Behnken experiment design principle, extraction process of walnut quinone from Juglans green peel was optimized by response surface analysis. Results The optimum extraction process of walnut quinone was: 14.30 times the amount of 89.81% ethanol;30.28 ℃ constant temperature. The extracting amount of walnut quinone was 2.034 mg/g, which was close to the experimental results of 1.957 mg/g. Conclusion The optimized extraction process is reasonable and feasible, which can provide reference for the extraction of walnut quinone from Juglans green peel.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707062

ABSTRACT

Objective To optimize extraction process of Qinhao Nasal Drops by multi-index comprehensive evaluation Method. Methods With L9(34) orthogonal design, the content of rupestonic acid, chlorogenic acid, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, total flavonoids and extract yield were set as indexes, and extraction technology of Qinhao Nasal Drops was optimized.Results Optimum extraction technology was:12 times amount of 60% ethanol, extracted three times. Conclusion The optimized extraction technology is simple, practical, and adapt to the production needs, which can be used as the basis for reasonable development of the preparation.

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