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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 10-19, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006550

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Banxia Xiexintang (BXT) on the proliferation of human gastric cancer HGC-27, MKN-45, and AGS cells and its mechanism. MethodCell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect the effects of different concentrations of BXT-containing serum (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the proliferation of HGC-27, MKN-45, and AGS cells. A mitochondrial membrane potential probe (TMRE) was used to detect the expression of mitochondrial membrane potential in cells. A kit was used to detect iron ion (Fe2+) content, lipid peroxide (LPO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of glycogen synthase3β (GSK3β), phosphorylated GSK3β (p-GSK3β), nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). The real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of member 11 of the cystine/glutamic acid reverse transporter solute vector family 7 (SLC7A11), member 2 of the heavy chain solute vector family 3 (SLC3A2), transferrin receptor 3 (TFRC), and tumor protein (TP)53. ResultCCK-8 results showed that BXT and capecitabine could significantly reduce the survival rate of three kinds of gastric cancer cells after treatment with drug-containing serum for 24 h (P<0.01). After 48 h of intervention with drug-containing serum, the survival rate of three kinds of gastric cancer cells was significantly decreased in both the capecitabine group and the BXT group compared with the blank group. The BXT group was dose-dependent, with 20% BXT having the most significant effect (P<0.01). In terms of biochemical indicators of ferroptosis, compared with the blank group, BXT and capecitabine significantly decreased the expression of mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01) and SOD activity (P<0.01) and significantly increased the contents of LPO and Fe2+ (P<0.01), so as to improve the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to ferroptosis. In terms of the Nrf2/GPX4 pathway, compared with the blank group, the BXT group could reduce the protein expressions of p-GSK3β, Nrf2, and GPX4 (P<0.01) in gastric cancer cells and increase mRNA expressions of SLC7A11 and SLC3A2 (P<0.05). It could also increase the protein expression of GSK3β (P<0.01) and mRNA expression of TP53 and TFRC (P<0.05, P<0.01) in gastric cancer cells. Inhibition of the Nrf2/GPX4 pathway induces ferroptosis in gastric cancer cells. Compared with the capecitabine group, the 20% BXT group showed a more obvious effect. ConclusionBanxia Xiexintang can induce ferroptosis in gastric cancer cells HGC-27, MKN-45, and AGS by inhibiting the Nrf2/GPX4 pathway.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 502-508, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013128

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the role and mechanism of action of Yinchenhao Decoction in inhibiting ferroptosis of hepatocytes in mice with autoimmune hepatitis. MethodsA total of 18 specific pathogen-free female C57BL/6 mice were selected and divided into normal group, model group, and treatment group using a random number table, with 6 mice in each group. The mice in the model group and the treatment group were injected with concanavalin A (Con A) via the caudal vein to establish a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis, and those in the normal group were injected with normal saline. The mice in the treatment group were given prophylactic treatment with Yinchenhao Decoction (4.68 g crude drug/kg) by gavage at 14 days before modeling, and Con A was injected after the last gavage. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), iron ion, glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured; liver index and spleen index were calculated; the expression levels of GPX4 and SLC7A11 were measured; liver histopathological changes were compared between groups. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between three groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between two groups. ResultsCompared with the normal group, the model group had significant increases in liver index, spleen index, ALT, AST, IFN-γ, TNF-α, iron ion, ROS and MDA (all P<0.05) and significant reductions in the content of GSH and ATP and the protein expression levels of GPX4 and SLC7A11 (all P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the treatment group had significant reductions in liver index, spleen index, ALT, AST, IFN-γ, TNF-α, iron ion, ROS and MDA (all P<0.05) and significant increases in the content of GSH and ATP and the protein expression levels of GPX4 and SLC7A11 (all P<0.05). HE staining showed that compared with the normal group, the model group showed massive hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis and inflammatory cell aggregation at the portal area, and compared with the model group, the treatment group had alleviation of liver necrosis and inflammatory infiltration. ConclusionLiver injury induced by Con A may be associated with ferroptosis. Yinchenhao Decoction can increase the protein expression levels of SLC7A11 and GPX4 protein and thus inhibit ferroptosis of hepatocytes induced by Con A.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218094

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension is consistently related to the development of ischemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. Oxidative stress has been associated with mechanisms of hypertension which could be nullified by antioxidants such as Vitamin C and Vitamin E. Aim and Objectives: The objectives of the study are as follows: (i) To estimate the impact of antioxidant therapy on antioxidant capacity in hypertensive patients; (ii) to measure serum levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in hypertensive patients before and after giving them antioxidant therapy for 45 days. Materials and Methods: Thirty randomly selected hypertensive patients were given Supradyn tablet once a day for 45 days. Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), SOD, GR, GPx, and reduced Glutathione assays were measured before and after the intervention therapy. Results: Total antioxidant capacity as measured by serum FRAP in hypertensive patients before and after the therapy was increased significantly from 578.8 ± 60.85 to 592.1 ± 59.66 (?mol/L), respectively. The levels of SOD, GPx, GR, and Glutathione in hypertensive patients before giving antioxidant therapy were 1.6 ± 0.49 U/ml, 184.6 ± 17.1 ?mol/L/min, 8.96 ± 1.15 ?mol/L/min, and 8.03 ± 0.96 ?mol/g of Hb, respectively. The same after giving them antioxidant therapy were 1.7 ± 0.46 U/ml, 182.4 ± 15.98 ?mol/L/min, 8.83 ± 1.11 ?mol/L/min, and 7.83 ± 0.94 ?mol/g of Hb, respectively. The levels of GPx, GR, and Glutathione were significantly decreased after giving antioxidant therapy for 45 days while SOD level did not change significantly. Conclusion: Antioxidant therapies for 45 days led to a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity as shown by plasma FRAP levels and a significant decrease in serum levels of enzymatic antioxidants such as GPx, GR and Glutathione in hypertensive patients. However, serum levels of SOD did not show a significant change.

4.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535906

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that can be prevented and cured, but it is still associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Disseminated tuberculosis, although rare, can occur in individuals with underlying pathologies that affect the immune system. Currently, there are limited reports on disseminated tuberculosis in individuals with congenital disorders. Clinical case: We present a case of a patient with a history of ß thalassemia who was admitted to the emergency department with symptoms of abdominal pain and constitutional symptoms. The final diagnosis was disseminated tuberculosis. This case is of particular interest due to its atypical presentation, the initial suspicion of malignancy, and the extensive involvement of the disease despite the patient's absence of immunosuppression history. Conclusions: Disseminated tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients is a rare presentation associated with poor outcomes. The history of ß thalassemia may be a risk factor to consider based on the metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiology of both diseases.


Introducción: la tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecciosa prevenible y curable asociada a una alta morbimortalidad, la presentación de tuberculosis diseminada es poco frecuente y está asociada a patologías que comprometen el sistema inmunitario. En la actualidad hay pocos informes sobre tuberculosis diseminada y trastornos congénitos subyacentes. Caso clínico: paciente con antecedente de talasemia ß que ingresó al servicio de urgencias por dolor abdominal y síntomas constitucionales con diagnóstico final de tuberculosis diseminada. Es un caso de especial interés debido a la presentación atípica, la sospecha diagnóstica inicial de malignidad y el amplio compromiso de la enfermedad a pesar de que el paciente no tenía antecedentes de inmunosupresión. Conclusiones: la tuberculosis diseminada en el paciente inmunocompetente es una presentación poco frecuente asociada a desenlaces adversos. El antecedente de talasemia ß podría ser un factor de riesgo para tener en cuenta con base en las vías metabólicas involucradas en la fisiopatología de ambas enfermedades.

5.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 45(2): 117-126, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439560

ABSTRACT

Objective: The clinical trajectories of patients with psychotic disorders have divergent outcomes, which may result in part from glutathione (GSH)-related high-risk genotypes. We aimed to determine pharmacokinetics of clozapine, GSH levels, GSH peroxidase (GPx) activity, gene variants involved in the synthesis and metabolism of GSH, and their association with psychotic disorders in Mexican patients on clozapine monotherapy and controls. Methods: The sample included 75 patients with psychotic disorders on clozapine therapy and 40 paired healthy controls. Plasma clozapine/N-desmethylclozapine, GSH concentrations, and GPx activity were determined, along with genotyping of GCLC and GSTP1 variants and copy number variations of GSTP1, GSTT1, and GSTM1. Clinical, molecular and biochemical data were analyzed with a logistic regression model. Results: GSH levels were significantly reduced and, conversely, GPx activity was higher among patients than controls. GCLC_GAG-7/9 genotype (OR = 4.3, 95%CI = 1.40-14.31, p = 0.019) and hetero-/homozygous genotypes of GCLC_rs761142 (OR = 6.09, 95%CI = 1.93-22.59, p = 0.003) were found to be risk factors for psychosis. The genetic variants were not related to clozapine/N-desmethylclozapine levels or metabolic ratio. Conclusions: GCLC variants were associated with the oxidative stress profile of patients with psychotic disorders, raising opportunities for intervention to improve their antioxidant defenses. Further studies with larger samples should explore this proposal.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217964

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia, all are the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS). Various studies have shown that each risk factor is associated with increased inflammation. hsCRP is a non-specific, sensitive inflammatory marker that is raised in various inflammatory conditions. Similarly, glutathione is an antioxidant which binds with ROS produced during inflammation and reduces damage caused by ROS. Aims and Objectives: This study has been planned to find the correlation between oxidative stress and metabolic risk factors in apparently healthy adults. Materials and Methods: We recruited apparently healthy adults (n = 120) and measured waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profile, Fasting blood sugar, serum GSH, and hsCRP in all the subjects. Seventy-seven subjects were found to have at least one or more metabolic risk factors (Group A) according to NCEP ATP III criteria with waist circumference >90 cm for male and >80 cm for female and 43 were without any metabolic risk factors (Group B). Thereafter, we compared the serum levels of hsCRP and serum GSH with persons having one or more risk factors for MS. Results: In this study, we observed that subjects with metabolic risk factors were having more oxidative stress indicated by increased hsCRP (4783.1 ± 2060.21) and low serum GSH (3.17 ± 0.81) in comparison to controls (1640.5 ± 547.47 and 4.79 ± 0.77, respectively). This increase in hsCRP and decrease in GSH in case group was statistically significant. We also found the higher basal hsCRP levels in control group as per AHA/CDC study. Conclusion: We observed in this study that Indians without any risk factors for MS have relatively higher CRP levels and are at intermediate risk for cardiovascular disease. It was also observed that as the number of metabolic risk factors increases, the levels of hsCRP increases, and serum GSH decreases. This indicates that more risk factors are associated with higher oxidative stress.

7.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 505-510, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005815

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To use hairy enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) to regulate the differentiation of liver epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs) into cholangiocytes. 【Methods】 The vectors, pTet-on and pTRE2hyg-Hes1, were transfected into LEPCs. The expression of Hes1 was induced by doxycycline (DOX) with different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 μg/mL). The expressions of Hes1, molecular markers of hepatocyte and cholangiocyte, glutathione synthetase (Gss), keratin 19 (Krt19) and hepatic nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β) in LEPCs were verified by Western blotting, RT-PCR, Real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. 【Results】 The expression of Hes1 in LEPCs transfected by pTet-on/pTRE2hyg-Hes1 was increased by 11.21 fold when induced by DOX at 10 ug/mL, which drove the LEPCs to differentiate into biliary epithelial cells. With increasing expression of Hes1, cholangiocyte markers, Krt19 and HNF1β, were significantly upregulated, while the hepatocyte marker, Gss, was obviously downregulated. 【Conclusion】 DOX at 10 μg/mL may induce a suitably up-regulated expression of Hes1 in LEPCs double-transfected by pTet-on and pTRE2hyg-Hes1, and the suitable high-expression rather than over-expression of Hes1 can regulate LEPCs to differentiate into cholangiocytes.

8.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 145-149, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994960

ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is a recently identified type of non-apoptotic cell death, mainly caused by disruption of cellular metabolic pathways such as iron metabolism and reactive oxygen species metabolism, characterized by intracellular iron overload and reactive oxygen species accumulation leading to lipid peroxidation. Ferroptosis is closely related to renal diseases. The role of ferroptosis in diseases such as acute kidney injury and renal cell carcinoma has been extensively studied, and new discoveries and advances have been made in its relationship with renal fibrosis. The paper systematically reviews the relationship between ferroptosis and renal fibrosis in terms of the latest regulatory mechanisms of ferroptosis and its role in renal fibrosis, and explores the potential clinical application of targeted inhibition of ferroptosis to prevent renal fibrosis.

9.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 618-624, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994241

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) signaling pathway-mediated ferroptosis in midazolam-induced reduction of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in neonatal rats.Methods:Ninety healthy 7-day-old neonatal rats, weighing 16-20 g, were divided into 6 groups ( n=15 each) using the random number table method: sham operation group (Sham group), HIBD group, low-dose midazolam (10 mg/kg) group (group L), medium-dose midazolam (20 mg/kg) group (group M), high-dose midazolam (40 mg/kg) group (group H), and Nrf2 inhibitor ML385 group (group I). The HIBD model was developed by ligating the left carotid artery and exposing to a hypoxic condition for 2 h in anesthetized animals. Starting from 2nd day after developing the model, the corresponding doses of midazolam were intraperitoneally injected in midazolam groups, the equal volume of normal saline was intraperitoneally injected in Sham and HIBD groups, midazolam 40 mg/kg and Nrf2 inhibitor ML385 30 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected once a day for 8 consecutive days in group I. The rats were weighed and subjected to the Morris water maze test after the end of administration. Blood samples were taken from the abdominal aorta after the end of the Morris water maze test, and then the animals were sacrificed to remove the brain for determination of the concentrations of serum iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), contents of iron and GSH in hippocampal tissues (by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and micro method), the number of Nrf2/neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) and GPX4/NeuN positive cells (by immunofluorescent staining), and expression of Nrf2, GPX4, and 4-hydroxynonaenoic acid (4-HNE) in hippocampal tissues and for microscopic examination of the pathological changes of hippocampal neurons in brain tissues (after HE staining and Nissl staining). Results:Compared with Sham group, the first time to arrival at platform was significantly prolonged, the number of crossing the origional platform was reduced, and the time of staying at the target quadrant was shortened, the iron content in the hippocampal tissues was increased, the content of GSH and the number of Nrf2/NeuN and GPX4/NeuN positive cells were decreased, the expression of Nrf2 and GPX4 was down-regulated, the expression of 4-HNE was up-regulated, the concentrations of serum iron, IL-6 and TNF-α were increased, and the injury to hippocampal neurons was marked in HIBD group ( P<0.05). Compared with HIBD group, the first time to arrival at platform was significantly shortened, the number of crossing the origional platform was increased, and the time of staying at the target quadrant was prolonged, the iron content in the hippocampus tissues was decreased, the content of GSH and the number of Nrf2/NeuN and GPX4/NeuN positive cells were increased, the expression of Nrf2 and GPX4 was up-regulated, the expression of 4-HNE was down-regulated, the concentrations of serum iron, IL-6 and TNF-α were decreased ( P<0.05), and the injury to hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced in H, M and L groups. Compared with group H, the first time to arrival at platform was significantly prolonged, the number of crossing the origional platform was reduced, and the time of staying at the target quadrant was shortened, the iron content in the hippocampus tissue was increased, the content of GSH and the number of Nrf2/NeuN and GPX4/NeuN positive cells were decreased, the expression of Nrf2 and GPX4 was down-regulated, the expression of 4-HNE was up-regulated, the concentrations of serum iron, IL-6 and TNF-α were increased ( P<0.05), and the injury to hippocampal neurons was aggravated in group I. Conclusions:The mechanism by which midazolam reduces HIBD may be related to activation of the Nrf2/GPX4 signaling pathway and inhibition of hippocampal neuronal ferroptosis in neonatal rats.

10.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 535-539, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013322

ABSTRACT

{L-End}Objective To investigate the effect of motorcycle exhaust (ME) on the level of oxidative stress in different parts of respiratory tract epithelial cells. {L-End}Methods BEAS-2B and A549 cells in logarithmic growth phase were randomly divided into control group, low- and high-dose groups. The two kinds of cells growing on the membrane of Transwell inserts were treated with air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure technique for 60 minutes. The cells in the low- and high- dose groups were treated with diluted gas with the volume ratio of ME to clean air of 1∶20 and 1∶10, respectively, while the cells in the control group were treated with clean air. Cells were collected to detect their relative survival rate using CCK-8 method after exposure. And the levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the cells were detected using colorimetry. {L-End}Results The ME exposure dose affected the relative survival rate of cells (P<0.01), which showed a downward trend with the increasing ME exposure doses (all P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the main effect of cell types and the interaction effect of ME exposure dose and cell type (all P>0.05). There was a significant interaction between ME exposure dose and cell type in the level of glutathione and the activity of SOD (all P<0.01), and the level of malondialdehyde was a significant main effect of cell type (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the glutathione level and SOD activity between the low-dose group and the control group (all P>0.05), while the glutathione level and SOD activity in high-dose group were higher than those in the control group and low-dose group in BEAS-2B cells (all P<0.05). The glutathione level decreased with increasing ME exposure dose in A549 cells (all P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the low-dose group had a significantly higher activity of SOD (P<0.05) in A549 cells. The SOD activity of A549 cells in high-dose group was lower than those in control group and low-dose group (all P<0.05). The level of malondialdehyde in A549 cells was higher than those in BEAS-2B cells(P<0.05). {L-End}Conclusion ME exposure can lead to changes in the production of oxidative stress biomarkers in respiratory tract epithelial cells. The oxidative stress response induced by ME exposure varies among respiratory tract epithelial cells from different regions.

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 739-745, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990907

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the changes of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in retinal photoreceptor cells, and the related mechanism correlated with retinal photoreceptor cell damage.Methods:The posterior segment tissues of 8 age-matched male donors were collected from the Body (Organ) Donation Register and Corneal Receiving Station of Tongji Hospital of Wuhan Red Cross from 2018 to 2021, including 4 non-diabetic donors and 4 diabetic donors.The tissues were divided into diabetes group and control group according to their donors.A total of 14 healthy SPF 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were selected and randomly divided into diabetes group and control group by the random number method, with 7 mice in each group.The mice in diabetes group were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg for 5 days, and no intervention was given to mice in control group.Mouse photoreceptor cells 661W were divided into advanced glycation end products (AGEs) group and control group.AGEs group was treated with 100 μg/ml AGEs for 24 hours to simulate diabetic injury, and no intervention was given to control group.The outer segment morphology of retinal photoreceptors in human and mouse retinas was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.The expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), rhodopsin and GPX4 in human and mouse retinas were detected by immunofluorescence staining.The expressions of GFAP, rhodopsin and GPX4 in mouse retina and the expression of GPX4 in 661W cells were determined by Western blot.The activity of 661W cells was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) method.The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in mouse retina and cells was detected by TBA method.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in mouse retina and cells was detected by hydroxylamine assay.The use of human tissues was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (No.TJ-C20230301). The animal experiments were conducted with reference to the Standards Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health, and the study protocol was approved by the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (No.TJH-2016001).Results:Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that retinal photoreceptor outer segments were deformed or broken in diabetic donors and diabetic mice compared with control groups.GFAP fluorescent signal mainly appeared in the inner retina of human and mice, and the stained cells were spindle or polygonal, which was consistent with the shape of glial cells.The retinal GFAP fluorescent signal of diabetic tissue and mouse groups was stronger than that of respective control groups.Rhodopsin was only expressed in the outer segment layer of photoreceptors with clear boundaries, and GPX4 was expressed in the whole retina with strong signal in the outer segment layer of photoreceptors.The fluorescent signals of rhodopsin and GPX4 in diabetic tissue and mouse groups were weaker than those in respective control groups.The relative expressions of GFAP were significantly higher and the relative expressions of rhodopsin and GPX4 were significantly lower in diabetic tissue and mouse groups than in respective control groups (all at P<0.05). The cell viability of AGEs group was significantly lower than that of control group ( t=13.490, P<0.001). The relative expression of GPX4 protein in AGEs group was 0.42±0.12, which was significantly lower than 1.00±0.04 in control group ( t=9.041, P<0.001). MDA concentration was higher and SOD activity was lower in retinal tissue of diabetic mice and AGEs group than those in respective control groups, and the differences were statistically significant (all at P<0.05). Conclusions:Diabetes can reduce the GPX4 level in retinal photoreceptor cells and cause the imbalance of oxidation-antioxidant system, which may be the mechanism of the damage to retinal photoreceptor cells caused by diabetes.

12.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 532-537, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990073

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the expression changes of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX4) in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) under different experimental conditions, and to explore the role of Nrf2 in inhibiting ferroptosis in the process of alleviating hyperoxic lung injury(HLI).Methods:Hyperoxic model was established by hyperoxia exposure.HPMEC were treated with blank control (control group), oxygen exposure at the concentration of 950 mL/L (hyperoxia group), oxygen exposure at the concentration of 950 mL/L+ 10 μmol/L Ferrostatin (ferroptosis inhibitor group) and oxygen exposure at the concentration of 950 mL/L + 10 μmol/L ML385 (Nrf2 inhibitor group). Cell viability at 24 h and 48 h was tested by the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected by a commercial ROS kit.The mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 and GPX4 were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively.Differences were analyzed using the Student′s t-test for a two-group comparison or one-way ANOVA test among groups. Results:(1)Compared with the control group, significantly decreased viability and increased ROS levels were detected in hyperoxia group.Meanwhile, the mRNA (24 h: 0.750±0.010 vs.1.010±0.160, 48 h: 0.690±0.050 vs.1.000±0.070) and protein levels of GPX4 (24 h: 0.160±0.010 vs.0.290±0.010, 48 h: 0.190±0.010 vs.0.250±0.010) at 24 h and 48 h were significantly downregulated, while the mRNA (24 h: 1.740±0.050 vs.1.000±0.050, 48 h: 2.130±0.020 vs.1.000±0.030) and protein levels of Nrf2 (24 h: 0.840±0.010 vs.0.480±0.010, 48 h: 0.840±0.010 vs.0.550±0.030) at 24 h and 48 h were significantly upregulated in hyperoxia group than those of control group (all P<0.05). (2)Compared with the hyperoxia group, significantly increased viability and decreased ROS levels were detected in ferroptosis inhibitor group.Meanwhile, the mRNA (24 h: 1.520±0.110, 48 h: 1.880±0.050) and protein levels of GPX4 (24 h: 0.290±0.010, 48 h: 0.250±0.004) at 24 h and 48 h were significantly upregulated, while the mRNA (24 h: 0.780±0.040, 48 h: 0.760±0.030) and protein levels of Nrf2 (24 h: 0.480±0.010, 48 h: 0.540±0.020) at 24 h and 48 h were significantly downregulated in ferroptosis inhibitor group than those of hyperoxia group (all P<0.05). (3)Compared with the hyperoxia group, significantly decreased viability and increased ROS levels were detected in Nrf2 inhibitor group.Meanwhile, the mRNA (24 h: 0.600±0.030, 48 h: 0.590±0.003) and protein levels of GPX4 (24 h: 0.150±0.001, 48 h: 0.180±0.001) at 24 h and 48 h were significantly downregulated, while the mRNA level of Nrf2 was significantly upregulated at 24 h (3.360±0.130), but downregulated at 48 h (1.430±0.130) (all P<0.05). No significant difference was detected in the protein level of Nrf2 at 24 h and 48 h between hyperoxia group and Nrf2 inhibitor group ( P>0.05). Conclusions:Ferroptosis is involved in the development of HLI, and Nrf2 is able to alleviate hyperoxic lung injury by inhibiting ferroptosis.Therefore, inhibition of ferroptosis by Nrf2 may provide a new therapeutic target for HLI.

13.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 662-668, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987116

ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is a newly-emerged pattern of programmed cell death discovered in recent years, which is defined as iron-dependent programmed necrosis mediated by lipid peroxidation damage. As a conservative procedure, ferroptosis plays a vital role in the development and diseases of multiple organisms including plants and animals. Since ferroptosis was first reported in 2012, growing interests have been diverted to the process of ferroptosis and its role in disease treatment. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common pathological process during organ transplantation, and ferroptosis is considered as one of the main patterns inducing ischemia-reperfusion injury. Consequently, the definition, regulatory mechanism and the mechanisms of ferroptosis in ischemia-reperfusion injury after kidney, liver, heart and lung transplantations were reviewed, aiming to provide theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of ischemia-reperfusion injury in organ transplantation.

14.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 264-273, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978472

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a commonly seen digestive system disease with unclear pathogenesis. The condition is complex and variable, often chronic, and has a long treatment period with no specific cure. Currently, the treatment of UC often involves the use of corticosteroids, aminosalicylates, and biologics in western medicine, which provide fast-acting and definite efficacy in the short term. However, with prolonged medication, some patients may develop drug resistance and worsening of the disease, leading to the occurrence of colon cancer. Research has found that oxidative stress is one of the important pathogenic factors in UC and influences its onset and development. Oxidative stress is a state of imbalance between oxidative products and the antioxidant system in the body, characterized by overexpression of oxidative products such as malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), or deficiency of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). It is worth noting that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as a unique characteristic medicine of China, has achieved significant efficacy in the treatment of UC. Studies have shown that TCM effectively inhibits the occurrence of UC by suppressing the accumulation of metabolites and antagonizes the development of UC by enhancing the antioxidant system. Therefore, using TCM to regulate the oxidative balance as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach may be a new method and direction for the treatment of UC in the future. Based on the above research, this article summarized the mechanisms of key pathogenic proteins in oxidative stress and the occurrence and development of UC, and compiled the effective ingredients of Chinese medicine, single drugs, prescriptions, and acupuncture and moxibustion in regulating upstream and downstream target proteins of oxidative stress. These interventions can reduce pathological damage to the intestinal mucosa, lower the colon injury index, enrich the intestinal microbiota, increase colon length, and improve clinical symptoms of UC. The article is expected to expand the application of TCM in the treatment of UC and provide a reliable scientific theoretical basis.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 577-597, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971714

ABSTRACT

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons (MNs) with large unmet medical needs. Multiple pathological mechanisms are considered to contribute to the progression of ALS, including neuronal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Honokiol (HNK) has been reported to exert therapeutic effects in several neurologic disease models including ischemia stroke, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Here we found that honokiol also exhibited protective effects in ALS disease models both in vitro and in vivo. Honokiol improved the viability of NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells that expressed the mutant G93A SOD1 proteins (SOD1-G93A cells for short). Mechanistical studies revealed that honokiol alleviated cellular oxidative stress by enhancing glutathione (GSH) synthesis and activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway. Also, honokiol improved both mitochondrial function and morphology via fine-tuning mitochondrial dynamics in SOD1-G93A cells. Importantly, honokiol extended the lifespan of the SOD1-G93A transgenic mice and improved the motor function. The improvement of antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial function was further confirmed in the spinal cord and gastrocnemius muscle in mice. Overall, honokiol showed promising preclinical potential as a multiple target drug for ALS treatment.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 298-314, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971689

ABSTRACT

Metastasis accounts for 90% of breast cancer deaths, where the lethality could be attributed to the poor drug accumulation at the metastatic loci. The tolerance to chemotherapy induced by breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) and their particular redox microenvironment further aggravate the therapeutic dilemma. To be specific, therapy-resistant BCSCs can differentiate into heterogeneous tumor cells constantly, and simultaneously dynamic maintenance of redox homeostasis promote tumor cells to retro-differentiate into stem-like state in response to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Herein, we develop a specifically-designed biomimic platform employing neutrophil membrane as shell to inherit a neutrophil-like tumor-targeting capability, and anchored chemotherapeutic and BCSCs-differentiating reagents with nitroimidazole (NI) to yield two hypoxia-responsive prodrugs, which could be encapsulated into a polymeric nitroimidazole core. The platform can actively target the lung metastasis sites of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), and release the escorted drugs upon being triggered by the hypoxia microenvironment. During the responsiveness, the differentiating agent could promote transferring BCSCs into non-BCSCs, and simultaneously the nitroimidazole moieties conjugated on the polymer and prodrugs could modulate the tumor microenvironment by depleting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) and amplifying intracellular oxidative stress to prevent tumor cells retro-differentiation into BCSCs. In combination, the BCSCs differentiation and tumor microenvironment modulation synergistically could enhance the chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity, and remarkably suppress tumor growth and lung metastasis. Hopefully, this work can provide a new insight in to comprehensively treat TNBC and lung metastasis using a versatile platform.

17.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 115-129, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971474

ABSTRACT

Ex vivo culture-amplified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied because of their capacity for healing tissue injury. MSC transplantation is a valid approach for promoting the repair of damaged tissues and replacement of lost cells or to safeguard surviving cells, but currently the efficiency of MSC transplantation is constrained by the extensive loss of MSCs during the short post-transplantation period. Hence, strategies to increase the efficacy of MSC treatment are urgently needed. Iron overload, reactive oxygen species deposition, and decreased antioxidant capacity suppress the proliferation and regeneration of MSCs, thereby hastening cell death. Notably, oxidative stress (OS) and deficient antioxidant defense induced by iron overload can result in ferroptosis. Ferroptosis may inhibit cell survival after MSC transplantation, thereby reducing clinical efficacy. In this review, we explore the role of ferroptosis in MSC performance. Given that little research has focused on ferroptosis in transplanted MSCs, further study is urgently needed to enhance the in vivo implantation, function, and duration of MSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants/metabolism , Ferroptosis , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Iron Overload/metabolism
18.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 89-96, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960711

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role of glutathione transferase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet using the RNA-Seq technique in combination with gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of differentially expressed genes. Methods A total of 14 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into control group with 6 mice and model group with 8 mice by random sampling. The mice in the control group were fed with normal diet, and those in the model group were fed with high-fat diet for 7 consecutive weeks to establish a model of NAFLD. Kits were used to measure the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the level of triglyceride (TG), and HE staining and oil red staining were used to observe liver pathology and deposition of lipid droplets. Liver tissue RNA was extracted for RNA-Seq, and genes with a fold change of ≥2.0 and a P value of 0.05). Compared with the control group, the model group had a significantly higher serum level of TG (2.02±0.50 mmol/L vs 1.00±0.29 mmol/L, t =-4.45, P =0.001). HE staining showed diffuse steatosis and ballooning degeneration in the model group, and oil red staining showed that the model group had a significant increase in orange-red lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and a significantly higher grade of hepatocyte steatosis than the control group (1.88±0.64 vs 1.00±0.00, t =-3.86, P =0.006). RNA-seq results showed a total of 1367 differentially expressed genes between the two groups, among which there were 608 upregulated genes and 759 downregulated genes, and there were 17 differentially expressed GST genes between the two groups. The top 10 GST genes in terms of fold change were validated, and compared with the control group, the model group had downregulated expression of GSTa2, GSTa3, GSTa4, GSTm1, GSTm2, GSTm3, GSTm4, GSTp1, and GSTo1 and upregulated expression of GSTk1. The results of qRT-PCR were consistent with the results of sequencing. Conclusion GST affects lipid metabolism by participating in various biological processes such as steroid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and cholesterol metabolism and is closely associated with the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

19.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 602-616, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982403

ABSTRACT

Blueberries are rich in phenolic compounds including anthocyanins which are closely related to biological health functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of blueberry anthocyanins extracted from 'Brightwell' rabbiteye blueberries in mice. After one week of adaptation, C57BL/6J healthy male mice were divided into different groups that were administered with 100, 400, or 800 mg/kg blueberry anthocyanin extract (BAE), and sacrificed at different time points (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 12 h). The plasma, eyeball, intestine, liver, and adipose tissues were collected to compare their antioxidant activity, including total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-PX/GPX) content, and the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The results showed that blueberry anthocyanins had positive concentration-dependent antioxidant activity in vivo. The greater the concentration of BAE, the higher the T-AOC value, but the lower the MDA level. The enzyme activity of SOD, the content of GSH-PX, and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and GPX all confirmed that BAE played an antioxidant role after digestion in mice by improving their antioxidant defense. The in vivo antioxidant activity of BAE indicated that blueberry anthocyanins could be developed into functional foods or nutraceuticals with the aim of preventing or treating oxidative stress-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Blueberry Plants , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Superoxide Dismutase , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase-1
20.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 658-665, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985858

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of the small-molecule inhibitor CIL56 in the death of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. Methods SRB method and plate-cloning method were used to detect the effect of CIL56 on the proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The effect of CIL56 on the migration of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells was investigated by scratch-healing test. The effect of CIL56 on the concentration of iron ions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was detected with an iron-detection kit. A total glutathione test kit was used to examine the effect of CIL56 on glutathione concentration in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Western blot was used to investigate the effect of CIL56 on the expression of xCT and GPX4 proteins related to iron death, as well as YAP1 protein, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Results CIL56 could significantly inhibit the proliferation (P < 0.05) and migration (P < 0.001) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. With the increased CIL56 concentration, the iron concentration in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma increased (P < 0.05). CIL56 could reduce the glutathione content in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (P < 0.01). CIL56 could reduce the expression of xCT and GPX4 proteins related to iron death and decrease the level of YAP1 protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (both P < 0.001). Conclusion The small-molecule inhibitor CIL56 can significantly inhibit the proliferation and migration of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and reduce the expression of the iron-death-related proteins xCT and GPX4, as well as YAP1 protein.

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