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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246312, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339357

ABSTRACT

Abstract The antioxidant, photoprotective and antinociceptive Marcetia macrophylla active extract was investigated as an active ingredient in a sunscreen cream formulation. Thus, the M. macrophylla extract showed IC50 of 3.43 mg/ml of the antioxidant (DPPH∙ scavenging test) and Sun Protection Factor of 20.25 (SPF/UV-B, at 250 µg/ml) and UV-A of 78.09% (photobleaching trans-resveratrol test). The antinociceptive activity was superior to all standards tested using the in vivo acetic acid-induced writhing test (99.14% at the dose of 200 mg/kg) and the high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectroscopy multi-stage (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) enabled the structural characterization of the quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin-3-O-pentoside and quercetin-3-O-desoxihexoside. The pharmaceutical formulation containing the Marcetia macrophylla crude active extract was prepared and the physicochemical tests (organoleptic characteristics, pH analysis and centrifugation), the in vitro UVB (sun protection factor, SPF) and UVA (β-carotene) using the spectroscopic method were investigated. The formulation showed satisfactory results concerning the physicochemical parameters evaluated and active against the UV test. Thus, M. macrophylla showed biological activities with potential use in pharmaceutical preparations.


Resumo O extrato bruto de Marcetia macrophylla mostrou atividade antioxidante, fotoprotetora e antinociceptiva, sendo em seguida investigado como ingrediente ativo em uma formulação fotoprotetora. Assim, o extrato de M. macrophylla apresentou atividade antioxidante com IC50 de 3,43 mg/mL (teste de sequestro do DPPH∙) e Fator de Proteção Solar de 20,25 (FPS/UV-B, 250 µg/mL) e UV-A de 78,09% (teste de fotobranqueamento do trans-resveratrol). A atividade antinociceptiva usando o teste in vivo de contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético foi superior a todos os padrões testados (99,14% na dose de 200 mg/Kg). A análise por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a detector de fotodiodos e espectroscopia de massas multi-estágio (CLAE-DAD-EM/EM) possibilitou a caracterização dos flavonoides quercetina-3-O-hexosídeo, quercetina-3-O-pentosídeo e quercetina-3-O-desoxihexosídeo. A formulação farmacêutica contendo o extrato ativo bruto de Marcetia macrophylla foi preparada e os testes físico-químicos (características organolépticas, análise de pH e centrifugação), o UVB in vitro (fator de proteção solar, FPS) e UVA (β-caroteno) foram investigados. A formulação apresentou resultados satisfatórios frente aos parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados e ativos contra UV. Assim, M. macrophylla apresentou atividades biológicas com potencial uso em preparações fitofarmacêuticas.


Subject(s)
Sunscreening Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Analgesics/pharmacology
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19233, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374569

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present study, the metabolite profiling of methanolic extract from aerial parts of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad, as an endemic medicinal plant from Iran, was evaluated using HPLC-PDA-ESI. Then, the main compound from the extract was isolated and purified by using extensive chromatographic techniques. In addition, the structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated using 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectrometry, upon which 22 compounds were identified. The antibacterial activity of diosmetin 7-rutinoside (6) and linarin (13) in combination with carvacrol as a major compound of the essential oil was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus through disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The results indicated that the linarin, when mixed with carvacrol as the main compounds in the essential oil of the plant, has a satisfactory activity against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 0.16 and 0.18 µg/mL, respectively. Further, the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index indicated that this compound had synergism with carvacrol.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928117

ABSTRACT

Morus alba, a traditional economic crop, is also a significant medicinal plant. The branches(Mori Ramulus), leaves(Mori Folium), roots and barks(Mori Cortex), and fruits(Mori Fructus) of M. alba are rich in chemical components, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, flavanols, anthocyanins, benzofurans, phenolic acids, and polysaccharides, and possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, liver protective, immunoregulatory, and other pharmacological activities. This study analyzed the sources, classification, and functions of the main chemical components in M. alba and systematically summarized the latest research results of essential active components in M. alba and their pharmacological effects to provide references for in-depth research and further development as well as utilization of active components in M. alba.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Morus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves
4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1525-1529, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927203

ABSTRACT

Flavonoid glycosides are the main active constituents of Epimedii Folium and its related plants. They can be divided into polyglycosides and low glycosides according to the number of glycosyl group. The polyglycosides of Epimedii Folium can be transformed into low glycosides after biotransformation ;pharmacological activities of low glycosides in anti-tumor ,tonifying kidney yang and anti-osteoporosis are stronger than those of polyglycosides. In this paper , the research progress about biotransformation technology of flavonoid glycosides of Epimedii Folium was reviewed. It was found that the main biotransformation pathway of flavonoid glycosides of Epimedii Folium was to obtain low glycosides by removing glycosyl group ; related methods were mainly enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial transformation ,and also included plant cell transformation ,acid hydrolysis method and synthesis method.

5.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(2): 1-14, 2021-05-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362619

ABSTRACT

Background: Ayanin (3,7,4'-Tri-O-methylquercetin) and 3,7-Di-O-methylquercetin (DMQ) are the main active metabolites isolated by bioguided fractionation from Croton schiedeanus, species known popularly in Colombia as "almizclillo", which has been studied in experimental models in rats, exerting vasodilator and antihypertensive effects. Also, when the effect of these flavonoids was studied separately, important vasodilation was observed. Objective:To evaluate whether flavonoids from Croton schiedeanus have synergistic vasodilator properties when different combinations are used in isolated aorta rings. Methods: Cumulative concentrations of ayanin (10-8 M - 6x10-5 M or 0.01 µM - 60 µM) were assayed in the absence and presence of an increasing concentration of 3,7-Di-O-methylquercetin (DMQ) (10-8 ­ 3x10-5M or 0.01­30 µM) in isolated rings from Wistar rats, pre-contracted with phenylephrine. The concentration-response curve with the maximal effect was compared with that obtained by Croton schiedeanus whole ethanolic extract (10-6 ­ 3x10-4 g/mL). Also, this combination was assayed in the presence of the nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor L-NAME (10-4 M) and the guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (10-4 M) to assess the role of the NO/cGMP pathway in this interaction. Results: Ayanin and DMQ display a dual interaction in vascular relaxant response: agonism at higher concentration ranges (10-6 ­ 3x10-5 M or 1­30 µM) and antagonism at lower concentration ranges (10-8 ­ 3x10-7 M or 0.01­0.3 µM). The efficacy at the highest concentration was greater than that obtained by the whole extract (Emax: 98.4% vs. 33.9%). This response was decreased but not reverted in the presence of L-NAME and methylene blue. Thus, the vasodilator effect of this combination does not depend entirely on the NO/cGMP cyclic pathway. Conclusion: The combined use of appropriate concentrations of these flavonoids could represent an advantage over Croton schiedeanus whole extract for vasodilator purposes


Antecedentes: Ayanina (3,7,4'-Tri-O-metilquercetina) y 3,7-Di-O-metilquercetina (DMQ) son los principales metabolitos activos aislados mediante fraccionamiento bioguiado, a partir de Croton schiedeanus, especie conocida popularmente en Colombia como "almizclillo", la cual ha sido estudiada en modelos experimentales en ratas, ejerciendo efectos antihipertensivos y vasodilatadores. Además, al estudiar por separado el efecto de los flavonoides, se observó importante vasodilatación. Objetivo:Evaluar si los principales flavonoides de Croton schiedeanus tienen propiedades vasodilatadoras sinérgicas al utilizar diferentes combinaciones de ellos en anillos de aorta aislados. Metodología: Se analizaron concentraciones acumulativas de ayanina (10-8 M - 6x10-5 M o 0,01 µM - 60 µM) en ausencia y en presencia de concentraciones crecientes de DMQ (10-8 M - 3x10-5 M o 0,01 µM ­ 30 µM) en anillos aislados de ratas Wistar, pre-contraídos con fenilefrina. La curva concentración respuesta obtenida con el efecto máximo, fue comparada con la obtenida con el extracto etanólico de Croton schiedeanus (10-6 - 3x10-4 g/mL). Adicionalmente, esta combinación fue ensayada en presencia del inhibidor de óxido nítrico sintetasa L-NAME (10-4 M) y el inhibidor de guanilato ciclasa, azul de metileno (10-4 M) para evaluar el papel de la vía NO/GMPc en esta interacción. Resultados: Ayanina y DMQ muestran una interacción dual en la respuesta vascular relajante: agonismo en el rango más alto (10-6 M ­ 3x10-5 M o 1 µM ­ 30 µM), y antagonismo en el rango más bajo (10-8 M ­ 3x10-7 M o 0.01 µM ­ 0,3 µM). A altas concentraciones, la eficacia de los flavonoides fue mayor que las obtenidas por el extracto completo (Emáx: 98,4% vs 33,9%). Esta respuesta disminuyó, pero no se revirtió en presencia de L-NAME y azul de metileno. Por lo tanto, el efecto vasodilatador de esta combinación no depende enteramente de la vía NO/GMPc. Conclusión: El uso combinado de las concentraciones apropiadas de estos flavonoides podría representar una ventaja sobre el extracto de Croton schiedeanus, con propósitos vasodilatadores


Subject(s)
Humans , Flavonoids , Croton , Drug Synergism , Guanylate Cyclase , Nitric Oxide
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 68-76, Mar. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Jasmonic acid (JA) is a signal transducer molecule that plays an important role in plant development and stress response; it can also efficiently stimulate secondary metabolism in plant cells. RESULTS: RNA-Seq technology was applied to identify differentially expressed genes and study the time course of gene expression in Rhazya stricta in response to JA. Of more than 288 million total reads, approximately 27% were mapped to genes in the reference genome. Genes involved during the secondary metabolite pathways were up- or downregulated when treated with JA in R. stricta. Functional annotation and pathway analysis of all up- and downregulated genes identified many biological processes and molecular functions. Jasmonic acid biosynthetic, cell wall organization, and chlorophyll metabolic processes were upregulated at days 2, 6, and 12, respectively. Similarly, the molecular functions of calcium-transporting ATPase activity, ADP binding, and protein kinase activity were also upregulated at days 2, 6, and 12, respectively. Time-dependent transcriptional gene expression analysis showed that JA can induce signaling in the phenylpropanoid and aromatic acid pathways. These pathways are responsible for the production of secondary metabolites, which are essential for the development and environmental defense mechanism of R. stricta during stress conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis and aromatic acid synthesis pathways were upregulated during JA stress. However, monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) was unaffected by JA treatment. Hence, we can postulate that JA plays an important role in R. stricta during plant development and environmental stress conditions.


Subject(s)
Cyclopentanes/metabolism , Apocynaceae/genetics , Oxylipins/metabolism , Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Flavonoids/biosynthesis , Base Sequence , Gene Expression , Environment , Transcriptome
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3345-3352, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906834

ABSTRACT

Huang-Qin is a traditional Chinese medicine with antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Its major bioactive compounds are diverse flavone O-glucuronides and glucosides. Although three flavonoid O-glycosyltransferases have been identified from S. baicalensis, this information is not sufficient to elucidate the structural diversity of flavonoid glycosides. In this study, nine glycosyltransferase candidate genes were discovered from S. baicalensis by BLAST analysis and their functions were characterized after heterologous expression. Three new flavone O-glycosyltransferases were able to catalyze the formation of major compounds in S. baicalensis, including baicalin and wogonoside. These enzymes could also utilize exogenous flavones as sugar acceptors. This work further elucidates biosynthetic pathways for Scutellaria flavonoid O-glycosides.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906533

ABSTRACT

Dendrobium(Orchidaceae) is traditional Chinese medicine with a high healthcare value,which can nourish Yin and tonify deficiency. Eighty-nine flavonoids were isolated from Dendrobium,mainly including flavones,flavanoes and flavonols. Among them,there were 40 flavonoids,the main aglycones were apigenin and chrysoeriol;20 flavanones;and 15 flavonols,and the main aglycones were kaempferol and quercetin. D. officinale and several other species also have flavanonols,anthocyanidins,chalcone and isoflavones. There were 34 species of Dendrobium containing flavonoids,including 38 flavonoids in D. officinale,28 flavonoids in D. huoshanense,19 flavonoids in D. devonianum,12 flavonoids in D. wardianum,5 flavonoids in D. thyrsiflorum,4 flavonoids in D. denneanum and D. findlayanum. Common flavonoids included naringenin,quercetin,rutin,which had pharmacological effects of resisting oxidation,lowering blood sugar,improving blood circulation,lowing cholesterol,and protecting the cardiovascular system. The existing studies of Dendrobium-related species,flavonoids and their physiological functions were reviewed in the expectation to promote the attention of the industry to Dendrobium flavonoids and explore values of Dendrobium plants in efficacy and food fields.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905999

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) at different concentrations on seed germination, seedling growth and key enzyme activities for flavonoid biosynthesis in <italic>Astragalus membranaceus </italic>var.<italic> mongholicus</italic> under polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress, in order to provide theoretical reference for standardizing the drought-resistant cultivation techniques of <italic>A. membranaceus </italic>var.<italic> mongholicus</italic>. Method:The seeds of <italic>A. membranaceus </italic>var.<italic> mongholicus </italic>were soaked in EBR solution at different concentrations(0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 μmol·L<sup>-1</sup>) followed by foliar spraying to explore their effects on seed germination, seedling growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, and key enzyme activities for flavonoid biosynthesis under drought stress induced by 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000. Result:Compared with the control(CK)group, PEG-induced drought stress led to an obvious decrease in germination potential, germination rate, germination index, vigor index, relative germination rate, plant height, root length, aboveground and root dry weight, net photosynthetic rate (<italic>Pn</italic>), stomata conductance (<italic>Gs</italic>)<italic>, </italic>transpiration rate (<italic>Tr</italic>), chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll a/b ratio, while a significant increase in intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (<italic>Gi</italic>), MDA, flavonoids contents, and key enzyme activities for flavonoid biosynthesis such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). The treatment with exogenous EBR solution at the suitable concentration significantly enhanced the adaptation of <italic>A. membranaceus </italic>var.<italic> mongholicus </italic>seeds and seedlings to PEG-induced drought stress, manifested as significantly elevated germination potential, germination rate, germination index, vigor index, relative germination rate, plant height, root length, aboveground and root dry weight, <italic>Pn</italic>, <italic>Gs, Tr</italic>, chlorophyll a/b ratio, chlorophyll and flavonoids contents and key enzyme activities for flavonoid biosynthesis like PAL while lowered <italic>Ci</italic> and MDA contents. The optimal concentration of EBR solution was 0.1 μmol·L<sup>-1</sup>. Conclusion:Exogenous EBR solution at the suitable concentration ameliorates the inhibitory effect of 20% PEG stress against seed germination and seedling growth of <italic>A. membranaceus </italic>var.<italic> mongholicus</italic>, reduces the oxidative damage in leaves, and improves the stress resistance to a certain extent by up-regulating the key enzyme activities and promoting flavonoid synthesis.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 913-923, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886971

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumors seriously endanger human life and health, and their treatment has always been a research focus of scientists all over the world. Natural flavonoids and their derivatives have a variety of biological activities, especially regarding antitumor growth, with unique biological activities. They can interfere with the growth cycle of tumor cells, change the mitochondrial membrane potential, promote apoptosis, and can reduce the immune escape of tumor cells and prevent tumor metastasis by improving human immunity. In the human body, they regulate the biological signal transduction, leading to the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression. They inhibit the growth of solid tumors by regulating the growth of vascular epithelial cells and blocking the formation of blood vessels in tumor tissue. Recent studies have shown that these compounds can play an important role in the treatment of various human tumors and are expected to be developed into new antitumor drugs. This review summarizes the recent research results on the antitumor mechanism of flavonoids and their ability to inhibit tumor growth.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921786

ABSTRACT

Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to investigate the metabolites of maackiain in rats based on the prediction function of UNIFI data processing system and liver microsomal incubation in vitro. Ten metabolites of maackiain after oral absorption were reasonably deduced and characterized. It was found that the biotransformation of maackiain mainly included phase Ⅰ oxidation, dehydrogenation, phase Ⅱ sulfate conjugation, glucosylation conjugation, and glucuronic acid conjugation. Among them, the product of glucosylation conjugation, trifolirhizin, was identified by comparison with the reference for the first time. Liver microsomal incubation in vitro further confirmed the metabolites and metabolic pathways of maackiain in rats. The metabolites in the blood, urine, and feces complemented each other, which revealed the migration, metabolism, and excretion modes of maackiain in rats. This study lays a foundation for the further investigation of the metabolic mechanism of maackiain in vivo and the in-depth research on the mechanism of pharmacodynamics and toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Pterocarpans , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18310, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350230

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the anticholinesterase activities of extracts and fractions of Ocotea daphnifolia in vitro and characterize its constituents. The effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanolic extracts on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity were determined with a spectrophotometry assay. All extracts inhibited cholinesterase activity, and the ethanolic extract (2 mg/mL) exhibited the highest inhibition of both enzymes (99.7% for BuChE and 82.4% for AChE). The ethanolic extract was fractionated by column chromatography resulting in 14 fractions that were also screened for their anticholinesterase effects. Fraction 9 (2 mg/mL) showed the highest activity, inhibiting AChE and BuChE by 71.8% and 90.2%, respectively. This fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry which allowed the characterization of seven glycosylated flavonoids (containing kaempferol and quercetin nucleus) and one alkaloid (reticuline). In order to better understand the enzyme-inhibitor interaction of the reticuline toward cholinesterase, molecular modeling studies were performed. Reticuline targeted the catalytic activity site of the enzymes. Ocotea daphnifolia exhibits a dual cholinesterase inhibitory activity and displays the same pattern of intermolecular interactions as described in the literature. The alkaloid reticuline can be considered as an important bioactive constituent of this plant.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/analysis , Lauraceae/classification , Ocotea/adverse effects , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Flavonoids , Butyrylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Alkaloids
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879008

ABSTRACT

In order to enrich the transcriptome data of Fagopyrum dibotrys plants, analyze the genes encoding key enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, and mine their functional genes, in this study, we performed RNA sequencing analysis for the rhizomes, roots, flowers, leaves and stems of F. dibotrys on the BGISEQ-500 sequencing platform. After de novo assembly of transcripts, a total of 205 619 unigenes were generated and 132 372 unigenes were obtained and annotated into seven public databases, of which, 81 327 unigenes were mapped to the GO database and most of the unigenes were annotated in cellular process, biological regulation, binding and catalytic activity. Besides, 86 922 unigenes were enriched in 136 pathways using KEGG database' and we identified 82 unigenes that encodes key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. Comparing rhizome with root, flower, leaf or stem in F. dibotrys, 27 962 co-expressed differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were obtained. Among them, 23 515 DEGs of rhizome tissue-specific were enriched into 132 pathways and 13 unigenes were significantly enriched in biosynthesis of flavone and flavonol. In addition, we also identified 3 427 unigenes encoding 60 transcription factor(TFs) families as well as four unigenes encoding bHLH TFs were enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results greatly enriched the transcriptome database of plants, provided a reference for the analysis of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in plants, and will facilitate the study of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in F. dibotrys at the genetic level.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Fagopyrum , Flavonoids , Flowers , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Transcriptome/genetics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878880

ABSTRACT

A method was established for content determination of two kinds of phenolic acids, including rosmarinic acid)(RA) and caffeic acid(CA), and six kinds of flavonoids including scutellarein-7-O-diglucuronide(SDG), luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide(LDG), apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide(ADG), scutellarin-7-O-glucuronide(SG), luteolin-7-O-glucuronide(LG), and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide(AG) in Perilla frutescens leaves. The content of eight chemical components was measured based on ten P. frutescens germplasms of different chemotypes of volatile oil, different cultivated years, and different harvesting periods. The results showed that there was a great difference between the two kinds of constituents of different germplasms. The total content of the two phenolic acids was 2.24-34.44 mg·g~(-1), and the total content of the six flavonoids was 11.55-34.71 mg·g~(-1). Then according to content from most to least, the order of each component was RA(2.13-33.97 mg·g~(-1)), LDG(1.31-14.80 mg·g~(-1)), SG(1.97-8.45 mg·g~(-1)), ADG(2.68-7.60 mg·g~(-1)), SDG(1.16-5.87 mg·g~(-1)), LG(0.78-1.91 mg·g~(-1)), AG(0.56-1.00 mg·g~(-1)), and CA(0.11-0.68 mg·g~(-1)). The chemical contents of the 5 PA-type germplasms in 2017 were mostly higher than those in 2018 showing a large variation with the cultivation years. These contents of two kinds of phenolic acids of 9 germplasms fluctuated with the harvesting time. The content decreased before early flower spike(the 3~(rd) to 18~(th) in August) at first and began to increase in flowering and fruiting period(the 18~(th) in August to 2~(nd) in September). However, these contents had slowly decreasing trend after 2~(nd) in September till 17~(th) in the same month. Interestingly, the content raised again in the maturity of fruits. The variation tendency of contents in six kinds of flavonoids components was inconsistent in different germplasms with the variation of harvesting time. The content of flavonoids in part of germplasms was negatively correlated with the fluctuation of phenolic acids. There was no correlation between phenolic acids and chemical type of the volatile oil. This paper may provide a reference for the high-quality germplasm of P. frutescens cultivation.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Oils, Volatile , Perilla frutescens , Phenols , Plant Leaves
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888176

ABSTRACT

Leaves of Euryale ferox are rich in anthocyanins. Anthocyanin synthesis is one of the important branches of the flavonoid synthesis pathway, in which flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase(F3'H) can participate in the formation of important intermediate products of anthocyanin synthesis. According to the data of E. ferox transcriptome, F3'H cDNA sequence was cloned in the leaves of E. ferox and named as EfF3'H. The correlation between EfF3'H gene expression and synthesis of flavonoids was analyzed by a series of bioinforma-tics tools and qRT-PCR. Moreover, the biological function of EfF3'H was verified by the heterologous expression in yeast. Our results showed that EfF3'H comprised a 1 566 bp open reading frame which encoded a hydrophilic transmembrane protein composed of 521 amino acid residues. It was predicted to be located in the plasma membrane. Combined with predictive analysis of conserved domains, this protein belongs to the cytochrome P450(CYP450) superfamily. The qRT-PCR results revealed that the expression level of EfF3'H was significantly different among different cultivars and was highly correlated with the content of related flavonoids in the leaves. Eukaryotic expression studies showed that EfF3'H protein had the biological activity of converting kaempferol to quercetin. In this study, EfF3'H cDNA was cloned from the leaves of E. ferox for the first time, and the biological function of the protein was verified. It provi-ded a scientific basis for further utilizing the leaves of E. ferox and laid a foundation for the further analysis of the biosynthesis pathway of flavonoids in medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Transcriptome
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888145

ABSTRACT

Twenty batches of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus(AFI) were collected, with their peel and pulp taken as research objects. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) fingerprints of peel and pulp of AFI were established with 17 common peaks in peel and 10 in pulp. Six kinds of flavonoids were identified, i.e., narirutin, naringin, rhoifolin, hesperidin, neohesperidin and nobiletin. The Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine was employed for similarity analysis, which showed that the chromatographic peaks of peel and pulp were basically similar to their respective reference fingerprints, with all similarities greater than 0.90. The similarity between peel and pulp of the same batch of AFI ranged from 0.850 to 0.983. Cluster analysis(CA), principal component analysis(PCA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were conducted on the common peaks of peel and pulp of AFI with SPSS 17.0 and SIMCA 14.1. Combined with the reference fingerprints, these analyses revealed 12 differential components regarding peel and pulp. Further, the content of the 6 flavonoids and synephrine was determined. The proposed method integrating UPLC fingerprint and multicomponent quantitative analysis is applicable to the quality evaluation of AFI. The results provide a certain basis for the scientific connotation about the appearance characteristic of AFI.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Citrus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Synephrine
17.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 44013; 11(3): 344-351
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214044

ABSTRACT

BackgroundBaby corn silk extract can be used as an antioxidant dietary supplement. However, insufficient data exists for this extract to guarantee its quality, efficacy and safety.ObjectiveTo determine phytochemical constituents, contents of phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant activities, heavy metal concentrations, and microbial contamination of baby corn silk extracts.Material and methodsBaby corn silks including Pacific 271 and Zeba SG 17 hybrids were individually extracted with 40% v/v ethanol and distilled water to obtain Pacific 271 ethanol extract (PE), Zeba SG 17 ethanol extract (ZE), Pacific 271 aqueous extract (PA), and Zeba SG 17 aqueous extract (ZA). The analysis of phytochemical constituents was carried out using phytochemical tests, TLC screening, UV-visible, FTIR, and 1H NMR experiments. The contents of phenolics and flavonoids were determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric procedures, respectively. Antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH and FRAP assays. The concentrations of heavy metals were analyzed by ICP-MS. Microbial enumeration tests were carried out according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 41.ResultsPE and ZE were composed of flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, and steroids while PA and ZA contained flavonoids and tannins. PE and ZE exhibited higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents and significantly stronger antioxidant activities than PA and ZA. All extracts conformed to the microbiological and heavy metal requirements according to Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) guidelines.ConclusionPE and ZE were considered appropriate to use as natural extracts of phenolics and flavonoids with antioxidant activities and safety.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215809

ABSTRACT

Aimand Objectives:Boerhavia diffusa(B. diffusa) frequently known as punarnava is specifically used to replenish the body. The present work was designed to evaluate the scavenging potentialof its bioactive constituents. Materials and Methods:The different fractions ofB. diffusaroot methanolic extractwere examined for phenolic, flavonoids contents, DPPH free radical and Nitric oxide scavenging activities. Further antioxidant activity wasevaluated by ABTS free radical scavenging method and also from the reducing potential scavenging activity. The total phenolic content in different fractions by using various solvent like ethanol, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol were carried out to find the antioxidant activities. Results:The phenolic content was highest in ethanolic fraction that was significantly comparable with ascorbic acid. The flavonoid content was highest in ethanol fraction (41.93 ± 3.92 μg/mL) followed by n-butanol fraction (31.68 ± 1.72 μg/mL), then ethyl acetate fraction (29.67 ± 2.83 μg/mL) and least in chloroform fraction (16.91 ± 2.74 μg/mL). The ethanolic fraction of B. diffusaalso showed highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (101.29 ± 3.78) when compared with other fractions of same extract using different solvent phases. Moreover the nitric oxide scavenging activity of ethanolic fraction was maximum (82.31 ± 2.83) than different fractions. The ethanolic fraction also showed improved ABTS radical scavenging activity (81.73 ± 2.73 mg/mL) while chloroform fraction showed poor ABTS radical cation scavenging activity (29.51 ± 2.79 mg/mL). Conclusions:The study concludes that Boerhavia diffusa has rich and ample source of phenolic acid and flavonoids. Among all fractions the ethanolic has potent antioxidant activity, which shows its significance for a better novel approach.

19.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2020 Apr; 16(1): 78-87
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213698

ABSTRACT

Aims: In the present study, the flavonoid fraction of Tabernaemontana divaricata flavonoid fraction(TdFf) leaves was investigated for its in vitro and in vivo antioxidative and antitumor activity. Subjects and Methods: The flavonoid fraction of ethyl acetate extract was assessed for their in vitro antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), superoxide radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide and in vivo antioxidative activity by enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in the liver of intraperitoneally implanted Ehrlich's lymphoma (EAC) and Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLAs) model. The in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using trypan blue exclusion assay and in vivo antitumor activity was assessed by screening the ILS, serum liver marker enzymes and histopathology of the liver. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation of the means, and statistical analysis was carried out employing one-way and two-way analysis of variance using Web Agri Stat Package 2.0. Results: The dose-dependent percentage scavenging of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, OH, superoxide radical, and nonradical NO and H2O2 by TdFf indicated their antioxidative potential. Incubation of EAC/DLA tumor cells with TdFf showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect, and the extract killed 50% of EAC/DLA tumor cells at a concentration of 80 μg of TdFf. Coadministration of TdFf with EAC/DLA-induced mice showed a significant increase in the liver enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants and significant decrease in the serum liver marker enzymes to prove the in vivo antioxidative and antitumor activity of TdFf. It was also confirmed by the histopathology of the liver. Conclusions: It may be concluded that the flavonoid fractions of Td possess considerable antioxidative and antitumorigenic activity against the tested DLA/EAC in both in vitro and in vivo system"

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210720

ABSTRACT

Green grass jelly (Cyclea barbata Miers.) is a plant from Indonesia that is believed to have anti-inflammatory activity.This study aims to find the optimum condition in grass jelly extraction using the ionic liquid-microwave assistedextraction toward total flavonoid content (TFC) and lipoxygenase activity (LIA). The experimental design wasperformed using the parameters variable including extraction time, liquid–solid ratio, and ionic liquids concentrationto obtain the optimum condition. The optimization analysis used response surface methodology (RSM) with Box–Behnken design (17 trials) to obtain a predictive model with TFC and LIA as a response surface value. In the presentstudy, the optimum condition was suggested by RSM analysis with parameter variables, including extraction time of17 minutes, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([BMIM]Br) concentration of 1.76 mol/l, and the liquid–solid ratioof 38.21 ml/g. The equation of regression quadratic model was obtained to predict TFC and LIA as follows: TFC =2.43A + 2.43B + 1.42C + 0.33AB − 3.20AC − 0.46BC − 4.90A2 − 3.10B2 − 3.10C2 + 28.32 with R2 = 0.8336 and LIA= 0.066A + 8.22B + 0.97C + 2.47AB − 5.86AC + 1.96BC − 9.99A2 − 13.75B2 − 13.11C2 + 63.53 with R2 = 0.9207,respectively

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