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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256486, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364500

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study explores the antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the extracts of four locally available weeds plants namely Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua and Phalaris minor with different solvents. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined via various in-vitro methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA), reducing power (RP), DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Phytochemical screening was performed both qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined through Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods respectively. Methanol-chloroform solvent showed the presence of a high amount of TPC in milligram of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of GAE/g of DW) in the extracts of all weeds. Their descending sequence was Avena fatua (74.09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65.66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64.04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61.905), while, chloroform solvent found to be best solvent for the extraction of TFC. Methanol-chloroform solvent was also found to be best solvent for TAA (Total antioxidant activity assay) which showed values in milligram of ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of AAE /g of DW), for DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power (antioxidant activity) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides in these weeds.


Resumo Este estudo investiga a atividade antioxidante, a triagem fitoquímica, os teores de fenólicos totais e de flavonoides nos extratos de quatro plantas daninhas disponíveis localmente, quais sejam, Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua e Phalaris minor com diferentes solventes. As atividades antioxidantes desses extratos foram determinadas por meio de vários métodos in vitro, tais como atividade antioxidante total (TAA), poder redutor (RP), sequestro de radicais livres DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-Picril-hidrazil) e ensaios de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica foi realizada tanto qualitativamente quanto quantitativamente. O teor de fenólicos totais (TPC) e o teor de flavonoides totais (TFC) foram determinados pelos métodos do reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu e do cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio mostrou a presença de elevada quantidade de TPC em miligramas de ácido gálico equivalente por grama de peso seco (mg de GAE/g de DW) nos extratos de todas as plantas daninhas. Sua sequência descendente foi Avena fatua (74,09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65,66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64,04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61,905), enquanto o solvente clorofórmio foi o melhor solvente para a extração de TFC. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio também foi considerado o melhor solvente para AAT (ensaio de atividade antioxidante total), que apresentou valores em miligramas de equivalente de ácido ascórbico por grama de peso seco (mg de AAE/g de DW), para atividade sequestrante de DPPH, RP (atividade antioxidante) e atividade de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de polifenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, alcaloides e glicosídeos nessas plantas daninhas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339364

ABSTRACT

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Onions , Antioxidants , Swine , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , alpha-Glucosidases , Hydrogen Peroxide
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247071, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285609

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos hipoglicêmicos do pó de kumquat (Ku) em ratos diabéticos alimentados com uma dieta rica em gordura e colesterol (HFHC). As atividades antioxidantes foram avaliadas usando o método de eliminação de radicais livres de 1,1-difenil 2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico) radical cátion (ABTS) e antioxidante redutor férrico potência (FRAP). O conteúdo fenólico total foi (51,85 mg GAE / g) e o conteúdo total de flavonoides foi (0,24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE / g). Os valores de DPPH e ABTS foram 3,32 e 3,98 mg equivalente de Trolox (TE) / g, em que o valor de FRAP foi de 3,00 mM Fe2 + / kg de material seco. Um total de 90 ratos albinos foi usado ​​no presente estudo. O grupo dos ratos foi o seguinte: dieta normal: tratados normais (2, 4 e 6% Ku.), ratos diabéticos (não tratados), diabéticos + dieta HFHC (não tratados), HFHC (não tratados), diabéticos (tratados), HFHC (tratados) e diabéticos + HFHC (tratados). As dietas foram seguidas por 8 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas ao final do experimento. A glicose sérica foi registrada e os hormônios tireoidianos (T4, Tiroxina e T3, Triiodotironina) foram conduzidos. A dieta suplementada com kumquat em diferentes concentrações tem um efeito hipoglicêmico e melhora os hormônios tireoidianos tanto de ratos diabéticos quanto de ratos diabéticos com HFHC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rutaceae , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Powders , Thyroid Hormones , Blood Glucose , Fruit
4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 425-432, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920458

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To determi ne the contents of total fla vonoids i n Scutellaria barbata standard decoction ,evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity ,establish the fingerprint and conduct chemical pattern recognition analysis. METHODS The contents of total flavonoids in S. barbata standard decoction (calculated by scutellarein )were determined by ultraviet-visible spectrophotometry. In vitro antioxidant activity of S. barbata standard decoction was investigated by free radical scavenging tests of 1,1-diphenyl- 2-trinitrophenylhydrazine(DPPH)and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid )ammonium salt (ABTS);HPLC method was adopted. Using scutellarin as reference ,the fingerprints of 16 batches of S. barbata standard decoction were drawn and evaluated by Similarity Evaluation System of TCM Chromatogram Fingerprint (2004 A edition ),and the common peaks were determined;Pearson correlation analysis was carried out by using SPSS 24.0 software to screen substances with in vitro antioxidant activity. Taking them as variables ,cluster analysis and principal component analysis were carried out by using SPSS 24.0 and SIMCA 14.1 software. RESULTS The linear range of total flavonoids were 2.106-21.06 μg/mL(R2=0.999 3);RSDs of precision , reproducibility and stability tests (120 min)were all lower than 2%;the recovery was 100.62%(RSD=0.55%,n=6);the contents of total flavonoids were 0.634-1.053 mg/mL. Median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DPPH radical scavenging experiment ranged 1.120-3.602 mg/mL,and IC 50 of ABTS radical scavenging e xperiment range d 0.684-1.327 mg/mL. The results of correlation analysis showed that the content of total flavonoids Δ 基金项目 :河北省高校省级重点学科建设项目 (No.冀教 in S. barbata standard decoction was negatively correlated 高〔2013〕4号);承德医学院自然科学研究计划项目(No.201824) *讲师,硕士。研究方向:中药质量控制 。电话:0314-2291186。 with the IC 50 of DPPH free radical and ABTS free radical E-mail:duyilongww@sina.com scavenging experiment ,and the correlation coefficients were # 通信作者 :教授,硕士。研究方向 :中药质量控制 。电话: -0.976 and -0.940 respectively(P<0.01). There were 18 0314-2291186。E-mail:phf2301@163.com common peaks in the fin gerprints of 16 batches of S. barbata 中国药房 2022年第33卷第4期 China Pharmacy 2022Vol. 33 No. 4 ·425· standard decoction ;the s imilarities were 0.964-0.997. A total of 4 common peaks were identified ,such as scutellarin (peak 8), scutellarein(peak 14),luteolin(peak 15),apigenin(peak 17).In the HPLC fingerprints of S. barbata standard decoction ,the peak areas of peak 3-4,8-9,12-15 and 17 were significantly negatively correlated with the IC 50 of DPPH free radical and ABTS free radical scavenging experiment (P<0.05). The results of cluster analysis showed that 16 batches of S. barbata standard decoction could be clustered into two categories ,of which S 2,S7-S8 and S 14-S16 were clustered into one category ,S1,S3-S6 and S 9-S13 were clustered into one category. By principal component analysis ,16 batches of S. barbata standard decoction were divided into two categories ,of which S 2,S4,S7 and S 14-S16 were clustered into one category ,and S 1,S3,S5-S6 and S 8-S13 were clustered into one. The comprehensive scores were high in the samples of S 4,S13,S15. CONCLUSIONS Established HPLC fingerprint and chemical pattern recognition analysis method can be used to evaluate the quality of S. barbata standard decoction ; peak 3-4,8-9,12-15 and 17 and total flavonoids are the potential material basis for S. barbata standard decoction to scavenge DPPH free radical and ABTS free radical.

5.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 191-202, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the imp rovement effects of total flavonoids of Psidium guajava leaves on myocardial hypertrophy in hypertensive model rats. METHODS Ten rats were randomly selected from 60 healthy SD rats as the normal group ; other 50 rats established hypertensive model ,and 44 rats with successful modeling were randomly divided into model group , anisomycin group [p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)activator,1 mg/kg],total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves+ anisomycin group (200 mg/kg total flavonoids+ 1 mg/kg anisomycin )and total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves group (200 mg/kg) by random volume mass ranking method ,with 11 rats in each group. Rats in normal group and model group were given 3% hydroxymethylcellulose sodium solution ,and other groups were given relevant solution intragastrically ,once a day ,for consecutive 6 weeks. Blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ,diastolic blood pressure ,mean arterial pressure ),cardiac index and left ventricular index were measured. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),interleukin-1β(IL-1β)and IL- 6 in myocardial tissue were detected. The pathomorphological changes of myocardial tissue were observed. The expression of p 38 MAPK, phosphorylated p 38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK),extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2),phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK1/2),c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK)in myocardial tissue were detected. RESULTS Compared with normal group ,the systolic blood pressure ,diastolic blood pressure ,mean arterial pressure ,cardiac index ,left ventricular index as well as the levels of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 and protein expression of p-p 38 MAPK,p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK in myocardial tissue were increased significantly in anisomycin group and model group (P<0.05);it was also found that hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes ,disorder of myocardial fibers ,looseness,edema and proliferation of connective tissue between myocardial fibers,increased infiltration of inflammatory cells ,etc. Compared with anisomycin group and model group ,the le vels of above indexes in total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves+ anisomycin group and total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves group were decreased significantly (P<0.05); cardiomyocytes were 163.com slightly larger and arranged reasonably ;the degree of myocardial hypertrophy,looseness,edema and proliferation of connective tissue were relieved ,and the improvement effect of total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves group was more significant (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves can reduce blood pressure and improve myocardial hypertrophy in hypertensive model rats. Its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of p38 MAPK signal pathway activity and the expression of inflammatory factors.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907152

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of circadian rhythm genes on flavonoids biosynthesis in safflower and its molecular mechanism. Methods Based on the transcriptome and metabolomic database of safflower corolla, we screened the circadian rhythm genes that correlate with biosynthesis of flavonoids in safflower. qPCR was used to quantify the expressions of circadian rhythm genes in different flowering stages at different time points in a single day. LC-MS was performed to determine the accumulation of flavonoids. The correlation between them was analyzed as well. Yeast Two-Hybrid experiment was used to verify the interactive proteins of these genes. Results Seven circadian rhythm genes PRR1, PRR2, ELF3, FT, PHYB, GI and ZTL were obtained. PRR1 gene was positively correlated with flavonoids accumulation (r≥0.7). The full length of PRR1 is 3 201 bp, encoding 421 amino acids, which is highly homologous with rice OsPRR73 gene and named as CtPRR1 (GenBank accession number: MW492035). CtPRR1 was mainly expressed in flowers, and the expression level increased in the daytime and declined in the evening gradually. Correspondingly, the content of flavonoids showed an opposite variation. Both of them displayed a circadian rhythm with a negative correlation (r≥−0.7). In addition, 2 heat shock proteins along with 3 AP2 transcription factors interacting with CtPRR1 protein were obtained via Yeast Two-Hybrid experiment. Conclusion CtPRR1 negatively regulated the safflower flavonoids accumulation in a circadian rhythm way, which may be affected by these interacting proteins.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923019

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that widely existing in traditional Chinese medicine. They have many biological activities and pharmacological effects. In recent years, studies have found that flavonoids can play an effective protective role in the treatments of ischemic stroke and ischemic heart disease through various ways. The mechanisms of their protective effects have been systematically explained in detail. For example, flavonoids can affect pathophysiological mechanisms such as antioxidant, inhibition of inflammatory response, apoptosis and autophagy pathway. This paper reviews the protective effect and mechanisms of the treatments of flavonoids on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemic diseases by referring to relevant literatures. The purpose is to provide reference for future research and development of drugs for the treatments of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 724-728, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923009

ABSTRACT

OBJEC TIVE To optimize the simultaneous extraction technology of dietary fiber (DF)and flavonoids from the peel of Prunus armeniaca . METHODS The content of DF was calculated with enzyme-gravimetric method ,and the content of flavonoids was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The orthogonal design and single factor test were used to optimize the extraction technology ,with the factors of liquid-solid ratio ,pH,papain concentration ,α-amylase concentration ,temperature of enzymatic hydrolysis and time of enzymatic hydrolysis as factors ,using the contents of DF and flavonoids as indexes. RESULTS The optimal extraction technology included the solid-liquid ratio of 1 ∶ 10(g/mL),pH5,0.5% papain and 0.5% α-amylase, enzymatic hydrolysis at 50 ℃ for 1 h. After three times of validation ,the average content of DF was 0.801 g/g(RSD=1.95%), and the average content of flavonoids was 2.135 mg/g(RSD=2.44%). The average comprehensive score was 0.988(RSD= 0.81%). CONCLUSIONS The optimal extraction technology is stable and feasible.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239378, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249274

ABSTRACT

Abstract The genus Pouteria has been studied because it presents various activities, among which is its anti-inflammatory potential. The effects of Pouteria ramiflora Carbopol gel on the healing of skin wounds in diabetic rats were evaluated by microscopic imaging. Streptozotocin was administered intraperitoneally in animals that had fasted for 12 hours, a situation confirmed by the glycemic index (˃ 240 mg dL-1). An excision on the back of the animals was performed and three groups were formed: Control (Gel), Ethanolic extract (Ext) and Gel + extract 2% (Ext+gel); the histopathological evaluation occurred on the 7th, 14th, 21st and 30th days after the post-operative period. The results of the phytochemical prospecting of P. ramiflora extract demonstrated the major presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids; the assessment of the inflammatory infiltrate on the 7th day was higher on group Ext and Ext+gel when compared to group Control; on the 14th day control and Ext (p<0.05). The quantification of fibroblasts was higher on the 7th day among the three treatments, control and Ext (p<0.05), on the 21st day. Angiogenesis showed a higher number of vessels in Ext+gel group (p<0.05) on the 7th day; in Control, Ext and Ext+gel (p<0.05) on the 14th day; and Control and Ext (p<0.05)on the 21st day. The histopathological results showed that the formulation Ext+gel was efficient in tissue reparation and decrease in inflammatory cells on the diabetic's animals.


Resumo O gênero Pouteria apresenta várias aplicações terapêuticas e, dentre elas, grande potencial antiflamatório. Os efeitos do gel de Pouteria ramiflora sobre a cicatrização de feridas na pele de ratos diabéticos foram avaliados pela histomorfometria. A estreptozotocina foi administrada por via intraperitoneal em animais após jejum de 12 horas, a confirmação de indução da diabetes foi confirmada pelo índice glicêmico (˃ 240 mg dL-1). Foi realizada uma incisão no dorso do animal e foram criados 3 grupos de tratamento: controle (gel carbopol), extrato etanólico (Ext) e Gel + extrato etanólico à 2% (Ext+gel); a avaliação histopatológica foi realizada no 7º, 14º, 21º e 30º dias após o período pós operatório. Os resultados da prospecção fitoquímica dos extratos de P. ramiflora demonstraram majoritariamente a presença de compostos fenólicos e flavonóides; o infiltrado inflamatório avaliado no 7º dia foi maior para animais do grupo controle em relação aos grupos Ext (p<0.05) e Ext+gel 2% (p<0.05); no 14º dia o controle e Exp (p<0.05) apresentaram aumento significativo dos infiltrados inflamatórios. A presença de fibroblastos foi elevada no 7º dia em todos os tratamentos. O processo da angiogênese mostrou um maior número de vasos sanguíneos entre os grupos Ext e Ext+gel (p<0.05) no 7º dia; no 14º dia o grupo controle, Ext (p<0.05), Control e Ext+gel (p<0.05) apresentaram aumento de vascularização, e no 21º dia apenas os grupos controle e Ext (p<0.05). Os resultados histopatológicos mostraram que a formulação gel carbopol + extrato etanólico a 2% foi eficiente na reparação de tecidos e na diminuição de células inflamatórias nos animais diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pouteria , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Wound Healing , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
10.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(3): 414-422, sep.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360036

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Solanum ferruginium es una planta que crece en lugares perturbados como maleza, es de uso medicinal poco utilizada que presenta un gran potencial como fuente de antioxidantes debido a su alto contenido en polifenoles. Debido a esto se analizó el contenido de polifenoles, flavonoides, proantocianidinas y capacidad antioxidante in vitro (ensayo de captación de radicales DPPH) en hojas, tallos y planta completa de tres localidades (Las agujas, Parque el Nabo y Bosque la Primavera) de Zapopan, Jalisco, así como su toxicidad subcronica en hojas. En general se observó diferencia significativa (p≤ 0,05), en las muestras de las tres localidades, las hojas presentaron el mayor contenido de polifenoles (15,3±0,7 a 22±0,4 mg expresado como equivalente de ácido gálico (EAG/g) en muestras de Parque el Nabo, flavonoides (7,8±0,3 a 13,3±0,3 mg EC/g) y proantocianidinas (3,4±0,1 a 4,2±0,05 mg expresado como equivalente de catequina (EC/g) en el Bosque la Primavera. La capacidad antioxidante fue similar en todas las muestras, con valores de 8,3 a 17 μg/mL de concentración media inhibitora (CI50). En la prueba toxicológica, los ratones no mostraron signos de toxicidad a ninguna dosis por efecto de la administración de la planta en estudio, por lo que la dosis letal media (DL50) es > 15 000 mg/kg de peso corporal. El contenido de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante en S. ferruginium sobre todo en hojas indican un alto potencial con propiedades farmacológicas además de su inocuidad, por lo que es importante realizar estudios de sus compuestos fenólicos individuales, antes de ser utilizada en farmacología.


ABSTRACT Solanum ferrugineum is a plant that grows like a weed. It is a new medicinal plant with great potential as an antioxidant source due to its high polyphenol content. Because of this, polyphenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and antioxidant capacity in vitro (radical scavenging test by DPPH) were analyzed in leaves, stems, and whole plants from three localities (Las agujas, Nabo Park, and La Primavera Forest) as well as the subchronic toxicity evaluation in leaves. In general, there was a significant difference (p≤ 0.05) in all samples from the three localities. The leaves showed the highest polyphenol content (15.3±0.7 to 22±0.4 mg AGE/g) in samples from the Nabo Park, flavonoid (7.8±0.3 to 13.3±0,3 mg CE/g) and proanthocyanidins (3.4±0.1 to 4.2±0.05 mg CE/g) in La Primavera Forest. Antioxidant capacity was similar across all samples, showing values of 8.3 to 17 μg/mL of IC50. During the toxicology assay, animal specimens showed no signs of toxicity to the doses resulting from the administration of the plant under study so that LD50 > 15 000 mg/kg Bodyweight. The polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity obtained from S. ferruginium leaves, together with its safety, indicate a high pharmacological potential of this plant. Therefore, it is important to carry out studies of its phenolic compounds before being used in pharmacology.

12.
Rev. salud pública ; 23(3): e201, mayo-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361129

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Conocer las propiedades curativas de las hojas de la planta medicinal de uso ancestral pacha-muña (Hedeoma mandoniana Wedd) a través de los saberes de los pobladores del área rural de Antajirca y Bomboncocha, del departamento de Huánuco, Perú, y caracterizar su composición química. Métodos Estudio con enfoque mixto, de corte cualitativo mediante entrevistas orales no estructuradas sobre el uso y propiedades curativas de la pacha-muña a 10 mujeres trabajadoras informales, de los poblados rurales de Antajirca y Bomboncocha, distrito de Churubamba. El estudio tuvo un enfoque cuantitativo: se recolectaron plantas silvestres para someter sus hojas a extracción con etanol, y exponer el extracto a ensayos cualitativos como Shinoda, cloruro férrico, prueba de espumas, de Fehling, entre otros. Se aplicó también la técnica de destilación por arrastre con vapor, para extraer el aceite esencial, el cual se sometió a cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Resultados La pacha-muña, planta ampliamente utilizada por los pobladores de la región, es consumida en infusión para sanar problemas digestivos (diarreas, acidez estomacal, halitosis, indigestión, cólicos), enfermedades respiratorias (gripes, bronquitis, asma), entre otras. Se encontró que las hojas están compuestas principalmente por flavonoides, taninos, fenoles y pulegone. Conclusión La pacha-muña, es una hierba aromática ampliamente utilizada por los pobladores de Huánuco, como una herencia cultural de alto valor medicinal, con efectos curativos explicados por la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, fenoles y pulegone.


RESUMEN Objective To learn about the healing properties of the leaves of the medicinal plant of ancestral use pacha-muña (Hedeoma mandoniana Wedd) through the knowledge of the inhabitants of the rural area of Antajirca and Bomboncocha, in the department of Huánuco, Peru, and to characterize its chemical composition. Methods Study with a mixed approach, of a qualitative nature, by conducting oral, unstructured interviews on the use and curative properties of the pachamuña to 10 informal women workers, from the rural villages of Antajirca and Bomboncocha, district of Churubamba. And with a quantitative approach, since wild plants were collected, to submit their leaves to ethanol extraction, and expose the extract to qualitative tests such as: Shinoda, ferric chloride, foam test, by Fehling; among others. The technique of steam distillation was also applied to extract the essential oil, which was subjected to gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Results Pacha-muña, a plant widely used by the inhabitants of the region, is consumed as an infusion to cure digestive problems (diarrhea, heartburn, halitosis, indigestion, colic), respiratory diseases (flu, bronchitis, asthma), among others. It was found that the leaves are mainly composed by: flavonoids, tannins, phenols and pulegone. Conclusion Pacha-muña is an aromatic herb widely used by the inhabitants of Huánuco as a cultural inheritance of high medicinal value, with healing effects explained by the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols and pulegone.

13.
Rev. colomb. quím. (Bogotá) ; 50(1): 40-50, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289323

ABSTRACT

Resumen La investigación tuvo como objetivo definir las mejores condiciones de extracción asistida por ultrasonido de los cálices de H. sabdariffa L. y la obtención de polvos microencapsulados, mediante secado por aspersión. Los extractos fueron analizados, considerando como variables: disolvente (agua y agua/etanol) y la relación temperatura/tiempo de extracción (25 °C/60 min y 60 °C/30 min). Para el secado se evaluaron las variables temperatura de entrada (150 °C; 190 °C) y la mezcla de encapsulantes goma arábiga (G) y maltodextrina (MD) (G40/ MD60; G60/MD40). Los parámetros utilizados para el análisis fueron: rendimiento, pH, °Bx, composición química (fenoles y antocianinas totales, CLAE-EM) y capacidad antioxidante (DPPH). La mejor condición para la extracción de polifenoles resultó ser con agua:etanol (80:20), a 60 °C y durante 30 min. Se identificó la presencia de ácidos fenólicos, glicósidos de flavonoles y las antocianinas (delfinidina-3-sambubiósido y cianidina-3-sambubiósido), como las señales de mayor intensidad. Con el secado por atomización a 150°Cy con G60/MD40, se logró el mayor contenido de fenoles totales y antocianinas, sin embargo, la capacidad antioxidante se favoreció a 150 °C y con G40/MD60. Las micropartículas obtenidas podrían valorarse como materia prima para la elaboración de fitofármacos o alimentos funcionales, considerando su fácil manipulación, posible estabilidad y su valor antioxidante.


Abstract The objective of the research was to define the best conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of H. sabdariffa L. calyces, and to obtain microencapsulated powders, by spray drying. The extracts were analyzed, considering as variables: extracting solvent (water and water/ethanol) and the temperature /extraction time ratio (25 °C/ 60 min and 60 °C/30 min). Inlet air temperature (150 °C; 190 °C) and the mixture of gum arabic (G) and maltodextrin (MD) as encapsulating agents (G40/MD60; G60/MD40) were the variables studied. The parameters used for the analysis were: yield, pH, °Bx, chemical composition (phenols and total anthocyanins, HPLC-MS), and antioxidant capacity (DPPH). The best polyphenols extraction conditions were water:ethanol (80:20), at 60 °C for 30 min. The presence of phenolic acids, flavonol glycosides, and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) were identified as the signals of highest intensity. Inlet air temperature at 150 °C and G60/MD40 allowed the highest total phenols and anthocyanins content. However, the antioxidant capacity was better at 150 °C and G40/MD60. The microparticle obtained could be used as an ingredient for the preparation of phytopharmaceuticals or functional foods, considering their easy handling, and antioxidant capacity.


Resumo O objetivo da pesquisa foi definir as melhores condições para a extração assistida por ultrassom de H. sabdariffa L. calyces e obter pós microencapsulados, por meio de secagem por pulverização. Os extratos foram analisados considerando-se variáveis: menstruação (água e água/etanol) e a razão temperatura/tempo de extração (25 °C/60 min e 60°C/30 min). Para a secagem, os variais foram avaliados: temperatura de entrada (150 °C; 190 °C) e mistura dos encapsulantes goma arábica (G) e maltodextrina (MD) (G40/ MD60; G60/MD40). Os parâmetros utilizados para a análise foram: rendimento, pH, °Bx, composição química (fenóis e antocianinas totais, HPLC-MS) e capacidade antioxidante (DPPH). A melhor condição de extração acabou com a água: etanol (80:20), a 60 °C e por 30 min. A presença de ácidos fenólicos, flavonol glicosídeos e antocianinas (delfinidin-3-sambubiosídeo e cianidin-3-sambubiosídeo) foram identificados como sinais de maior intensidade. Com a secagem por pulverização a 150°Ce com G60/MD40, foi atingido o maior teor de fenóis e antocianinas totais, no entanto, a capacidade antioxidante foi favorecida a 150 °C e com G40/MD60. As microcápsulas obtidas podem ser utilizadas como matéria-prima na preparação de fitofarmacêuticos ou alimentos funcionais, considerando seu fácil manuseio, possível estabilidade e seu valor antioxidante.

14.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e573, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280324

ABSTRACT

. Introducción: El dengue es la enfermedad viral transmitida por mosquitos de más rápida propagación en el mundo. A pesar de la alta incidencia de la enfermedad no existe tratamiento antiviral efectivo ni vacuna aprobada para su uso contra esta infección. La planta Ageratina havanensis ha sido ampliamente utilizada por nuestra cultura popular y en otros países debido a sus diversas propiedades biológicas. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antiviral de cuatro extractos provenientes de Ageratina havanensis y dos flavonoides aislados de dicha planta frente al virus dengue 2. Métodos: La pesquisa primaria de actividad antiviral de cada extracto y flavonoide se realizó mediante el ensayo de detección de la productividad vírica, y se evaluó la acción virucida de los extractos etanólico de tallo y butanólico de hoja. Resultados: Todos los extractos inhibieron la replicación viral al evidenciarse disminución del número de placas de lisis, sin embargo, no se evidenció disminución del título infectivo viral en el ensayo virucida. El tratamiento con la sakuranetina mostró valores de inhibición de la productividad viral entre 61-91 por ciento, y para la 7-metoxiaromadendrina se registraron valores de reducción viral entre 64-86 por ciento. Conclusiones: Los extractos y flavonoides aislados de Ageratina havanensis mostraron acción antiviral. Los extractos etanólico de tallo y butanólico de hojas no poseen acción virucida sobre la cepa viral empleada. El presente trabajo constituye el primer informe respecto a la evaluación de extractos y compuestos aislados de A. havanensis frente al virus dengue(AU)


Introduction: Dengue is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Despite its high incidence, no effective antiviral treatment or vaccine has been approved for use against this infection. The plant Ageratina havanensis has been widely used in our folk culture and in other countries due to its various biological properties. Objective: Evaluate the antiviral activity of four extracts from Ageratina havanensis and two flavonoids isolated from that plant against the dengue 2 virus. Methods: Primary screening of the antiviral activity of each extract and flavonoid was conducted by viral productivity detection assay, and an evaluation was carried out of the virucidal action of the stem ethanolic extract and the leaf butanolic extract. Results: All the extracts inhibited viral replication by a reduction in the number of lysis plates. However, no evidence was found of a reduced viral infective titer in the virucidal assay. Treatment with sakuranetin achieved viral productivity inhibition values of 61 percent-91 percent, whereas 7-methoxyaromadendrin obtained viral reduction values of 64 percent-86 percent Conclusions: The extracts and flavonoids isolated from Ageratina havanensis displayed antiviral activity. The stem ethanolic extract and the leaf butanolic extract do not have a virucidal action against the viral strain used. The paper is the first report about the effect of extracts and compounds isolated from A. havanensis against the dengue virus(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission , Ageratina , Dengue , Dengue Virus
15.
Odontol. sanmarquina (Impr.) ; 24(2): 13-18, abr.-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178062

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar la liberación de flavonoides y flúor en probetas de ionómero vítreo convencional tipo II modificado con extracto de propóleo. Métodos. Fueron utilizadas 60 unidades de análisis. El extracto etanólico de propóleo al 2% fue incorporado a un ionómero vítreo tipo II. Para la determinación de la liberación de flavonoides el laboratorio analizó la concentración de quercetina por ml de solución, sea agua destilada o solución fisiológica durante un periodo de 5 días. Resultados. Hubo liberación inicial de 0,40 mg/ml de flúor en solución fisiológica y de 0,35 mg/ml de flúor en agua destilada, y una liberación final de 0 mg/ml de flavonoides y de flúor en solución fisiológica y de 0,18 mg/ml de flúor en solución de agua destilada. Conclusiones. La liberación de flúor y flavonoides se produce en mayor concentración en las primeras horas, decreciendo a medida que pasan las horas.


Objective. The objective of this study was to quantify the release of flavonoids and fluoride in test tubes of conventional type II vitreous ionomer modified with propolis extract. Methods. Sixty units of analysis were used. The 2% propolis ethanolic extract was incor- porated into a type II glass ionomer. To determine the release of flavonoids, the laboratory analyzed the concentration of quercetin per ml of solution, either distilled water or physiological solution, during a period of 5 days. Results. There was an initial release of 0.40 mg/ml of fluorine in physiological solution and 0.35 mg / ml of fluorine in distilled water, and a final release of 0 mg/ml of flavonoids and fluorine in physiological solution and of 0,18 mg/ml of fluorine in distilled water solution. Conclusions. The release of fluoride and flavonoids occurs in greater concentration in the first hours, decreasing as the hours go by.

16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 513-516, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248925

ABSTRACT

A doxorrubicina (dox) é um medicamento antineoplásico que induz cardiotoxicidade por estresse oxidativo. Os flavonoides são antioxidantes extraídos de plantas como Camellia sinensis e Arrabidaea chica (Fridericia chica). Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar efeitos protetores do extrato de A. chica (AC), comparado ao de C. sinensis (CS), frente ao estresse oxidativo induzido pela dox, no coração. Cardiomiócitos e células neoplásicas MDA-MB 231 foram incubados com AC e CS. Depois, adicionou-se dox e avaliaram-se taxas de viabilidade e morte celular. A citometria de fluxo para o ensaio de iodeto de propídeo (IP) em cardiomiócitos mostrou as seguintes taxas de morte celular: controle 53%; dox 78% (maior que controle, P=0,015); AC_12,5µg/mL + dox 65% (menor que dox, P=0,031); AC_25µg/mL + dox 62% (menor que dox, P=0,028); AC_50µg/mL + dox 63% (menor que dox, P=0,030); CS_12,5µg/mL + dox 71% (menor que dox, P=0,040); CS_25µg/ml + dox 69% (menor que dox, P=0,037); CS_50µg/mL + dox 74% (menor que dox, P=0,044). Resultados das células MDA-MB 231 mostraram que nenhum extrato interferiu na atividade antitumoral da dox. Os dados de IP foram corroborados pelos de MTT. Este estudo reporta promissora utilização de A. chica na prevenção da cardiotoxicidade induzida pela dox.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin , Bignoniaceae/chemistry , Cardiotoxicity/therapy , Cardiotoxicity/veterinary , Plants, Medicinal , Flavonoids/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(2): 190-194, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287819

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Dengzhan Shengmai capsule combined with donepezil hydrochloride on cognitive function, daily living ability, and safety in patients with Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: A total of 294 patients with Alzheimer's disease were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group, 147 cases each group. The control group was given oral donepezil hydrochloride 5 mg once a day, and the treatment group was given oral Dengzhan Shengmai capsule 0.36 g three times a day, based on the control group. RESULTS: At 3 and 6 months of treatment, the ADAS-cog score of the treatment group was 48.69±6.23 and 44.24±5.53; for the control group, 45.48±5.94 and 41.57±5.10. The difference between the two groups is statistically significant (p<0.05). At 3 and 6 months of treatment, the NO level in the treatment group was (46.28±6.68) umol/l, (43.55±7.92) umol/l, and the control group was (42.95±7.92) umol/l, (38.89±5.93) umol/l. The differences between both groups were statistically significant (p<0.05). At 3 and 6 months of treatment, ET levels in the treatment group were (156.08±17.39) ng/l, (144.91±17.60) ng/l, and the control group was (150.48±22.94) ng/l, (135.04±10.08) ng/l. Correlation analysis showed that ADAS-cog score was negatively correlated with NO and ET (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Dengzhan Shengmai capsule combined with donepezil hydrochloride can improve cognitive function and the living capacity of patients with Alzheimer's disease, reduce the production of neurotoxic substances NO and ET, and provide higher safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Cognition , Donepezil
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10841, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249329

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms and effective components of Polygonum hydropiper in ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions. The ethanol extract was purified on an AB-8 macroporous resin column and eluted with 60% ethanol and was then injected into the HPLC system for quantitative analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally pretreated with P. hydropiper extract (PHLE; 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for 5 days and then absolute ethanol was administered to induce gastric mucosal damage. One hour after ethanol ingestion, the rats were euthanized and stomach samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Antioxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory cytokines were quantified. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of proteins. Cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 assays. The proportion of total flavonoids in the final extract of P. hydropiper was 50.05%, which contained three major bioactive flavonoid constituents, including rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. PHLE significantly increased cell viability and effectively protected human gastric epithelial cells-1 against alcohol-induced damage in vitro. PHLE pretreatment attenuated gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner in rats, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with PHLE also reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in gastric tissue by downregulating the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B. PHLE exerted protective effects against gastric injury through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. Flavonoids might be the main effective components of P. hydropiper against gastric mucosal injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Polygonum , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ethanol/toxicity , Gastric Mucosa , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921783

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is a malignancy with high mortality. Huangqin Tea(HQT) can exert potential preventive and therapeutic effects on colorectal cancer. Flavonoids are the main compounds in HQT, but the pharmacodynamic material basis and mechanism are unclear. Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to predict and analyze the targets and signaling pathways of HQT in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. The active components of flavonoids in HQT were searched and screened out by literature review and FAFDrugs4. The related targets of active components were predicted by SwissTargetPrediction, STITCH, and TCMSP. Colorectal cancer-related genes were collected from OMIM, TTD, and GeneCards. The common targets were obtained as the potential targets of HQT in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Metascape was used for GO function enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. Cytoscape was used to construct the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network and "component-target-disease-pathway" network to obtained and analyze core targets and key components. AutoDock Vina was used for molecular docking verification of key components and core targets. The results showed that apigenin, luteolin, wogonin, and baicalein were presumedly the key active components in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer, and core targets included TP53, AKT1, VEGFA, PIK3 CA, and SRC. The key KEGG signaling pathways mainly involved PI3 K-AKT, AGE-RAGE, p53, NF-κB, Wnt, Hippo, and calcium signaling pathways. Further molecular docking results showed that four key components showed strong hydrogen bonding ability with the five core targets. This study preliminarily reveals the pharmacodynamic material basis and potential mechanism of HQT in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer and provides a theoretical and scientific basis for the application of HQT.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Scutellaria baicalensis , Tea
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921714

ABSTRACT

This study intended to explore the effect and mechanism of total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma in improving scopola-mine-induced learning and memory impairments in model mice. Ninety four-month-old Kunming(KM) mice were randomly divided into six groups. The ones in the model group and blank group were treated with intragastric administration of normal saline, while those in the medication groups separately received the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma, Kangnaoshuai Capsules, donepezil, as well as total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae plus estrogen receptor(ER) blocker by gavage. The mouse model of learning and memory impairments was established via intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine. Following the measurement of mouse learning and memory abilities in Morris water maze test, the hippocampal ERβ expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of ERβ and phosphorylated p38(p-p38) in the hippocampus and B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated death promoter(Bad), and cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3(caspase-3) in the apoptotic system were assayed by Western blot. The contents of malondia-ldehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and nitric oxide(NO) in the hippocampus were then determined using corresponding kits. Compared with the control group, the model group exhibited significantly prolonged incubation period, reduced frequency of cros-sing the platform, shortened residence time in the target quadrant, lowered ERβ, Bcl-2 and SOD activity in the hippocampus, and increased p-p38/p38, Bad, caspase-3, MDA, and NO. Compared with the model group, the total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae increased the expression of ERβ and SOD in the hippocampus, down-regulated the expression of neuronal pro-apoptotic proteins, up-re-gulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, and reduced p-p38/p38, MDA, and NO. The effects of total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma on the above indexes were reversed by ER blocker. It has been proved that the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma obviously alleviate scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in mice, which may be achieved by regulating the neuronal apoptotic system and oxidative stress via the ER-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(ER-p38 MAPK) signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Flavonoids , Hippocampus , Maze Learning , Mice , Polypodiaceae , Receptors, Estrogen , Scopolamine/toxicity , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics
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