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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 322-338, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939882

ABSTRACT

Immune-based therapies have experienced a pronounced breakthrough in the past decades as they acquired multiple US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals for various indications. To date, six chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapies have been permitted for the treatment of certain patients with relapsed/refractory hematologic malignancies. However, several clinical trials of solid tumor CAR-T therapies were prematurely terminated, or they reported life-threatening treatment-related damages to healthy tissues. The simultaneous expression of target antigens by healthy organs and tumor cells is partly responsible for such toxicities. Alongside targeting tumor-specific antigens, targeting the aberrantly glycosylated glycoforms of tumor-associated antigens can also minimize the off-tumor effects of CAR-T therapies. Tn, T, and sialyl-Tn antigens have been reported to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis, and their expression results from the dysregulation of a series of glycosyltransferases and the endoplasmic reticulum protein chaperone, Cosmc. Moreover, these glycoforms have been associated with various types of cancers, including prostate, breast, colon, gastric, and lung cancers. Here, we discuss how underglycosylated antigens emerge and then detail the latest advances in the development of CAR-T-based immunotherapies that target some of such antigens.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm/chemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Glycosylation , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/metabolism , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , T-Lymphocytes , United States
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934381

ABSTRACT

Objective:Analyze the correlation between serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycan and Lauren classification of gastric cancer.Methods:A retrospective study was performed on 17 patients with diffuse type gastric cancer and 21 patients with intestinal type who received treatment in Zhongshan Hospital from 2017 to 2018, and the general medical history data and disease characteristics were summarized. The serum IgG glycome profiles were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography, and the difference between intestinal type and diffuse type gastric cance was compared.Logistic regression was used to evaluate the correlation between serum IgG N-glycan and Lauren classification.Results:IgG N-glycome analysis included 27 directly detected glycans and 4 derived traits. H=Hexose, N=N-acetylglucosamine, F=Fucose, S=Sialic acid.There was no significant difference in IgG N-glycan among different chemotherapy protocol. Compared with intestinal type, H3N3F1 ( t=3.785, P=0.001), H3N4( t=3.919, P=0.002), H3N4F1( t=2.770, P=0.005), H3N5F1( t=2.888, P=0.010) were decreased in diffuse type; H4N4F1(6)( t=?3.488, P<0.001), H5N4F1( t=?3.401, P=0.003), H5N5F1( t=?2.303, P=0.023), H5N4F1S1 ( t=?3.068, P=0.008) were increased.H3N3F1( OR:1.20, P=0.008), H3N4( OR:1.32, P=0.005), H3N4F1 ( OR:1.13, P=0.017), H3N5F1 ( OR:1.78, P=0.015), H4N4F1(6)( OR:0.43, P=0.008), H5N4F1(6)( OR:0.74, P=0.008), H5N5F1 ( OR:0.32, P=0.036), H5N4F1S1( OR:0.48, P=0.009) were significantly correlated with Lauren classification. Sialylated ( t=?2.717, P=0.012) and galactosylated ( t=?3.400, P=0.001) IgG N-glycan were reduced in patients with intestinal type gastric cancer.Galactosylated ( OR:0.87, P=0.007) and sialylated ( OR:0.62, P=0.015) IgG N-glycan were significantly correlated with Lauren classification. Conclusion:Some IgG N-glycan are significantly correlated with Lauren classification, which can be used as potential biomarkers.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934380

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a lectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (lectin-ELISA) for the dection of sialylated fetuin-A and to explore the clinical diagnostic value of sialylated fetuin-A in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods:From January 2017 to December 2020, 300 HCC patients and 160 disease controls, including 36 liver cirrhosis subgroups and 124 chronic hepatitis B subgroups, were collected from Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital. At the same time, 100 healthy subjects were collected as healthy controls. Lectin-ELISA method for detecting sialylated fetuin A was established based on the principle that Sambucus nigra lectin (SNA) can recognize the structure of α-2, 6-linked sialic acid residues. Differences between groups were compared using t-test or analysis of variance. Logistic regression method was used to establish the multi-index joint detection model, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the efficacy of single index and joint detection model in the diagnosis of HCC.Results:A lectin-ELISA method for the detection of serum Sia-fetuin A was established. The linear regression coefficient of the system was 0.978 5, and the precision evaluation and interference experiments were in line with the clinical detection requirements. Using this method to detect serum Sia-fetuin A levels in each group, the levels of HCC group, disease control group and healthy control group were 1.362±0.310, 1.199±0.370, 1.086±0.420, respectively, and the three groups decreased in turn. The areas under the curve of Sia-fetuin A, α-fetoprotein, and their combined detection models for differential diagnosis of HCC were 0.790, 0.809, and 0.860, respectively. The diagnostic model had a sensitivity of 79.3% (238/300) and a specificity of 95.0% (247/260). Among the 300 patients in the HCC group, 138 (46%) patients were negative for serum AFP (<20 μg/L), and their serum Sia-fetuin A level was 1.364±0.305. Combining the disease control group and the healthy control group into the non-Cancer group, the serum Sia-fetuin A level was 1.146±0.381. The serum level of Sia-fetuin A in AFP-negative HCC patients was higher than that in non-HCC group ( t=6.134, P<0.001). The areas under the curve of Sia-fetuin A and the combined diagnostic model for the diagnosis of AFP-negative HCC were 0.776 and 0.919, respectively. The combined diagnostic model had a sensitivity of 93.4% (129/138) and a specificity of 77.3% (201/260). Conclusion:Serum Sia-fetuin A and combined determination model can provide a new auxiliary diagnostic index for AFP-negative HCC.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934377

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is a part of the structure and function of immunoglobulin G (IgG). Sialic acid is located at the end of IgG N-glycan and regulates IgG anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory activities by changing the binding of IgG with fragment crystallizable gamma receptors (FcγRs) and complements. Low IgG sialylation is closely related to the occurrence, development and prognosis of autoimmune diseases and shows great potential in the field of diagnosis, monitoring and treatment, and may function as a new biomarker and therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934376

ABSTRACT

Platelet surface is rich in glycocalyx. It has been found that platelet glycosylation plays an important role in the physiological hemostasis mechanism, regulating the interaction between platelets and receptor proteins, and dynamically reshaping the surface glycosylation through its own glucose metabolism system. Platelet glycosylation also participates in platelet aging and clearance, and regulates platelet counts. Meanwhile, abnormal platelet glycosylation is closely related to primary immune thrombocytopenia, coronary heart disease and other related diseases, being a potential therapeutic target.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934374

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modification (PTM) for proteins. Glycans of glycoproteins play pivotal effects in cell recognition, signal transduction, differentiation, proliferation and immigration. The sialylation, fucosylation and degree of branching are intimately related to the development and progression of various malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Both glycans as well as glycoprotein have become the hot targets for disease biomarker exploration and therapeutic interventions.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934050

ABSTRACT

Bacteria play an important role in human health and disease. Their biological functions are often related to the glycans attached to the protein surface. In recent years, the glycosylation modification of bacterial proteins has attracted increasingly widespread attention. With the continuous development of synthetic biology and the in-depth research on glycosylation modification systems, some modification systems have been applied in engineered bacteria to play the role of protein modification independently, making it possible to "customized glycoproteins" . This paper reviewed the current status of research on the basic components, types and pathways of bacterial protein glycosylation modification as well as the biological function and application.

8.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 60-64, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933757

ABSTRACT

Congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) is a group of genetic metabolic diseases involving multiple organs. A case of CDG caused by SLC35A2 gene mutation was diagnosed. The clinical characteristics included spasms, developmental retardation and multiple malformations. Video-electroencephalogram showed dysrhythmia. A de novo heterozygous missense mutation of SLC35A2 gene was detected by whole exome sequencing: c.844G>A (p.Gly282Arg). It was predicted to be likely pathogenic according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines which had not been reported in China.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932956

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the lens and type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods:226 subjects were recruited between August 14 to September 14, 2018 from the Endocrinology Department of Central South University Xiangya Hospital, the Third Hospital of Changsha City, and the Fourth Hospital of Changsha City. The OGTT test, combined with clinical indicators, were used as the gold standard. Subjects were screened for type 2 diabetes using both the lens AGE fluorescence assay and the gold standard. Drawing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, we calculated the area under the curve (AUC) and its 95% CI and calculated the AGE for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, Kappa value, and its 95% CI, and the optimal cut-off value were determined according to the Youden index. Taking diabetes as the outcome indicator and AGE as the binary indicator, three logistic regression models were constructed. Stratified by age and sub-center, the differences between fasting blood glucose and 2 h postprandial blood glucose were compared between the AGE-negative and AGE-positive groups to determine the relationship between AGE and diabetes. Results:The area under the ROC curve was 0.86(95% CI: 0.81-0.91). According to the Youden index, the optimal cut-off point for AGE was 0.24. At this time, the sensitivity was 82.86(95% CI: 77.81-87.91), the specificity was 77.06(95% CI: 71.43-82.7), the Youden index was 59.92(95% CI: 53.36-66.49), the Kappa value was 79.62(95% CI: 74.22-85.02). Except for the 20-39-year-old group, the fasting blood glucose and 2 h postprandial blood glucose of the AGE-positive group in different age groups, different sub-centers, and the general population were higher than those of the AGE-negative group (all P<0.05). After adjusting for the confounding effects of age, gender, and sub-center (model 3), the relative risk of diabetes in the AGE-positive group was 11.75 times higher than the AGE-negative group (95% CI: 5.61-24.60), all with P<0.001. Conclusion:There was a high correlation between AGE in the lens and the risk of type 2 diabetes. When the cut-off point of AGE is 0.24, it had high sensitivity and specificity and could be used as a practical tool for early screening of type 2 diabetes.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929050

ABSTRACT

The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves many factors, including environmental parameters, microorganisms, and the immune system. Although research on IBD continues to expand, the specific pathogenesis mechanism is still unclear. Protein modification refers to chemical modification after protein biosynthesis, also known as post-translational modification (PTM), which causes changes in the properties and functions of proteins. Since proteins can be modified in different ways, such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation, the functions of proteins in different modified states will also be different. Transitions between different states of protein or changes in modification sites can regulate protein properties and functions. Such modifications like neddylation, sumoylation, glycosylation, and acetylation can activate or inhibit various signaling pathways (e.g., nuclear factor-‍κB (NF-‍κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B (AKT)) by changing the intestinal flora, regulating immune cells, modulating the release of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-‍‍1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF‍-‍α), and interferon-‍γ (IFN-‍γ), and ultimately leading to the maintenance of the stability of the intestinal epithelial barrier. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of PTM and describe its regulatory role in the pathogenesis of IBD.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/genetics , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927878

ABSTRACT

Mucins,a family of heavily glycosylated proteins,present mainly in epithelial cells.They function as essential barriers for epithelium and play important roles in cellular physiological processes.Aberrant expression and glycosylation of mucins in gastric epithelium occur at pathological conditions,such as Helicobacter pylori infection,chronic atrophic gastritis,intestinal metastasis,dysplasia,and gastric cancer.This review addresses the major roles played by mucins and associated O-glycan structures in normal gastric epithelium.Further,we expound the alterations of expression patterns and glycan signatures of mucins at those pathological conditions.


Subject(s)
Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Glycosylation , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Helicobacter pylori/metabolism , Humans , Mucins/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1173-1182, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927772

ABSTRACT

Opsin3 (OPN3) is a photoreceptor membrane protein with a typical seven-alpha helical transmembrane structure that belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is widely expressed in brain. In recent years, it has been reported that OPN3 is also highly expressed in adipose tissue, and the protein is associated with the production of skin melanin. We found that the N82 site is the glycosylation site of OPN3. SNAP-tagTM has diverse functions and can be applied to a variety of different studies. By constructing a SNAP-tagged OPN3 recombinant protein, the distribution position of SNAP-OPN3 in cells can be clearly observed by fluorescence confocal microscopy using SNAP-Surface® 549 and SNAP-Cell® OregonGreen®, which provides a new method for studying the function of OPN3. It also shows that SNAP-tag does not affect the function of OPN3. Using the SNAP tag we found that OPN3 cannot be taken up to the cell membrane after glycosylation site mutation.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane , Glycosylation , Melanins , Membrane Proteins , Skin
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1004-1024, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927759

ABSTRACT

Triterpenoid saponins are widely used in medicine, health cares, cosmetics, food additives and agriculture because of their unique chemical properties and rich pharmacological activities. UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are the key enzymes involved in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis, and play important roles in the diversity of triterpenoid saponin structures and pharmacological activities. This review summarized the UGTs involved in plant triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis based on the sources of UGTs and the types of receptors. Moreover, the application of UGTs in heterologous biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins based on synthetic biology was also discussed.


Subject(s)
Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Plants , Saponins/chemistry , Triterpenes
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 749-759, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927741

ABSTRACT

Genistein and its monoglucoside derivatives play important roles in food and pharmaceuticals fields, whereas their applications are limited by the low water solubility. Glycosylation is regarded as one of the effective approaches to improve water solubility. In this paper, the glycosylation of sophoricoside (genistein monoglucoside) was investigated using a cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase from Penibacillus macerans (PmCGTase). Saturation mutagenesis of D182 from PmCGTase was carried out. Compared with the wild-type (WT), the variant D182C showed a 13.42% higher conversion ratio. Moreover, the main products sophoricoside monoglucoside, sophoricoside diglucoside, and sophoricoside triglucoside of the variant D182C increased by 39.35%, 56.05% and 64.81% compared with that of the WT, respectively. Enzymatic characterization showed that the enzyme activities (cyclization, hydrolysis, disproportionation) of the variant D182C were higher than that of the WT, and the optimal pH and temperature of the variant D182C were 6 and 40℃, respectively. Kinetics analysis showed the variant D182C has a lower Km value and a higher kcat/Km value than that of the WT, indicating the variant D182C has enhanced affinity to substrate. Structure modeling and docking analysis demonstrated that the improved glycosylation efficiency of the variant D182C may be attributed to the increased interactions between residues and substrate.


Subject(s)
Cyclodextrins , Genistein , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Glycosylation , Kinetics
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923476

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze changes in proteoglycan and its correlation with alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis. @*Methods @#Twelve eight-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were selected, and the periodontitis model was established by ligating the right maxillary second molar with 6-0 silk thread. The nonligated part of the left maxilla was used as the control. The mice were killed 14 days after the operation. Micro-CT was used to assess alveolar bone resorption. HE staining was used to observe the alveolar bone profile, and TRAP staining was conducted to examine the positive rate of osteoclasts. The expression of proteoglycan-related genes, such as aggrecan (ACAN), biglycan (BGN), versican (VCAN), decorin (DCN), osteoclast-related genes, such as cathepsin K (CTSK), matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and inflammation-related genes, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Additionally, the correlation of the expression of proteoglycans with osteoclast-related genes and inflammation-related genes was evaluated by Pearson correlation analysis.@* Results@#The resorption of alveolar bone on the periodontitis side increased. TRAP staining showed that the number of osteoclasts was substantially increased in the maxilla with periodontitis. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that compared with the control side, the expression of proteoglycan-related genes, such as ACAN, BGN, and DCN, was decreased, whereas the expression of the VCAN gene was significantly increased in the periodontitis side. Meanwhile, the expression of osteoclast-related genes, such as CTSK, MMP-9, and RANKL, and inflammation-related genes, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, was markedly increased in the periodontitis side (P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis indicated a negative correlation between the expression of proteoglycans and the mRNA levels of osteoclast-related genes and inflammation-related genes (P<0.05). @*Conclusion @#The expression of proteoglycan was closely related to alveolar bone resorption in a periodontitis model.

16.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210047, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375811

ABSTRACT

Accidents with venomous animals are a public health issue worldwide. Among the species involved in these accidents are scorpions, spiders, bees, wasps, and other members of the phylum Arthropoda. The knowledge of the function of proteins present in these venoms is important to guide diagnosis, therapeutics, besides being a source of a large variety of biotechnological active molecules. Although our understanding about the characteristics and function of arthropod venoms has been evolving in the last decades, a major aspect crucial for the function of these proteins remains poorly studied, the posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Comprehension of such modifications can contribute to better understanding the basis of envenomation, leading to improvements in the specificities of potential therapeutic toxins. Therefore, in this review, we bring to light protein/toxin PTMs in arthropod venoms by accessing the information present in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database, including experimental and putative inferences. Then, we concentrate our discussion on the current knowledge on protein phosphorylation and glycosylation, highlighting the potential functionality of these modifications in arthropod venom. We also briefly describe general approaches to study "PTM-functional-venomics", herein referred to the integration of PTM-venomics with a functional investigation of PTM impact on venom biology. Furthermore, we discuss the bottlenecks in toxinology studies covering PTM investigation. In conclusion, through the mining of PTMs in arthropod venoms, we observed a large gap in this field that limits our understanding on the biology of these venoms, affecting the diagnosis and therapeutics development. Hence, we encourage community efforts to draw attention to a better understanding of PTM in arthropod venom toxins.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropod Venoms/toxicity , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Phosphorylation , Scorpions , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spiders , Wasps , Bees , Glycosylation
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 89-106, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880886

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification on membrane-associated and secreted proteins that is of pivotal importance for regulating cell functions. Aberrant glycosylation can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation, cell-matrix interactions, migration and differentiation, and has been shown to be involved in cancer and other diseases. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a key step in the metastatic process by which cancer cells gain the ability to invade tissues and extravasate into the bloodstream. This cellular transformation process, which is associated by morphological change, loss of epithelial traits and gain of mesenchymal markers, is triggered by the secreted cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). TGF-β bioactivity is carefully regulated, and its effects on cells are mediated by its receptors on the cell surface. In this review, we first provide a brief overview of major types of glycans, namely, N-glycans, O-glycans, glycosphingolipids and glycosaminoglycans that are involved in cancer progression. Thereafter, we summarize studies on how the glycosylation of TGF-β signaling components regulates TGF-β secretion, bioavailability and TGF-β receptor function. Then, we review glycosylation changes associated with TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer. Identifying and understanding the mechanisms by which glycosylation affects TGF-β signaling and downstream biological responses will facilitate the identification of glycans as biomarkers and enable novel therapeutic approaches.

18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4036-4046, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921484

ABSTRACT

N-glycosylation modification, one of the most common protein post-translational modifications, occurs in heat shock protein gp96. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of N-glycosylation modification on immunologic function of the recombinant gp96 using the mutant gp96 in N-glycosylation sites. Firstly, wild-type and mutant gp96 proteins were expressed by insect expression system and their glycosylation levels were detected. To determine the effect of N-glycosylation on gp96 antigen presentation function, the IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells in gp96-immunized mice and secretion level of IFN-γ were examined by flow cytometry and ELISA. The ATPase activity of gp96 was further detected by the ATPase kit. Finally, the effect of N-glycosylation on adjuvant function of gp96 for influenza vaccine was investigated in immunized mice. It was found that total sugar content of mutant recombinant gp96 was reduced by 27.8%. Compared to the wild type recombinant gp96, mutations in N-glycosylation sites resulted in decreased antigen presentation ability and ATPase activity of gp96. Furthermore, influenza vaccine-specific T cell levels induced by mutant gp96 as adjuvant were dramatically reduced compared to those by wild type recombinant gp96. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation modification is involved in regulation of ATPase activity and antigen presentation function of gp96, thereby affecting its adjuvant function. The results provide the technical bases for development of gp96- adjuvanted vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Glycosylation , Heat-Shock Proteins , Influenza Vaccines , Mice
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912488

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modification in protein biosynthesis. Immunoglobulin glycosylation can exert anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory activity by regulating antibody stability and affecting its interaction with different FcγRs. In recent years, a large number of studies have confirmed that abnormal glycosylation of immunoglobulin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Its products, such as sugar chain structure or/and glycosylated proteins, can be detected by lectin microarray and other technologies, are expected to become new serum markers of autoimmune diseases. It has a broad application prospect in disease diagnosis, condition monitoring, prognosis evaluation and treatment.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3345-3352, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906834

ABSTRACT

Huang-Qin is a traditional Chinese medicine with antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Its major bioactive compounds are diverse flavone O-glucuronides and glucosides. Although three flavonoid O-glycosyltransferases have been identified from S. baicalensis, this information is not sufficient to elucidate the structural diversity of flavonoid glycosides. In this study, nine glycosyltransferase candidate genes were discovered from S. baicalensis by BLAST analysis and their functions were characterized after heterologous expression. Three new flavone O-glycosyltransferases were able to catalyze the formation of major compounds in S. baicalensis, including baicalin and wogonoside. These enzymes could also utilize exogenous flavones as sugar acceptors. This work further elucidates biosynthetic pathways for Scutellaria flavonoid O-glycosides.

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