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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931614

ABSTRACT

Bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidity is becoming more and more common and has aroused clinical physicians' increasing interest. This review summarizes the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, neurobiochemistry, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder and discusses the neurobiochemical mechanism. Findings from this review will provide evidence for identifying the clinical symptoms of bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidity and for treatment of the comorbidity.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907662

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Naringin on neuronal apoptosis in mice with memory consolidation disorderinduced by sodium nitrite.Methods:Fifty mice were randomly divided into blank group, model group, standardized protocol group, high-dose Naringin group and low-dose Naringin group, with 10 mice in each group. The standardized protocol group was given Donepezil 1 mg/kg, the Naringin high and low dose groups were gavaged with Naringin solution 100 and 50 mg/(kg·d), blank group and model group were gavaged with equal volume of distilled water once a day for 21 days. The model was established on the 22nd day. The blank group was intraperitoneally injected with normal saline, and the other groups were intraperitoneally injected with 100 mg/(kg·d) sodium nitrite solution for 7 days. The cognitive ability of mice in each group was evaluated by platform jumping test, and the hippocampal synaptic structure was observed by electron microscope. The contents of acetylcholine (ACh), SOD, MDA and NO in hippocampus and the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was detected by ELISA. The expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), glutamine receptor 2 (GluR), calcium/calmodulin dependent protease Ⅱ (CaMK Ⅱ), Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bad proteins in hippocampus of model mice were detected by Western blot.Results:The number and morphology of hippocampal neurons were normal, nucleus, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and synaptic membrane of hippocampal neurons in high-dose Naringin group were clear. Compared with the model group, the latency of mice in the high-dose Naringin group was prolonged and the number of errors was reduced ( P<0.01). The levels of MDA and NO in hippocampus of mice in the high-dose Naringin group significantly decreased ( P<0.01), and the activity of SOD significantly increased ( P<0.01). The content of ACh (23.682 ± 2.835 μg/mg prot vs. 14.939 ± 2.901 μg/mg prot), ChAT (163.302 ± 21.278 U/g vs. 89.612 ± 11.497 U/g) increased, AChE (0.367 ± 0.015 U/mg prot vs. 0.471 ± 0.014 U/mg prot) activity decreased ( P<0.01); The expression of Bad (0.441 ± 0.010 vs. 0.633 ± 0.010), Caspase-3 (0.425 ± 0.036 vs. 0.537 ± 0.024) significantly decreased, and the expression of Bcl-2 (0.890 ± 0.014 vs. 0.727 ± 0.009) significantly increased ( P<0.01); The expression of CAMKⅡ (1.043 ± 0.037 vs. 1.475 ± 0.043) significantly decreased ( P<0.01), and the expression of NMDAR1 (0.407 ± 0.037 vs. 0.345 ± 0.012), GluR2 (1.125 ± 0.033 vs. 0.664 ± 0.023) significantly increased ( P<0.01). Conclusion:Naringin could play the role of protecing the neuron and improving the cognition of mice with memory consolidation disorder by regulating the balance of ACh and glutamate system and reducing neuronal apoptosis and antioxidant stress.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907629

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the mechanism of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) caused by liver-qi depression from the aspect of Glu-GABA metabolic pathways.Methods:Thirty-six rats with similar open field scores and regular estrus cycles were divided into blank group, model group, fluoxetine group, Shuyu capsule group, saikosaponin group and inhibitor group according to the random number table method, with 6 rats in each group. Stereotactic hippocampus surgery was performed during the first estrous cycle reception period after the estrus cycle was determined. In the non-receiving period of the third and fourth estrus cycles, the restraint model was constructed, and from the first day of the modeling, rats of the fluoxetine group were given fluoxetine capsules 2.67 mg/kg, while rats of the Shuyu capsule group and saikosaponin group were given Shuyu capsules 0.408 g/kg and saikosaponin 0.72 mg/kg once a day for 5 consecutive days. Rats in the inhibitor group were injected with 20 μl L-malic acid with 5 mmol/L concentration, which is an inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), in the hippocampus on the last day of modeling. After the administration, weighed the rats and carried out open field experiments. During the second and fivth estrus cycles of rats, the extracellular fluid of the hippocampus was collected by microdialysis technology, and the content of Glu and GABA in the dialysate was detected by HPLC-FLD. Results:After 5 days of administration, compared with the model group, the body weight of rats in the Shuyu capsule group, the inhibitor group and the fluoxetine group increased ( P<0.05), and the total score of the open field experiment decreased ( P<0.05); compared with the model group, during the receiving period of the five estrus cycle, the Glu level of the Shuyu capsule group and the inhibitor group decreased ( P<0.05); In the non-receiving period of the fifth estrus cycle, the Shuyu capsule group, Glu level of the fluoxetine group and the saikosaponin group increased, GABA level of Shuyu capsule group, inhibitor group and fluoxetine group decreased ( P<0.05), Glu/GABA level of Shuyu capsule group, fluoxetine group and inhibitor group (1.49 ± 0.13, 1.32 ± 0.33, 3.92 ± 0.79 vs. 0.35 ± 0.48) was higher than that of the model group ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The therapeutic mechanism of Shuyu capsule in the treatment of PMDD caused by liver Qi depression rats may be ascribed to inhibiting GAD from Glu-GABA metabolic pathway.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904336

ABSTRACT

@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of oral vaccine based on glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) on streptozotocin (STZ) -induced type 1 diabetic (T1D) mice, the mice model of T1D was established by intraperitoneal injection of low dose multiple STZ. CTB-GADIII encapsulated with calcium alginate (Ca-Alg-GADIII) was formulated using crosslinking technology with sodium alginate and calcium chloride, and was administered intragastric to T1D mice once a week for 5 consecutive weeks.Blood glucose and body weight of the mice were recorded weekly, and pharmacodynamics against T1D of Ca-Alg-GADIII were investigated by glucose tolerance assay (OGTT) and pancreatic histopathological analysis. The levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA), and insulin autoantibody (IAA) and related cytokines (IL-4, IFN-γ, TGF-β1) in serum were detected by ELISA, and the CD4 + T cell subsets were detected by flow cytometry. The immunological mechanism of oral vaccine against T1D was preliminarily discussed. The results showed that the disease-related indicators improved in immunized mice: fasting blood glucose improved, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion increased, pancreatic injury decreased, autoantibodies like GADA and IAA titers significantly decreased, and CD4 + T cell immune balance in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and pancreatic lymph node (PLN) improved to some extent. The results suggest that oral vaccine Ca-Alg-GADIII has some therapeutic effect on STZ-induced T1D mice.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2585-2604, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888873

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent a growing public concern for clinicians to manage in many medical settings, with substantial associated morbidities and mortalities. Among many current therapeutic options for the treatment of IFIs, amphotericin B (AmB) is the most frequently used drug. AmB is considered as a first-line drug in the clinic that has strong antifungal activity and less resistance. In this review, we summarized the most promising research efforts on nanocarriers for AmB delivery and highlighted their efficacy and safety for treating IFIs. We have also discussed the mechanism of actions of AmB, rationale for treating IFIs, and recent advances in formulating AmB for clinical use. Finally, this review discusses some practical considerations and provides recommendations for future studies in applying AmB for combating IFIs.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2416-2448, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888868

ABSTRACT

Proteins and peptides (PPs) have gradually become more attractive therapeutic molecules than small molecular drugs due to their high selectivity and efficacy, but fewer side effects. Owing to the poor stability and limited permeability through gastrointestinal (GI) tract and epithelia, the therapeutic PPs are usually administered by parenteral route. Given the big demand for oral administration in clinical use, a variety of researches focused on developing new technologies to overcome GI barriers of PPs, such as enteric coating, enzyme inhibitors, permeation enhancers, nanoparticles, as well as intestinal microdevices. Some new technologies have been developed under clinical trials and even on the market. This review summarizes the history, the physiological barriers and the overcoming approaches, current clinical and preclinical technologies, and future prospects of oral delivery of PPs.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888497

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of electro-acupuncture therapy on limb spasm and excitability of motor neurons in stroke rats. Ischemic stroke model was induced with middle cerebral artery embolization in SD rats. Thirty-three modeled rats were randomly divided into model group, electro-acupuncture group, and baclofen group with 11 rats in each group, and another 10 rats were taken as sham operation group. The electro-acupuncture group and the baclofen group were treated with electro-acupuncture and baclofen tablets respectively. The model group and the sham operation group had no intervention. The neural function was evaluated with Bederson's scale and balance beam test; the muscle tension was measured with electrophysiography; the pathological changes of brain tissue was examined with HE staining; the content of glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat cerebral cortex was analyze with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a () and γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1 () mRNA were detected with RT-qPCR. Compared with the model group, the neurological function scores of the electro-acupuncture group and the baclofen group showed a downward trend at d7 after operation (all >0.05), and the neurological function scores of the electro-acupuncture group and the baclofen group were significantly decreased at d12 after the operation (all 0.05). Compared with the model group, the electrophysiological results of the electro-acupuncture group and baclofen group were significantly increased after operation (all <0.05). The results of HE staining showed that there was no cell edema and degeneration in the sham operation group, no pyknosis of the nucleus, and no bleeding in the interstitium. Cell edema and degeneration and mesenchymal congestion appeared in the model group. Compared with the model group, the cytoplasmic edema and degeneration and the interstitial bleeding in the electroacupuncture group and the baclofen group were reduced. Compared with sham operation group, the Glu content and the relative expression of mRNA was increased in the model group, electro-acupuncture group and baclofen group, while the GABA content and the relative expression of mRNA decreased (all <0.05). Compared with model group, the Glu content and the relative expression of mRNA in the electro-acupuncture group and baclofen group decreased, and the GABA content and relative expression of mRNA increased (all <0.05). Electro-acupuncture may improve limb spasm after stroke through regulating the expression of Glu and GABA in the cerebral cortex and the excitability of motor neurons in rats.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Motor Neurons , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spasm , Stroke/therapy
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846230

ABSTRACT

Objective: To lay a foundation for elucidating the mechanism of microbial regulation of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) formation in the processing of Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Methods: The ability of glutamic acid decarboxylase and protease (neutral protease, alkaline protease and acid protease) production of Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus tamarii, Penicillium citrinum, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Phanerochaete sordida, Rhizopus oryzae, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor in different pH and temperature conditions were determined by Berthelot colorimetry and Folin phenol method. Results: The GAD and protease activities of the twelve strains were stronger at pH 5-7 and temperature 28-37 ℃. The highest GAD enzyme activity from A. flavus was 41.97 U/h, the optimum pH was 7 and the temperature was 28 ℃, followed by S. salmonicolor, A. niger, R. oryzae, and B. subtilis, respectively. The enzyme activities were 29.04, 25.78, 22.42 and 19.43 U/h. The highest neutral protease activity of B. subtilis was 24.80 U/mL, the optimum pH was 7 and the temperature was 37 ℃, followed by B. amyloliquefaciens, R. oryzae and E. avium. The enzyme activities were 16.86, 12.51 and 9.18 U/mL. The highest alkaline protease activity of B. amyloliquefaciens was 13.29 U/mL, the optimum pH was 7 and the temperature was 34 ℃, followed by B. subtilis and R. oryzae. The enzyme activities were 8.86 and 6.20 U/mL, respectively. The ability of 12 kinds of microorganisms to produce acid protease was generally poor. Conclusion: The optimal pH and temperature of the 12 kinds of microorganisms selected for this experiment are basically consistent with the natural processing of Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Among them, fungi have stronger GAD production capacity and bacteria have stronger neutral protease production capacity. The high GABA concentration of Sojae Semen Praeparatum is caused by the joint action of multiple strains.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872694

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of modified Suanzaoren Tang on the expression of excitatory amino acids receptor(EAARs) in hippocampus of rats with chronic depression, and to explore the anti-depressant mechanism of modified Suanzaoren Tang based on excitatory amino acids receptor. Method:Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group,model group,and low,middle and high-dose modified Suanzaoren Tang groups,and ketamine group,with 10 rats in each group.Except normal group,the depression model of rats was prepared by using chronic restraint stress(CRS).The normal group and model group were intragastrically(ig) given normal saline.the modified Suanzaoren Tang groups were intragastrically given corresponding herbal drugs 6,12,24 g·kg-1, ketamine group group were given ketamine 0.015 g·kg-1 through intraoeritoneal injection,for 21 days,once a day.Then the depressive behaviors of rats were observed by Morris water maze and novelty feeding experiment.Western blot was used to detect the levels of DAR1,NMDAR2A,NMDAR2B,GluR1,mGluR1,CaMKⅡα and CaMKⅡβ protein expression in rat hippocampus tissue. Result:Compared with normal group,the time of novel ingestion and escape latencywere prolonged significantly(P<0.01), and the time of space exploration was shortened significantly(P<0.01).The levels of NMDAR1,NMDAR2A,NMDAR2B,mGluR1 and CaMKⅡβ expression were increased significantly(P<0.01),while the levels of GluR1 and CaMKⅡα expression were decreased significantly(P<0.01)in model group. Compared with model group,the time of novel ingestion and escape latency were shortened significantly (P<0.01), and the time of space exploration was prolonged significantly(P<0.01).The levels of NMDAR1,NMDAR2A,NMDAR2B,mGluR1 and CaMKⅡβ protein expression were decreased significantly(P<0.01),but the levels of GluR1 and CaMKⅡα expression were increased decreased significantly(P<0.01)in middle and high-dose modified Suanzaoren Tang groups. Conclusion:Modified Suanzaoren Tang can improve the behavior of chronic depression rats effectly. Its mechanism may be related with reduction the expression of NMDAR1,NMDAR2A,NMDAR2B,mGluR1 and CaMKⅡβ protein ,increase the expression of GluR1and CaMKⅡα protein.

10.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2720-2725, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To desig n and sy nthesize poly (γ-glutamic acid )-ampelopsin(γ-PGA-AMP),and to characterize it and evaluate its anti-tumor activity in vitro . METHODS :Synthetic product was produced through an esterification reaction between γ-PGA and ampelopsin. The structure of synthetic product was characterized by the UV spectrophotometry ,Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR)spectroscopy,1H-NMR spectra and the quantitative elemental analysis. The content of ampelopsin in synthetic product was determined by UV absorption spectrometry at 292 nm. Using 5-FU as positive control ,MTT assay was used to determine inhibitory effects of γ-PGA-AMP and ampelopsin on human breast cancer cell MCF- 7,human liver cancer cell HepG 2 and human lung cancer cell A 549. The IC 50 was calculated. RESULTS :The results showed that the free 7-hydroxyl group of ampelopsin and the a-carboxyl group of γ-polyglutamic acid had been esterified to obtain γ-PGA-AMP;the yield of γ-PGA-AMP was 55.7%,and the content of ampelopsin was 32.3%. The inhibitory effect of γ-PGA-AMP and ampelopsin on MCF- 7,HepG2 and A 549 cells was obvious. IC 50 of γ-PGA-AMP(to 3 above tumor cells )were 40.19,28.29 and 55.23 μg/mL,those of ampelopsin were 105.30,81.23,130.10 μg/mL,those of 5-FU were 24.72,87.98,30.99 μg/mL,respectively. CONCLUSIONS :γ-PGA-AMP with anti-tumor effect in vitro is synthesized successfully ,and its anti-tumor effect is stronger than that of ampelopsin.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1347-1359, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828803

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy is rapidly emerging as a powerful therapeutic strategy for a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Some early clinical trials have failed to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects. Efforts to enhance effectiveness are now concentrating on three major fields: identification of new vectors, novel therapeutic targets, and reliable of delivery routes for transgenes. These approaches are being assessed closely in preclinical and clinical trials, which may ultimately provide powerful treatments for patients. Here, we discuss advances and challenges of gene therapy for neurodegenerative disorders, highlighting promising technologies, targets, and future prospects.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-849689

ABSTRACT

[Abstract] Objective To observe the effects of the adipocyte hormone leptin on GABA content and receptor expression in hypothalamus of mice with sleep deprivation, and explore the possible mechanisms. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups (8 each): control group, sleep deprivation (SD) group and leptin supplement (L-SD) group. Mice in control group were set up in a water environment without sleep deprivation, mice in SD group were set up in a "modified multi-platform water environment" to establish a sleep deprivation model, and mice in L-SD group were given leptin 1.3 mg/kg intraperitoneally twice daily in conjunction with sleep deprivation. Seven days after sleep deprivation, the general conditions of mice were observed, body weight was measured and hypothalamic tissues and plasma specimens were collected. ELISA was used to detect the plasma leptin levels, hypothalamic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) contents. Western blotting was performed to detect the expression levels of GABA key glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GABAA receptor α1 subtype protein (GABAARα1). Results Compared with control group, the weight of mice in SD group significantly reduced [(22.03±0.42) g vs. (17.75±0.75) g, P0.05). The hypothalamic Glu levels were obviously higher in SD group [(686.56±10.01) ng/g] and L-SD group [(668.64+9.93) ng/g] than that in control group [(577.11±16.36) ng/g] (P0.05). The expressive levels of GAD67 and GABAARα1 protein in the hypothalamus of mice in SD group [0.68±0.06, 0.69±0.07] were significantly lower than that in control group (1.09±0.13, 0.99±0.07) (P<0.05); While the expressive levels of GAD67 and GABAARα1 proteins in the hypothalamus of mice in L-SD group (1.39±0.19 and 1.33±0.14, respectively) were significantly higher than those in SD group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Leptin can up-regulate the expression of the key GABA synthase GAD67, increase the content of GABA and the expression of GABAARα1 protein in hypothalamus of sleep-deprived mice, which may be an important mechanism of leptin affecting sleep.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846595

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the effects of different drying methods on the quality of Trichosanthis Pericarpium, and screen the suitable drying methods for its modern drying processing. Methods: The fresh Trichosanthis Pericarpium collected from Anhui were processed by traditional and modern drying processing methods [hot air drying (40, 50, 60, 70 ℃), microwave vacuum drying (40, 50, 60, 70 ℃; vacuum -0.08 MPa), short-wave infrared drying (50, 60, 70 ℃), vacuum -80 ℃ lyophilization, traditional solar drying, shadow drying]. Combined with the appearance of the samples after drying, the composition and content of the 40 resource chemical compositions [five kinds of flavonoids (rutin, luteoloside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin, tangeretin), three kinds of triterpenoids (cucurbitacin D, cucurbitacin B, cucurbitacin E)] and nutritional nourishing ingredients [two kinds of saccharides (glucose, fructose), eighteen kinds of amino acids (phenylalanine, L-leucine, iso-leucine, L-tryptophan, γ-aminobutyric acid, L-methionine, L-valine, L-proline, L-tyrosine, trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, L-threonine, L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, L-serine, L-asparagine, L-citrulline, L-arginine, L-lysine), and twelve kinds of nucleosides (thymidine, 2’-deoxyuridine, adenine, uridine, adenosine, 2’-deoxyinosine, inosine, cytosine, guanine, 2’-deoxyguanosine, cytidine, guanosine)] were evaluated for comprehensively evaluating the quality of the different samples. The best modern drying method for Trichosanthis Pericarpium was preferred by principal component analysis. Results: Among different dry samples, the content of medicinal ingredients and nutrient nourishing ingredients varied greatly, among which fructose and glucose content ranged from 9.78% to 21.32% and 4.46% to 15.63%, respectively. Samples of 70 ℃ microwave vacuum drying had the highest total amount of flavonoids and tetracyclic triterpenoids, while those of 40 ℃ hot air drying treatment were the lowest. Through comprehensive evaluation of 14 kinds of Trichosanthis Pericarpium samples obtained by different drying methods, it was found that samples of 70 ℃ hot air drying, 70 ℃ short-wave infrared drying, vacuum -80 ℃ lyophilization, 50 ℃ microwave vacuum drying and 60 ℃ hot air drying were better than the traditional solar drying. Conclusion: Combined with the appearance of the medicinal properties, color, texture, drying time and functional ingredients, it was recommended that 70 ℃ hot air drying method was the preferred conditions for production based on the current state of the equipment of company. Based on the development of new equipment in the future, short-wave infrared 70 ℃ drying can be used as the development direction of Trichosanthis Pericarpium. The study provided reference for the standardization and quality characteristics of production of Trichosanthis Pericarpium.

14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2113-2125, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878471

ABSTRACT

Glutamic acid is an important amino acid with wide range of applications and huge market demand. Therefore, by performing transcriptome sequencing and re-sequencing analysis on Corynebacterium glutamicum E01 and high glutamate-producing strain C. glutamicum G01, we identified and selected genes with significant differences in transcription and gene levels in the central metabolic pathway that may have greatly influenced glutamate synthesis and further increased glutamic acid yield. The oxaloacetate node and α-ketoglutarate node play an important role in glutamate synthesis. The oxaloacetate node and α-ketoglutarate node were studied to explore effect on glutamate production. Based on the integrated strain constructed from the above experimental results, the growth rate in a 5-L fermenter was slightly lower than that of the original strain, but the glutamic acid yield after 48 h reached (136.1±5.53) g/L, higher than the original strain (93.53±4.52) g/L, an increase by 45.5%; sugar-acid conversion rate reached 58.9%, an increase of 13.7% compared to 45.2% of the original strain. The application of the above experimental strategy improved the glutamic acid yield and the sugar-acid conversion rate, and provided a theoretical basis for the metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid Cycle , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics
15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209819

ABSTRACT

Amino acids can play a different role in plants such as nitrogen source, hormonal precursor, and stress reducingagents. L-glutamic acid is involved in several plant metabolic processes. The objectives of present work were toevaluate the L-glutamic acid production by different agriculturally important Pseudomonas and Bacillus speciesand to determine the effects of L-glutamic acid containing cell-free filtrate on the growth and yield of brinjal. Anexperiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design. Out of eight different strains of Pseudomonas,the highest L glutamic acid was detected in Pseudomonas fluorescens 128 (1.397 g/l) followed by P. fluorescensNSPL07 (1.073 g/l) and Pseudomonas striata RCOF153 (0.563 g/l). Similarly, out of six different species ofBacillus, moderate L-glutamic acid was detected in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC10439. (0.232 g/l). Thegrowth stimulatory effects of L glutamic acid containing filtrate (200 ppm) were also studied and it was found that allgrowth parameters of brinjal (plant height, fruits per plant, fruit yield, etc.) improved significantly. Results indicatedthat bacterial secretion containing L-glutamic acid along with other amino acids has biostimulatory effects and itshould be used to enhance the plant growth and yield.

16.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 722-728, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-844571

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a mathematical model of the injection by dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMV), the dose of L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) and the duodenal myoelectric activity index of female rabbits was established to provide a theoretical basis for studying the mechanism of action of hormones, cytokines and other vagal activity. Methods: In this experiment, we used microinjection technique to inject L-Glu to DMV by doses of 0 mol/L, 0.05 mol/L, 0.10 mol/L, 0.15 mol/L and 0.20 mol/L, monitoring the duodenal myoelectric activity of ovarian abducted rabbits, the number of samples per dose group was 5, and construct a mathematical model between the dose of L-Glu and the index of duodenal myoelectric activity. Results: After t-test analysis, the amplitude of myoelectric activity increased gradually between adjacent dose groups, and the difference was extremely significant (P < 0.01). The frequency was gradually strengthened, and the difference between 0 mol/L and 0.05 mol/L, 0.10 mol/L and 0.15 mol/L was significant (P < 0.05). The index of myoelectric activity increased gradually, and the difference between groups was extremely significant (P<0.01). With L-Glu concentration as the independent variable x, the duodenal myoelectric activity index was the dependent variable y, the constructor relationship was y= 13.71/1 + exp [-22.35 x (x-0.082)], function fitting accuracy was R =0.9948, P<0.01.belonging to growth type S logic function. Function analysis showed that the L-Glu dose of 0.082 mol/L was the inflection point of the logic function. As the dose range of L-Glu was 0 mol/L-0.082 mol/L, duodenal myoelectric activity index showed an exponential growth pattern, as the L-Glu dose was greater than 0.082 mol/L, the duodenal myoelectric activity index showed a logarithmic growth pattern with a theoretical limit of 13.71. Conclusion: L-Glu has a significant dose-effect relationship on the promotion of duodenal myoelectric activity in rabbits by DMV, and have the effect of interval, the mathematical model laid the theoretical foundation for further research on the role of hormones and cytokines on this basis.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802266

ABSTRACT

Objective:To assess the anxiolytic effect of Chaimu Anshen granules (CMASG) and investigate its bioactive mechanism. Method:ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group, diazepam group(0.002 g·kg-1),Jieyu Anshen granules group(0.001 4 g·kg-1), high, medium, and low-dose (0.001 98,0.000 99,0.000 495 g·kg-1)Chaimu Anshen granule groups, with 20 mice in each group. To detect the anxiolytic effect of CMASG, mice were intragastrically administered for 4 weeks in the morning, and light-dark box transition test and open field test were performed once the other day. After the behavior tests, blood samples were collected. Six mice of each group were perfused with formalin through heart, and then the brains were fixed for immunohistochemistry test. Hippocampus of the other mice in each group were collected and stored in liquid nitrogen. The content of γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA)and glutamic acid(Glu)in hippocampus and blood samples were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the ratio of GABA/Glu was calculated. The expression of GABAα1 receptor was evaluated by the immunohistochemistry method. To test the hypnosis effect of CMASG, mice were administered intragastrically for 7 days. The sub-threshold dose of pentobarbital sodium in the sleep experiment was tested. Result:Compared with normal group, the light-dark box transitions test demonstrated that low-dose and medium-dose CMASG groups significantly prolonged the duration in light box(PPPPPPPPPPα1 receptor protein in hippocampus showed that the medium-dose CMASG significantly increased the expression of GABAα1 protein. The sub-threshold dose of pentobarbital sodium on sleep experiments confirmed that the medium-dose CMASG significantly increased the rate of sleep in mice. Conclusion:CMASG showed an anxiolytic effect, and its bioactive mechanism was related with the increase of GABA content, and the decrease of Glu content in hippocampus. Furthermore, it increased the expression of GABAα1 protein in hippocampus. The changes in content of GABA and Glu in peripheral blood were positively correlated with the changes in hippocampal tissues, which provided reference for clinical diagnosis. CMASG also exhibited an effect in improvement of sleep.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851085

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the primary and secondary factors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enrichment in the processing of Sojae Semen Praeparatum (SSP), and lay the foundation for revealing the formation mechanism of high content of GABA in SSP. Methods: The dynamic changes of pH value, temperature, moisture, protease and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in the processing of SSP were determined by conventional methods. The GABA content of each sample was determined by pre-column on-line derivatization established by our laboratory. The correlation between each indicator and GABA was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis showed that the correlation coefficient between water, acid protease and GABA was 0.211 and -0.340, respectively, and the P values were 0.324 and 0.228, respectively. The correlation was small and there was no statistical difference. The absolute value of the regression coefficient showed that the primary and secondary status of other indicators in the formation of GABA was pH value (-0.375) > temperature (-0.284) > GAD (0.140) > alkaline protease (0.047) > neu-protease (-0.030), in which pH value, temperature and neutral protease had a negative correlation with GABA, and GAD activity and alkaline protease had a positive correlation with GABA. Conclusion: The temperature, pH value, GAD, neutral and alkaline protease are important factors affecting the formation of GABA in the fermentation process of SSP.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 919-926, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780198

ABSTRACT

The study was designed to synthesize a novel dendritic copolymer composed of polyamidoamine dendrimer G0 as the inner core and poly(L-glutamic acid) grafted low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PGLP) as surrounding arms for gene delivery vector. The molecular structure of PGLP was confirmed by 1H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). The DNA combination capability of PGLP was examined by gel retardation electrophoresis. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of PGLP/pDNA complexes were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cytotoxicity of PGLP was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and hemolysis assays, which was approved by Research Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. The in vitro transfection efficiency of PGLP was measured by a flow cytometry. The results of physicochemical properties suggested that PGLP could self-assemble with DNA to form complexes with average particle sizes of about 105-200 nm and zeta potentials of about +10 - +28 mV, which could protect DNA from serum degradation. The results of biological properties suggested that PGLP showed more higher transfection efficiencies but lower cytotoxicity than PEI 25K or Lipofectamine 2000 in various cell lines (HEK 293T, HeLa, BEL 7402, RASMC). Importantly, it was found that PGLP/pDNA complexes at w/w = 8 showed more strong serum-resistant capacity than PEI 25K/pDNA complexes. Therefore, PGLP is a promising candidate vector for gene delivery.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 565-574, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774965

ABSTRACT

The safety of nanomaterials, a crucial consideration for clinical translation, is enhanced by using building blocks that are biologically nontoxic. Here, we used poly(-glutamic acid) (-PGA) and dopamine as building blocks of polymeric nanomaterials for carrying hydrophobic anticancer drugs. The introduction of phenylalanine onto -PGA enabled the resulting amphiphilic derivative of -PGA acid to self-assemble in the presence of the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) to form PTX-encapsulated micelles. The surfaces of PTX-loaded micelles were then coated with polymerized dopamine (PDA). The PDA-coated, amphiphilic -PGA-based micelles (AM) carrying PTX (PDA/AM/P) exerted near-infrared-responsive photothermal effects. Near-infrared irradiation of cancer cells treated with PDA/AM/P nanoparticles produced a greater anticancer effect than that observed in other treatment groups, indicating a synergistic effect. Intravenous administration of PDA/AM/P completely ablated tumors and prevented their recurrence. Notably, the safety profile of PDA/AM/P nanoparticles allowed PTX to be delivered at a 3.6-fold higher dose than was possible with PTX solubilized in surfactant, and circumvented the side effects of the surfactant. These results support the multifunctional potential of PDA/AM for the delivery of various hydrophobic drugs and imaging dyes for safe translation of nanomaterials into the clinic.

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