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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928189

ABSTRACT

With the ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadruple-electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS)-based metabonomics technology, this study aims to analyze the effect of Chaiqin Ningshen Granules(CNG) on endogenous metabolites in insomnia rats of liver depression syndrome and explore the sleep-improving mechanism of this prescription. Parachlorophenylalanine(PCPA, ip) and chronic stimulation were combined to induce insomnia of liver depression pattern in rats, and the effect of CNG on the macroscopic signs, hemorheology, and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of insomnia rats of liver depression syndrome was observed. After the administration, rat hippocampus was collected for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) analysis of the metabolomics. Principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were employed for analyzing the metabolites in rat hippocampus and screening potential biomarkers. MetPA was used to yield the related metabolic pathways and metabolic networks. The results show that the drugs can significantly improve the mental state, liver depression, and blood stasis of rats, significantly increase the content of 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) and gamma aminobutyric acid(GABA) in hippocampus(except low-dose CNG), and significantly reduce the content of glucose(Glu)(except low-dose CNG). Among them, estazolam and high-dose CNG had better effect than others. Metabolomics analysis yielded 27 potential biomarkers related to insomnia. MetPA analysis showed 4 metabolic pathways of estazolam in intervening insomnia and 3 metabolic pathways of high-dose CNG in intervening insomnia, involving purine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, histidine metabolism, and caffeine metabolism. CNG can alleviate insomnia by regulating endogenous differential metabolites and further related metabolic pathways. The result lays a basis for further elucidating the mechanism of CNG in improving sleep.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Estazolam , Hippocampus/metabolism , Metabolomics/methods , Rats , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928160

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic mechanism of Jingfang Granules on tail thrombosis induced by carrageenan in mice. Thirty-two male ICR mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a Jingfang Granules group, and a positive drug(aspirin) group, with eight mice in each group. The thrombosis model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan(45 mg·kg~(-1)) combined with low-temperature stimulation, and the mice were treated with drugs for 7 days before modeling. Twenty-four hours after modeling, blood was detected for four blood coagulation indices in each group. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the activity of plasma interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and other inflammatory factors. The tails of mice in each group were cut off to observe tail lesions and measure the length of the thrombus. The protein expression and phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38 MAPK) in spleen tissues were detected by Western blot. The results showed that dark red thrombus appeared in the tails of mice in each group. The length of the black part accounted for about 40% of the total tail in the model group. Additionally, the model group showed prolonged prothrombin time(PT), increased fibrinogen(FIB) content, and shortened activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT). Compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention displayed shortened black parts in the tail and improved four blood coagulation indices(P<0.05). As revealed by ELISA, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the mouse plasma were significantly up-regulated in the model group, and those in the groups with drug intervention were reduced as compared with the model group(P<0.05). As demonstrated by Western blot, the protein expression and phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in the spleen tissues were significantly elevated in the model group, while those in the Jingfang Granules group were down-regulated as compared with the model group with a significant difference. Jingfang Granules can inhibit tail thrombosis of mice caused by carrageenan presumedly by inhibiting the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carrageenan/adverse effects , Interleukin-6/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Signal Transduction , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928057

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to study the effect of Xiangqin Jiere Granules(XQ) on lipid metabolism and chronic inflammation in different obesity model mice. The monosodium glutamate(MSG) obese mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection of MSG in newborn mice, and the high fat diet(HFD) obese mouse model was established by feeding adult mice with HFD. The normal mice were assigned into the control group; the MSG obese mice were assigned into MSG model group, XQ4.5 group(Xiangqin Jiere Granu-les, 4.5 g·kg~(-1)), XQ22.5 group(Xiangqin Jiere Granules, 22.5 g·kg~(-1)); the HFD obese mice were assigned into HFD model group, XQ4.5 group, and XQ22.5 group. The mice were intragastrically administrated with saline or XQ for 5 weeks. After that, the body weight, visceral fat mass, liver and thymus weight, and the organ indexes in each group were measured. The levels of triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c) in serum and liver tissue were detected by the kits. The mRNA expression levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase 1(ACC1), fatty acid synthetase(FAS), diacylgycerol acyltransferase 1(DGAT1) and hepatic lipase(HTGL) involved in lipid metabolism in mouse liver tissue were detected by quantitative real-time PCR(qPCR). The protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6) in serum were detected by ELISA, and the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in liver tissue were detected by qPCR. Compared with the control group, MSG and HFD mice showed increased body weight, abdominal circumference, Lee index and visceral fat mass as well as elevated levels of TG, TC, and LDL-c in serum. The model mice had up-regulated gene levels of ACC1, FAS and DGAT1 while down-regulated gene level of HTGL in the liver. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 increased in the model mice. Compared with the model mice, XQ treatment decreased the body weight, abdominal circumference, Lee index, and visceral fat mass, lowered the levels of TG, TC, and LDL-c in se-rum, down-regulated the gene levels of ACC1, FAS, and DGAT1 in liver tissue, up-regulated the gene level of HTGL, and down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of IL-6. To sum up, XQ has good therapeutic effect on different obesity model mice. It can improve lipid metabolism and reduce fat accumulation in obese mice by regulating the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, and alleviate obesity-related chronic low-grade inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927914

ABSTRACT

With reference to the production process documented in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, this paper prepared the calibrator samples of Xiaochaihu Granules from multiple batches and established a method for fingerprint analysis and content determination that could be used to evaluate Xiaochaihu Granules available in market. Multiple batches of Chinese herbal pieces contained in Xiaochaihu Granules were collected for preparing the calibrator samples according to the process in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Following the establishment of fingerprints for calibrator samples by UHPLC, the method for determining the contents of saikosaponin B2, saikosaponin B1, baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, liquiritin, glycyrrhizin G2 and glycyrrhizic acid in Xiaochaihu Granules was established. The experimental results showed that the fingerprints of calibrator samples had 26 common peaks, covering the chemical compounds of main herbs Bupleuri Radix, Scutellariae Radix, Changii Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens. The similarity of fingerprints for 47 batches of Xiaochaihu Granules from 31 companies with the calibrator sample fingerprint ranged from 0.74 to 0.99, indicating good applicability of the established fingerprint. The contents of main components baicalin, saikosaponin B2, and glycyrrhizic acid in Xiaochaihu Granules were within the ranges of 22.917-49.108 mg per bag(RSD 19%), 0.28-2.19 mg per bag(RSD 62%), and 0.897-6.541 mg per bag(RSD 41%), respectively. The quality difference in saikosaponin B2, and glycyrrhizic acid among different manufacturers was significant. The fingerprint analysis and content determination method for calibrator samples of Xiaochaihu Granules prepared according to the production process in Chinese Pharmacopoeia has been proved suitable for evaluating the quality of Xiaochaihu Granules from different manufacturers. Saikosaponin B2, glycyrrhizic acid, and liquiritin should be added as content control indicators for Xiaochaihu Granules, aiming to further improve the product quality.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Scutellaria baicalensis
5.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1455-1459, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927192

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the met hod for the purific ation of test sample of Banxialu granules ,and to determine the contents of 4 ephedrine components such as ephedrine ,pseudoephedrine,norpseudoephedrine and methylephedrine. METHODS Three batches of Banxialu granules were extracted with methanol(containing 1%formic acid )and pretreated with QuEChERS method of N-propyl ethylenediamine adsorbent (PSA)and octadecyl bonded silica gel adsorbent (C18). Ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)was adopted. The separation was performed on an Agilent XDB-C 18 column with 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.1% formic acid )-acetonitrile as mobile phase(gradient elution )at the flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. The column temperature was set at 30 ℃,and sample size was 2 μL. The electrospray ionization source was adopted ,and positive ion scanning was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The ion pairs used for quantitative analysis were m/z 166.2→148.1(ephedrine,pseudoephedrine),m/z 152.2→134.1(norpseudoephedrine), m/z 180.2→162.2(methylephedrine). RESULTS The solution obtained by QuEChERS purification method was clear and nearly colorless. The linear ranges of ephedrine , pseudoephedrine, norpseudoephedrine and methylephedrine were 1.38-206.82, 1.41-212.13,1.29-19.34,1.99-59.83 ng/mL(r>0.99). The limits of detection were 0.41,0.42,0.39 and 0.60 ng/mL. The limits of quantitation were 1.38 ,1.41 ,1.29 and 1.99 ng/mL,respectively. RSDs of precision ,stability(48 h)and repeatability tests were all lower than 2%. The average recoveries were 95.75%-100.87%(RSD<2%,n=9). The contents of above 4 ephedrine components were 20.62-26.02,20.96-24.90,2.26-2.63,5.36-6.32 μg/g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Established method is simple ,rapid,sensitive and suitable for simultaneous determination of 4 ephedrine components in Banxialu granules.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 808-812, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the method for t he content determination of 5 active components in Yixin badiran jibuya granules and their fingerprints. METHODS High performance liquid chromatography method was adopted to determine the contents of luteolin- 7-O-β-D-glucuronide(LG),apigenin-7-O-glucuronide(APG),rosmarinic acid (RA),diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (DG)and tilianin (TL)in 10 batches(No. S 1-S10)of Yixin badiran jibuya granules. The fingerprints of 10 batches of Yixin badiran jibuya granules were drawn by Similarity Evaluation System of Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine(2004 A edition ),and similarity evaluation and cluster analysis were also performed. RESULTS The contents of LG , APG,RA,DG and TL in 10 batches of Yixin badiran jibuya granules were 0.279 5-0.449 9,0.082 4-0.135 3,0.184 8-0.472 1, 0.149 0-0.332 6,0.311 2-0.623 3 mg/g,respectively. A total of 13 common peaks were demarcated in the fingerprints and were identified as LG (peak 2)APG(peak 6),RA(peak 7),DG(peak 8),TL(peak 11). The similarity ranged from 0.598 to 0.990. The results of cluster analysis showed that S 6-S10 were clustered into one category and S 1-S5 were clustered into one category. CONCLUSIONS Established method for content determination and fingerprints can be used for the quality control for Yixin badiran jibuya granules.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923028

ABSTRACT

Objective To qualitatively analyze the main chemical components in compound Jinqiancao granules by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Methods XBridge BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.5 µm) was used for chromatographic separation. The mobile phase was composed of 0.1% formic acid water and 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile, gradient elution, and the flow rate was 0.4 ml/min. Mass spectrometry was characterized by Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS) and positive ion mode scanning. Results Under the optimized LC/MS condition, 47 components in compound Jinqiancao granules were identified. The isomers were distinguished by software calculation. The source of medicinal materials was assigned. Conclusion A rapid and efficient analytical method was established for the identification of chemical components in compound Jinqiancao granules by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 676-681, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922979

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of disease-related death in China and greatly threatens the health of residents. Recent studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine plays an important role in the comprehensive treatment of HCC. Huaier granules have been recommended for the treatment of HCC, and its mechanism of action includes inhibiting angiogenesis, inhibiting the proliferation of HCC cells, inhibiting invasion and metastasis, inducing cell apoptosis, and regulating immune function. This article summarizes the research advances in the anti-HCC mechanism of Huaier granules and its application in clinical practice, in order to provide a reference for subsequent research and clinical treatment.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 467-473, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922925

ABSTRACT

To simultaneously determine the contents of p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid in Imperatae Rhizoma concentrated granules, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with two internal references method (TIRM) was established and validated. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a ZORBAX RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 µm) using 1.7 mmol·L-1 oxalic acid in water and methanol as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.4 mL·min-1 and the column temperature was set as 35 ℃. The relative correction factors (RCFs) of caffeic acid and ferulic acid using p-coumaric acid as internal reference were calculated and the RCFs of 4-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid were calculated using chlorogenic acid as the internal reference. The TIRM was fully validated for linearity, accuracy, repeatability, stability and recovery so that it could be compared with the external standard method (ESM). The RCFs of 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were 1.069, 1.022, 1.368, and 1.493, respectively. The TIRM and ESM were used to determine the contents of six ingredients in Imperatae Rhizoma concentrated granules from different manufacturers and the variation between results was within acceptable limits. In conclusion, the newly established TIRM allowed simultaneous determination of six ingredients (p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid) in Imperatae Rhizoma concentrated granules, providing support for the quality control of this traditional Chinese medicine.

10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 66 p. graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397067

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are polymorphonuclear leukocytes that play a key role in the organism defense. These cells enroll in a range of actions to ensure pathogen elimination and orchestrate both innate and adaptative immune responses. The main physiological structures of neutrophils are their storage organelles that are essential since the cells activation and participate in all their functions. The storage organelles are divided into 2 types: granules and secretory vesicles. The granules are subdivided into azurophilic, specific and gelatinase. The granules are distinguished by their protein content, and since they play an important role on the neutrophil function, the knowledge of the proteins stored in these organelles can help to better understand these cells. Some proteins are present in high abundance and are used as markers for each storage organelle. These proteins are myeloperoxidase (MPO) for azurophil granules, neutrophil gelatinase associated with lipocalin-2 (NGAL) and lactoferrin (LTF) for specific granules, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) for gelatinase granules and alkaline phosphatase (AP) for secretory vesicles. The isolation of neutrophils granules, however, is challenging and the existing procedures rely on large sample volumes, about 400 mL of peripheral blood or 3 x 108 neutrophils, not allowing for multiple biological and technical replicates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a miniaturized neutrophil granules isolation method and to use biochemical assays, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and a machine learning approach to investigate the protein content of the neutrophils storage organelles. With that in mind, 40 mL of the peripheral blood of three apparently healthy volunteers were collected. The neutrophils were isolated, disrupted using nitrogen cavitation and organelles were fractionated with a discontinuous 3-layer Percoll density gradient. The presence of granules markers in each fraction was assessed using western blot , gelatin zymography and enzymatic assays. The isolation was proven successful and allowed for a reasonable separation of all neutrophils storage organelles in a gradient of less than 1 mL, about 37 times smaller than the methodsdescribed in the literature. Moreover, mass spectrometry-based proteomics identified 369 proteins in at least 3 of the 5 samples, and using a machine learning strategy, the localization of 140 proteins was predicted with confidence. Furthermore, this study was the first to investigate the proteome of neutrophil granules using technical and biological replicates, creating a reliable database for further studies. In conclusion, the developed miniaturized method is reproducible, cheaper, and reliable. In addition, it provides a resource for further studies exploring neutrophil granules protein content and mobilization during activation with different stimuli


Neutrófilos são leucócitos polimorfonucleares que possuem papel fundamental na defesa do organismo. Essas células desempenham diversas ações a fim de assegurar a eliminação de um patógeno e, além disso, orquestram a resposta imune inata e adaptativa. O conjunto composto pelos grânulos de armazenamento e as vesículas secretórias compõe a principal estrutura fisiológica dos neutrófilos. Estes componentes são essenciais desde a ativação celular, participando de todas as funcionalidades desta célula. Os grânulos são subdivididos em azurófilos, específicos e gelatinase. Eles podem ser distinguidos por meio de seu conteúdo proteico e, como são importantes na funcionalidade dos neutrófilos, identificar quais proteínas são armazenadas nestas organelas é imprescindível para entender melhor essa célula como um todo. Algumas proteínas, estão presentes de forma abundante e, portanto, são utilizadas como marcadores dos grânulos. Tais proteínas são mieloperoxidase (MPO) para os grânulos azurófilos, gelatinase de neutrófilo associada a lipocalina (NGAL) e lactoferrina (LTF) para os específicos, metaloproteinase de matrix 9 (MMP9) para os grânulos de gelatinase e fosfatase alcalina (AP) para as vesículas secretórias. Isolar estas estruturas, no entanto, é desafiador visto que os protocolos existentes na literatura utilizam grandes volumes de amostra, cerca de 400 mL de sangue ou 3 x 108 neutrófilos, para apenas um isolamento, impedindo a realização de replicatas técnicas e biológicas. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi desenvolver um protocolo miniaturizado de isolamento dos grânulos neutrofílicos e utilizar métodos bioquímicos, de proteômica e machine learning para investigar o conteúdo proteico destas estruturas celulares. Para isto, 40 mL de sangue periférico de três voluntários aparentemente saudáveis foi coletado. Os neutrófilos foram então isolados, lisados com cavitação de nitrogênio e o fracionamento subcelular foi realizado baseado em um gradiente descontínuo de 3 camadas de Percoll. O método de isolamento foi avaliado através da investigação dos marcadores utilizando western blotting (WB), zimografia de gelatina e ensaios enzimáticos em cada fração coletada. O isolamento demonstrou-se eficiente e permitiu uma ótima separação dos grânulosem um gradiente menor que 1 mL, cerca de 37 vezes menor que os métodos atualmente descritos na literatura. Além disso, a análise proteômica foi capaz de identificar 369 proteínas presentes em pelo menos 3 das 5 réplicas investigadas e, utilizando ferramentas de machine learning, 140 proteínas foram classificadas como pertencentes a um dos tipos de grânulos ou vesícula secretória com alto nível de confiabilidade. Por fim, o presente estudo foi o primeiro a investigar o proteoma dos grânulos utilizando replicatas técnicas e biológicas, criando e fornecendo uma base de dados robusta que poderá ser utilizada em estudos futuros. Conclui-se, portanto, que a metodologia miniaturizada desenvolvida é eficaz, reprodutível e mais barata, além de permitir estudos mais complexos e profundos sobre o proteoma dos grânulos dos neutrófilos em diferentes momentos celulares, tais como quando ativados via estímulos distintos


Subject(s)
Proteomics/instrumentation , Methodology as a Subject , Neutrophils/classification , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Cavitation , Blotting, Western/instrumentation , Gelatinases/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/adverse effects , Machine Learning/classification
11.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1990-1994, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To determine the conte nts of 4 main components in Rougui renshen granules ,and to establish the fingerprint and to screen differential markers affecting its quality. METHODS HPLC method was employed to determine the contents of ammonium glycyrrhizinate ,glycyrrhizin,cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde. HPLC fingerprints of 10 batches of Rougui renshen granules were established simultaneously. Similarity Evaluation System of Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM (2012 edition)was used to evaluate the similarity and determine the common peak ;SPSS 25.0 and SIMCA 14.1 software were applied for cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA)and partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The differential markers affecting sample quality were screened by using the variable importance in projection (VIP)value> 1 as standard. RESULTS The methodology of content determination met the relevant requirements. The contents of ammonium glycyrrhizinate,glycyrrhizin,cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde were 1.808 4-2.770 0,1.137 2-1.481 4,0.076 5-0.091 8 and 0.130 9-0.478 4 mg/g,respectively. A total of 16 common peaks were found in the fingerprints of 10 batches of Rougui renshen granules. Four chromatographic peaks were identified ,i.e. glycyrrhizin (peak 6),cinnamic acid (peak 10),cinnamaldehyde(peak 11)and ammonium glycyrrhizinate (peak 15). The similarities of samples were >0.95. Results of CA showed that 10 batches of samples could be classified into three categories :S3 was grouped into one category ;S1-S2,S4-S5 and S 10 were grouped into one category;S6-S9 were grouped into one category. The results of PCA showed that the cumulative contribution rate of the first three principal components was 91.918%,and the classification results were consistent with CA. The results of OPLS-DA showed that the four peaks with VIP value >1 were peak 11(cinnamaldehyde),peak 15(ammonium glycyrrhizinate ),peak 6(glycyrrhizin) and peak 9. CONCLUSIONS Established methods of content determination and fingerprint are accurate and reproducible ,and can be used for the quality evaluation of Rougui renshen granules. The components as ammonium glycyrrhizinate ,cinnamaldehyde, glycyrrhizin may be differential markers affecting the quality of Rougui renshen granules.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the prescription patterns of different dosage forms of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their effects on immune-inflammatory indices.@*METHODS@#Clinical data were collected from patients with RA in 4 hospitals (3 Class A comprehensive hospitals and 1 Class B comprehensive hospital) in Anhui Province, China, from August 2012 to June 2018 via the electronic medical record gathering system. Following extraction of prescription information, each prescribed herb was quantified and standardized according to the knowledge base to establish a database of RA treatment formulae. The medical records were divided into the granules group and decoction pieces group. Core herbs and their combination patterns were obtained from the two groups of cases using Liquorice software. Changes in immune-inflammatory and hepatic and renal function indices were compared between the two groups using SPSS 23.0 software. The Aprior module of SPSS Clementine 11.1 software was applied to analyse the correlation between CHMs and improvement in indices. Finally, the ORACLE 10 g tool was used to evaluate the random walk model of the immune-inflammatory indices between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#(1) We retrospectively analysed 35,898 prescriptions for 6,829 patients with RA who received CHM treatment. There were 3,816 patients in the granules group and 3,013 in the decoction pieces group. (2) The core herbs were Pi (Spleen)-strengthening and dampness-resolving drugs, blood-activating and stasis-resolving drugs, wind/dampness-dispelling drugs and heat-clearing and detoxifying drugs. (3) Both dosage forms could improve immune-inflammatory indices in RA patients, with similar efficacy and no influence on hepatic or renal function. (4) Herba Siegesbeckiae and Oldenlandia had a stronger association with immune-inflammatory indices in the two groups. (5) The immune-inflammatory indices showed obvious improvement after treatment with granules and decoction pieces of CHMs, and there were long range correlations between the comprehensive evaluation indices and interventions.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The principal CHM treatment methods for RA in four hospitals in Anhui Province are strengthening Pi and resolving dampness, activating blood and resolving stasis, dispelling wind/dampness and clearing heat. Granules and decoction pieces of CHMs have similar efficacy in improving immune-inflammatory indices in RA patients and could be used as treatment options for RA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions , Retrospective Studies
13.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1718-1723, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934954

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the fingerp rint of decoction pi eces and dispensing granules of Gardenia jasminoides ,to determine the contents of 6 components,so as to evaluate its quality combined with chemical pattern recognition. METHODS High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)was used. Using geniposide as the reference ,Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM (2012 edition)was used to draw the fingerprints of 20 batches of G. jasminoides decoction pieces and 10 batches of G. jasminoides dispensing granules. Similarity evaluation and common peaks identification were conducted. The same HPLC method was adopted to determine the contents of deacetyl asperulosidic acid methyl ester ,geniposide, picrocrocin,rutin,crocin-Ⅰ and crocin- Ⅱ. ORIGIN 9.1 software was used for hierarchical clustering analysis ,and SIMCA 16.0 software was used for principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. The differential components affecting the quality of decoction pieces and dispensing granules were screened by taking the variable importance in projection(VIP)value>1 as the standard. RESULTS There were 24 common peaks for both 20 batches of G. jasminoides decoction piece and 10 batches of G. jasminoides dispensing granules ;a total of 22 common peaks were found in the fingerprints of 30 batches of samples ,and the similarity was not lower than 0.96;six common peaks were identified ,i.e. deacetyl asperulosidic acid methyl ester (peak 2),geniposide(peak 6),picrocrocin(peak 9),rutin(peak 11),crocin-Ⅰ(peak 15),crocin-Ⅱ(peak 17). Average contents of above 6 components in G. jasminoides decoction pieces were 1.04,57.00,1.30,1.03,9.63 and 0.99 mg/g, respectively;those of G. jasmin oides dispensing granules were 0.96,17.04,0.37,0.27,0.73 and 0.04 mg/g,respectively. PCA results showed that G. jasminoides decoction pieces and G. jasminoides dispensing granules were clustered into respective one category ,which was consistent with results of cluster analysis. There were 9 common peaks with VIP value >1, which were 16,14,3,17(crocin-Ⅱ),15(crocin-Ⅰ),18, 22, 2 (deacetyl asperulosidic acid methyl ester) and 21. CONCLUSIONS The estab lished fingerprint and content determination method are simple and reproducible. Combined with chemical pattern recognition ,it can be used to evaluate the quality of decoction pieces and dispensing granules of G. jasminoides . Nine corresponding components represented by peak 16 and so on are the differential components that affect the quality of them.

14.
Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 53-61, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932144

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effects of Rougan Huaxian Granules combined with nucleoside antiviral drugs on liver and kidney function, portal hemodynamics, vascular activity, antiviral indexes and aspartate transaminase-platelet ratio index in patients with hepatitis B decompensated cirrhosis.Methods:A case-control study was conducted on 150 patients with hepatitis B decompensated cirrhosis who were hospitalized in Tangshan Infectious Disease Institute and Affiliated Hospital of North China University of Science and Technology from June 2017 to December 2019 were enrolled. The patients were divided into control group and observation group by computer random random number method, with 75 cases in each group. The control group was given routine liver protection and antiviral treatment; the observation group was given Rougan Huaxian granules on the basis of the control group treatment. Observe the changes of liver and kidney function, portal vein system hemodynamics, vascular activity, antiviral index and aspartate transaminase-platelet ratio index in the two groups. Independent sample T test was used to compare the measurement data between the two groups, paired T test was used for comparison between the same groups before and after treatment, and χ2 test was used for counting data. Results:There were no significant differences in gender, age, course of cirrhosis, Child grade of liver function and baseline data of indexes before treatment between 2 groups (ALL P>0.05). After treatment, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea nitrogen, creatinine,diameter of portal vein (Dpv), diameter of splenic vein (Dsv), endothelin-1, nitric oxide, glucagon (GLA), APRI,were all lower than before treatment. Comparison between groups, observation group ALT (51.60±15.97) U/L, AST (62.65±26.28) U/L, urea nitrogen (10.25±1.65) mmol/L, creatinine (78.54±14.09) μmol/L, Dpv (10.20±1.10) mm, Dsv (8.08±0.68) mm, endothelin-1 (31.93±6.35) ng/L, nitric oxide (41.38±8.06) μg/L, GLA (69.54±12.14) mg/L, APRI (3.14±1.35), were significantly lower than those of control group ((97.49±30.87) U/L, (96.03±25.63) U/L, (17.49±2.55) mmol/L, (116.43±22.77) μmol/L, (13.42±1.26) mm, (10.44±0.83) mm, (44.34+11.88) ng/L, (63.47±15.50) μg/L, (107.11+25.29) mg/L, (5.91±1.93)), the differences were statistically significant ( t values were respectively 11.43, 7.87, 20.64, 12.26, 16.62, 18.99, 7.98, 10.96, 11.60, 10.23, all P<0.05). After treatment, albumin, portal vein velocity (Vpv), and velocity of splenic vein blood flow (Vsv) were all higher in the two groups than before treatment. However, there was no significant difference in Vsv of the control group before and after treatment ( t=0.51, P=0.613). Comparison between groups, albumin (39.42±7.35) g/L, Vpv ((25.72±4.06) cm/s), Vsv ((24.22±6.15) cm/s) in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (34.66±7.95) g/L, (19.38±3.46) cm/s, (19.54±5.88) cm/s ( t values were 3.81, 10.28, 4.76, all P<0.05). After treatment, the total effective rate (96.00%(72/75) vs. 86.67%(65/75), χ2=4.13, P=0.042), HBV DNA negative conversion rate (76.00%(57/75) vs. 58.67%(44/75), χ2=5.12, P=0.024), HBeAg negative conversion rate (50.67%(38/75) vs. 30.67%(23/75), χ2=6.22, P=0.013) and serum HBeAg/HBeAb conversion (28.00%(21/75) vs. 13.33%(10/75), χ2=4.92, P=0.027) in observation group were higher than those in control group, and the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). HBsAg negative rate (8.00%(6/75) vs. 5.33%(4/75), χ2=0.43, P=0.513) was higher than that of control group, but the difference was not statistically significant ( P>0.05). Conclusion:Rougan Huaxian Granules combined with nucleoside antiviral drugs has significant effect on patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis of hepatitis B, improve liver and kidney function, liver fibrosis and hemodynamics of the portal vein system, increase vascular activity function, and reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load, HBV replication, aspartate transaminase-platelet ratio index, APRI, Toll-like receptor (TLR-4) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) levels and improves the body′s immune status.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931643

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of Huaiqihuang Granule on airway inflammation and wheezing reattack in bronchiolitis. Methods:A total of 120 patients with bronchiolitis presenting airway inflammation and wheezing reattack who received treatment in Zaozhuang Municipal Hospital and Yicheng Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine between January 2018 and October 2019 were included in this study. These patients randomly underwent either conventional treatment (control group, n = 60) or conventional treatment + Huaiqihuang Granule treatment (experimental group, n = 60). They received pulmonary function examinations and laboratory tests for evaluating serum and urinary inflammatory factors at admission and 2 months after discharge. They were followed up by telephone 3 months and 1 year after onset. Results:The ratio of time to reach the peak tidal expiratory flow over total expiratory time (TPTEF/TE) and the volume to peak tidal expiratory flow to total expiratory volume (VPTEF/VE) were significantly higher in the experimental group compared with those in the control group ( t = 3.13, 3.60, all P < 0.01). The ratio of tidal peak flow to tidal expiratory flow when 25% of tidal volume remains in the lungs (PF/TEF25) and functional residual capacity/kg (FRCp/kg) significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with those in the control group ( t = 3.88, 3.74, all P < 0.01). Interleukin-4 level and the ratio of interleukin-4/γ-interferon levels were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group ( t = 5.70, 8.93, all P < 0.01). Gamma-interferon level was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group ( t = 3.85, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in urinary leukotriene E4 level post-treatment between the two groups ( t = 1.18, P > 0.05). The number of patients who had a wheezing attack again within 3 months post-treatment and the number of patients who had ≥3 wheezing attacks were significantly lower in the experimental group compared with those in the control group ( χ2 = 5.18, 6.98, P < 0.01 or 0.05). Conclusion:Huaiqihuang granule can effectively regulate the balance of the Th 1/Th 2 ratio, inhibit airway inflammation in bronchiolitis, improve pulmonary function, and reduce the number of wheezing reattacks.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930118

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the quality evaluation method of Prunellae spica dispensing granules based on three quality indexes of standard decoction. Methods:Fourteen batches of Prunellae spica were collected from different habitats. According to technical requirements, fourteen batches of Prunellae spica standard decoction and three batches of formula granules were prepared and the paste-forming rates were calculated. The fingerprints of Prunellae spica standard decoction and formula granules were established by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). The similarity values of fingerprints between dispensing granules and standard decoction were calculated. The content and transferring rate of Rosmarinic acid were determined and calculated. Results:The average paste-forming rate of Prunellae spica was (12.59±2.32)%. The paste-forming rates of the three batches were 11.14%, 10.78% and 10.39% respectively. The average content of Rosmarinic acid in standard decoction was (18.99±9.74)mg/g. The average transferring rate was (60.58±7.87)%. The contents of three batches were 7.40 mg/g, 7.49 mg/g and 7.09 mg/g. The transferring rates were 52.06%, 50.10% and 50.40% respectively. Nine common fingerprint peaks were identified in the fingerprints of standard decoction and formula granules, two of which were identified as Rosmarinic acid and Caffeic acid by comparison of reference substance. The fingerprints similarity of Prunellae spica dispensing granules and standard decoction were 0.954, 0.973 and 0.952, respectively. Conclusions:The quality indexes of three batches of formulation granules are consistent with standard decoction. This method could provide reference for the establishment of quality standard of Prunellae spica dispensing granules.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1808-1815, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929432

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of Fufang yinhua jiedu (FFYH) granules against coronavirus and its potential mechanism, we used Huh7, Huh7.5, H460, and C3A cell lines as in vitro models to evaluate the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of FFYH by observation of cell pathogenic effect (CPE); and then the inhibitory effect of FFYH on the transcription expression of coronavirus RNA and inflammatory factor mRNA were evaluated by quantitive reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR); finally, the inhibitory effect of FFYH on the expression of coronavirus protein and its underlying mechanism against coronavirus were investigated by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Our results indicated that 50% toxic concentration (TC50) FFYH on Huh7, Huh7.5, H460, and C3A cells were 2 035.21, 5 245.69, 2 935.28 and 520 µg·mL-1, respectively; 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of FFYH on HCoV-229E in Huh7 and Huh7.5 cells were 438.16 and 238.54 µg·mL-1 with safety index (SI) of 4.64 and 21.99, respectively; IC50 of FFYH on HCoV-OC43 in H460 cells was 165.13 µg·mL-1 with SI of 17.78. Moreover, FFYH not only could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses (HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E) through inhibiting the transcription of viral RNA and the expression of viral protein, but also effectively suppress the expression of inflammatory factors interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) at mRNA level caused by coronaviruses, which might be associated with the inhibitory effect of FFYH on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB). In summary, our results demonstrated that FFYH exhibited a good in vitro anti-coronavirus effect, which provides a theoretical basis for its clinical use in the treatment of anti-coronavirus pneumonia.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2743-2750, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941500

ABSTRACT

Erhuang quzhi compounds is one of the protecting liver and inhibiting toxin prescriptions series summarized by Jinqi Yuan and other famous doctors of traditional Chinese medicine during the long-term clinical practice. It is very effective for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but its mechanism is not clear. This research investigated mechanism of Erhuang quzhi granules (EQG) in the treatment of NAFLD. All the animal welfare and experimental procedures are in accordance with the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Shihezi University. Mouse models of NAFLD were established by feeding with methionine and choline deficient diet (MCDD) for five weeks. While feeding MCDD, the treatment groups were given EQG (16.25 g·kg-1·d-1) and atorvastatin (ATO, 7.20 mg·kg-1·d-1) by gavage. The effects of EQG on serum biochemical indices, liver pathological changes, and inflammatory cytokines in mice of NAFLD were investigated. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), immunocytochemistry (ICH) and Western blot assays were used to detect the levels of mRNA and protein associated with nuclear factor kappa B/Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NF-κB/NLRP3) in liver. The results showed that EQG significantly reduced the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and improved the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The result of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed that EQG reduced lipid deposition in livers of mice. Meanwhile, EQG notably decreased the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and mRNA levels of NF-κB, NLRP3, IL-1β, TNF-α, down-regulated the expression of F4/80, IκB kinase β (IKKβ), NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and inhibited the activation of NF-κB and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1 (caspase-1). These findings announced that EQG could improve NAFLD via NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway possibly, which provides a theoretical basis for the further development and utilization of EQG in clinic.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940838

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveAlmond, which is bitter in taste, contains traces of toxic substances. For the sake of the safety of prescriptions containing this medicinal material, the processing method of "soaking in boiling water" was selected. Moreover, through literature research and network pharmacology, the characteristic index of this medicinal material was determined. On this basis, a method was established for the determination of amygdalin in Qingfei Paidu Granules (QFPD) and the transfer rate of it in the processing of this prescription was monitored, aiming at improving the quality control system of QFPD. MethodThe high performance liquid chromatography conditions are as follows: YMC Triart C18 column (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 µm), mobile phase of methanol-water with flow of 1.0 mL·min-1, column temperature of 35 ℃, and detection wavelength of 210 nm. ResultThe linear curve fitted well and the average recovery of amygdalin was 97.74% with RSD of 4.3%. The transfer rates of amygdalin from the medicinal material to the extract, from extract to concentrate, and from concentrate to granules were investigated with this method. The result showed that the average transfer rate from the medicinal material to the granules was (60±3.91)%. The comparison of transfer rate between the processes suggesting that the extraction of the medicinal material might be the key part influencing the prescription preparation. ConclusionThe method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, stable, and accurate, and the index is reasonable. Thus, the method can be used for the quality control of QFPD and determination of transfer rate of components in the preparation of QFPD. This study further improves the quality control standard of almond in QFPD, which can serve as a reference for the clinical application of QFPD.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940809

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the distribution mechanism of network modules in the combined treatment of liver cancer with Jiuwei Zhengxiao granules (JWZX) based on the analysis framework of module pharmacology. MethodThe cell experiment and the animal experiment were carried out to investigate the in vitro anti-liver cancer efficacy of JWZX of different concentrations and the effect on the survival time of H22 ascites tumor mice. By virtue of the analysis strategy of modular pharmacology,the distribution characteristics of nine Chinese drugs in the liver cancer disease network modules were investigated based on the constructed liver cancer disease network and module division by MCODE. In this study,the average degree (AD) of the nodes in the modules was used as an index to screen the main modules of the disease,and the intervention of the sovereign drugs,minister drugs,and assistant drugs on the main modules was explored. Finally,the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was performed on the drug-acted modules by Metascape. ResultAs revealed by the cell experiment,JWZX could significantly inhibit the proliferation of H22 cells. The animal experiment demonstrated that the medium- and high-dose JWZX could significantly prolong the survival time of mice with H22 ascites tumor (P<0.05,P<0.01). The distribution of targets of JWZX in the liver cancer disease network modules showed that JWZX interfered with tumor necrosis factor (TNF),epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR),vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA),transcription factor (JUN),tumor protein p53 (TP53),and other 26 targets and 8 modules. The sovereign drug Ginkgo Semen mainly intervened in modules 3 and 8,and the minister drugs such as Centipeda Herba jointly intervened in modules 1,3,5,8,10,and 12. Centipeda Herba and Phyllanthi Fructus intervened in module 7 and module 19 individually. Artemisiae Annuae Herba and other assistant drugs jointly intervened in modules 3,5,10,and 12. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis found that 135 pathways were enriched in 8 modules,and the pathway functions involved 12 categories including cancer,signal transduction,immune system,endocrine system,and amino acid metabolism. The functions of the four major modules involved cancer,signal transduction,and immune system. According to the results of literature verification,the key links of JWZX on the liver cancer disease network and the core mechanism were presumedly related to the inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling pathways,reduction of the immunosuppressive effect in the tumor microenvironment,and improvement of the anti-tumor immune response. ConclusionJWZX possesses pharmacological activity against liver cancer,and the therapeutic efficacy was achieved through the multiple targets,multiple modules,and multiple functions of drugs alone or in combination to intervene in the disease. The present study reduced the complexity of drug-disease target network analysis with module analysis strategy and explored the network module distribution mechanism of JWZX in the treatment of liver cancer,which provides a new idea for interpreting the complex mechanism of prescription compatibility.

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