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1.
Vive (El Alto) ; 5(13)abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410336

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En la actualidad, ha cobrado una gran importancia la relación que la microbiota intestinal mantiene con varios órganos y sistemas del cuerpo humano. Particularmente importante, son las relaciones de la microbiota con el Sistema Nervioso Central, el comportamiento y el desarrollo y tratamiento de varias enfermedades. La relación existente entre la microbiota intestinal y el cerebro se produce gracias a la actividad de estímulos neuroendocrinos y neuroinmunes que pueden actuar de forma bilateral, llegando incluso a generar modificaciones en el comportamiento del ser humano. Del mismo modo, a través de la realización de estudios clínicos y paraclínicos, se ha conseguido demostrar la asociación entre el eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro y trastornos neurológicos como la enfermedad de Parkinson o el trastorno depresivo. El objetivo del presente artículo es realizar un análisis de los principales estudios identificados en relación a la función del eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro (MIC) así como identificar la nueva evidencia acerca del uso de probióticos en el tratamiento coadyuvante de varios trastornos neuro-psiquiátricos. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la bibliografía utilizando palabras claves y términos MeSH y se presentó en formato de discusión de acuerdo a los subtemas: eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro, mecanismos de acción, microbiota y su relación con el comportamiento y regulación sobre probióticos. Se concluyó que existe evidencia que demuestra la relación entre el eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro y varios trastornos neuropsiquiátricos en el ser humano. Además, que la administración de probióticos puede modificar el eje MIC y pueden constituir una alternativa de terapia coadyuvante en estos trastornos del comportamiento.


ABSTRACT Nowadays, the relationship that the intestinal microbiota maintains with various organs and systems of the human body has gained more importance. Especially relevant are the relationships of the microbiota with the Central Nervous System, behavior, and the development and treatment of various diseases. The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the brain is a product of neuroendocrine and neuroimmune stimuli that can act bilaterally, even generating changes in human behavior. Moreover, clinical and paraclinical studies have demonstrated the association between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease or depressive disorder. The objective of this article is to carry out an analysis of the studies concerning the function of the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis, as well as to identify new evidence about the use of probiotics in the adjunctive treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A systematic search of the bibliography was carried out using keywords and MeSH terms and presented in a discussion format according to the subtopics: microbiota-gut-brain axis, mechanisms of action, microbiota, and its relationship with behavior and regulation on probiotics. The conclusion was that the evidence demonstrates the relationship between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and several neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, the administration of probiotics can modify the MGB axis and constitute an alternative for adjuvant therapy in these behavioral disorders.


RESUMO A relação da microbiota intestinal com vários órgãos e sistemas do corpo humano tem se tornado cada vez mais importante. Particularmente importantes são as relações da microbiota com o sistema nervoso central, o comportamento e o desenvolvimento e tratamento de várias doenças. A relação entre a microbiota intestinal e o cérebro ocorre através da atividade de estímulos neuroendócrinos e neuroimunes que podem agir bilateralmente, levando até mesmo a mudanças no comportamento humano. Da mesma forma, estudos clínicos e paraclínicos demonstraram a associação entre o eixo microbiota-cérebro-cérebro e desordens neurológicas, como a doença de Parkinson ou desordem depressiva. O objetivo deste artigo é rever os principais estudos identificados em relação ao papel do eixo microbiota-cérebro-cérebro (MIC) e identificar novas evidências sobre o uso de probióticos no tratamento adjuvante de vários distúrbios neuropsiquiátricos. Uma pesquisa sistemática da literatura foi realizada usando palavras-chave e termos MeSH e apresentada em formato de discussão de acordo com os subtemas: eixo microbiota-cérebro-cérebro, mecanismos de ação, microbiota e sua relação com o comportamento e regulamentação sobre probióticos. Concluiu-se que há evidência de uma relação entre o eixo microbiota-cérebro-cérebro e vários distúrbios neuropsiquiátricos em humanos. Além disso, a administração de probióticos pode modificar o eixo MIC e pode constituir uma terapia adjuvante alternativa nestes distúrbios comportamentais.

2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 192-207, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364363

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Neuropsychiatric disorders are a significant cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms underlying these disorders include a constellation of structural, infectious, immunological, metabolic, and genetic etiologies. Advances in next-generation sequencing techniques have demonstrated that the composition of the enteric microbiome is dynamic and plays a pivotal role in host homeostasis and several diseases. The enteric microbiome acts as a key mediator in neuronal signaling via metabolic, neuroimmune, and neuroendocrine pathways. Objective: In this review, we aim to present and discuss the most current knowledge regarding the putative influence of the gut microbiome in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: We examined some of the preclinical and clinical evidence and therapeutic strategies associated with the manipulation of the gut microbiome. Results: targeted taxa were described and grouped from major studies to each disease. Conclusions: Understanding the complexity of these ecological interactions and their association with susceptibility and progression of acute and chronic disorders could lead to novel diagnostic biomarkers based on molecular targets. Moreover, research on the microbiome can also improve some emerging treatment choices, such as fecal transplantation, personalized probiotics, and dietary interventions, which could be used to reduce the impact of specific neuropsychiatric disorders. We expect that this knowledge will help physicians caring for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos são uma importante causa de morte e invalidez no mundo. Os mecanismos subjacentes a esses transtornos incluem uma constelação de etiologias estruturais, infecciosas, imunológicas, metabólicas e genéticas. Avanços nas técnicas de sequenciamento do DNA têm demonstrado que a composição do microbioma entérico é dinâmica e desempenha um papel fundamental não apenas na homeostase do hospedeiro, mas também em várias doenças. O microbioma entérico atua como mediador na sinalização das vias metabólica, neuroimune e neuroendócrina. Objetivo: Apresentar os estudos mais recentes sobre a possível influência do microbioma intestinal nas diversas doenças neuropsiquiátricas e discutir tanto os resultados quanto a eficácia dos tratamentos que envolvem a manipulação do microbioma intestinal. Métodos: foram examinadas algumas das evidências pré-clínicas e clínicas e estratégias terapêuticas associadas à manipulação do microbioma intestinal. Resultados: os táxons-alvo foram descritos e agrupados a partir dos principais estudos para cada doença. Conclusões: Entender a fundo a complexidade das interações ecológicas no intestino e sua associação com a suscetibilidade a certas doenças agudas e crônicas pode levar ao desenvolvimento de novos biomarcadores diagnósticos com base em alvos moleculares. Além disso, o estudo do microbioma intestinal pode auxiliar na otimização de tratamentos não farmacológicos emergentes, tais como o transplante de microbiota fecal, o uso de probióticos e intervenções nutricionais personalizadas. Dessa forma, terapias alternativas poderiam ser usadas para reduzir o impacto dos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos na saúde pública. Esperamos que esse conhecimento seja útil para médicos que cuidam de pacientes com diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology
3.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2146-2149, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942677

ABSTRACT

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is characterized by changes in the number or species of small intestinal flora. Patients with liver cirrhosis often have intestinal congestion, edema, and delayed peristalsis and develop SIBO, which can further aggravate intestinal abnormalities. In patients with liver cirrhosis, SIBO can lead to significant adverse clinical outcomes, and since the increase in intestinal permeability may cause bacterial translocation into systemic circulation, SIBO is considered an important risk factor in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatic encephalopathy. Antibiotics, especially rifaximin, are the most effective therapies for SIBO, and in addition, studies are being conducted to investigate the efficacy of potential therapies such as prokinetic agents, probiotics, non-selective β-receptor blocker, and liver transplantation.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of oral exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on the composition and structure of human gut microbiota.@*METHODS@#The particle size, shape, crystal shape and degree of agglomeration in ultrapure water of TiO2 NPs were characterized. The in vitro human digestive tract microecological simulation system was established by simulating the fluid environment and physical conditions of stomach, small intestine and colon, and the stability of the simulation system was evaluated. The bacterial communities were extracted from human feces and cultured stably in the simulated system. They were exposed to 0, 20, 100 and 500 mg/L TiO2 NPs, respectively, and the bacterial fluids were collected after 24 h of exposure. The effect of TiO2 NPs on the composition and structure of human gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing technology. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to screen differential bacteria, and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) database for functional prediction.@*RESULTS@#The spherical and anatase TiO2 NPs were (25.12±5.64) nm in particle size, while in ultra-pure water hydrated particle size was (609.43±60.35) nm and Zeta potential was (-8.33±0.22) mV. The in vitro digestive tract microecology simulation system reached a relatively stable state after 24 hours, and the counts of Enterococci, Enterobacte-rium, and Lactobacillus reached (1.6±0.85)×107, (5.6±0.82)×107 and (2.7±1.32)×107, respectively. 16S rRNA sequencing results showed that compared with the control group, the number and evenness of gut microbiota were not significantly affected at phylum, class, order, family and genus levels in TiO2 NPs groups (20, 100 and 500 mg/L). The relative abundance of some species was significantly changed, and a total of 42 different bacteria were screened between the TiO2 NPs groups (20, 100 and 500 mg/L) and the control group [linear discriminant analysis(LDA) score>3], represented by Enterobacter, Bacteroidaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae and Clostridium. Further predictive analysis of gut microbiota function showed that TiO2 NPs might affect oxidative phosphorylation, energy meta-bolism, phosphonate and phosphonate metabolism, and methane metabolism (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In human digestive tract microecological simulation system, TiO2 NPs could significantly change the composition and structure of human gut microbiota, represented by Enterobacter and probiotics, and may further affect a variety of metabolism and function of the body.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Nanoparticles , Organophosphonates/pharmacology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Titanium/pharmacology , Water/pharmacology
5.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 91-99, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933846

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the structure and diversity of intestinal flora in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients, and to explore the correlation of intestinal microorganisms with clinical indicators and renal pathology.Methods:Fifteen IgAN patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College from May 2020 to September 2020 were retrospectively enrolled as IgAN group, and 8 healthy families and 7 health checkups were enrolled as healthy control group. Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was performed for DNA sequencing in the 16S rDNA-V4 region of all bacteria in the feces sample. QIIME 2 was used to process and analyze original sequence, compared with Greengenes (V138) database. The DADA2 software was called to denoise the data, which was equivalent to a 100% similarity cluster (OTU was a 97% similarity cluster). PCoA was used to analyze the structure and diversity of intestinal flora. Spearman correlation or Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation of differential flora with renal pathology and clinical indicators.Results:(1) The intestinal microbial β diversity in IgAN patients was significantly different from that in healthy controls ( P=0.010). (2) Compared with the healthy control group, the numbers of intestinal flora species in IgAN group were significantly increased in 1 phylum, 3 families and 22 genus. At the levels from phylum to family, the species numbers of Firmicutes and Ruminococcaceae in IgAN patients reduced than those in healthy controls and the species numbers of Chloroflexi, Gaiellaceae, Staphylococcaceae and Family-XⅢ in IgAN patients increased than those in healthy controls (all P<0.05). At the genus level, compared with the healthy controls, the species number of Subdoligranulum in IgAN patients was significantly reduced ( P=0.020), and the species number of Ruminococcus- gnavus- group was significantly increased ( P=0.004). (3) At the phylum level of the species number, Firmicutes in IgAN patients was positively correlated to albumin (ALB) ( r=0.637, P=0.037) and IgG ( r=0.452, P=0.046), Gemmatimonadetes was negatively correlated to serum creatinine ( r=-0.453, P=0.045), Verrucomicrobia was negatively correlated to IgM ( r=-0.450, P=0.046), and Patescibacteria was positively correlated to IgA ( r=0.469, P=0.037). At the genus level of the species number, Ruminococcus- gnavus- group ( r=-0.614, P=0.004) and Megamonas ( r=-0.451, P=0.042) were negatively correlated to ALB; Subdoligranulum was positively correlated to ALB ( r=0.563, P=0.009); Dialister was negatively correlated to C3 ( r=-0.427, P=0.041) and was positively correlated to IgA ( r=0.434, P=0.035); Veillonella was positively correlated to estimated glomerular filtration rate ( r=0.452, P=0.043). The species numbers of Eisenbergiella ( r=-0.850, P=0.007), Holdemania ( r=-0.845, P=0.008), Flavonifractor ( r=-0.845, P=0.008), and Ruminiclostridium- 9 ( r=-0.845, P=0.008) were negatively correlated to glomerulosclerosis or adhesion (S) of Oxford classification; the species number of Fusicatenibacter was negatively correlated to mesangial hypercellularity ( r=-0.845, P=0.008); the number of Coprococcus- 2 was positively correlated to S ( r=0.738, P=0.037) and tubular atrophy or interstitial fibrosis ( r=0.756, P=0.030). (4) Random forest model was built with Ruminococcus- gnavus- group and Subdoligranulum, after fitting the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.927. Conclusions:The intestinal flora of IgAN patients is different from that in healthy subjects. Changes of intestinal flora in IgAN patients are related to clinical indicators and renal pathology. In particular, Ruminococcus- gnavus- group and Subdoligranulum may play an important role in IgAN.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932983

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the status and trend of research on the relationship between diabetes and intestinal flora from 2004 to 2021 using bibliometric analysis method.Methods:Research articles related to diabetic intestinal flora from 2004 to 2021 were searched through the Science Web database. The bibliometrics software package used is R-4.0.0. The number of articles published, the country of publication, the research institution, the citation status of the journal, and the keywords were analyzed.Results:A total of 343 papers were published from 2004 to 2021, with an overall increase in the number of papers published. All references were cited 15 794 times in total, with an average of 46.05 citations per article. The literature were published in 32 countries or regions, of which China had the largest number of publications and the United States had the largest number of citations. All the works of literature involved 707 research institutes, of which Copenhagen University published the most. Six of the 10 scientific research institutes with the largest number of published articles were Chinese. All works of literature involved 1 160 keywords, which could be clustered into six categories: intestinal flora, inflammation, microbial flora, diseases, metabolism and weight loss. All the documents were mainly published in 226 journals. Among the 10 documents with the highest citation frequency, there were nine journals in the first layer of the Chinese Academy of Sciences journal classification and four documents with citation frequency greater than 500.Conclusion:The research on intestinal flora of diabetes is in its infancy, but it has developed well. The research mainly focuses on how intestinal flora affects the pathogenesis of diabetes.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929908

ABSTRACT

Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. As the pathway between the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract, brain-gut axis has become one of the research hotspots in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Intestinal flora imbalance may mediate or affect vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, metabolic diseases, and ischemic stroke, and finally accelerate the occurrence and development of VCI. This article reviews the literature on intestinal flora and VCI as well as its main risk factors, in order to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of VCI.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1143-1147, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924795

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus infection and hepatitis C virus infection often progress to end-stage liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which endanger the life of patients. Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota are closely associated with chronic viral liver diseases. This article reviews the association of gut microbiota with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and their related liver diseases and the research advances in therapies targeting gut microbiota against CHB and its related liver diseases, in order to provide more ideas for the clinical treatment of CHB, CHC, and their related liver diseases.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1137-1142, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924794

ABSTRACT

Intestinal flora is closely associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Recent studies have shown that the imbalance of intestinal flora is associated with the development, progression, and prognosis of CHB, and the environment of intestinal flora may also change with disease progression, suggesting that intestinal flora and CHB interact with each other. This article reviews the influence of intestinal flora on the progression of CHB and related liver diseases and the role of intestinal flora regulation in the diagnosis and treatment of CHB and related liver diseases, in order to provide new ideas for the clinical treatment of CHB.

10.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1411-1415, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924724

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a manifestation of multi-system dysfunction involving the liver, ranging from simple hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. An increasing number of studies have shown the importance of the changes in gut microbiota dysbiosis and its metabolites in NAFLD. Tryptophan and its derivatives produced by gut microbiota have the effects on improving intestinal barrier function, regulating abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, and alleviating insulin resistance and inflammatory response. This article reviews gut microbiota, tryptophan and its metabolites, and the effect of their interaction on NAFLD.

11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1280-1287, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924697

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of Liangxue Jiedu decoction on intestinal flora in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). Methods The patients who were hospitalized and diagnosed with HBV-ACLF in Beijing Ditan Hospital from October 2018 to October 2019 were enrolled, and healthy individuals were enrolled as HP group. High-throughput sequencing was used to screen for the differences in bacterial diversity and species between HBV-ACLF patients and healthy individuals, and differentially expressed bacteria between the two groups were screened out at the phylum and genus levels. With the help of in vitro simulated fermentation experiment, fecal samples were collected from the patients with HBV-ACLF and were then cultured in the medium containing different concentrations of Liangxue Jiedu decoction (0, 10%, 50%, and 100%) for 24 hours, and the changes in intestinal flora were analyzed and compared between the HBV-ACLF treatment group, the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group, and the HP group at the genus level. The t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups. Results A total of 10 HBV-ACLF patients were enrolled, with 5 in the HBV-ACLF treatment group and 5 in the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group, and there were 15 individuals in the HP group. Compared with the HP group, the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group had significant reductions in the diversity and abundance of intestinal flora. At the phylum level, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were mainly observed in the samples of the HP group, while the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group had a significant reduction in Bacteroidetes and significant increases in Fusobacteria , Proteobacteria , and Fibrobacteres. At the genus level, compared with the HP group, the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group had significant reductions in Ruminococcus, Blautia , and Eubacterium and significant increases in Parabacteroides, Lactobacillus, Fusobacterium , and Streptococcus . The in vitro fermentation experiment showed that compared with the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group, the HBV-ACLF treatment group had significant increases in Ruminococcus, Lachnospira, Bacteroides , and Genusgenus and significant reductions in Fusobacterium and Proteobacteria (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Liangxue Jiedu decoction can regulate intestinal flora disturbance, restore the diversity of intestinal flora, increase dominant bacteria, and reduce pathogenic bacteria, which may be one of its important mechanisms of action in the treatment of HBV-ACLF.

12.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 947-950, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923315

ABSTRACT

Gallstone is a common digestive system disease involving multiple factors, more than 80% of which are cholesterol gallstones, and its incidence rate is increasing year by year. Recent studies have shown that intestinal flora is involved in the development and progression of cholesterol gallstones. This article elaborates on the role of intestinal flora and its metabolites in the progression of cholesterol gallstones from the aspect of regulation of bile acids by intestinal flora and its metabolites, and it is pointed out that intervention strategies for intestinal flora and its metabolites may be a new target for the prevention and treatment of cholesterol gallstones in the future.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 699-702, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922984

ABSTRACT

Intestinal flora imbalance plays a certain role in the development and progression of liver cancer, while probiotics have a certain impact on liver cancer, both of which are the focus of clinical research. This article introduces the mechanism of action of intestinal flora imbalance in the pathogenesis of liver cancer and the preventive effect of probiotics against liver cancer. Intestinal flora imbalance can participate in the pathological process of liver cancer by activating Toll-like receptor 4, regulating the level of metabolites, producing endotoxin, and inducing bacterial translocation and intestinal bacterial overgrowth, while probiotics can effectively prevent liver cancer by maintaining enterohepatic circulation, enhancing immune function, promoting the reproduction of intestinal probiotics, and reducing the toxicity of carcinogens, which can be further studied as the focus of subsequent liver cancer prevention in clinical practice.

14.
Clinics ; 77: 100101, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404303

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The increase in the incidence of pancreatic and biliary cancers has attracted the search for methods of early detection of diseases and biomarkers. The authors propose to analyze new findings on the association between microbiota and Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) or Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Methods: This systematic review was carried out according to the items of Preferred Reports for Systematic Reviews and Protocol Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-P). This study was registered by the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), identification code CRD42020192748 before the review was carried out. Articles were selected from the PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Results: Most studies (86.67%) used 16s rRNA as a sequencing method. The main comorbidities found were diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Many studies were limited by the small number of participants, but the biases were mostly low. There was very little concordance about the composition of the microbiome of different sites, for both case and control groups when compared to other studies' results. Bile sample analysis was the one with a greater agreement between studies, as three out of four studies found Escherichia in cases of CCA. Conclusion: There was great disagreement in the characterization of both the microbiota of cases and control groups. Studies are still scarce, making it difficult to adequately assess the data in this regard. It was not possible to specify any marker or to associate any genus of microbiota bacteria with PDAC or CCA.

15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(3): 504-530, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345400

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Los edulcorantes son aditivos que se consumen en los alimentos. Pueden ser naturales (sacarosa y estevia) o artificiales (sucralosa). Actualmente, se consumen rutinariamente en múltiples productos, y sus efectos en la mucosa y la microbiota del intestino delgado aún son controversiales. Objetivo. Relacionar el consumo de edulcorantes y su efecto en el sistema inmunitario y la microbiota del intestino delgado en ratones CD1. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 54 ratones CD1 de tres semanas de edad divididos en tres grupos: un grupo de tres semanas sin tratamiento, un grupo tratado durante seis semanas y un grupo tratado durante 12 semanas. Se les administró sacarosa, sucralosa y estevia. A partir del intestino delgado, se obtuvieron linfocitos B CD19+ y células IgA+, TGF-ß (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) o el factor de crecimiento transformador beta (TGF-beta), IL-12 e IL-17 de las placas de Peyer y de la lámina propia. De los sólidos intestinales se obtuvo el ADN para identificar las especies bacterianas. Resultados. Después del consumo de sacarosa y sucralosa durante 12 semanas, se redujeron las comunidades bacterianas, la IgA+ y el TGF-beta, se aumentó el CD19+, y además, se incrementaron la IL-12 y la IL-17 en las placas de Peyer; en la lámina propia, aumentaron todos estos valores. En cambio, con la estevia mejoraron la diversidad bacteriana y el porcentaje de linfocitos CD19+, y hubo poco incremento de IgA+, TGF-ß e IL-17, pero con disminución de la IL-17. Conclusión. La sacarosa y la sucralosa alteraron negativamente la diversidad bacteriana y los parámetros inmunitarios después de 12 semanas, en contraste con la estevia que resultó benéfica para la mucosa intestinal.


Abstract Introduction: Sweeteners are additives used in different foods. They can be natural (sucrose and stevia) or artificial (sucralose). Currently, they are routinely consumed in multiple products and their effects on the mucosa of the small intestine and its microbiota are still controversial. Objective: To relate the consumption of sweeteners and their effect on the immune system and the microbiota of the small intestine in CD1 mice. Materials and methods: We used 54 three-week-old CD1 mice divided into three groups in the experiments: 1) A group of three weeks without treatment, 2) a group treated for six weeks, and 3) a group treated for 12 weeks using sucrose, sucralose, and stevia. We obtained CD19+ B lymphocytes, IgA+ antibodies, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b), and interleukins 12 and 17 (IL-12 and -17) from Peyer's patches and lamina propria cells while DNA was obtained from intestinal solids to identify bacterial species. Results: After 12 weeks, sucrose and sucralose consumption caused a reduction in bacterial communities with an increase in CD19+, a decrease in IgA+ and TGF-b, and an increase in IL-12 and -17 in the Peyer's patches while in the lamina propria there was an increase in all parameters. In contrast, stevia led to an improvement in bacterial diversity and percentage of CD19+ lymphocytes with minimal increase in IgA+, TGF-b, and IL-12, and a decrease in IL-17. Conclusion: Sucrose and sucralose caused negative alterations in bacterial diversity and immune parameters after 12 weeks; in contrast, stevia was beneficial for the intestinal mucosa.


Subject(s)
Sweetening Agents , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Sucrose , Stevia , Intestine, Small
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(4)abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389496

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of hepatic pathologies ranging from simple steatosis (SS) to hepatocellular carcinoma. Intestinal microbiota (IM) is composed of trillions of microorganisms existing in the gut. It has 150 times more genes than the host. Changes in the composition and function of the IM are associated with different diseases, including NAFLD. In this condition, IM could have a pathogenic role through different mechanisms such as energy salvaging from food, an inflammatory stimulus, a modulation of the innate immune system, regulation of bile acid turnover, alteration of choline metabolism and increasing endogenous ethanol levels. This review is an update on the role of the intestinal microbiota in NAFLD and the possible mechanisms involved.

17.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1379-1385, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877329

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on mice with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and its effect on intestinal flora. MethodsA total of 40 mice were randomly divided into control group (CON group), model group (MOD group), FMT group (feces of the mice in the CON group were used as fecal microbiota donor), and FMT model group (ANFMT group, with feces of the mice in the MOD group as fecal microbiota donor), with 10 mice in each group. All mice were observed in terms of body weight, death, liver histopathology, and changes in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and intestinal flora. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between multiple groups, and the SNK-q test was used for further comparison between two groups. ResultsCompared with the CON group, the MOD group had a significant reduction in body weight and significant increases in AST and ALT (all P<0.05), as well as large patchy necrosis of hepatocytes, significant increases in Verrucomicrobia, Akkermansia, and Erysipelatoclostridium, and significant reductions in Dubosiella and Duncaniella (all P<0.05). Compared with the CON group, the ANFMT group had a significant increase in AST (P<0.05), hepatocyte swelling and mild ballooning degeneration, significant increases in Unclassified and Faecalibaculum, and significant reductions in Patescibacteria, Deferribacteres, Muribaculum, Candidatus_Saccharimonas, Rikenella, Odoribacter, Mucispirillum, and Lachnospiraceae_unclassified (all P<0.05). Compared with the MOD group, the FMT group had significant reductions in AST and ALT (both P<0.05), mild hepatocellular necrosis and marked ballooning degeneration, significant increases in Paramuribaculum and Bilophila, and significant reductions in Firmicutes, Rikenella, and Absiella (all P<0.05). ConclusionIntestinal flora disturbance is observed in ACLF mice, and dysbacteriosis may lead to liver injury. FMT can alleviate liver inflammation in ACLF mice and thus exert a protective effect.

18.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 690-694, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873818

ABSTRACT

Bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota, and bile acid receptors are involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There are substantial increases in the levels of some bile acids, such as glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, in the liver tissue of HCC mice and the serum and feces of HCC patients. Bile acid metabolism due to the imbalance of the abundance of bacteria producing bile salt hydrolases and Clostridium in the intestine and the change in immune microenvironment may also promote the development of HCC. Moreover, some bile acid receptors, such as farnesoid X receptor, G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2, have been shown to participate in the development and progression of HCC through various pathways. Each link of bile acid metabolism plays a different role in the progression of HCC, and a systematic elaboration of the interaction between these links may help to deepen the understanding of the pathogenesis of HCC and develop the biological targets for early diagnosis, prognosis prediction, and precise treatment.

19.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 480-484, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873426

ABSTRACT

Liver failure is a common critical medical disease, and extensive liver cell necrosis within a short period of time exceeds the regeneration capacity of liver cells and thus results in an extremely high fatality rate. Promotion of effective liver regeneration is the key to antagonizing liver failure. Recent studies have shown that bile acid, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and intestinal microecology play an important role in liver failure and liver regeneration. This article reviews the association between bile acid, FXR, and intestinal microecology and their role in liver failure and liver regeneration, so as to provide new ideas for the treatment of liver failure in clinical practice.

20.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 425-428, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873415

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common serious complication of end-stage liver disease. Intestinal microecology is closely associated with the development, progression, and prognosis of SBP, and bacterial translocation is the key pathogenesis of SBP. This article summarizes the intestinal microecology in patients with liver cirrhosis and briefly describes the mechanism of action of intestinal flora in the development and progression of SBP, thus providing a theoretical basis for the clinical regulation of intestinal microecology and treatment of SBP.

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