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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248946, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364502

ABSTRACT

Abstract Environmental pollutants may often alter the genetic components of natural populations. In this study, heavy metals and genetic diversity in land snail (Achatina achatina) from three populations of south-western Nigeria were investigated, using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and DNA Sequencing technology respectively. Metal analysis revealed that the snails accumulated lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in high concentrations in two of the three states, while cadmium (Cd) was the least detected. Editing and alignment of the sequences of all snail accessions generated a range of 384bp to 419 bp. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) in all 18 accessions was low at only 16%. The query coverage (QC) ranged between 96% and 100%, with 14 (77.8%) of the 18 accessions showing 100% identity. Pairwise comparison of the accessions studied also showed a high genetic similarity. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) generated two main clusters. Cluster I was unique and contain one sample (AaOy06) while the other cluster are very closely related and can be further sub-divided into sub-clusters. The similarity index of between the clusters is 0.5357. The close similarity among the accessions may be due to the geographical proximity of the three states. The uniqueness of accession AaOy06 in comparison to other accessions might be due to the negative influence of heavy metal, particularly lead. The determination of evolutionary relationships among snail populations may be useful towards the breeding efforts of the species in Nigeria.


Resumo Os poluentes ambientais podem frequentemente alterar os componentes genéticos das populações naturais. Neste estudo, metais pesados e diversidade genética em caramujos terrestres (Achatina achatina) de três populações do sudoeste da Nigéria foram investigados, usando a tecnologia de espectrometria de absorção atômica e sequenciamento de DNA, respectivamente. A análise dos metais revelou que os caramujos acumularam chumbo (Pb) e níquel (Ni) em altas concentrações em dois dos três estados, enquanto o cádmio (Cd) foi o menos detectado. A edição e o alinhamento das sequências de todos os acessos de caramujos geraram uma faixa de 384pb a 419pb. A análise de variância molecular (AMOVA) em todos os 18 acessos foi baixa em apenas 16%. A cobertura da consulta (QC) variou entre 96% e 100%, com 14 (77,8%) dos 18 acessos apresentando 100% de identidade. A comparação pareada dos acessos estudados também mostrou alta similaridade genética. O método de grupo de pares não ponderados com média aritmética (UPGMA) gerou dois clusters principais. O cluster I era único e contém uma amostra (AaOy06), enquanto o outro cluster está intimamente relacionado e pode ser subdividido em subclusters. O índice de similaridade entre os clusters é 0,5357. A grande semelhança entre os acessos pode ser devido à proximidade geográfica dos três estados. A singularidade do acesso AaOy06 em comparação com outros acessos pode ser devido à influência negativa de metais pesados, particularmente chumbo. A determinação das relações evolutivas entre as populações de caramujos pode ser útil para os esforços de reprodução da espécie na Nigéria.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244494, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285607

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since water is one of the essentials for life, the presence and quality of water in the habitat is extremely important. Therefore, water quality change and management of Lake Aygır was investigated in this study. For this, water samples collected from the lake and the irrigation pool between May 2015 and May 2016 were analyzed monthly. Spectrophotometric, titrimetric and microbiological methods were used to determine the water quality. According to some water quality regulations, HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, fecal coliform and total suspended solid (TSS) values were found above the limit values. The other 29 parameters comply with Turkish national and international legislations. Lake Aygır was negatively affected by the surrounding settlements and agricultural activities. It is thought that the water resource should be monitored periodically and remedial studies should be done to prevent parameters exceeding the limits. However, Lake Aygır was generally suitable for drinking, use, fishing and irrigation.


Resumo Como a água é um dos elementos essenciais para a vida, a presença e a qualidade da água no habitat são extremamente importantes. Portanto, a mudança da qualidade da água e a gestão do lago Aygır foram investigadas neste estudo. Para isso, amostras de água coletadas no lago e na piscina de irrigação entre maio de 2015 e maio de 2016 foram analisadas mensalmente. Métodos espectrofotométricos, titulométricos e microbiológicos foram usados para determinar a qualidade da água. De acordo com alguns regulamentos de qualidade da água, os valores de HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, coliformes fecais e total sólido suspenso (TSS) foram encontrados acima dos valores limite. Os outros 29 parâmetros estão em conformidade com as legislações nacionais e internacionais turcas. O lago Aygır foi afetado negativamente pelos assentamentos e atividades agrícolas ao redor. Pensa-se que o recurso hídrico deve ser monitorado periodicamente e estudos corretivos devem ser feitos para evitar que os parâmetros ultrapassem os limites. No entanto, o lago Aygır era geralmente adequado para beber, usar, pescar e irrigar.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Lakes , Turkey , Water Quality , Environmental Monitoring , Fisheries
3.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 101-105, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907092

ABSTRACT

Objective @#To establish a microwave-assisted digestion-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with an octopole reaction system for simultaneous determination of six heavy metals in peanuts, including Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, Hg. @*Methods @#Peanut samples were shelled and crushed evenly, and 0.350 0 g was accurately weighed and digested with 5 mL nitric acid and 1 mL hydrogen peroxide in a digestion tank. Following microwave-assisted digestion, pure water was used to quantify the samples, and internal standards and an octopole reaction system were used to remove the interference. Then, the contents of six heavy metals were determined in peanuts by ICP-MS. The accuracy and precision of ICP-MS were evaluated using national criteria ( GBW 10013 and GBW 10044 ) and spike-and-recovery testing. @*Results @#The six heavy metals showed good linearity at the selected linear range ( r≥0.999 8 ). The detection limits of ICP-MS ranged from 0.001 4 to 0.023 8 ng/mL, and the spike-and-recovery rates ranged from 94.7% to 98.8%, with the relative standard deviations ranging from 0.7% to 3.6%. In addition, the determination results of the standard reference materials were all within the normal reference range. The detection of six heavy metals was 100.0% in 60 peanut samples, and the contents of six heavy metals were all low.@*Conclusion @#The established ICP-MS assay is feasible for simultaneous determination of multiple heavy metals in peanuts.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the association of the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy with congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring, and to establish a model for predicting the probability of CHD based on the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy.@*METHODS@#Based on the prospective birth cohort study in Gansu Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital in 2010-2012, a nested case-control study was conducted for the follow-up observation of 14 359 pregnant women. Among the pregnant women, 97 pregnant women whose offspring were diagnosed with CHD during follow-up were enrolled as the CHD group, and 194 pregnant women whose offspring had no CHD were selected as the control group. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure the levels of heavy metals and trace elements in maternal blood samples and fetal umbilical cord blood samples. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between heavy metal and trace elements and CHD in offspring. A nomogram model for predicting the probability of CHD in offspring was established based on the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the CHD group had significantly higher levels of aluminum (Al), natrium (Na), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), stannum (Sn), stibium (Sb), barium (Ba), and thorium (Th) in maternal blood samples (P<0.05), as well as significantly higher levels of Al, zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), kalium (K), Ca, Ti, chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), Se, Sr, argentum (Ag), cadmium (Cd), Sn, and plumbum (Pb) in umbilical cord blood (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the increase in the Sb level in maternal blood was associated with the increase in the risk of CHD in offspring [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-14.07, P=0.004], while in umbilical cord blood, the high levels of Al (aOR=4.22, 95%CI: 1.35-13.16, P=0.013), Mg (aOR=8.00, 95%CI: 1.52-42.08, P=0.014), and Pb (aOR=3.82, 95%CI: 0.96-15.23, P=0.049) were significantly associated with the risk of CHD in offspring. The levels of Al, Th, and Sb in maternal blood and levels of Al, Mg, and Pb in umbilical cord blood were included in the predictive model for CHD in offspring based on the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy, and the calibration curve of the nomogram predictive model was close to the ideal curve.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Increases in the levels of Al, Th, Sb, Mg, and Pb during pregnancy may indicate the increase in the risk of CHD in offspring, and the nomogram predictive model based on these indices can be used to predict the probability of CHD in offspring.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Humans , Metals, Heavy , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Trace Elements/analysis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927946

ABSTRACT

In this study, the content of five heavy metals(Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Cu) in 59 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos(LJF) medicinal materials and pieces were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The health risk assessment was processed using the maximum estimated daily intake(EDI), target hazard quotients(THQ), and carcinogenic risks(CR) assessment models. With reference to the limit standard for heavy metal content in LJF specified in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, five batches produced in Hebei were found to contain excessive Pb, and the remaining 54 batches met the specifications, with the unqualified rate of 8.47%. Comparative analysis of heavy metal content in LJF samples from three different producing areas, namely Shandong, Henan, and Hebei showed that the levels of Pb, As, and Hg in LJF from Hebei were significantly higher than those from Henan and Shandong. The samples produced in Shandong contained the highest content of Cd. The samples from Hebei contained the highest content of Cu while those from Shandong had the lowest content of Cu. As demonstrated by health risk assessment based on the EDI, THQ and CR models, these 59 batches of LJF samples did not cause significant health hazards for the exposed population, and there was no potential non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risk. In conclusion, a few of LJF samples contained excessive heavy metals, so some measures, including controlling production environment, cultivating management mode, and optimizing processing methods, should be taken for ensuring the medication safety of LJF.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Mercury/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Risk Assessment
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923970

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the composition and concentration of atmospheric particulate pollutants in four seasons in the industrial and clean living areas, and to provide a scientific basis for the strategy of controlling industrial pollution and atmospheric environment. Methods An industrial area dominated by the automobile industry in Shanghai and a relatively clean living area were selected. Samples were collected simultaneously in both areas and continuously for 7 days in the middle of each season. The composition and concentration of PM2.5 were determined, and the ecological risk of heavy metals in PM2.5 was evaluated by the potential ecological risk index method. Results We found PM2.5 concentration was associated with seasonal changes. The PM2.5 concentration in living areas was the highest in winter, followed by spring, and the lowest in summer. The PM2.5 concentration in industrial areas was the highest in spring, followed by winter, and the lowest in summer. The heavy metals in PM2.5 were the same, including Al, Cr, Mn, Ni, As, Cd, Hg and Pb. The content of Cr, Cd and Pb in PM2.5 in the industrial area is significantly higher than that in the living area. The potential ecological hazard coefficient of PM2.5 heavy metal Cd in the industrial zone was the highest, up to 189.47, and it was the main component of the total potential ecological hazard index of heavy metals. According to the total potential risk grade of heavy metals, the heavy metal Cd in the industrial area had different degrees of ecological harm with seasonal changes. The ecological harm degree of heavy metal Cd was the highest in winter, high in spring and autumn, and low in summer. Conclusion Although the concentration of PM2.5 in the industrial area is not higher than that in the living area, the content of Cr, Cd and Pb in the PM2.5 in the industrial area is significantly higher than that in the living area. The concentration of PM2.5 in the industrial area is mainly related to seasons, industrial production and human factors. The potential ecological harm coefficient of heavy metal Cd in PM2.5 is the highest in comparison with other heavy metals such as Cr, Hg and Pb, and it is the main component of the total potential ecological harm index ofheavy metals.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923948

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the composition and concentration of atmospheric particulate pollutants in four seasons in the industrial and clean living areas, and to provide a scientific basis for the strategy of controlling industrial pollution and atmospheric environment. Methods An industrial area dominated by the automobile industry in Shanghai and a relatively clean living area were selected. Samples were collected simultaneously in both areas and continuously for 7 days in the middle of each season. The composition and concentration of PM2.5 were determined, and the ecological risk of heavy metals in PM2.5 was evaluated by the potential ecological risk index method. Results We found PM2.5 concentration was associated with seasonal changes. The PM2.5 concentration in living areas was the highest in winter, followed by spring, and the lowest in summer. The PM2.5 concentration in industrial areas was the highest in spring, followed by winter, and the lowest in summer. The heavy metals in PM2.5 were the same, including Al, Cr, Mn, Ni, As, Cd, Hg and Pb. The content of Cr, Cd and Pb in PM2.5 in the industrial area is significantly higher than that in the living area. The potential ecological hazard coefficient of PM2.5 heavy metal Cd in the industrial zone was the highest, up to 189.47, and it was the main component of the total potential ecological hazard index of heavy metals. According to the total potential risk grade of heavy metals, the heavy metal Cd in the industrial area had different degrees of ecological harm with seasonal changes. The ecological harm degree of heavy metal Cd was the highest in winter, high in spring and autumn, and low in summer. Conclusion Although the concentration of PM2.5 in the industrial area is not higher than that in the living area, the content of Cr, Cd and Pb in the PM2.5 in the industrial area is significantly higher than that in the living area. The concentration of PM2.5 in the industrial area is mainly related to seasons, industrial production and human factors. The potential ecological harm coefficient of heavy metal Cd in PM2.5 is the highest in comparison with other heavy metals such as Cr, Hg and Pb, and it is the main component of the total potential ecological harm index ofheavy metals.

8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3604-3621, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921451

ABSTRACT

The remediation of heavy-metal (HM) contaminated soil using hyperaccumulators is one of the important solutions to address the inorganic contamination widely occurred worldwide. Hyperaccumulators are able to hyperaccumulate HMs, but their planting, growth, and extraction capacities are greatly affected by HM stress. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhances the function of hyperaccumulators by combining the functional advantages of both, improving the efficiency of remediation, shortening the remediation cycle, and maintaining the stability and persistence of the remediation. Thus, the combined use of AMF with hyperaccumulators has broad prospects for application in the management of increasingly complex and severe HM pollution. This review starts by defining the concept of hyperaccumulators, followed by describing the typical hyperaccumulators that were firstly reported in China as well as those known to form symbioses with AMF. This review provides a systematic and in-depth discussion of the effects of AMF on the growth of hyperaccumulators, as well as the absorption and accumulation of HMs, the effects and mechanism on the hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis to absorb and accumulate HMs. AMF enhances the function of hyperaccumulators on the absorption and accumulation of HMs by regulating the physicochemical and biological conditions in the plant rhizosphere, the situation of elements homeostasis, the physiological metabolism and gene expression. Moreover, the symbiotic systems established by hyperaccumulators plus AMF have the potential to combine their abilities to remediate HMs-contaminated habitat. Finally, challenges for the combined use of remediation technologies for hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis and future directions were prospected.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Metals, Heavy , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants , Symbiosis
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2463-2473, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887812

ABSTRACT

The hydroponic culture test method was used to study the physiological and biochemical responses of Paulownia fortunei seedlings under Zn stress, Cd stress, and combined Zn and Cd stress as well as changes in the enrichment and transfer characteristics of heavy metals. Under single and combined heavy metal stress, the biomass, plant height, and peroxidase (POD) activity of P. fortunei decreased as the treatment concentration increased. Combined Zn and Cd affected adversely plant height and biomass. As the concentration of Zn increased when applied alone, the chlorophyll content and catalase (CAT) activity of P. fortunei first increased and then decreased, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased, and the aboveground malondialdehyde (MDA) content first decreased and then increased. As the concentration of Cd increased when applied alone, chlorophyll content and CAT activity increased, and SOD activity and aboveground MDA content first increased and then decreased. Under both Cd and Zn, the physiological response was more complex. Cd in the seedlings of P. fortunei was concentrated in the root. In contrast, Zn was concentrated in the upper part of the ground, and its transfer coefficient was greater than 1.00. Thus, the addition of Zn promotes the transfer of heavy metals to the above-ground portions of plants. Generally, P. fortunei can effectively promote ecological restoration under complex forms of heavy metal pollution.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Chlorophyll , Metals, Heavy , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seedlings , Soil Pollutants , Stress, Physiological , Superoxide Dismutase , Zinc
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886082

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze characteristics of heavy metals in metro station’s airborne PM2.5 and to evaluate its health risk in a South China city. Methods A metro stations were selected for the study. Sampling sites of metro station included ground control, station hall and platform. The PM2.5 sampling was conducted one time per day for three consecutive days. The concentrations of ten heavy metals (As、Cr、Cd、Ni、Hg、Pb、Mn、Sb、Se、Cu) were determined. Inhalation exposure to these heavy metals2.52.5 range from 0.06 ng/m3 to 49.22 ng/m3. The concentrations of Mn、Cr and Ni in metro station’s airborne PM2.5 were respectively 3.75 times, 2.23times and 2.12 times higher than those in ground control. Increased lifetime cancer risk of carcinogenic heavy metal Cr exposure outrange the acceptable level (10-6) when its exposure time exceed 5 hours per day for lifetime. Cancer risk of carcinogenic heavy metal As exposure outrange the acceptable level (10-6) when its exposure time for adult male population exceed 8 hours per day for lifetime. Non-carcinogenic hazards risks of heavy metal Mn、Cu、Pb、Se、Hg and Sb in metro station’s airborne PMPM2.5 were little. Conclusions Airborne particulate matter in metro station has become one of the important sources of heavy metal exposure. Further attention should be paid to the possible carcinogenic risk of heavy metals in metro station’s airborne PM2.5 for long-term exposure.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204881

ABSTRACT

Characterization of heavy metals in 5 Km2 range of dumping yard in relation to soil, water and crop has been studied. The concentration of Cd (4.05 mg/kg) in soil was higher than the permissible limit of WHO (3 mg/kg) and in descending order of metals in soil was found to be Fe> Cr>Cd>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb and in bore well water it was Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu (23.20, 0.63, 0.31, 1.19 and 0.69 mg/l respectively) than the permissible limit (0.54, 0.40, 0.068, 0.03, 0.22, 0.018 mg/l) and their respective concentration ordered as Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd>Ni>Cr. Further the vegetables grown nearby dumping yard was highly contaminated by Cr in range (2.78 to 12.78 mgkg-1) in tomato, beans and cabbage and even in ragi and green gram Cr was high (1.78 to 14.96 mgkg-1). i.e., in Tomato; Cd>Fe>Cr>Zn>Pb>Ni>Cu, Beans; Cr>Cd>Pb>Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni, Cabbage; Cr>Cd>Pb>Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni, Ragi; Fe and Zn were below permissible limit and Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd are BDL and Green gram; Cr>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu > Ni>Cd. In support of results, primary survey was conducted in nearby 20 villages circumventing the dumping yard. A total of 150 respondents were randomly enquired to know their level of knowledge and health status as result of open dumping site. The results revealed that 43.33%, 36% and 20.67% as medium, high and low impact in relation to heath and knowledge aspect of dumping site. Thus there is a considerable impact on environment and humans due to the presence of heavy metal in crop, soil and water.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209877

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to determine the heavy metal accumulation concentrations in different tissues ofthe selected brackish water fish Mugil cephalus. The fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of leadacetate (Pb (C2H3O2)2) for 96 hour, and LC50 value was found to be 18.7 ppm. The one-tenth of (1/10) LC50(1.89 ppm) value was selected as a lower sub-lethal concentration for the exposure period of 30 days. Theorgans of fish, namely, gills, liver, and muscle were carefully separated through the dissection from fish forthe determination of heavy metal using Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Analyst-400, USA). Theresults reveal that the low concentration of lead (1.89 ppm) exhibits a maximum level of accumulation in theliver (0.746 ± 0.0033 μg/g), gills (0.672 ± 0.0069 μg/g), and muscle (0.254 ± 0.0052 μg/g) tissues of 30 daysexposed. The result of the present investigation also reveals that the time-dependent lead accumulation indifferent tissues of fish M. cephalus exposed to different sub-lethal concentration of the lead. These findingsextend for future studies on the evaluation of lead accumulation tendency in relation to the eco-toxicologicalobservations for heavy metals risk assessment.

13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190091, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132234

ABSTRACT

Abstract The kinetics and equilibrium of experimental data of mercury (II) sorption using three different macrophytes E. crassipes, E. azurea and S. ariculata were analyzed. From the kinetic models used, the model 1, which considers the surface area of constant sorption, presents the coefficient of determination, R2, closer to the unit (0.97). Already, in the liquid phase, the best fit of the experimental data was obtained for model 2 (R2=0.96), which considers the variable surface area. The calculated values for the determination coefficients indicate that the Redlich-Peterson isotherm best describes the equilibrium (R2=0.79). The results show that the macrophyte S. ariculata surface area, which presented the highest adsorption potential (15.77x10-4m2.g-1), was far below those found in the best adsorbents. However, considering the large volume of adsorbent material required in an industrial plant and the low cost of the analyzed adsorbents, it is considered that the macrophytes investigated have a considerable potential for the removal of mercury from wastewater.


Subject(s)
Macrophytes , Echinodermata/drug effects , Mercury/pharmacokinetics , Models, Biological , Adsorption
14.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(supl.5): e20200100, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1137705

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to verify mercury exposure prevalence and identify its possible associated factors in two riverside communities in the Madeira River basin of the Western Brazilian Amazon. Method: a cross-sectional study comprising 95 children and adolescents. Age cycle, school attendance, Bolsa Família, number of siblings, meals, fish consumption, height by age were measured. Binary logistic regression was used to verify relationships between mercury exposure and its possible associated factors. Results: the general prevalence of mercury exposure was 46.3%; children, 35.4%; and adolescents, 57.4%. Associated factors were fish consumption (aOR=1.84; 95%CI 1.56-2.16), age cycle (aOR=2.50; 95%CI 1.09-5.7), parasites (aOR=1.22; 95%CI 1.02-2.71), and short stature (aOR=1.32; 95%CI 1.05-2.02). Conclusion: mercury exposure prevalence in riverside children and adolescents was considered worrying, with association with fish consumption, adolescence, parasites, and short stature.


RESUMEN Objetivo: verificar la prevalencia de exposición al mercurio e identificar sus posibles factores asociados en dos comunidades ribereñas en la cuenca del Río Madeira en la Amazonía occidental de Brasil. Método: estudio transversal compuesto por 95 niños y adolescentes. Se midieron las siguientes variables: ciclo de edad, asistencia a la escuela, Bolsa Família, número de hermanos, comidas, consumo de pescado, talla por edad. La regresión logística binaria se utilizó para verificar las relaciones entre la exposición al mercurio y sus posibles factores asociados. Resultados: la prevalencia general de exposición al mercurio fue del 46,3%; para niños, 35,4%; para adolescentes, 57.4%. Los factores asociados fueron consumo de pescado (ORa=1.84; IC95% 1.56-2.16), ciclo de edad (ORa=2.50; IC95% 1.09-5.7), presencia de parásitos (ORa=1.22; IC95% 1.02-2.71) y baja estatura (ORa=1.32; IC95% 1.05-2.02). Conclusión: la prevalencia de exposición al mercurio en niños y adolescentes ribereños se consideró preocupante, con una asociación con el consumo de pescado, la adolescencia, los parásitos y la baja estatura.


RESUMO Objetivo: verificar a prevalência da exposição ao mercúrio e identificar seus possíveis fatores associados em duas comunidades ribeirinhas da bacia do Rio Madeira da Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira. Método: estudo transversal composto por 95 crianças e adolescentes. Foram mensuradas as seguintes variáveis: ciclo de idade, frequência à escola, Bolsa Família, número de irmãos, refeições, consumo de peixe, estatura por idade. A regressão logística binária foi utilizada para verificar relações entre a exposição ao mercúrio e seus possíveis fatores associados. Resultados: a prevalência geral de exposição ao mercúrio foi de 46,3%; para crianças, 35,4%; para adolescentes, 57,4%. Os fatores associados foram consumo de peixe (ORa=1,84; IC95% 1,56-2,16), ciclo de idade (ORa=2,50; IC95% 1,09-5,7), presença de parasitas (ORa=1,22; IC95% 1,02-2,71) e baixa estatura (ORa=1,32; IC95% 1,05-2,02). Conclusão: a prevalência de exposição ao mercúrio em crianças e adolescentes ribeirinhos foi considerada preocupante, com associação ao consumo de peixe, adolescência, ter parasita e baixa estatura.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873268

ABSTRACT

The safety of traditional Chinese medicine is affected by many factors, and the influence of exogenous harmful substances has been concerned and become a hot spot in recent years, especially heavy metals, pesticide residues and some other harmful substances. In order to explore the effects of non-soil and non-pesticide treatment on residues of these two harmful substances, the heavy metals and agricultural residues of Lilii Bulbus were detected, and the correlation of the data was analyzed. In this experiment, heavy metals and pesticide residues of Scrophulariae Radix were detected, and correlation analysis was conducted for their data. The mechanism of transport phase was interpreted with statistical moment similarity tool of total fingerprint by supramolecular chemistry theory. A large number of experimental data in this paper showed that heavy metals and pesticide contents in Lilii Bulbus basaltifolia had a positive correlation, which was closely related to supramolecular phenomena. Moreover, the similarity of fingerprints between Lilii Bulbus and Scrophulariae Radix suggested that Lilii Bulbus and Scrophulariae Radixa had a high selectivity in absorption of agricultural residues, which proved that the absorption of pesticides in Lilii Bulbus and Scrophulariae Radix from different habitats had the function of supramolecular imprinting template. It was considered that medicinal plant was a giant complex supramolecule with various levels of " imprinted template" . Heavy metals and agricultural residues were also involved in plant growth, forming an " imprinted template" for the formation of supramolecules between agricultural residues and heavy metals. After heavy metals and agricultural residues formed supramolecules, their liposolubility and permeability changed in varying degrees, and their transport in medicinal plants was promoted. Finally, the heavy metal supramolecules of pesticides were absorbed, distributed, aggregated and accumulated in plants. The purpose of the study was to reveal the mechanism of heavy metal and pesticide supramolecule transport, provide a new direction for the treatment of heavy metals and pesticide residues, and ensure the safety of traditional Chinese medicine.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846211

ABSTRACT

Objective: To provide a basis for the rational use of Sophora japonica resources through comprehensive evaluation of different tissues and organs. Methods: The contents of rutin, narcissin, quercetin, isorhamnetin and heavy metals in the samples were detected by HPLC and ICP-OES. The Fe3+ reducing ability, DPPH free radical (DPPH•), ABTS free radical (ABTS•+) scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) were detected by colorimetry. Then, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were conducted by software of SPSS 20.0. Results: The total contents of four flavonoids in different tissues and organs of S. japonica were arranged as follows: flower buds > flowers > flower axis > leaves > branches. The order of antioxidant capacities was as follows: flower buds > flowers > flower axis > leaves > branches, which were positively correlated with the total contents of four flavonoids. The contents of five heavy metal elements in flowers and flower buds were within the limitation of the Green standards of medicinal plants and preparations for foreign trade and economy, while the Cd element in some leaves, flower axis and branches was beyond the standard. Flowers and flower buds were clustered into one type by CA, while flower axis, leaves and branches were clustered into another category. The two principal components (PC1 and PC2) were extracted from the eight variables by PCA, PC1 showed significant differences among different tissues and organs, and PC2 values showed large differences among batches. Conclusion: The flowers and flower buds of S. japonica showed an excellent qualities, including safe doses of heavy metals, rich flavonoids and outstanding antioxidant activities. In addition, the flower axis and leaves also contained high flavonoids and exhibited strong antioxidant activities, which had the value of further development and utilization.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2695-2701, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837522

ABSTRACT

Heavy metals and other harmful elements in traditional Chinese medicines inflict serious damage on public health. Therefore, risk assessment of Chinese raw materials has gained increasing attention. To date, few reports have been published on the health risk assessment of heavy metals and harmful elements in Chinese patent medicines. To gain a comprehensive understanding of heavy metals and other harmful elements in Chinese patent medicines and to establish proper limits, residual Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu and Cr in 15 054 samples of 295 drugs was analyzed with regard to distribution and variation between elements and dosage forms. In addition, in accord with procedures including hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization, basic procedures and specific parameters for risk assessment of heavy metals and harmful elements in Chinese patent medicines were clarified based on the health risk assessment of 14 787 samples and 276 drugs. A method and equation for establishing residual limits is proposed. The results show that content and target hazard quotients (THQs) of the investigated elements in all samples showed a skewed distribution approaching 0. Content of Pb, As, Cu, Hg, Cd or Cr in the samples exceeded 100 mg·kg-1 and the content of Pb, As, or Cu in individual samples exceeded 1 000 mg·kg-1. THQs of 586 samples and four drugs were above 1. We believe that the health risk of Hg, Pb and As in Chinese patent medicines with dosage forms of pill, capsule, tablet and powder, especially those in raw powder preparations, warrant concern.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828048

ABSTRACT

In this study, the contents of Cu, As, Cd, Pb and Hg in 10 batches of Gardeniae Fructus and 10 batches of fried Gardeniae Fructus from Fuzhou in Jiangxi were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS), and the target hazard coefficient(THQ) for different drug users(adults and children) was calculated by using the international health risk assessment model. According to the ISO and green industry standard, the content of Hg in 4 batches of Gardeniae Fructus exceeded the standard with an over-standard rate of 40%. The THQ and total THQ of Hg in 2 batches of Gardeniae Fructus were higher than the international standard limit of Gardeniae Fructus. For 10 batches of fried Gardeniae Fructus, the content of every heavy metal and total amount of five heavy metals did not exceed the standard. However, the THQ and total THQ of Hg in 1 batch of fried Gardeniae Fructus were higher than the international standard limit of Gardeniae Fructus. As compared with Gardeniae Fructus, the contents of Cu, Pb and Hg in fried Gardeniae Fructus decreased by 34.0%, 77.6% and 23.1%; the THQ of Cu, Pb and Hg for adults decreased by 33.3%, 75.0% and 96.9%; and the THQ of Cu, Pb and Hg for children decreased by 37.5%, 75.0%, 90.7%. It showed that the contents of heavy metals in individual batches of Gardeniae Fructus in this experiment had a certain risk to human health, but the contents of these heavy metals in fried Gardeniae Fructus had no obvious effect on human health. This study provided experimental basis and research ideas for safety evaluation of Gardeniae Fructus and fried Gardeniae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gardenia , Humans , Mercury , Metals, Heavy , Risk Assessment
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821189

ABSTRACT

Objective To monitor heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg in agricultural land in Bole of Xinjiang, in order to understand the overall pollution status of rural soil environment and determine the environmental health hazards in rural areas of Bozhou, Xinjiang. Methods From 2017 to 2019, 4 administrative villages in 5 townships in Bole City in Bozhou Region were selected as monitoring points. The 5 to 20 cm deep topsoil of monitoring points was collected for a total of 60 samples. According to "Environmental Quality Standard for Soils" (GB 15618-2018), the pollution levels of Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg were evaluated by single index method and Nemerow index method. Results The content of Pb, Cr, As, and Hg in the heavy metals in the soil of Bozhou region from 2017 to 2019 were all lower than the screening value and regulatory value of soil pollution risk for agricultural land, while the content of heavy metal Cd in 13 soil samples (21.67%) exceeded the standard. The content difference in Pb, Cd, Cr, and As was statistically significant (P0.05). The single pollution index Pi of Pb, Cr, As and Hg was less than 1, indicating a non-pollution state. However, the single pollution index Pi of Cd from 2017 to 2018 was higher than 1, with the highest value reaching 2.33. In 2017 and 2018, the comprehensive pollution index of rural soil samples was 1.67 and 1.06, and the evaluation result was light pollution, while in 2019, the comprehensive pollution index was 0.72, and the evaluation result was still clean. Conclusion The overall quality of rural environmental soil in some rural areas in Bozhou, Xinjiang was generally acceptable, but the heavy metal Cd pollution in some aeras deserves attention.

20.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 24(6): 1095-1102, nov.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056115

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A produção de resíduos tem aumentado em proporção direta com a industrialização dos países. Sendo assim, a disposição adequada desses resíduos é uma questão largamente discutida entre os órgãos ambientais. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito residual de adições sucessivas de resíduos de curtume e da mineração de carvão sobre as propriedades químicas do solo e o acúmulo de cromo (Cr) em mamoneira. Os tratamentos aplicados em condições de campo foram: T1 - controle, ou seja, solo sem adubação; T2 - solo adubado com nitrogênio-fósforo-potássio (NPK) + calcário para atingir pH 6,0; T3 - solo misturado com lodo de curtume em dose adequada para se atingir pH 6,0 + PK; T4 - solo receptor de duas vezes a dose de lodo de curtume utilizada no T3 + PK; T5 - solo misturado com resíduo carbonífero + NPK + calcário em quantidade adequada para atingir pH 6,0; T6 - solo misturado com resíduo carbonífero + lodo de curtume em dose adequada para atingir pH 6,0 + PK; T7 - solo misturado com serragem cromada + NPK + calcário em quantidade adequada para atingir pH 6,0; T8 - solo misturado com Cr mineral + lodo de curtume em dose adequada para se atingir pH 6,0 + PK. Em campo, o solo recebeu os diferentes tratamentos. Posteriormente, amostras desse solo foram acondicionadas em vasos e o experimento com as plantas foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições por tratamento. O rendimento de matéria seca mostrou que a aplicação de serragem cromada (T7) proporcionou o maior crescimento da mamoneira, bem como os maiores teores de P no seu tecido. Os teores de Cr na parte aérea das plantas não atingiram níveis que podem ser considerados de contaminação desses vegetais. A distribuição desse elemento nas diferentes partes das plantas de mamoneira demonstrou a possibilidade de utilização futura dos grãos para produção de biodiesel.


ABSTRACT The production of waste has been increasing in direct proportion to the industrialization of the countries. Therefore, the adequate disposal of these wastes is an issue widely discussed among environmental agencies. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the residual effect of successive additions of tannery and coal mining waste on the chemical properties of the soil and the accumulation of chromium in castor bean plants. The treatments applied under field conditions were: T1 - control, that is, soil without fertilization; T2- soil fertilized with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) + limestone to reach pH 6.0; T3 - soil mixed with tannery sludge at a dose adequate to reach pH 6.0 + PK; T4 - soil receptor of twice the dose of tannery sludge used in treatment 3 + PK; T5 - soil mixed with coal residue + NPK + limestone in an amount adequate to reach pH 6.0; T6 - soil mixed with coal residue + tannery slurry at a dose adequate to reach pH 6.0 + PK; T7 - soil mixed with chrome sawdust + NPK + limestone in adequate quantity to reach pH 6.0; T8 - soil mixed with mineral Cr + tannery sludge at a dose adequate to reach pH 6.0 + PK. In the field, the soil received the different treatments. Subsequently, samples of this soil were conditioned in pots and the experiment with the plants was conducted in a completely randomized design, with three replicates per treatment. Subsequently, samples of this soil were placed in pots and the experiment with plants was conducted in a completely randomized design, with three replications per treatment. The dry matter yield showed that the application of chrome sawdust (T7) provided the highest growth of the castor bean, as well as the higher levels of P in its tissue. Chromium content in the aerial part of the plants did not reach levels that can be considered as contamination of these plants. The distribution of chromium in the different parts of the castor bean plants demonstrated the possibility of future use of the grains to produce biodiesel.

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