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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 50(1): e501, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360953

ABSTRACT

Abstract Severe asthma affects more than 250 million people and represents high healthcare costs. Bronchial thermoplasty is a relatively new technique in interventional pulmonology for managing this condition. The procedure is done under general anesthesia and the patients are mostly ASA II and III; therefore, the anesthesia plan must be safe. The purpose of the article is to describe the anesthetic technique used (general anesthesia and laryngeal mask) and the immediate and early complications of the procedure. Four patients were included, each undergoing three sessions. The complications during and immediately after the procedure, as well as the early complications (up to seven days post-procedure) that could have required hospital management were discussed. In three of the sessions at least one acute bronchospasm event presented, but only one patient required hospital admission for more than 24 hours. Experience suggests that thermoplasty may be safely conducted under general anesthesia and laryngeal mask.


Resumen El asma grave afecta a más de 250 millones de personas y genera altos costos en el sistema de salud. La termoplastia bronquial es una técnica relativamente novedosa de la neumología intervencionista para el manejo de esta condición. Este procedimiento se realiza bajo anestesia general, y los pacientes son en su mayoría ASA II y III, por lo que el plan anestésico debe ser seguro. El objetivo del artículo es describir la técnica anestésica utilizada (anestesia general y máscara laríngea) y las complicaciones inmediatas y tempranas del procedimiento. Se incluyeron cuatro pacientes, cada uno de los cuales fue sometido a tres sesiones. Se describieron las complicaciones durante e inmediatamente después del procedimiento y las complicaciones tempranas (hasta siete días posprocedimiento), que hubieran requerido manejo hospitalario. En tres de las sesiones se presentó al menos un evento agudo de broncoespasmo y solo un paciente requirió hospitalización mayor a 24 horas. La experiencia sugiere que la termoplastia puede ser llevada a cabo de manera segura bajo anestesia general y mascara laríngea.

2.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e784, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351980

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El efecto del sulfato de magnesio como adyuvante de la analgesia en la práctica de diferentes intervenciones quirúrgicas es un tema en debate y estudio constante con el fin de probar su eficacia y seguridad en la mejora de la evolución posoperatoria de los pacientes. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del sulfato de magnesio como ahorrador de opioides en la anestesia general de pacientes intervenidos por cirugía mayor abdominal. Métodos: Estudio cuasiexperimental, prospectivo, longitudinal realizado en 44 pacientes del Hospital Universitario "General Calixto García", desde diciembre de 2019 hasta diciembre de 2020. Se crearon dos grupos, un grupo estudio (sulfato de magnesio) y otro control. Se evaluó la analgesia intraoperatoria y posoperatoria, el consumo intraoperatorio de fentanil, la necesidad de analgesia de rescate y las complicaciones perioperatorias. Resultados: En los pacientes que se les administró el sulfato de magnesio la tensión arterial media, la frecuencia cardiaca y el índice de shock tuvieron una tendencia a mantenerse por debajo de la media global. El índice de perfusión aumentó y se mantuvo con esa tendencia y tuvieron un menor consumo de fentanil. Conclusiones: La administración de sulfato de magnesio como adyuvante de la anestesia general en pacientes intervenidos por cirugía abdominal mayor electiva, resultó efectiva y segura, pues brindó mayor analgesia perioperatoria, estabilidad hemodinámica, menor consumo de opioides intraoperatorio y menor rescate analgésico posoperatorio que cuando no se usó. La incidencia de complicaciones fue baja y sin repercusión clínica(AU)


Introduction: The effect of magnesium sulfate as an adjunct to analgesia during different surgical interventions is a subject under constant debate and study, with respect to showing its efficacy and safety in improving the postoperative evolution of patients. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of magnesium sulfate as an opioid sparer in general anesthesia with patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Methods: Quasiexperimental, prospective and longitudinal study carried out, from December 2019 to December 2020, with 44 patients from General Calixto García University Hospital. Two groups were created: a study group (magnesium sulfate) and a control group. Intraoperative and postoperative analgesia, intraoperative fentanyl consumption, requirement of salvage analgesia, as well as perioperative complications were evaluated. Results: In the patients who were administered magnesium sulfate, mean arterial pressure, heart rate and shock index tended to remain below the global mean. The perfusion index increased and maintained this trend, while they had a lower consumption of fentanyl. Conclusions: The administration of magnesium sulfate as an adjunct to general anesthesia in patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery was effective and safe, as it provided greater perioperative analgesia, hemodynamic stability, less intraoperative opioid consumption and less postoperative analgesic rescue than in the control group. The incidence of complications was low and without clinical repercussions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia, General , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Perfusion Index/methods
3.
Medisan ; 25(6)2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1356478

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un adolescente de 18 años de edad, con antecedente de salud aparente, atendido en el cuerpo de guardia del Hospital General Docente Roberto Rodríguez Fernández de Morón, provincia de Ciego de Ávila, con síntomas sugestivos de apendicitis aguda, por lo que fue intervenido quirúrgicamente. Una vez terminado el proceder tuvo parada cardíaca, lo cual se interpretó como un síndrome por propofol. Se decidió transferirlo a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde fue evolucionando favorablemente, con mejoría de todos los parámetros. A los 6 días lo trasladaron a la Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios y posteriormente egresó de la institución hospitalaria sin complicaciones.


The case report of an 18 years adolescent with history of apparent health is described. He was assisted in the emergency service of Roberto Rodríguez Fernández Teaching General Hospital from Morón, Ciego de Ávila, with suggestive symptoms of acute appendicitis, reason why he was surgically intervened. Once finished the procedure he had a cardiac arrest, which was interpreted as a syndrome due to propofol. It was decided to referred him to the Intensive Cares Unit, where he had a favorable clinical course, with improvement of all parameters. Six days later he was transferred to the Intermediate Cares Unit and later on he was discharged from the hospital institution without complications.


Subject(s)
Propofol , Propofol Infusion Syndrome , Anesthesia, General , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Adolescent
4.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e201, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341237

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Prostatectomy is the standard treatment for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Currently, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is widely used for its advantages, as it provides better visualization, precision, and reduced tissue manipulation. However, RARP requires a multidisciplinary approach in which anesthesia and analgesia management are especially important. Objective This study aims to describe our experience delivering anesthesia for the first cases of patients undergoing RARP in a teaching hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Methodology An observational study was conducted. We included all patients undergoing RARP from September 2015 to December 2019 at Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá. All patients with incomplete data were excluded. Patient demographics were recorded, and significant perioperative events were reviewed. Results A total of 301 patients were included. At our institution, the mean age for patients undergoing RARP was 61.4 ± 6.7 years. The mean operative time was 205 ± 43 min and mean blood loss was 300 [200400] mL. Only 6 (2%) patients required transfusion. Age and BMI were not associated with clinical outcomes. Conclusions An adequate perioperative approach in RARP is important to minimize complications, which in this study and in this institution were infrequent.


Resumen Introducción La prostatectomía es el tratamiento estándar para pacientes con cáncer de próstata localizado. Actualmente, la prostatectomía radical asistida por robot es ampliamente utilizada por sus ventajas en visualización, precisión y manipulación de los tejidos. Sin embargo, este abordaje requiere un manejo multidisciplinario, pues el enfoque analgésico y anestésico es fundamental para optimizar los desenlaces. Objetivo Describir los primeros casos de prostatectomía radical asistida por robot realizadas en un hospital universitario de cuarto nivel en Bogotá, Colombia. Metodología Estudio observacional en el cual se incluyeron todos los pacientes sometidos a prostatectomía radical asistida por robot (PRAR) en el hospital Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá entre septiembre de 2015 y diciembre de 2019. Se excluyeron los pacientes con historia clínica incompleta. Se registraron los datos demográficos y se revisaron los eventos perioperatorios importantes. Resultados Se analizaron 301 pacientes. La edad media de pacientes sometidos a PRAR fue 61,4 ± 6,7 años. El tiempo quirúrgico promedio fue 205 ± 43 minutos y la pérdida sanguínea media fue 300 [200-400] mL. Solo 6 pacientes (2 %) requirieron transfusión. La edad y el IMC no mostraron una asociación relevante con los desenlaces clínicos. Conclusiones El adecuado abordaje perioperatorio en PRAR es importante para minimizar las complicaciones, las cuales en este estudio y en esta institución fueron infrecuentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatectomy , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia, General , Prostatic Neoplasms , Observational Studies as Topic , Analgesia
5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 600-615, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357197

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O manejo cardíaco, ventilatório e renal no ambiente de terapia intensiva tem melhorado nas últimas décadas. Cognição e sedação representam dois dos últimos desafios a vencer. Como a sedação convencional não é ideal, e a sedação evocada por agonistas adrenérgicos alfa-2 (sedação "cooperativa" com dexmedetomidina, clonidina ou guanfacina) representa uma alternativa valiosa, este artigo abrange três tópicos práticos para os quais há lacunas na medicina baseada em evidência. O primeiro deles é a mudança de sedação convencional para sedação cooperativa ("mudança"): a resposta curta consiste em retirada abrupta de sedação convencional, implantação imediata de infusão de um agonista alfa-2 e uso de "sedação de resgate" (bolos de midazolam) ou "sedação agressiva" (haloperidol em bolos) para estabilizar a sedação cooperativa. O segundo tópico é a mudança de sedação convencional para sedação cooperativa em pacientes instáveis (por exemplo: delirium tremens refratário, choque séptico, síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo etc.), pois, para evitar a hipotensão e a bradicardia provocadas por desativadores simpáticos, a resposta curta é manter o volume sistólico por administração de volume, vasopressores e inotrópicos. Por fim, para evitar essas mudanças e dificuldades associadas, os agonistas alfa-2 podem ser sedativos de primeira linha. A resposta curta é administrar agonistas alfa-2 lentamente desde a admissão ou intubação endotraqueal, até estabilização da sedação cooperativa. Dessa forma, conclui-se que os agonistas alfa-2 são, ao mesmo tempo, agentes desativadores simpáticos e sedativos, bem como a desativação simpática implica na manutenção do volume sistólico e na avaliação persistente da volemia. A medicina baseada em evidência deve documentar esta proposta.


ABSTRACT Cardiac, ventilatory and kidney management in the critical care setting has been optimized over the past decades. Cognition and sedation represent one of the last remaning challenges. As conventional sedation is suboptimal and as the sedation evoked by alpha-2 adrenergic agonists ("cooperative" sedation with dexmedetomidine, clonidine or guanfacine) represents a valuable alternative, this manuscript covers three practical topics for which evidence-based medicine is lacking: a) Switching from conventional to cooperative sedation ("switching"): the short answer is the abrupt withdrawal of conventional sedation, immediate implementation of alpha-2 agonist infusion and the use of "rescue sedation" (midazolam bolus[es]) or "breakthrough sedation" (haloperidol bolus[es]) to stabilize cooperative sedation. b) Switching from conventional to cooperative sedation in unstable patients (e.g., refractory delirium tremens, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, etc.): to avoid hypotension and bradycardia evoked by sympathetic deactivation, the short answer is to maintain the stroke volume through volume loading, vasopressors and inotropes. c) To avoid these switches and associated difficulties, alpha-2 agonists may be considered first-line sedatives. The short answer is to administer alpha-2 agonists slowly from admission or endotracheal intubation up to stabilized cooperative sedation. The "take home" message is as follows: a) alpha-2 agonists are jointly sympathetic deactivators and sedative agents; b) sympathetic deactivation implies maintaining the stroke volume and iterative assessment of volemia. Evidence-based medicine should document our propositions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clonidine , Dexmedetomidine , Critical Care , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists , Hypnotics and Sedatives
6.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 72(3): 258-270, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351951

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir las características clínicas y la frecuencia de complicaciones maternas, fetales y neonatales, según técnica de anestesia neuroaxial (AN) en mujeres con síndrome de transfusión feto-fetal (STFF) tratadas con fotocoagulación láser (FL). Materiales y métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectiva descriptivo. Se incluyeron gestantes con STFF tratadas con FL y AN en la Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali (Colombia) entre 2013-2017. Se excluyeron pacientes con STFF estadio-V de Quintero. Se usó estadística descriptiva. El protocolo fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética de la institución. Resultados: 32 participantes cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y de exclusión. La población estuvo constituida por mujeres jóvenes, multíparas. En el 87,5% de los casos se realizó intervención de urgencia. El 43,7% presentaba el estadio-III de Quintero y en el 56,2 % de las gestantes se utilizó anestesia epidural. Las variables hemodinámicas maternas exhibieron un comportamiento similar, acorde al momento de la cirugía y la técnica neuoraxial implementada. El 65,6 % de las gestantes presentó hipotensión sostenida y el 9,3 % desarrolló edema pulmonar. El 65,6 % de las pacientes experimentó parto pretérmino y el 18,7 % ruptura prematura de membranas. Se registraron 14 muertes fetales y cinco neonatales. No se registraron casos de mortalidad materna. Conclusiones: en pacientes con STFF que requieren FL, el uso de la anestesia epidural, espinal o combinada probablemente se asocia con un comportamiento similar al de las variables hemodinámicas maternas, durante los momentos de la cirugía. Los profesionales que brindan atención a estas gestantes deben estar alerta ante la frecuente aparición de complicaciones maternas, fetales y neonatales. Se requieren estudios prospectivos que evalúen la seguridad y la efectividad de las diferentes técnicas de anestesia neuroaxial en pacientes con STFF.


Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and the frequency of maternal, fetal and neonatal complications in accordance with the neuraxial anesthesia (NA) technique in women with twin-to- twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) treated with laser photocoagulation. Materials and Methods: Descriptive retrospective cohort study of pregnant patients with TTTS treated with laser photocoagulation under NA at Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali (Colombia), between 2013-2017. Patients with Quintero stage VTTTS were excluded. The protocol was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: Of the participants, 32 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study population consisted of young, multiparous women. Urgent interventions were performed in 87.5% of cases; 43.7% were Quintero stage III and epidural anesthesia was used in 56.2% of the women. Maternal hemodynamic variables were similar, in accordance with the timing of surgery and the neuraxial technique used. Sustained hypotension occurred in 65.6% of the pregnant women and 9.3% developed pulmonary edema. Pre-term delivery occurred in 65.6% of the patients and 18.7% had premature rupture of membranes. There were 14 fetal demises and five neonatal deaths. There were no cases of maternal mortality. Conclusions: In patients with TTTS requiring laser photocoagulation, the use of epidural, spinal or combined anesthesia is likely associated with similar maternal hemodynamic variables at the time of surgery. Practitioners providing care to these pregnant women must be aware of the frequent occurrence of maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Prospective studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the different neuraxial anesthesia techniques in patients with TTTS are required.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Fetofetal Transfusion , Pregnancy, Twin , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthesia, Spinal , Safety , Syndrome , Laser Coagulation , Fetoscopy , Anesthesia
7.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e201, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251498

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The analysis of the electrical activity of the brain using scalp electrodes with electroencephalography (EEG) could reveal the depth of anesthesia of a patient during surgery. However, conventional EEG equipment, due to its price and size, are not a practical option for the operating room and the commercial units used in surgery do not provide access to the electrical activity. The availability of low-cost portable technologies could provide for further research on the brain activity under general anesthesia and facilitate our quest for new markers of depth of anesthesia. Objective To assess the capabilities of a portable EEG technology to capture brain rhythms associated with the state of consciousness and the general anesthesia status of surgical patients anesthetized with propofol. Methods Observational, cross-sectional study that reviewed 10 EEG recordings captured using OpenBCI portable low-cost technology, in female patients undergoing general anesthesia with propofol. The signal from the frontal electrodes was analyzed with spectral analysis and the results were compared against the reports in the literature. Results The signal captured with frontal electrodes, particularly α rhythm, enabled the distinction between resting with eyes closed and with eyes opened in a conscious state, and sustained anesthesia during surgery. Conclusions It is possible to differentiate a resting state from sustained anesthesia, replicating previous findings with conventional technologies. These results pave the way to the use of portable technologies such as the OpenBCI tool, to explore the brain dynamics during anesthesia.


Resumen Introducción El análisis de la actividad eléctrica cerebral mediante electrodos ubicados sobre el cuero cabelludo con electroencefalografía (EEG) podría permitir conocer la profundidad anestésica de un paciente durante cirugía. Sin embargo, los equipos de EEG convencionales, por su precio y tamaño, no son una alternativa práctica en quirófanos y los equipos comerciales usados en cirugía no permiten acceder a la actividad eléctrica. Disponer de tecnologías portables y de bajo costo aumentaría el número de investigaciones sobre la actividad cerebral bajo anestesia general y facilitaría la búsqueda de nuevos marcadores para la profundidad anestésica. Objetivo Evaluar la capacidad de una tecnología EEG portable de adquirir ritmos cerebrales relacionados con el estado consciente y el estado de anestesia general de pacientes en cirugía anestesiados con propofol. Métodos Estudio observacional de corte transversal en el que se analizaron datos de 10 registros EEG obtenidos mediante tecnología portable y de bajo costo OpenBCI, de pacientes de sexo femenino que fueron sometidas a anestesia general con propofol. La señal obtenida de los electrodos frontales se analizó mediante análisis espectral y se contrastaron los resultados con lo descrito en la literatura. Resultados La señal obtenida con electrodos frontales, especialmente el ritmo α, permitió diferenciar el reposo con ojos cerrados y ojos abiertos en estado consciente, del estado de mantenimiento de la anestesia durante cirugía. Conclusiones Se logra la diferenciación de estado de reposo y de mantenimiento de la anestesia replicando hallazgos previos de tecnologías convencionales. Estos resultados abren la posibilidad de utilizar las tecnologías portables como el OpenBCI para investigar la dinámica cerebral durante la anestesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spectrum Analysis , Technology , Electroencephalography , Anesthesia, General , Brain Mapping , Propofol , Observational Studies as Topic
8.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 44(1): 103-107, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286582

ABSTRACT

El taponamiento cardiaco es la acumulación de líquido dentro del saco pericárdico, lo que conlleva a un aumento de la presión intrapericardica, permitiendo el deterioro de la capacidad del corazón para llenarse y actuar como bomba. Entre sus causas tenemos a la tuberculosis, las colagenopatías, y el cáncer. En el embarazo se pueden enmascarar los signos y síntomas del taponamiento cardiaco por los cambios fisiológicos propios del embarazo. El Gold estándar para su detección es la ecocardiografía. El tratamiento del taponamiento cardiaco es la pericardiocentesis o el drenaje quirúrgico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 26 años con: embarazo de 32,6 semanas, trabajo de parto pretérmino, taponamiento cardiaco y post pericardiocentesis de 2 horas, para culminación de embarazo. El manejo anestésico es complejo tanto para la madre y el recién nacido, basándose en mantener estabilidad hemodinámica y posterior traslado a unidad de terapia intensiva.


Cardiac tamponade is the accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac, which leads to an increase in intrapericardial pressure, allowing the deterioration of the heart's ability to fill and act as a pump. Among its causes are tuberculosis, collagen disease, and cancer. In pregnancy, the signs and symptoms of cardiac tamponade can be masked by the physiological changes of pregnancy. The gold standard of detection is echocardiography. Treatment of cardiac tamponade is pericardiocentesis or surgical. The case of a 26-year-old patient is presented with: a 32.6 for week pregnancy in preterm labor, cardiac tamponade and 2-hour post-pericardiocentesis, for culminate of pregnancy. Anesthetic management is complex for both the mother and the newborn, basing on maintaining hemodynamic stability and subsequent transfer to the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Tamponade
9.
Multimed (Granma) ; 25(3): e1293, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287419

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la cirugía en pacientes con síndrome de Down y tetralogía de Fallot no reparada es infrecuente, pero en ocasiones el anestesiólogo debe prestar servicio a estos pacientes para cirugías de urgencia no cardiaca. Presentación de caso: paciente blanco, masculino, 36 años de edad, con antecedentes de síndrome de Down y tetralogía de Fallot no reparada, con dolor abdominal de tres días de evolución en epigastrio e irradiación a fosa ilíaca derecha, sin alivio al reposo ni a la administración de analgésicos; acompañado de náuseas, vómitos y síntomas catarrales. Discusión: fue valorado por cirugía y se diagnosticó abdomen agudo quirúrgico por posible apendicitis aguda y mediante anestesia general orotraqueal fue intervenido con resultados favorables. Conclusiones: la administración de anestesia general en la conducción anestesiológica del paciente con síndrome de Down y tetralogía de Fallot no reparada para cirugía abdominal urgente, permite resultados satisfactorios durante el proceder.


ABSTRACT Introduction: surgery in patients with Down syndrome and unrepaired tetralogy of Fallot is infrequent, but sometimes the anesthesiologist must provide services to these patients for non-cardiac emergency surgeries. Case presentation: white male patient, 36 years old, with a history of Down syndrome and unrepaired Fallot's tetralogy, with abdominal pain of three days of evolution in the epigastrium and irradiation to the right iliac fossa, without relief at rest or at rest. administration of analgesics; accompanied by nausea, vomiting and catarrhal symptoms. Discussion: it was evaluated by surgery and an acute surgical abdomen was diagnosed for possible acute appendicitis and under general or tracheal anesthesia it was operated with favorable results. Conclusions: the administration of general anesthesia in the anesthesiological conduction of the patient with Down syndrome and unrepaired tetralogy of Fallot for urgent abdominal surgery allows satisfactory results during the procedure.


RESUMO Introdução: a cirurgia em pacientes com síndrome de Down e tetralogia de Fallot não reparada é pouco frequente, mas às vezes o anestesiologista deve fornecer serviços a esses pacientes para cirurgias de emergência não cardíaca. Apresentação do caso: paciente branco do sexo masculino, 36 anos, com história de síndrome de Down e tetralogia de Fallot não corrigida, com dor abdominal de três dias de evolução em epigástrio e irradiação para fossa ilíaca direita, sem alívio em repouso ou na administração de analgésicos; acompanhada de náuseas, vômitos e sintomas catarrais. Discussão: foi avaliado cirurgicamente e diagnosticado abdome cirúrgico agudo para possível apendicite aguda e sob anestesia geral orotraqueal operado com resultados favoráveis. Conclusões: a administração de anestesia geral na condução anestesiológica do paciente com síndrome de Down e tetralogia de Fallot não reparada para cirurgia abdominal de urgência permite resultados satisfatórios durante o procedimento.

10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 631-638, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278371

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine changes on intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil diameter (PD) in healthy cats anesthetized with isoflurane, and premedicated with acepromazine alone or in combination with tramadol. Thirty cats were allocated in two groups (n=15/each) and were treated with acepromazine (AG) or acepromazine/tramadol (ATG). PD and IOP were assessed before and following 30 (PM1), and 40 minutes (PM2) of treatments. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, and IOP and DP were recorded (A10) at 10 minute intervals until the end of anesthesia (A40). IOP decreased in AG and ATG, when comparing baseline with PM1. IOP decreased only in AG, in comparisons between baseline and PM2. During anesthesia, IOP did not change within and between groups. Comparisons between baseline with those recorded at PM1 and 2 showed that PD increased in the ATG. During anesthesia, PD decreased significantly in AG and ATG. Both protocols maintained the IOP within the reference range to perform corneal or intraocular surgery in healthy cats but did not sustain pre-anesthetic pupil dilation observed in ATG.(AU)


O objetivo do presente artigo é determinar possíveis alterações na pressão intraocular (PIO) e no diâmetro pupilar (DP) em gatos saudáveis anestesiados com isoflurano e pré-medicados com acepromazina isolada ou em combinação com acepromazina/tramadol. Trinta gatos saudáveis foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos (n=15/cada) e tratados com acepromazina (GA) ou acepromazina/tramadol (GAT). DP e PIO foram avaliadas antes (basal) e após 30 (PM1) e 40 minutos (PM2) dos tratamentos. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol, e a PIO e o DP foram registrados (A10) a cada 10 minutos até o final da anestesia com isoflurano (A40). Ao se compararem os valores obtidos no basal com PM1, a PIO diminuiu em GA e GAT; com PM2, a PIO reduziu apenas no GA. Durante a anestesia, a PIO não diferiu dentro e entre os grupos. Comparações entre os valores basais e os registrados em PM1 e em PM2 mostraram que a DP aumentou significativamente no GAT. Durante a anestesia, o DP diminuiu significativamente em GA e GAT. Ambos os protocolos mantêm a PIO dentro dos valores de referência para realizar cirurgias corneanas ou intraoculares em gatos saudáveis, mas não sustentam a dilatação pupilar pré-anestésica observada em GAT.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Mydriasis/veterinary , Pupil/drug effects , Intraocular Pressure , Isoflurane/adverse effects , Acepromazine/administration & dosage , Tonometry, Ocular/veterinary , Anesthetics, General/administration & dosage
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of general anesthesia on postoperative melatonin secretion in 4-to 6-year-old children with snoring.@*METHODS@#Twenty children with snoring aged 4-6 years of either gender (ASA grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ) were selected for adenoidectomy.Before, during and 3 days after the operation, salivary melatonin levels of the children were measured at 11 selected time points (T1-T11).The illumination intensity and body temperature of the children were recorded at each time point of measurement.The sleep time of the children in 3 days after the operation was recorded, and postoperative pain scores (FLACC) and Riker and Rehabilitation Quality Rating Scale-15(QoR-15) scores were assessed.Sleep Apnea Life Quality Evaluation Questionnaire (OSA-18) was used to evaluate postoperative recovery of the children at 28 days after the operation.The incidence of major adverse events of the children during hospitalization was recorded.@*RESULTS@#No significant difference was found in baseline salivary melatonin level among the 20 children before the operation.Salivary melatonin level at 7 am after the operation (T8) was significantly lowered as compared with that before the surgery (T4)(@*CONCLUSIONS@#In preschool children with snoring, general anesthesia affects but does not inhibit melatonin secretion on the first night after surgery, and minor surgeries under general anesthesia in the morning do not cause significant changes in melatonin secretion to cause disturbance of the circadian rhythm in these children.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Bodily Secretions , Child , Child, Preschool , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Melatonin , Snoring
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the efficacy and health economics of the comprehensive therapy for the children with severe early child caries (S-ECC) under dental general anesthesia (DGA) and conventional outpatient treatment to provide references for dentists and parents in the choice of clinical treatment.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted on S-ECC children aged 36-71 months and who received dental treatment under general anesthesia or routine outpatient situation. The filled tooth survival rate, treatment cost, and cost-filled tooth survival time of the two groups were compared, and the curative effect and health economics was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#The filled tooth survival rate of the DGA group was higher than that of the routine outpatient group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with the conventional outpatient treatment group, the treatment outcomes of S-ECC under general anesthesia were better, and the costs were higher. However, no significant difference was observed in the total medical cost-filled tooth survival time between these two groups, and the conventional outpatient treatment did not have evident economic advantages.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Dental , Anesthesia, General , Child , Dental Care , Dental Caries , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Humans , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873542

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To investigate the safety and feasibility of laryngeal mask general anesthesia as a replacement of tracheal intubation general anesthesia in the "three-port" thoracoscopic thymectomy via subxiphoid and subcostal arch for thymoma patients without myasthenia. Methods    From January 2018 to June 2019, clinical data of patients with thymoma who underwent the novel "three-port" operation in our institution were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the anesthesia methods, including a tracheal intubation general anesthesia group and a laryngeal mask general anesthesia group. There were 70 patients in the tracheal intubation general anesthesia group, including 42 males and 28 females, with an average age of 45.83±15.89 years. There were 39 patients in the laryngeal mask general anesthesia group, including 26 males and 13 females, with an average age of 43.31±15.64 years. The clinical data of the two groups were compared. Results    The baseline characteristics of the patients in the two groups were well balanced (P>0.05). No massive bleeding, conversion to thoracotomy, postoperative myasthenia or death occurred in those patients. No patient with laryngeal mask anesthesia had a conversion to tracheal intubation anesthesia during the operation. There was no significant difference in the operation time, intraoperative bleeding, intraoperative maximum partial pressure of CO2, lowest partial pressure of oxygen and anesthesia effect score between the two groups (P>0.05). There was also no statistical difference in postoperative aspiration, gastrointestinal discomfort, length of hospital stay, pain score and patient satisfaction degree between the two groups (P>0.05). However, the anesthesia time before operation and the time of awake after anesthesia in the laryngeal mask anesthesia group were significantly shorter than those in the tracheal intubation general anesthesia group (P<0.05), and the incidence of transient arrhythmia, laryngeal discomfort and hoarseness in the laryngeal mask general anesthesia group was significantly lower than that in the tracheal intubation general anesthesia group (P<0.05). Conclusion    The "three-port" thoracoscopic thymectomy via subxiphoid and subcostal arch under laryngeal mask general anesthesia is safe and feasible in the treatment of thymoma without myasthenia, and can be recommended routinely.

14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143395

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze children's and parents' oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and children's dental fears before and after the dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia (DRGA). Material and Methods: 104 parents and their 3 to 13-year-old children (5.90 ± 2.42) who received DRGA were surveyed before and after DRGA. The children were divided into two groups: Group 1 - healthy children (n=43) and Group 2 - children with medical problems (n=61). After recording their socio-demographic information, parents completed a self-administered questionnaire named Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS), which includes two main parts - Child Impact Section (CIS) and Family Impact Section (FIS). On the other hand, the children received a dentist-administered questionnaire named Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) and Frankle Behavior Scale (FBS). For statistical analyses, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank, Mann Whitney-U, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman's Correlation tests were used. Results: A statistically significant decrease in all CIS, FIS, ECOHIS and CFSS-DS scores was observed after DRGA (p<0.01). This decline was greater in healthy children than in children with systemic problems (p<0.01). Conclusion: Children's and parents' OHRQoL showed better results after DRGA. The decreases in dental anxiety in children were observed after DRGA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life/psychology , Turkey/epidemiology , Child , Oral Health/education , Dental Anxiety/psychology , Anesthesia, General/instrumentation , Parents , Linear Models , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dentists
15.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 471-476, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143969

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) is a multifactorial surgical complication with an unclear underlying cause. Anesthetic methods, patients' characteristics and the type of surgery are considered as factors affecting PONV. This study was designed to compare the effect of inhalational and intravenous anesthesia in abdominal surgery on the incidence and severity of PONV. Methods: A single-blinded prospective randomized clinical trial on 105 patients aged 18 − 65 years was carried out. Patients were divided into two groups of Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) and inhalational anesthesia. The incidence and the severity of PONV were examined at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery. The use of a rescue antiemetic was also evaluated. Results: 50.9% of the patients in the inhalation group and 17.3% of the patients in the intravenous group developed PONV (p < 0.001). The incidence of vomiting was reported in 11.3% of the inhalational group and 3.8% of the TIVA group (p = 0.15). 24.5% of patients in the inhalation group and 9.6% of patients in the intravenous group needed an antiemetic medication (p = 0.043). Conclusion: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and the need for administration of an antiemetic rescue drug and the severity of nausea in patients were significantly lower in the TIVA group.


Resumo Justificativa: Náusea e Vômito no Pós-Operatório (NVPO) é uma complicação multifatorial com etiologia não esclarecida. A técnica anestésica, as características dos pacientes e o tipo de cirurgia são considerados fatores que afetam a NVPO. O presente estudo foi desenhado para comparar o efeito da anestesia inalatória com anestesia intravenosa na incidência e gravidade de NVPO na cirurgia abdominal. Método: Foi realizado estudo clínico mono-cego prospectivo randomizado com 105 pacientes com idades de 18 − 65 anos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, Anestesia Total Intravenosa (TIVA) e anestesia inalatória. A incidência e gravidade de NVPO foram avaliadas em cinco momentos: 0, 2, 6, 12 e 24 horas pós-cirurgia. O uso de antiemético de resgate também foi avaliado. Resultados: NVPO ocorreu em 50,9% dos pacientes no grupo inalatória e 17,3% dos pacientes no grupo TIVA (p< 0,001). A incidência de vômitos relatados foi 11,3% no grupo Inalatória e 3,8% no grupo TIVA (p = 0,15). Necessitaram de medicação antiemética 24,5% dos pacientes no grupo Inalatória e 9,6% dos pacientes no grupo TIVA (p = 0.043). Conclusão: A incidência de náusea e vômito no pós-operatório, a necessidade de administração de droga antiemética de resgate e a gravidade da náusea foram significantemente mais baixas no grupo TIVA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Laparotomy/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Blind Method , Incidence , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Abdomen/surgery , Middle Aged , Antiemetics/administration & dosage
16.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(4): 419-426, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132624

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Music has been used for several years as a relaxation method to reduce stress and anxiety. It is a painless, safe, inexpensive and practical nonpharmacologic therapeutic modality, widely used all over the world. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the effect of music therapy on intraoperative awareness, patient satisfaction, awakening pain and waking quality in patients undergoing elective septorhinoplasty under general anesthesia. Methods This randomized, controlled, prospective study was conducted with 120 patients undergoing septorhinoplasty within a 2 months period. The patients were randomly selected and divided into two groups: group music (music during surgery) and control group (without music during surgery). All patients underwent standard general anesthesia. Patients aged 18-70 years who would undergo a planned surgery under general anesthesia were included. Patients who had emergency surgery, hearing or cognitive impairment, were excluded from the study. Results A total of 120 patients were enrolled, and separated into two groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of demographic characteristics, anesthesia and surgery durations (p > 0.05). In the music group, sedation agitation scores were lower than those in the control group at the postoperative period (3.76 ± 1.64 vs. 5.11 ± 2.13; p < 0.001). In addition; in patients of the music group, the pain level (2.73 ± 1.28 vs. 3.61 ± 1.40) was lower (p < 0.001), requiring less analgesic drugs intake. Conclusion Music therapy, which is a nonpharmacologic intervention, is an effective method, without side effects, leading to positive effects in the awakening, hemodynamic parameters and analgesic requirements in the postoperative period. It is also effective in reducing the anxiety and intraoperative awareness episodes of surgical patients.


Resumo Introdução A música tem sido usada há vários anos como um método de relaxamento para reduzir o estresse e a ansiedade. É um método de tratamento não farmacológico, seguro, barato e prático, amplamente usado em todo o mundo. Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da musicoterapia no despertar intraoperatório, na satisfação do paciente, na dor ao despertar e na qualidade de vigília em pacientes submetidos à rinosseptoplastia eletiva sob anestesia geral. Método Estudo prospectivo, randomizado e controlado feito com 120 pacientes submetidos a rinosseptoplastia em 2 meses. Os pacientes foram selecionados aleatoriamente e divididos em dois grupos: musicoterapia (música durante a cirurgia) e controle (sem música durante a cirurgia). Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anestesia geral padrão. Pacientes entre 18 e 70 anos que seriam submetidos a cirurgia planejada sob anestesia geral foram incluídos. Pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de emergência, apresentavam deficiência auditiva ou cognitiva foram excluídos do estudo. Resultados Foram incluídos no estudo 120 pacientes, divididos nos dois grupos. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos em relação às características demográficas, anestesia e duração da cirurgia (p > 0,05). No grupo musicoterapia, os escores de agitação da sedação foram menores do que no grupo controle no período pós-operatório (3,76 ± 1,64 vs. 5,11 ± 2,13; p < 0,001). Além disso, nos pacientes do grupo musicoterapia, o nível de dor (2,73 ± 1,28 vs. 3,61 ± 1,40) foi menor (p < 0,001) e a necessidade de analgésicos foi menor no pós-operatório. Conclusão A musicoterapia, uma intervenção não farmacológica, é um método eficaz, sem efeitos colaterais, que leva a efeitos positivos no despertar, nos parâmetros hemodinâmicos e nas necessidades analgésicas no pós-operatório, além de reduzir a ansiedade por estresse, a dor e a chance de despertar durante a cirurgia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Music , Music Therapy , Anxiety , Pain, Postoperative , Prospective Studies , Anesthesia, General
17.
Rev. estomatol. Hered ; 30(3): 207-215, jul-sep 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180918

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La atención clínica del paciente portador de epilepsia (EP) asociada a discapacidad intelectual (DI), representa un reto para el estomatólogo por su difícil manejo conductual. Estos pacientes requerirán de alternativas para poder llevar a cabo un tratamiento odontológico exitoso. La anestesia general (AG), es una alternativa ante la falla de las técnicas de manejo conductual, existencia de compromiso sistémico que lo amerite, acceso médico especializado distante al lugar de residencia o por circunstancias particulares de cada caso. Se presenta el caso de un paciente varón de 27 años, con diagnóstico de EP asociada a DI, de difícil manejo conductual atendido bajo anestesia general en el servicio de Estomatología de Pacientes Especiales de la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Objetivo : Este artículo busca presentar una revisión de la literatura y el Tratamiento Odontológico Integral bajo anestesia general de un paciente con de Epilepsia asociada a Discapacidad Intelectual moderada. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con estas patologías de fondo son propensos a presentar deterioro del órgano bucal, por lo que requerirán prestaciones estomatológicas constantes. Por la poca colaboración de este tipo de pacientes, se debe considerar a la AG como alternativa para brindar el TOI en un solo acto operatorio.


SUMMARY The clinical care of patients with epilepsy (EP) associated with intellectual disability (ID) represents a challenge for the stomatologist because of its difficult behavioral management. These patients will require alternatives to carry out a successful dental treatment. General anesthesia (AG), is an alternative to the failure of behavioral management techniques, existence of systemic commitment that warrants it, specialized medical access distant from the place of residence or due to particular circumstances of each case. We present the case of a 27-year-old male patient, with a diagnosis of EP associated with ID, of difficult behavioral management treated under general anesthesia in the Special Patients Stomatology service of the Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia. Objective: This article seeks to present a review of the literature and Comprehensive Dental Treatment under general anesthesia of a patient with Epilepsy associated with moderate Intellectual Disability. Conclusions: Patients with these underlying pathologies are prone to present deterioration of the oral organ, so they will require constant stomatological benefits. Due to the low collaboration of this type of patients, the AG should be considered as an alternative to provide the TOI in a single operative act.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207656

ABSTRACT

Background: Hysteroscopy is the process of viewing and operating in the endometrial cavity from a transcervical approach. A camera is commonly attached to the proximal end of the hysteroscope to broadcast the image onto a large video screen. The development of hysteroscopy is rooted in the work of Pantaleoni, who first reported uterine endoscopy in 1869. However, at that time, instrumentation was elementary, and expansion of the uterine cavity was insufficient. In 1925, Rubin first used CO2 to distend the uterus. The use of liquid distention media became routine by the 1980s, and many new hysteroscopic procedures, including endometrial ablation, were developed.Methods: This was a retrospective study which presents the results of hysteroscopic treatment of various gynecological diseases in Cantonal hospital Travnik, Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2011 to 2019. Total 175 cases were enrolled. All underwent hysteroscopic surgery in general anesthesia. The results were statistically analyzed.Results: Total number of patients is 175. The incidence is highest in the age 31-50 years (62%). Endometrial polyp is the most common pathological condition in 80%, myoma submucosum in 5,7%, and septum uteri 2,8%. The most common treatment was polypectomy 80%, then resection of submucosal myoma 5,7%, and extraction of IUD 4%.Conclusions: Hysteroscopy involves a minimal damage to body tissues. It is safer than open surgery. Hysteroscopic treatment has contributed to faster treatment, faster recovery and reducing the cost of treatment, and thus raise the level of efficiency.

19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 97-103, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137158

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Surgery generates a neuroendocrine stress response, resulting in undesirable hemodynamic instability, alterations in metabolic response and malfunctioning of the immune system. Objectives: The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of caudal blocks in intra- and postoperative pain management and in reducing the stress response in children during the same periods. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial included 60 patients scheduled for elective herniorrhaphy. One group (n = 30) received general anesthesia and the other (n = 30) received general anesthesia with a caudal block. Hemodynamic parameters, drug consumption and pain intensity were measured. Blood samples for serum glucose and cortisol level were taken before anesthesia induction and after awakening the patient. Results: Children who received a caudal block had significantly lower serum glucose (p < 0.01), cortisol concentrations (p < 0.01) and pain scores 3 h (p = 0.002) and 6 h (p = 0.003) after the operation, greater hemodynamic stability and lower drug consumption. Also, there were no side effects or complications identified in that group. Conclusions: The combination of caudal block with general anesthesia is a safe method that leads to less stress, greater hemodynamic stability, lower pain scores and lower consumption of medication.


Resumo Justificativa: O estresse cirúrgico causa resposta neuroendócrina, resultando em instabilidade hemodinâmica indesejável, modificações na resposta metabólica e disfunção no sistema imune. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, em pacientes pediátricos, a eficácia do bloqueio peridural caudal no controle da dor intra e pós-operatória e na redução da resposta ao estresse nesses períodos. Métodos: Estudo clínico prospectivo randomizado que incluiu 60 pacientes submetidos à herniorrafia eletiva. Um grupo (n = 30) recebeu anestesia geral e o outro (n = 30), anestesia geral combinada a bloqueio caudal. Foram medidos os parâmetros hemodinâmicos, o consumo de medicamentos e a intensidade da dor. Amostras de sangue para medir glicemia e cortisol plasmático foram obtidas antes da indução e após o despertar dos pacientes. Resultados: As crianças que receberam bloqueio peridural caudal apresentaram valores significantemente mais baixos para glicemia (p < 0,01), concentração de cortisol (p < 0,01) e escores de dor de 3 horas (p = 0,002) e 6 horas (p = 0,003) após a cirurgia, maior estabilidade hemodinâmica e menor consumo de medicamentos. Além disso, não foram observados efeitos colaterais ou complicações nesse grupo. Conclusões: O bloqueio peridural caudal combinado à anestesia geral é uma técnica segura e que se associa a menor estresse, maior estabilidade hemodinâmica, redução nos escores de dor e baixo consumo de medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Stress, Physiological , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Herniorrhaphy , Hemodynamics , Nerve Block/methods , Sacrum , Prospective Studies , Epidural Space , Anesthesia, General
20.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(2): 54-67, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124270

ABSTRACT

Resumen La anestesia general es una herramienta imprescindible para el proceso quirúrgico, ya que disminuye el dolor, reduce la ansiedad y genera inconsciencia. Sin ella, las cirugías serían dolorosas, riesgosas y emocionalmente traumáticas. La reciente emisión de una alerta sobre el uso de fármacos anestésicos en niños menores de 3 años por parte de la Food and Drug Administration (FDA) de los Estados Unidos generó controversia en torno a sus posibles efectos negativos. En este artículo se abordan los principales hitos del desarrollo neurobiológico del niño y se revisan las posibles consecuencias neuropsicológicas del uso de anestesia general en esta población. La mayoría de los reportes que abordan este tema son de tipo retrospectivo y arrojan resultados controversiales por sus inherentes dificultades metodológicas. Sin embargo, el estudio prospectivo sobre seguridad del uso de anestesia general en niños de la Clínica Mayo (MASK, Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids), junto con otros estudios a gran escala, han confirmado algunos datos obtenidos en los estudios experimentales que dieron sustento a la alerta emitida por la FDA. Así, las evidencias hasta ahora publicadas sugieren que el uso de anestesia general es seguro para el desarrollo cognitivo general del niño, aunque evidencian también alteraciones focalizadas en procesos cognitivos específicos que deben ser consideradas por el médico y la familia ante un procedimiento quirúrgico-anestésico.


Abstract General anesthetics are crucial drugs for surgical interventions, which are indicated to induce analgesia, diminish pain, and reduce anxiety in order to facilitate invasive procedures. In pediatric patients, benefits of general anesthetics also include abolishment of motility. Besides their probed benefits on surgery, the recent warning of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the use of general anesthetics in children yielded a controversy on their potential neurotoxic effects. In this review, the main facts of the cerebral development are studied, and the available evidence concerning the use of general anesthesia on the neuropsychological development of children is analyzed. Most of the studies found were uncontrolled retrospective cohorts for which conclusions are difficult to obtain. However, a few group of controlled studies, including the Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids study (MASK), have partially supported the FDA warning. Cumulated evidence appears to support the safety use of general anesthetics, but no conclusive data supporting that it may induce massive effects on the cognitive development of exposed children has been reported. Important evidence suggests that specific cognitive functions may result altered under long-term expositions. Such data must be considered for those involved in anesthetic procedures.

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