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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906475

ABSTRACT

Qingxin Lianzi Yin (QXLZY), as an ancient classical formula for clearing the heart and nourishing the Yin, was composed of nine herbs (Scutellariae Radix, Ophiopogonis Radix, Lycii Cortex, Plantaginis Semen, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, Nelumbinis Semen, Poria, Astragali Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma), coming from Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy. It could clear away the heart-fire, promote the interaction of the heart and kidney, replenish Qi and Yin, and stop strangury-turbidity. It was used to treat gonorrhea of urination, seminal emission, restlessness, wasting-thirst and so on. At present, the usage and dosage of QXLZY and its addition and subtraction are different in clinical practice. Most of the studies just focus on its clinical efficacy, and there is few review literature reflecting its historical evolution. Based on this, this paper systematically clarified the historical evolution, composition, preparation, interpretation, function, and modern clinical application of QXLZY. This work has been explained the historical evolution of QXLZY, and found that it was wildly used in modern clinical, especially suitable for the treatment of chronic urinary system diseases. At the same time, QXLZY also had significant therapeutic effects on neurasthenia, stomatitis, diabetic nephropathy and other aspects. Through the comprehensive analysis of ancient and modern literature, this work explores the true connotation of QXLZY from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine theory, which can point out the direction of the clinical application and positioning of this famous classical formula after it comes into the market, and also can provide reference basis for its subsequent in-depth research and development.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906408

ABSTRACT

This review made a systematic textual research on the historical evolution and changes of the origin, producing areas and quality, harvest time and processing methods, and cultivation technique of Poria in famous classical formulas from the Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (the First Batch) by referring to the literature of ancient materia medica and medical books combining with the modern literature in CNKI, Wanfang Data and other databases, which could provide reference for the development and research of the famous classical formulas containing Poria. According to the research, the origin of Poria in ancient times was the dried sclerotia of Poria cocos. The producing area of Poria is widely distributed in China, mainly produced in Anhui, Hubei, Henan and Yunnan provinces. The quality of Poria from Yunnan is better, and the yield is larger in Anhui and Hubei provinces. The quality evaluation of Poria is basically the same from ancient to modern, which has the characteristics of large block, heavy weight, thin and wrinkled skin, and white and delicate cross section. The harvesting period of Poria is usually in August of the lunar calendar. The initial processing has undergone the evolution from drying in shade in the ancient time to drying in shade after sweating in the modern time. From ancient times to the present, Poria has been processed by cutting to prepare the Fuling lumps and Fuling slices. The cultivation technique has experienced the evolution process of "wild Poria-inoculation of live pine root-basswood cultured". At present, Poria is mainly cultivated by artificial basswood with mature technical methods and abundant yields, which can meet the research and development needs of the famous classical formulas.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906388

ABSTRACT

Huaihuasan, first recorded in Puji Benshifang by XU Shu-wei from the Southern Song dynasty, consists of four herbs, namely Sophorae Flos (fried), Platycladi Cacumen (smashed with pestle and baked), Schizonepetae Spica, and Aurantii Fructus (cut into pieces after the removal of pulp and then fried yellow with wheat bran). At present, Huaihuasan and its modified formulas vary in clinical usages and dosages, and the resulting outcomes have been investigated. However, there are few reviews uncovering its historical evolution. On this basis, this review systematically combed and verified the historical evolution, dose conversion between ancient and modern times, efficacy, and indications of Huaihuasan, as well as the origin and processing of the contained herbs. The findings have demonstrated that Huaihuasan is composed of four herbs, with the original plants and medicinal parts basically the same as those recorded in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Sophorae Flos refers to the dried flower and bud of Sophora japonica in family Leguminosae, Platycladi Cacumen the dried branch and leaf of Platycladus orientalis in family Cupressaceae, Schizonepetae Spica the dried flower spike of Schizonepeta tenuifolia in family Labiatae, and Aurantii Fructus the dried immature fruit of Citrus aurantium in family Rutaceae or its cultivated varieties. On account of the efficacy in clearing intestine, stopping bleeding, dispersing wind, and moving Qi, Huaihuasan has been mainly used to treat intestinal diseases such as bloody defecation and perianal abscess. In modern clinical practice, it is mainly applicable to patients with hematochezia and bleeding due to internal hemorrhoid, ulcerative colitis, or anal fissure. It was suggested that the raw medicinal materials should be decocted and processed according to the methods described in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Following the conversion formula of one Qian=4 g, this paper determined the dosages of Sophorae Flos (fried), Platycladi Cacumen (smashed with pestle and baked), Schizonepetae Spica, and Aurantii Fructus (cut into pieces after the removal of pulp and then fried yellow with wheat bran) all to be 2 g, with the total dosage being 8 g. Such comprehensive analysis based on ancient books and modern literature has provided a more scientific reference for the clinical application, research, and development of this classical formula.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906387

ABSTRACT

Objective:A comprehensive and in-depth analysis method for identification of chemical constituents in Suanzaoren Tang granules was established. Method:Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was employed with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-8 min, 5%-17%B; 8-10 min, 17%B; 10-11 min, 17%-18%B; 11-12 min, 18%-20%B; 12-17 min, 20%-23%B; 17-22 min, 23%-33%B; 22-30 min, 33%-60%B; 30-32 min, 60%-100%B; 32-36 min, 100%B), the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> and electrospray ionization (ESI). High quality MS/MS data were scanned in positive and negative ion modes with scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 500. The local database of the chemical components from different Chinese medicines in Suanzaoren Tang granules was established by SCIEX OS software. Then the chemical components in Suanzaoren Tang granules were characterized by matching with the local database and comparing with the reference substance and literature information. Result:A total of 134 compounds were characterized and identified under positive and negative ion modes, mainly including flavonoids, triterpenoids, phthalides, steroidal saponins, alkaloids and organic phenolic acids. In addition, the sources of Chinese medicines for all compounds identified in Suanzaoren Tang granules were assigned. Among them, 41 were from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, 11 were from Poria, 22 were from Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, 28 were from Chuanxiong Rhizoma and 35 were from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Conclusion:The method can be used to identify the chemical constituents in Suanzaoren Tang granules systematically, quickly and accurately, which can provide a new strategy for the rapid and accurate identification of other Chinese patent medicines.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906371

ABSTRACT

Xiao chengqitang is recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases written by ZHANG Zhong-jing in the Eastern Han dynasty. It is composed of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, which is mainly used to treat mild exogenous Yangming Fu-viscera excess syndrome. This formula has been included in the Catalogue of Ancient Classical Prescription (The First Batch). However, the processing specifications and doses recorded in the original formula are different from the modern usage, which results in some difficulties in the research and development of Xiao Chengqitang granules. For clarifying the key information, such as historical evolution of prescription, dose conversion, the origin and processing specifications of each medicine in the prescription, the paper systematically analyzes the ancient medical books and related literature in the past dynasties and refers to the life experience of ZHANG Zhong-jing. Then the modern prescription and decocting methods of Xiao Chengqitang were determined as follows:composing 55.2 g of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (Rheum officinale) washed with wine, 27.6 g of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (Magnolia officinalis) processed with ginger and 39.0 g of stir-fried Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (Citrus aurantium), adding 800 mL of water, decocting to 240 mL and filtrating.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906325

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprint of Pipa Qingfeiyin substance benchmark, and to establish a quantitative analysis method for simultaneous determination of the contents of five index components, so as to provide reference for the quality control and evaluation of this famous classical formula. Method:ACQUITY UPLC<sup>®</sup> CSH<sup>TM</sup> C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) was used with mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-7 min, 5%-7%A; 7-11 min, 7%-8%A; 11-22 min, 8%-14%A; 22-30 min, 14%-15%A; 30-35 min, 15%-25%A; 35-42 min, 25%-40%A; 42-45 min, 40%-50%A; 45-50 min, 50%-60%A), the flow rate was 0.35 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, the column temperature was 25 ℃, the detection wavelengths were 278 nm and 248 nm. UPLC fingerprints of 15 batches of Pipa Qingfeiyin substance benchmark were established, and the "Similarity Evaluation System of Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine" software (2012 edition) was used for similarity analysis, and the common peaks were assigned. Cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to evaluate the fingerprint data. UPLC fingerprint method was used to simultaneously determine the contents of five components in the substance benchmark. Result:The method validation of fingerprint and determination method was good, the similarities between 15 batches of Pipa Qingfeiyin substance benchmark and their control fingerprint were ≥0.997, 23 common peaks were identified and 11 chromatographic peaks were identified. CA, PCA and OPLS-DA divided 15 batches of the substance benchmark into two groups. The linear relationship of phellodendrine hydrochloride, chlorogenic acid, berberine hydrochloride, palmatine hydrochloride and ammonium glycyrrhizinate was good in a certain range of concentration (<italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup>>0.999), their average recovery was 96.47%-101.16%, and the contents of these five components in the substance benchmark were 0.87-2.00, 1.53-5.95, 18.45-33.97, 3.87-6.29, 1.02-4.12 mg·g<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Conclusion:The established UPLC fingerprint and multi-index component content determination methods have strong specificity, good resolution and high sensitivity, it can be characterized except for the Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma flavor, which can provide reference for the quality control and evaluation of Pipa Qingfeiyin compound preparation.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906264

ABSTRACT

The classical prescription Kaixinsan,which is recorded in an ancient medical book named Beiji Qianjin Yaofang,is one of the famous prescriptions used by ancient physicians to treat amnesia. Research on classical prescriptions has attracted more and more attention from scientific research institutions and related enterprises. Based on ancient books,textual research on origins and development of prescriptions,combing the evolution of prescriptions,preparations,oral ways,taboos and others are the important contents of the study on classical prescriptions. The research results show that the creation of Kaixinsan in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang can be traced back to Kaixinsan recorded in Jiyanfang and Dingzhiwan recorded in Gujinluyanfang. Later generations of physicians created many associated prescriptions in the process of applying Kaixinsan,and the efficacy of these prescriptions was constantly expanded with the development of the times. In the Tang and Song dynasties,Kaixinsan and its associated prescriptions were mainly used to treat amnesia,sorrow,fear,and other diseases. In the Jin and Yuan dynasties,these prescriptions were also used to treat convulsions and yawning. In the Ming dynasty, they were mainly for the treatment of hyperopia, myopia, sprematorrhea,and constipation. In the Qing dynasty,these herbs could be used to treat auricular deafness, aging and sweating. The dosage of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Poria should be increased in the treatment of farsightedness,spermatorrhea and blurred urine,and in the treatment of nearsightedness,the dosage of Polygalae Radix and Haliotidis Concha should be increased. The main pathogenesis of the disease that Kaixinsan and its associated prescriptions treated could be summarized as the deficiency of heart and spleen,imbalance between heart-Yang and kidney-Yin,and the internal resistance of phlegm stagnation. By summarizing the contents of the preparation of tradition Chinese medicine products for Kaixinsan and its associated prescriptions,it is suggested that the dosage form of Kaixinsan can be pills,with the specification size confroming to the most record of ancient generations of physicians,as big as Firmiana platanifolia's fruit.The volume of a single pill is about 0.25 mL and the weight is about 0.3 g. The initial dosage is fifteen pills,which can be modified according to the severity of the illness,with no more than forty pills for each time,three times a day. Also,some excitant food like the sour food,sweet food and mutton should be avoided during the medication. The above research results can provide literature basis for the development of compound tradition Chinese Medicine preparation of Kaixinsan.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906172

ABSTRACT

Wuzhuyutang is widely used in clinical practice nowadays due to its remarkable effect. It is the fifth prescription included in Ancient Classic Prescriptions Catalogue (the first batch). Based on relevant medical literatures from the Eastern Han dynasty to the period of the Republic of China,combined with the methods of phiology and metrology,this paper systematically studies the origin,composition,evolution of prescription meaning,main indications,dosage of prescriptions,processing of various herbs,preparation method and administration method. According to the findings, Wuzhuyutang was created by ZHANG Zhongjing's Treatise on Febrile Diseases in the eastern Han dynasty. It was composed of Euodiae Fructus,Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens,Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Jujubae Fructus. In history,it had such synonyms as Zhuyutang,Yicujicuxinfang,Zhuyu Renshentang,Wuyutang,Sanwei Shenyutang,Shenyutang,Sishentang. It can be applied in internal medicine, gynecology,pediatrics,department of facial features and other miscellaneous diseases, which belong to Jueyin liver meridian and is manifested by upwardly reversed turbid Yin and invading other meridians, with cold vomiting (retching or salivation),abdominal pain,headache,dizziness,hand and foot cold as the main clinical symptoms. In terms of dosage,the commonly used dosage of Euodiae Fructus is 3.7-18.6 g in the previous dynasties. In clinical practice,if the main clinical manifestations are vomiting and salivation clearing,the dosage of about 3 g is recommended. Severe headache and abdominal pain can be mainly used,the dosage of about 10 g is recommended. The research and development of the formula can comply with the maximum dose of 5 g as stipulated in the 2015 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The dosages of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens can be calculated based on 1 liang equivalent to 3 g,and 1-5 pieces of Jujubae Fructus can be added. Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma should be processed according to the method of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,reed should be removed,Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens should be washed,then peeled and sliced, and Jujubae Fructus should be dried in the sun,then cut and seeded before being used as medicine.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906169

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprint of Shengyutang and quantitative analysis method of 11 index components in this famous classical formula. Method:UPLC-diode array detector/evaporative light scattering detector (UPLC-PDA/ELSD) was used, two chromatographic conditions were established by different detectors according to the polarity of chemical components. Conditions of fingerprint 1 were as follows:ACQUITY UPLC HSS T<sub>3</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 µm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-0.6% formic acid solution (C) for gradient elution (0-4 min, 0-4%A; 4-8 min, 4%A; 8-9 min, 4%-8%A; 9-14 min, 8%-9%A; 14-21 min, 9%-15%A; 21-26 min, 15%-17%A; 26-30 min, 17%-20%A; 30-35 min, 20%-32%A; 35-40 min, 32%-40%A; 40-50 min, 40%-80%A; 50-55 min, 80%A), the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, PDA with detection wavelengths of 280 nm and 321 nm, the column temperature at 30 ℃. Conditions of fingerprint 2 were as follows:the CORTECS C<sub>18</sub> column (3.0 mm×100 mm, 2.7 µm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-water (D) for gradient elution (0-11 min, 19%A; 11-16 min, 19%-25%A; 16-34 min, 25%-28%A; 34-47 min, 28%-47%A; 47-60 min, 47%-80%A), the flow rate of 0.4 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, ELSD with drift tube temperature of 95 ℃, the carrier gas (air) flow rate of 2.0 L·min<sup>-1</sup>, and the column temperature at 30 ℃. UPLC-PDA/ELSD fingerprints of 15 batches of Shengyutang were established, and the similarity was evaluated by similarity evaluation system of chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine (2012 edition) issued by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission, and the contents of eleven index components in this famous classical formula were determined. Result:The similarities of UPLC-PDA/ELSD fingerprints of 15 batches of Shengyutang were >0.98 by comparing with the control fingerprint, 27 and 16 common peaks were identified in fingerprint 1, 2, respectively. It was tested and verified that the precision, repeatability, stability, linear relationship and other results of this method all met the requirements of the 2020 edition of <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>. The contents of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, calycosin glucoside, verbascoside, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, senkyunolide A, ginsenoside Rg<sub>1</sub>, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rb<sub>1</sub> and astragaloside A in 15 batches of Shengyutang were 0.063-0.193, 0.509-0.638, 0.160-0.318, 0.012-0.056, 0.394-0.519, 0.110-0.143, 0.031-0.097, 0.382-0.595, 0.292-0.505, 0.590-0.803, 0.142-0.367 mg·g<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Conclusion:The established detection method meets the requirements of the 2020 edition of <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>, which can characterize the overall characteristics of chemical components in Shengyutang, and provide experimental basis for the quality standard research of this famous classical formula.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906161

ABSTRACT

Zexietang is derived from Jingui Yaolue (《金匮要略》), which is composed of Alismatis Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and has the effect of inducing diuresis and invigorating the spleen to produce water. Compared with western medicine in the treatment of related diseases, Zexietang can not only improve the curative effect, but also reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions, so as to achieve long-term stable administration. The authors sorted out and analyzed the chemical composition, pharmacological effect and clinical application of Zexietang in recent years. It was found that the main active components of Zexietang were alismol A and B, 23-acetyl-alismol B and C, atractylenolides (atractylenolide Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ) and polysaccharides. Pharmacological experiments showed that they had diuretic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and others. And it can be used in the treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, vertigo, cerebral vascular insufficiency and other diseases combined with other Chinese materia medica, and the curative effect is obvious. By summarizing the research status of Zexietang in recent years, its active components and pharmacological mechanism can be further clarified, which provides the basis for the clinical application of Zexietang and guides the direction of its further research.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906139

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the quality transmitting relationship between decoction pieces and substance benchmarks with the fingerprint, index component content and dry extract rate as evaluation indexes, and investigate the key quality attributes of 15 batches of substance benchmarks of Yihuangtang, and establish the quality standard of this substance benchmarks. Method:Fifteen batches of Yihuangtang substance benchmarks freeze-dried powder samples were prepared, the fingerprint and index component content of 15 batches of decoction pieces and substance benchmarks were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the mobile phase was acetonitrile (A)-0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-6 min, 97%B; 6-12 min, 97%-92%B; 12-25 min, 92%-90%B; 25-35 min, 90%-89%B; 35-50 min, 89%-82%B; 50-75 min, 82%-72%B; 75-85 min, 72%-35%B), the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm, combined the dry extract rate to clarify the attribution of characteristic peaks and the range of similarity with the control chromatogram, the content range and transfer rate range of geniposidic acid and berberine hydrochloride, the dry extract rate range and the variation range of the substance benchmarks. Result:The established HPLC fingerprint had good precision, repeatability and stability, and could be used for the simultaneous determination of decoction pieces and substance benchmarks of Yihuangtang. The similarities between the control chromatogram and fingerprint of substance benchmarks were >0.99. A total of 15 characteristic peaks were assigned, and 8 characteristic peaks were identified by the reference substances, of which 6 were from Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex processed with salt, 1 was from Plantaginis Semen processed with wine, and 1 was from stir-fried Dioscoreae Rhizoma. The content ranges of geniposidic acid and berberine hydrochloride in 15 batches of substance benchmarks of Yihuangtang were 0.10%-0.16% and 0.63%-1.05%, the transfer rate ranges of them were 20.91%-32.65% and 19.60%-29.59%, respectively. The dry extract rate range of the substance benchmarks was 8.45%-9.92%. Conclusion:The quality standard of Yihuangtang substance benchmarks can be preliminarily formulated by the combination of fingerprint, dry extract rate and determination of index component, which can provide the basis for the quality control of Yihuangtang and the development of related preparations.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906107

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the fingerprint of Baoyuantang substance benchmark, and to analyze and identify the common peaks. Method:A total of 15 batches of Baoyuantang substance benchmark were prepared, ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method (UPLC-PDA) was used to establish the fingerprint of the substance benchmark, and the methodology was developed. The chromatographic conditions were as follows:ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), mobile phase of 0.05% formic acid solution (A) and 0.05% formic acid acetonitrile solution ( B) for gradient elution (0-0.5 min, 5%-19%B; 0.5-6 min, 19%B; 6-10 min, 19%-27%B; 10-20 min, 27%-45%B; 20-20.1 min, 45%-95%B; 20.1-23 min, 95%B), the flow rate of 0.4 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, the column temperature of 30 ℃, the detection wavelength at 203 nm and 260 nm, and the injection volume of 2 μL. Similarity evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine fingerprint (2012 edition) was used to establish the fingerprint and generate the control fingerprint. The chemical constituents of Baoyuantang substance benchmark were identified by comparison of standard substances and UPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) with full information tandem mass spectrometry (MS<sup>E</sup>) and scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 200. Result:The similarities of 15 batches of Baoyuantang substance benchmark were above 0.90 by comparing with the control fingerprint. There were 37 common peaks, 22 of which were identified through UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, including liquiritin, violanthin, ginsenoside Rg<sub>1</sub>, ginsenoside Rb<sub>1</sub>, ginsenoside Re and so on. These components were all from Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Conclusion:This method is accurate, stable and reliable, which will basically reflect the overall chemical composition characteristics of Baoyuantang, and it provides experimental basis for development of the granules of this famous classical formulas.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905951

ABSTRACT

Objective:Based on fingerprint, index component content and dry extract yield, a quality evaluation method for substance benchmark of Xiebaisan was established to study the key quality attributes, to explore the quantitative transfer relationship between decoction pieces and substance benchmark, and to preliminarily formulate the quality standard of substance benchmark of Xiebaisan. Method:The substance benchmark of Xiebaisan was prepared according to the records of ancient formulas, fingerprints of 15 batches of decoction pieces and substance benchmarks were collected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the index components were determined with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid solution for gradient elution. The dry extract yield, fingerprint similarity and transfer rate of index components were combined to study the quantity value transmitting. Result:Ten characteristic peaks were identified in fingerprint of the substance benchmark and two characteristic peaks from stir-fried Mori Cortex, four characteristic peaks from baked Lycii Cortex, four characteristic peaks from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata cum Melle. Mulberroside A, liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid were used as index components for the determination, the contents of mulberroside A, liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in substance benchmark of Xiebaisan were 2.69%-4.26%, 0.09%-0.17% and 0.09%-0.16%, and their transfer rates were (31.37±4.14)%, (36.12±4.03)% and (12.25±0.88)%, respectively. The similarity of fingerprint of substance benchmarks was good, the fingerprint similarities of 14 batches of substance benchmarks and control fingerprint were >0.9. The dry extract yield of substance benchmark of Xiebaisan ranged from 8.09% to 11.29%. Conclusion:The established quality evaluation method of substance benchmark of Xiebaisan is scientific and reasonable, and the transfer process of decoction pieces to substance benchmarks is stable and controllable. The preliminary quality standard of the substance benchmark can provide basis and reference for the development of modern preparations of Xiebaisan in the future.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905922

ABSTRACT

By systematically sorting out the ancient medical books and modern clinical literature of Yiguanjian, the historical evolution of this formula, including its source, composition, origin, processing, dosage, preparation and usage, functions and indications, evolution of prescription meaning, is textual so as to clarify the historical evolution and clinical application of Yiguanjian. On the basis of fully considering the actual demand of development of famous classical formula preparation and the usage habit of modern clinical practice, the feasible development suggestions were put forward. Yiguanjian is composed of six herbs, which is derived from Yifang Jiedu (《医方絜度》) . It is an ancient book of traditional Chinese medicine edited by QIAN Min-jie in Qing dynasty. The original medicinal plants and medicinal parts of the formula were basically the same as those recorded in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The raw products should be selected for decoction pieces and processed according to the methods recorded in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The reference dose of the medicine in this formula is set out in Yifang Jiedu. According to dosage of one Qian(钱)=3.73 g, the dosages of Glehniae Radix, Ophiopogonis Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix were 5.60 g, the dosages of Lycii Fructus and Rehmanniae Radix were 11.19 g, the dosage of Toosendan Fructus was 7.46 g. These decoction pieces were boiled and warm decoction was taken. According to ancient medical records, the formula always has the effect of nourishing Yin and relieving Qi of liver. It is used to treat syndrome of stagnation of liver-Qi and deficiency of liver-Yin and kidney-Yin, which can be seen with pain in chest, stomach and flank, acerbity and vomiting, dry throat and mouth, red tongue, weak pulse or deficiency of string and hernia. Here, the source, processing and others of Yiguanjian were clarified, providing a literature reference for the development and application of this famous classical formula.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905921

ABSTRACT

Objective:To control the quality of the reference sample of Wenjingtang by establishing the specific chromatograms. Method:On the basis of analyzing 15 batches of Wenjingtang freeze-dried powder samples, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) specific chromatogram analysis method of Wenjingtang was established. The system adaptability was investigated and the retention time, relative retention value and deviation caused by different chromatographic columns and instruments were calculated by using the same brand of chromatographic columns, four different brands of chromatographic columns and instruments from three different manufacturers. The precision, repeatability and stability of this method was further completed. The possible chemical components of the freeze-dried powders were speculated and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS<italic><sup>n</sup></italic>). Chromatographic separation was performed on ACQUITY UPLC BEH C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) as mobile phase for gradient elution (0-2.8 min, 10%A; 2.8-8.0 min, 10%-18%A; 8.0-12.2 min, 18%-25%A; 12.2-15.3 min, 25%-40%A; 15.3-17.4 min, 40%A; 17.4-20.5 min, 40%-90%A), and column temperature was set at 30 ℃ with flow rate of 0.4 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. Mass spectrometry was performed on electrospray ionization, data were collected under positive and negative ion modes, and the detection range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 600. Result:Ten characteristic peaks were selected as the distinguishing features in this specific chromatograms, and eight of them were identified by comparing with the reference standards, including paeoniflorin (peak 1), liquiritin apioside (peak 2), liquiritin (peak 3), ferulic acid (peak 4), iquiritigenin (peak 6), cinnamaldehyde (peak 8), paeonol (peak 9)and glycyrrhizic acid (peak 10). By mass spectrometry analysis, 30 compounds were identified, and the source of medicinal materials were assigned. It mainly contained triterpenoid saponins and flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, ginsenosides from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, monoterpenoid glycosides and tannins from Paeoniae Radix Alba, steroids in Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, phenolic acids in Angelicae Sinensis Radix. Conclusion:The established characteristic chromatographic analysis method of Wenjingtang is simple, stable and repeatable. The chemical composition of the freeze-dried powder of Wenjingtang is basically defined by mass spectrometry identification and source attribution, which can provide reference for the development and quality control of Wenjingtang in the future.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905856

ABSTRACT

Objective:To rapidly identify the chemical constituents in Xiao Chengqitang by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS). Method:The method was established by the Waters CORTECS T3 column (2.1 mm×150 mm, 1.6 μm), mobile phase was methanol (A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-5 min, 3%-21%A; 5-20 min, 21%-36%A; 20-32 min, 36%-50%A; 32-42 min, 50%-62%A; 42-50 min, 62%-85%A; 50-60 min, 85%-95%A), the flow rate was 0.2 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, and the column temperature was 30 ℃. UPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS was operated in positive and negative ion modes, the scanning range was 100-1 200 with mode of Full MS/dd-MS<sup>2</sup>, and the collision energies were 20, 40 eV. The compounds were identified by comparing with reference substances and combining with literature reports and MS database information. Result:A total of 123 components were identified in Xiao Chengqitang, including 33 flavonoids, 25 anthraquinones and anthrones, 23 phenylpropanoids, 15 tannins, 10 nitrogen-containing components and 17 other components. Among them, 32 components were determined by reference substances. Conclusion:The material basis of Xiao Chengqitang is flavonoids, anthraquinones and anthrones, phenylpropanoids, which is derived from Aurantii Fructus Immaturus,<italic> </italic>Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex, respectively.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905842

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of the substance benchmark of Xiao Chengqitang and evaluate its quality with chemical pattern recognition method. Method:Diamonsil C<sub>18</sub> column (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) was used, mobile phase was consisted of methanol (A)-0.1% phosphoric acid solution (B) for gradient elution (0-60 min, 20%-90%A; 60-70 min, 90%-100%A), the flow rate was 1 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, the column temperature was 25 ℃, and the detection wavelength was 254 nm. The similarity evaluation system of chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine (2012 edition) was used to evaluate the similarity of HPLC fingerprint of 15 batches of substance benchmark of Xiao Chengqitang, and the chromatographic data were analyzed by cluster analysis, principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis, in order to evaluate the quality difference between different batches of substance benchmarks of Xiao Chengqitang and find out the main chemical components that caused the quality difference. Result:The HPLC fingerprint of Xiao Chengqitang substance benchmarks was established, 31 common peaks were identified, and 18 components were identified by comparing with the reference substances. The similarities of 15 batches of HPLC fingerprint of Xiao Chengqitang substance benchmarks were >0.92. The samples could be divided into two categories by three chemical pattern recognition methods. Nine main components leading to the quality discrepancy of samples between batches were screened out, including rhein, chrysophanol-8-<italic>O</italic>-<italic>β</italic>-<italic>D</italic>-glucoside, aloe-emodin-8-<italic>O</italic>-<italic>β</italic>-<italic>D</italic>-glucoside, sennoside A, chrysophanol-1-<italic>O</italic>-<italic>β</italic>-<italic>D</italic>-glucoside, rhein-8-<italic>O</italic>-glucoside and others. Conclusion:The established fingerprint analysis method is accurate, stable and reproducible, which basically reflects the overall chemical composition characteristics of Xiao Chengqitang, and can be used for the quality control of Xiao Chengqitang preparations.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905058

ABSTRACT

Based on the ancient Chinese medical literature and modern clinical application literature, Mahuangtang was systematically analyzed, including its origin, composition, processing requirements and others, in order to provide support for the development of this famous classical formula. It was found that there were some doubts about Mahuangtang, such as the original variety, the processing of decoction pieces, and the dose conversion ratio. On the basis of fully considering the actual needs of the development of famous classical formula preparations and the usage habits of modern clinical practice, the development suggestions of the author were as follows:Ephedrae Herba should be selected Ephedra sinica without removing knots, Cinnamomi Ramulus should be selected from Cinnamomum cassia, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma should select Glycyrrhiza uralensis and be roasted with honey, and Armeniacae Semen Amarum should be selected as Dan-processed products. The total dose of Mahuangtang was 24 g after conversion according to 1 Liang equal to 3 g as following the transition phenomenon and law. The preparation and usage method was as follows:took 1.8 L of water, first added Ephedrae Herba in water for decocting, evaporated 400 mL of water, removed the upper foam, then added the other three drugs, cooked over gentle heat to 500 mL, filtered the residue, took three times a day, about 160 mL warm decoction once. The major function recorded of Mahuangtang in ancient books was exterior sthenia syndrome of exogenous wind cold, it often used in the clinical treatment of cold, acute bronchitis, bronchial asthma and other diseases through the flexible application of the later doctors.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905057

ABSTRACT

Objective:Powders and decocted powders account for about 1/3 in the Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (the First Batch), and have a very important position. Determination of preparation technology and particle size in the pulverization process is the key step in the research and development of powders and decocted powders following the original methods. However, there are many terms describing the preparation technology and particle size of powders and decocted powders in ancient Chinese medical books, and the parameters are not clear. Due to the lack of unified basis of particle size, the existing research results have not formed a uniform consensus. Based on ancient textual researches and experimental results, this article discusses the particle size of decocted powders and powders. Method:Through textual researches of the preparation technology and particle size of powders and decocted powders and powder classification in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the specifications of pulverized particle size were suggested. In addition, Xiebaisan and Danggui Buxuetang were taken as examples to investigate the influence of different particle sizes (4, 10, 24 mesh) on the preparation process of decocted powders and the obtained decoction. Result:The particle size of 4 mesh was equivalent to that of ancient as big as hemp bean. The contents of index components in Xiebaisan and Danggui Buxuetang with particle size of 4 mesh were higher than that of 10 mesh and 24 mesh, but the particle size of 50 mesh was too fine to be filtered. Conclusion:The suggested particle sizes of powders and decocted powders are recommended as Cumo is the power through 10-mesh sieve, Mo is the power through 24-mesh sieve, Ximo is the power through 80-mesh sieve, as big as hemp bean is the power through 4-mesh sieve and not through 10-mesh sieve.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873279

ABSTRACT

Pinelliae Rhizoma is a toxic traditional Chinese medicine, and its dose differs greatly between at ancient and modern times, so that it is difficult for researchers to determine its dosage during research and development of famous classical formulas. According to the literature research, it is found that the dose of Pinelliae Rhizoma in famous classical formulas has undergone a process from large to small. Based on the principle of " following the classic and conforming to pharmacopoeia" , and in combination with the modern actual situation, the reasonable dose of Pinelliae Rhizoma in the 17 formulas from the Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (The First Batch) is determined. According to the records of the original book, the evolution of past dynasties and the consideration of the current clinical application, dosage regimen and administration methods of the 17 famous classical formulas and so on, the authors suggested that the dosages of Pinelliae Rhizoma in Banxia Houpotang and Maimendong Tang are 15.0 g, its dosages in Wendantang and Sangbaipi Tang are 6.0 g, dosages of Pinelliae Rhizoma in Xuanfu Daizhe Tang, Zhuye Shigaotang, Banxia Xiexintang, Gancao Xiexintang, Huangliantang, Gualou Xiebai Banxiatang, Houpo Mahuangtang and Jinshui Liujunjian are 7.5 g, the dosages of Pinelliae Rhizoma in Zhurutang, Shengyang Yiweitang and Yangweitang are 6.7, 4.5, 5.0 g, respectively, dosages of Pinelliae Rhizoma in Banxia Baizhu Tianma Tang and Huopo Xialing Tang are 5.6 g.

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