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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

ABSTRACT

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oligochaeta , Soil Pollutants , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Cadmium , Cattle , Bioaccumulation
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249641, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339363

ABSTRACT

Abstract Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.


Resumo Estuários recebem entradas diárias de elementos químicos, que podem impactar a qualidade de água e do sedimento, assim como a saúde da biota. Além do sedimento, moluscos bivalves têm sido utilizados no monitoramento químico desses sistemas. Neste estudo investigou-se a presença e os teores de As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn no sedimento superficial e em bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae e Mytella guyanensis) de estuários do sul / extremo sul do estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram avaliadas por espectrometria de emissão óptica de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Exceto Cd, todos os demais elementos foram encontrados nas amostras, sendo que Co foi exclusivo no sedimento. Os estuários equivalentes às estações amostrais #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus e #4 - Belmonte mostraram níveis de metais compatíveis com os estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, porém, a #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, além da presença de As, apresentou alto nível de Pb e de Cu em C. gasar, o que foi atribuído aos impactos por atividades náuticas nesse local.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Bivalvia , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Estuaries , Geologic Sediments
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245197, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360198

ABSTRACT

Abstract The water quality parameters of a fish pond are essential to be managing properly under control for successful operations of fish culture. Improper management of pond water quality during the juvenile stages can create stressful conditions to produce various harmful diseases, which may decrease the fish quality and results in low profits. The present study was aimed to monitored important water quality parameters of nursery ponds of Labeo rohita culturing in Bannu fish hatchery. The study duration was 75 days extends from 10th June to 24th August 2019 for the successful culture of this specie which can play a significant role in breeding season. Furthermore, the concentration of some heavy metals like copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in pond water and fry stages of this species was also determined. The data obtained from all water quality parameters were analyzed expressed as range, mean and standard deviation using MS Excel 2013. The obtained results of 75 days study revealed that the water pH & temperature, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and total dissolved oxygen (DO) of pond water samples were found within a tolerable limit except salinity and dissolved ammonia concentration were not permissible for fish growth. The average concentration of heavy metals in pond water exhibited descending order Fe>Ni>Mn>Zn>Cd>Ni, which was found in acceptable ranges. Whereas, the average values of heavy metals in fry stages were in the order of Zn>Fe>Ni>Cu>Cd>Mn, and found within the recommended values of WHO/FAO. Thus, it was concluded from this study that good water quality is a precondition, maintaining balanced levels of water quality parameters is fundamental for both the health and growth of fish culture which is quite necessary for assuring increased fish productivity. It is recommended to monitor and assess water quality parameters on a routine basis for promoting healthy fish culture.


Resumo Os parâmetros de qualidade da água de um viveiro de peixes são essenciais para um manejo adequado e sob controle para operações bem-sucedidas de piscicultura. O manejo inadequado da qualidade da água do tanque durante os estágios juvenis pode criar condições estressantes para a produção de várias doenças nocivas, o que pode diminuir a qualidade do peixe e resultar em baixos lucros. O presente estudo teve como objetivo monitorar importantes parâmetros de qualidade da água de viveiros de cultivo de Labeo rohita em incubadora de peixes Bannu. A duração do estudo foi de 75 dias, estendendo-se de 10 de junho a 24 de agosto de 2019 para o sucesso do cultivo dessa espécie que pode desempenhar papel significativo na época de reprodução. Além disso, a concentração de alguns metais pesados como cobre (Cu), níquel (Ni), manganês (Mn), ferro (Fe), cádmio (Cd) e zinco (Zn) na água do tanque e estágios de fritura dessa espécie também foram determinados. Os dados obtidos de todos os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram analisados expressos como faixa, média e desvio padrão usando o MS Excel 2013. Os resultados obtidos de 75 dias de estudo revelaram que o pH e temperatura da água, condutividade elétrica, sólidos totais dissolvidos (TDS) e total de oxigênio dissolvido (OD) das amostras de água do lago foram encontrados dentro de um limite tolerável, exceto salinidade e concentração de amônia dissolvida não eram permitidas para o crescimento dos peixes. A concentração média de metais pesados ​​na água da lagoa apresentou ordem decrescente Fe > Ni > Mn > Zn > Cd > Ni, que foi encontrada em faixas aceitáveis. Já os valores médios dos metais pesados ​​nos estágios de fritura foram da ordem de Zn > Fe > Ni > Cu > Cd > Mn, e encontrados dentro dos valores recomendados pela OMS/FAO. Assim, concluiu-se deste estudo que a boa qualidade da água é uma condição prévia, manter níveis equilibrados dos parâmetros de qualidade da água é fundamental para a saúde e crescimento da piscicultura, o que é bastante necessário para garantir o aumento da produtividade piscícola. Recomendam-se monitorar e avaliar os parâmetros de qualidade da água em uma base rotineira para promover a piscicultura saudável.

4.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 27(1): 175-183, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364824

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Estudos de remoção de fósforo de efluentes por sorção em resíduos têm ganhado destaque na literatura. Entre estes resíduos, destaca-se o lodo de estação de tratamento de água rico em oxi-hidróxidos de alumínio e ferro. O presente estudo teve como objetivos remover, por sorção, fosfato de esgoto sanitário em reator de escoamento ascendente preenchido com lodo de estação de tratamento de água e comparar a cultura de milho submetida a diferentes fontes de fósforo: adubação convencional (Fonte 1); adubação convencional e lodo de estação de tratamento de água utilizado na sorção do fosfato (Fonte 2); e lodo de lodo de estação de tratamento de água utilizado na sorção do fosfato (Fonte 3). A remoção do fosfato, a partir do lodo de estação de tratamento de água, ocorreu nos três testes. No ensaio de sorção, após tempo de detenção hidráulica de 2,8 h, verificou-se remoção média de 96% de fosfato. Em relação ao aporte de fósforo por diferentes fontes, verificou-se que o emprego do lodo, nos tratamentos Fonte 2 e 3, aumentou o teor de matéria orgânica do solo e proporcionou maior tamponamento dele. Os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes na cultura apresentaram valores satisfatórios, apesar da senescência de algumas plantas em Fonte 2 e 3. O reaproveitamento do lodo, nas doses aplicadas, foi suficiente para que o material vegetal analisado atingisse teores de chumbo consideráveis, o qual deve ser monitorado na utilização do resíduo no cultivo agrícola.


ABSTRACT Studies on the removal of phosphorus from effluents by sorption in residues have gained prominence in the literature. Among these residues, there is the sludge from a water treatment plant rich in oxyhydroxides of Aluminum and iron. The present study aimed to remove, by sorption, phosphate from sanitary sewage in upflow reactor filled with water treatment plant sludge, and to compare the corn crop subjected to different phosphorus sources: conventional fertilization (Source 1); conventional fertilization and water treatment plant sludge used in the sorption of phosphate (Source 2) and water treatment plant sludge used in the sorption of phosphate (Source 3). Removal of phosphate from the water treatment plant sludge occurred in all three tests. In the sorption assay, after 2.8 h hydraulic retention time, there was an average removal of 96% of phosphate. Regarding the contribution of phosphorus by different sources, it was found that the use of sludge, in treatments Source 2 and 3, increased the content of organic matter in the soil and provided greater buffering. The leaf contents of macro and micronutrients in the crop showed satisfactory values, despite the senescence of some plants in Source 2 and 3. The reuse of the sludge, in the applied doses, was enough for the analyzed plant material to reach considerable lead contents, which must be monitored when using the residue in agricultural cultivation.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928188

ABSTRACT

This study explored whether Sagittaria sagittifolia polysaccharides(SSP) activates the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor2(Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) signaling pathway to protect against liver damage jointly induced by multiple heavy metals. First, based on the proportion of dietary intake of six heavy metals in rice available in Beijing market, a heavy metal mixture was prepared for inducing mouse liver injury and HepG2 cell injury. Forty male Kunming mice were divided into five groups: control group, model group, glutathione positive control group, and low-and high-dose SSP groups, with eight mice in each group. After 30 days of intragastric administration, the liver injury in mice was observed by HE staining. In the in vitro experiment, MTT assay was conducted to detect the effects of SSP at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg·mL~(-1) on HepG2 cell survival at different time points. The content of alanine transaminase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the 48-h cell culture fluid was measured using micro-plate cultivation method, followed by the detection of the change in reactive oxygen species(ROS) content by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in cells were determined by RT-PCR, and their protein expression by Western blot. HE staining results showed that compared with the model group, the SSP administration groups exhibited significantly alleviated inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty infiltration in the liver, with better outcomes observed in the high-dose SSP group. In the in vitro MTT assay, compared with the model group, SSP at four concentrations all significantly increased the cell survival rate, decreased the ALT, AST, and ROS content(P<0.05), and down-regulated Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA and protein expression(P<0.05). SSP significantly improves inflammatory infiltration in the liver tissue of mice exposed to a variety of heavy metals and corrects the liver fat degeneration, which may be related to its regulation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, reduction of ROS, and alleviation of oxidative damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Liver , Male , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sagittaria/metabolism
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237604, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285586

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study goal to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) and silver (Ag) on germination, initial growth and anatomical alterations of Lactuca sativa L. Plants use various mechanisms to reduce the impacts caused by anthropic action, such as xenobiotic elements of soils and water contaminated by heavy metals. These metals were supplied as lead nitrate and silver nitrate and the following treatments were established: control for both metals, maximum dose of heavy metals, for arable soils, allowed by the National Council of the Environment (Ag = 25 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg. Kg-1), double (Ag = 50 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg. Kg-1) and triple (Ag = 75 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg. Kg -1) of this dosage. Vigor and germination tests of the seeds and possible anatomical changes in the leaves and roots of lettuce plants were performed. The species showed a high capacity to germinate under Pb and Ag stress, and the germination was never completely inhibited; however, the germination decreased with increasing Pb concentrations, but not under Ag stress. The use of increasing doses of metals reduced seed vigor and increased chlorophyll content. An increase in biomass was also observed in plants from treatments submitted to Pb. The phytotoxic effects of metals were more pronounced at 15 days after sowing. Anatomically, L. sativa was influenced by metal concentrations, and had a reduction of up to 79.9% in root epidermis thickness at the highest Pb concentration, although some structures did not suffer significant changes. The results suggest that L. sativa presents tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals, showing possible mechanisms to overcome the stress caused by these metals. In this research lettuce possibly used the mechanism of exclusion of metals retaining Pb and Ag in the roots preserving the photosynthetic apparatus in the aerial part of the plants. In general, the chemical element Pb was more toxic than Ag, in these experimental conditions.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de chumbo (Pb) e prata (Ag) na germinação, crescimento inicial e alterações anatômicas de Lactuca sativa L. As plantas utilizam vários mecanismos para reduzir os impactos causados pela ação antrópica, como elementos xenobióticos de solos e água contaminada por metais pesados. Esses metais foram fornecidos como nitrato de chumbo e nitrato de prata e foram estabelecidos os seguintes tratamentos: controle para ambos os metais, dose máxima de metais pesados, para solos cultiváveis, permitida pelo Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (Ag = 25 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg.Kg-1), dobro (Ag = 50 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg.Kg-1) e triplo (Ag = 75 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg.Kg -1) desta dosagem. Foram realizados testes de vigor e germinação das sementes e possíveis alterações anatômicas nas folhas e raízes das plantas de alface. A espécie apresentou alta capacidade de germinar sob estresse de Ag e Pb, e a germinação nunca foi completamente inibida; entretanto, a germinação diminuiu com o aumento das concentrações de Pb, mas não sob estresse de Ag. O uso de doses crescentes dos metais, reduziu o vigor das sementes e aumentou o teor de clorofila. Também foi observado aumento da biomassa nas plantas a partir dos tratamentos submetidos ao Pb. Os efeitos fitotóxicos dos metais foram mais acentuados aos 15 dias após a semeadura. Anatomicamente, L. sativa foi influenciada pelas concentrações de metais, e teve uma redução de até 79,9% na espessura da epiderme radicular na maior concentração de Pb, embora algumas estruturas não tenham sofrido alterações significativas. Os resultados sugerem que L. sativa apresenta tolerância a altas concentrações de metais pesados, mostrando possíveis mecanismos para superar o estresse causado por esses metais. Nesta pesquisa a alface possivelmente utilizou o mecanismo de exclusão de metais retendo Pb e Ag nas raízes preservando o aparato fotossintético na parte aérea das plantas. De forma geral o elemento químico Pb se mostrou mais tóxico que Ag, nestas condições experimentais.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Silver Nitrate , Soil , Lettuce , Lead/toxicity , Nitrates/toxicity
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246979, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278466

ABSTRACT

Abstract The influence of pharmaceutical residues and heavy metals on living organisms has received global attention. The present study assessed the interactive effect of antibiotic residues and heavy metals in soil, as contaminated food with cadmium (Cd) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on the isopod Porcellio leavis. It was fed on fresh plant leaves contaminated with different concentrations of cadmium, Cd+OTC1000 ppm, Cd+OTC2000 ppm and Cd+OTC3000 ppm for 4 weeks. The changes in the feeding patterns, protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase activity (CAT), and total free amino acids (TFAA) were recorded. There were significant differences in the obtained results where Cd reduced the egestion ratio (ER) however, OTC enhanced this ratio. Biochemical analysis illustrated that combination between OTC and Cd inhibits the toxic effects of Cd at low concentration (1000 ppm), while at high concentration (3000 ppm) raise the toxicity. Detailed studies are required for further understanding of the interaction between OTC and heavy metals, and also its impact on soil animals and for improving soil risk evaluation.


Resumo A influência de resíduos farmacêuticos e metais pesados ​​em organismos vivos tem recebido atenção global. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de resíduos de antibióticos e metais pesados ​​no solo, como alimentos contaminados com cádmio (Cd) e oxitetraciclina (OTC), sobre o isópode Porcellio laevis, o qual foi alimentado com folhas frescas de plantas contaminadas com diferentes concentrações de cádmio, Cd + OTC1000 ppm, Cd + OTC2000 ppm e Cd + OTC3000 ppm, por quatro semanas. As mudanças nos padrões de alimentação, proteína, peroxidação lipídica (LPO), atividade da catalase (CAT) e aminoácidos livres totais (TFAA) foram registradas. Houve diferenças significativas nos resultados obtidos, em que o Cd reduziu a taxa de excreção (ER), no entanto o OTC aumentou essa proporção. A análise bioquímica mostrou que a combinação entre OTC e Cd inibe os efeitos tóxicos do Cd em baixa concentração (1.000 ppm), enquanto, em alta concentração (3.000 ppm), aumenta a toxicidade. Estudos detalhados são necessários para uma maior compreensão da interação entre OTC e metais pesados, e seu impacto sobre os animais do solo, bem como para melhorar a avaliação de risco do solo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxytetracycline/toxicity , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Isopoda , Soil , Cadmium/toxicity
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243633, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249273

ABSTRACT

Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:


Resumo A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Cyprinidae , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Pakistan , Environmental Monitoring , Rivers , Bioaccumulation
9.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(2): 226-234, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355534

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Uno de los factores que más influye en las características químicas de un metal en solución es el nivel de acidez. El pH, por lo tanto, afecta la reactividad del ion y por ende su interacción con los puntos de unión de la pared celular de la planta. Este estudio evaluó el efecto del pH en la capacidad de bioacumulación de metales pesados en el alga roja Bostrychia calliptera (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae). Se sometieron talos del alga a diferentes concentraciones de mercurio (Hg) y Plomo (Pb), desde 0,1 hasta 10 mg/L para Hg y desde 0,1 hasta 15 mg/L para Pb, durante periodos exposición de 0, 12, 24 y 96 horas, bajo diferentes niveles de pH. Las concentraciones de metal acumulado se determinaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Las mayores tasas de acumulación se encontraron en el alga expuesta a pH 8 (tanto para Hg como para Pb), el cual es un nivel de pH muy cercano al medido en el área de muestreo. La concentración de metal en el alga se incrementó de manera lineal hasta las 48 h de exposición, tiempo en el que se evidenció una mayor eficiencia de acumulación durante el primer intervalo del periodo del bioensayo. El presente estudio permitió identificar el uso potencial del alga B. calliptera como especie bioindicadora de metales pesados en ambientes estuarinos.


ABSTRACT One of the factors with a bigger influence on the chemical characteristics of metal in solution is the level of acidity. Solution pH affects the cell wall metal-binding sites and the metal ion chemistry in water. This study evaluated the effect of pH on the bioaccumulation capacity in the red algae B. calliptera (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) exposed to different pH ranges. Algae thalli were subjected to different concentrations ofmercury (Hg) and Lead (Pb), at concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mg/L for Hg and from 0.1 to 15 mg/L for Pb, respectively, during the following exposure times: 0, 12, 24 and 96 hours for each ion. Metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry according to standard APHA methods. The highest accumulation rates were found when the algae were exposed to pH 8 (for both Hg and Pb), which is a level very close to that measured in the study area. The metal concentration in the algae increased linearly until 48 hrs, a time where a greater accumulation efficiency was evident. The present study allowed to identify the potential use of the alga B. calliptera as a bioindicator species for heavy metals in estuarine environments.

10.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 23(1): 32-45, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289179

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT During the most recent decades, advances have been made to reduce the environmental impact by anthropogenic activities that constantly release toxic components into the environment, generating instability and damage to the health of biological communities. Among the different pollutants, heavy metals are important by virtue of their properties, which hinder their degradation or transformation into other less toxic compounds. Chromium is one of the metals of greatest global interest due to its use in multiple industries. Conventional methods using chromed materials in their processes, not only throw considerable amounts of waste into the environment, but also give little account of the fraction of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) present in certain ecosystems. Bioremediation has been proposed as an economically viable and environmentally sustainable alternative. This work aimed to evaluate the chromium reduction capacity by bacteria isolated from a biosolids matrix obtained at the San Fernando Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), located in Medellín (Colombia). Biosolids samples were grown in a nutrient agar enriched with different concentrations of Cr6+. The strains presenting the greater tolerance to chromium were isolated to perform reduction tests by triplicate, monitoring the concentration of the metal over time. Seven different bacterial species were obtained, among which Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Ochrobactrum anthropic, and Bacillus cereus showed the greatest ability to reduce Cr6+ (29.0%, 61.1 and 100%, at 96 h) respectively.


RESUMEN En las últimas décadas se ha trabajado activamente para reducir el impacto ambiental generado por las actividades antrópicas que constantemente liberan componentes tóxicos al ambiente generando inestabilidad y daños en la salud de las comunidades biológicas. Entre los diferentes contaminantes, los metales pesados revisten importancia en virtud de sus propiedades, que dificultan su degradación o transformación en otros compuestos menos tóxicos. El cromo es uno de los metales de mayor interés a nivel global por su uso en múltiples industrias. Los métodos convencionales que utilizan materiales cromados en sus procesos, no sólo arrojan cantidades considerables de residuos al ambiente, sino que dan poca cuenta de la fracción de Cr6+ presente en determinados ecosistemas. La biorremediación se ha propuesto como una alternativa económicamente viable y ambientalmente sostenible. El propósito del presente trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de reducción de cromo por bacterias, aisladas de una matriz de biosólidos de la Planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR) San Fernando en la ciudad de Medellín-Colombia. Muestras de biosólidos se cultivaron en Agar Nutritivo enriquecido con diferentes concentraciones de Cr6+. Las cepas que presentaron mayor tolerancia al cromo fueron aisladas para realizar ensayos de reducción por triplicado, monitoreando la concentración del metal en el tiempo. Se obtuvieron siete especies bacterianas diferentes dentro de las cuales se destacaron Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Ochrobactrum anthropi y Bacillus cereus por la capacidad de reducir Cr6+ a 96 h con eficiencias de 29.0%, 61.1% y 100%, respectivamente.

11.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 46(1): 55-61, Mar. 30,2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293301

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el año 2019 se conmemoraron los 500 años de la muerte de Leonardo da Vinci en el Chateux du Cloux, Francia. Según registros históricos, Leonardo vivió los últimos años de su vida con una parálisis en su mano derecha, atribuida a un probable accidente cerebrovascular (ACV), lo cual afectó a su capacidad para emprender nuevos proyectos pictóricos. Este trabajo describe como fueron los últimos años de vida de Leonardo, revisa los antecedentes sobre salud y su probable enfermedad neurológica, sus eventuales etio-logías y sus consecuencias. Desarrollo: Leonardo llegó a Francia en 1516 por invitación del rey Francisco I para llevar el Renacimiento y completar su formación personal. En 1517 es visitado por el cardenal Luis de Aragón, y su secretario registra en su diario que Leonardo se encuentra afectado de una parálisis de la mano derecha. Algunos autores sugieren un ACV como causa probable, sobretodo porque según el historiador Vasari, Leonardo vivió sus últimos años en condición de discapacidad. Se llega a plantear que su condición de vege-tariano habría podido influir como factor de riesgo de ACV. Sin embargo, un dibujo no fechado de Figino muestra a Leonardo con una parálisis de tipo periférica de la mano derecha, abriendo el diagnóstico diferencial. Conclusiones: no hay información suficiente para valorar el tipo y la causa de enfermedad neurológica de Leonardo da Vinci, no obstante, está influyó significativamente en su interacción con su discípulo Francisco Melzi y su mecenas Francisco I, hecho que contribuyó a que su legado perdure hasta hoy.


Introduction: the year2019 marked the 500th anniversary of the death of Leonardo da Vinci at the Chateau du Cloux, France. According to historical records, Leonardo lived the last years of his life with palsy on his right hand, attributed to a probable stroke, which affected his ability to undertake new pictorial projects. This study describes how were the last years of Leonardo's life, reviews his medical history and his probable neurological disease, with its possible etiologies and its consequences. Discussion: Leonardo arrived in France in 1516 invited by King Francis I to lead the Renaissance and complete his education. In 1517, cardinal Luis de Aragón visited Leonardo, and his secretary recorded in his diary that he was affected by a palsy on his right hand. Some authors suggest that stroke could have been a probable cause, especially because according to the historian Vasari, Leonardo lived his last years in a condition of disability. His vegetarian food habit could have been a risk factor for his suspected stroke. However, an undated drawing by Figino shows Leonardo with a peripheral nerve palsy on his right hand, opening up the differential diagnosis. Conclusions:there is not enough information to assess the type and cause of Leonardo da Vinci's neurological disease. However, this condition significantly affected his interaction with his discipleFrancisco Melzi and his patron Francisco I, a fact that contributed to his legacy enduring until today.

12.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e52932, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368494

ABSTRACT

Unravelling the efficacy of gut biome has a major impact on health. An unbalanced microbiome composition is linked to many common illnesses such as gut dysbiosis, mental deformities and immunological imbalance. An optimistic influence on the gut biome can be made by consumingprobiotics. This would stimulate neuroprotection and immunomodulation intended by heavy metals pollution. Lead is a major source of neurotoxin that can induce neural deformities. Lactobacillusspecies isolated from curd were characterized to confirm its specificity. Zebra fish was reared at standard conditions and preclinical assessment on the intensity of induced neurotoxin lead was performed. The embryo toxic assay, immunomodulation effects and animal behavioural models endorsed the consequence of neurotoxicity. Different concentrations of bacterial isolate with standard antidepressant was considered for analysing the vigour of toxicity and its influence on cognitive behaviour by novel tank diving method. The restrain in the animal behaviour was also conferred by all the test samples with a decreased bottom dwelling time which was authenticated with haematology and histopathological studies. The alterations in morphology of the lymphocytes were balanced by the treated test samples. This study paves a twofold potential of probiotic as neuroprotectant and immune modulator against heavy metal toxicity.

13.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(2): e20190804, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142741

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Given that cadmium (Cd) poses high persistence in the environment and toxicity to humans, strategies to either decrease or avoid Cd entry in the trophic chain are fundamental to secure food safety. Here we assessed the effects of applying rates of Si as a diatomaceous Earth-based fertilizer on the amelioration of Cd toxicity towards maize plants grown on soil with or without pH correction. Besides determining Si and Cd concentrations, we also evaluated plant accumulation of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) as a function of Si doses applied to the soil. Results showed that both the Si application and the liming had a positive effect on biomass and nutrient uptake, but the Si effect on plants' performance took place irrespectively to the soil pH. Silicon ameliorated Cd phytotoxicity in both limed and unlimed soils by decreasing Cd concentration in shoots and improving biomass yield and plant nutrition. Silicon alleviation of Cd-inhibitory effects on plants was more effective in the unlimed soil owing to the higher Cd availability in acidic soils. Also, taking into account the reduced transfer of Cd to shoots driven by Si, lower Cd accumulation in maize grains is likely, with implications to food safety. So, further studies on field conditions are warranted.


RESUMO: Considerando que o cádmio (Cd) apresenta alta persistência no ambiente e toxicidade aos seres humanos, estratégias para diminuir ou evitar a entrada de Cd na cadeia trófica são fundamentais para garantir a segurança alimentar. Neste contexto, avaliamos os efeitos de silício (Si) aplicado como fertilizante a base de terra diatomácea na amenização da toxicidade do Cd em milho cultivado em solo contaminado, com e sem correção de pH. Além de determinar as concentrações de Si e Cd, o acúmulo de nutrientes nas plantas (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu e Zn) em função das doses de Si aplicadas ao solo foi avaliado. Os resultados mostraram que tanto a calagem quanto o Si tiveram efeitos positivos na biomassa e na absorção de nutrientes, mas o efeito do Si no desenvolvimento das plantas foi independente da reação do solo. O Si reduziu a fitotoxidade por Cd em ambos os solos, corrigidos e não corrigidos, diminuindo a concentração de Cd na parte aérea. A amenização da toxicidade de Cd foi mais efetiva em solos sem correção, devido à maior disponibilidade de Cd em solos ácidos. Os benefícios da aplicação de Si sobre a produção de biomassa, composição mineral e fitotoxidade do Cd foram observados em plantas cultivadas em solos com e sem correção. Considerando a transferência reduzida de Cd para a parte aérea promovida pelo Si, é provável que ocorra menor acúmulo de Cd nos grãos de milho, com implicações para a segurança alimentar.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The majority of studies linking exposure to metals with certain health outcomes focus on known toxic metals. Alternatively, this study assesses the extent to which exposure to a wider range of metals during gestation is associated with childhood morbidity.@*METHODS@#We analyzed the concentrations of 25 metals found in urine samples of 111 pregnant women of Arab-Bedouin origin collected prior to birth. In addition, we collected medical records on their offspring for six years following birth, including every interaction with HMOs, local hospitals, and pharmacies.@*RESULTS@#The main types of morbidities diagnosed and treated during this period were preterm births, malformations, asthma-like morbidity, cardiovascular and behavioral problems, and obesity. Multivariable analysis showed that offspring born before term were more likely to have been exposed to elevated maternal concentrations of zinc, thallium, aluminum, manganese, and uranium, all with adjusted relative risk above 1.40 for an increase by each quintile. Likewise, children with asthma had been exposed to higher levels of magnesium, strontium, and barium at gestation, while behavioral outcomes were associated with elevated biometals, i.e., sodium, magnesium, calcium, selenium, and zinc, as well as higher levels of lithium, cobalt, nickel, strontium, cadmium, vanadium, arsenic, and molybdenum. A heatmap of adjusted relative risk estimates indicates the considerable implications that exposure to metals may have for preterm birth and developmental outcomes.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The current study shows that perinatal exposure to metals is adversely associated with pediatric morbidity. Further such analyses on additional samples are warranted.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arabs/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Pollutants/urine , Female , Humans , Israel , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Metals/urine , Morbidity , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907665

ABSTRACT

Objective:To use the high performance liquid chromatography method to determine the content of formononetin in Jinji Pills and by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry,method to determine the harmful elements of heavy metal in Jinji Pills in orer to provide the scientific foundation for improving its quality standards and safety evaluation. Methods:Use Waters XBridge? C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm), set mobile phase at acetonitrile-1% phosphoric acid solution (27:73), flow rate 1.0 ml/min, column temperature 30 ℃, detection wavelength 249 nm, column temperature 30 ℃; Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) was detected by graphite furnace method; arsenic (As) was detected by cold steam series graphite furnace method; copper (Cu) was detected by flame method; mercury (Hg) was detected by cold steam method.Results:The formononetin had a good linear relationship between 0.02-2.01 μg, the recovery rate was 98.5%, RSD was 1.53%. Lead (Pb) recovery rate was 103.6%, cadmium (Cd) recovery rate was 95.7%, arsenic (As) recovery rate was 92.4%, mercury (Hg) recovery rate was 104.9%, copper (Cu) recovery rate was 112.5%. Conclusion:This method is of accuracy, specificity, high sensitivity and good reproducibility, which could provide strong evidence for quality improvement and safety use of Jinji pill.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906061

ABSTRACT

Objective:To systematically evaluate the safety of heavy metals in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis and its rhizosphere soil and bedrock in epiphytic culture imitated wild rock fissure. The distribution characteristics of heavy metals in carbonate-black limestone-Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis system in the study area were analyzed. Method:Samples of biennial Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis, black calcareous soil and carbonate rocks were collected from fracture-epiphytic culture in karst area of Guizhou province. The contents of Cu, Pb, As, Cd in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis, and Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Cr in soil and bedrock were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The detection conditions were as follows:plasma power of 1 550 W, feedback power of 2 W, sampling depth of 9 mm, atomization chamber temperature at 2 ℃, analysis mode of full quantitative, and double charge of <1.5%. Hg content in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry, and Hg content in soil and bedrock was determined by mercury analyzer. SPSS 26.0 software was used to analyze the test data. Result:The contents of Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis were all within the safety threshold. The contents of Pb, As, Cd, Hg and Cr in black calcareous soil were higher than the corresponding background values of Chinese soil (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), Cd in black calcareous soil was slightly polluted, while Cr, Cu, As, Pb and Hg were clean. The contents of Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Hg and Cr in carbonate rocks were significantly lower than those in black calcareous soil (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The order of heavy metals in black calcareous soil affected by parent rock was Hg>Cd>Cu>As>Cr>Pb. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of heavy metals in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis was in the order of Cu>Cd>Pb=Hg>As, but the BCFs of these five heavy metals were all low (all <10%). The contents of Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis increased slightly with the increase of heavy metal content in the rhizosphere soil, while the content of As decreased with the increase of As content in the rhizosphere soil. In addition to Cu content in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis, the migration characteristics of Pb, As, Cd and Hg in the system of carbonate-black limestone-Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis showed consistency. Conclusion:The distribution characteristics of heavy metals in geotechnical plant system in the study area show obvious inheritance. The characteristics of high content, low activity and low pollution risk of heavy metals in black limestone soil and low BCF are the main factors affecting the safety threshold of five heavy metals in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis.

17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3020-3030, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921403

ABSTRACT

P1B-ATPases are a group of proteins that can transport heavy metal ions across membranes by hydrolyzing ATP and they are a subclass of the P-type ATPase family. It was found that P1B-ATPases are mainly responsible for the active transport of heavy metal ions in plants and play an important role in the regulation of heavy metal homeostasis in plants. In this paper, we dissusses the mechanism of P1B-ATPases from the structure and classification of P1B-ATPases, and review the current research progress in the function of P1B-ATPases, in order to provide reference for future research and application of P1B-ATPases in improving crop quality and ecological environment management.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Biological Transport , Metals, Heavy , Plants/enzymology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887736

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to assess the risk of cumulative exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg, and iAs through aquatic products consumed by Chinese people.@*Methods@#Heavy metal concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring program during 2013-2017. Consumption data were derived from the China National Food Consumption Survey in 2014 and the relative potency factor (RPF) method was used to estimate cumulative exposure for neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.@*Results@#The results demonstrated that the cumulative exposure based on neurotoxicity was below the lower confidence limit on benchmark doses of lead (BMDL @*Conclusion@#The cumulative exposures of the 2-6 year-old group to the four heavy metals did not reach (but came close to) the corresponding safety threshold for both neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Given that there are still other food sources of these four heavy metals, it is necessary to more closely study their cumulative health effects.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Arsenic/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Dietary Exposure/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Seafood/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Young Adult
19.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2377-2382, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metal as copper (Cu),arsenic(As),cadmium (Cd),mercury(Hg)and lead (Pb)in Yougui pills ,and to evaluate its safety risk. METHODS :Using yttrium (89Y),indium (115In)and bismuth (209bi)as internal standard ,the contents of each element were determined by ICP-MS. ICP-MS condition included that atomization gas flow rate was 0.95 L/min,auxiliary gas flow rate was 1.2 L/min,plasma gas (argon)flow rate was 18 L/min,pump speed was 30 r/min. RF power of inductively coupled plasma was 1 200 W,the voltage in simulation stage was 1 750 V,the voltage in pulse stage was 1 300 V,the voltage of deflection device was -12 V,and the detector was in analog and pulse dual-mode. The determination methods of various elements were investigated ,and 45 batches of marketed Yougui pills were determined. Hazard index (HI)was used to analyze the non-carcinogenic risk of each element and calculate the maximum residual limit(MRL)of each element. RESULTS :The linear range of Cu ,As,Cd,Hg and Pb ranged from 10-200,1-50,0.4-30,0.2-6 and 2-100 μg/L(all r>0.999 0),respectively. The limits of quantitation were 0.67,0.23,0.20,0.07,0.27 μg/L. The limits of detection were 0.20,0.07,0.06,0.02,0.08 μg/L. RSDs of precision,stability and reproducibility tests were all lower than 3.5% (n=6 or n=5). Average recoveries were 92.96%-100.89%(RSD=2.23%-3.62%,n=3). Average contents of Cu ,As,Cd,Hg and Pb in 45 batches of Yougui pills were 2.72,0.28,0.07,0.05,0.62 mg/kg,and superimposed HI of each element was less than 1. The contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals in Yougui pills were lower than the proposed MRL (MRL of Cu ,As,Cd,Hg and Pb were 20,2,1,0.2,5 mg/kg or 111.11,4.44,2.22,1.48,8.89 mg/kg respectively ). CONCLUSIONS :Established method can be used for the determination of content of 5 kinds of heavy metal in Yougui pills ;the heavy metal pollution rate of marketed Yougui pills is low and the safety risk is small.

20.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2218-2222, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886802

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To es tablish a method for the content determination of heavy metals [lead (Pb),cadmium(Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg)] and harmful elements [arsenic (As)] in Pediatric paracetamol artificial cow-bezoar and chlorphenamine maleate granules. METHODS :The samples were conducted pretreatment by microwave digestion instrument and determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)using elements germanium ,indium,bismuth as internal standard. RESULTS :The linear ranges of Pb ,As,Cu,Cd and Hg were 1-20,0.5-10,5-100,0.5-10 and 0.2-4 ng/mL, respectively (all r>0.997). The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.041 1,0.013 2,0.057 3,0.009 0,0.005 4 ng/mL, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQs)were 0.137 0,0.044 0,0.191 0,0.030 0,0.018 0 ng/mL,respectively. RSDs of precision and repeatability tests were all less than 6%. RSDs of stability tests (28 h)of Pb ,As,Cu and Cd were all less than 5%, and that of stability test (28 h)of Hg was less than 7%. The average recoveries were 89.44%(RSD=5.87%,n=9),99.56% (RSD=5.46% ,n=9),96.12%(RSD=4.62% ,n=9),105.82%(RSD=2.80% ,n=9)and 90.23%(RSD=3.59% ,n=9), respectively. Five elements were all detected in 63 batches of samples ,and the contents of them were 0.191 0-1.527 6,0.002 5- 0.047 4,0.034 1-1.549 0,0.001 5-0.078 8 and 0.001 9-0.005 4 mg/kg,respectively. CONCLUSIONS :The method is simple , sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for simultaneous determination of 5 elements in Pediatric paracetamol artificial cow-bezoar and chlorphenamine maleate granules.

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