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1.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(4): 203-209, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349892

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La leucoencefalopatia tóxica es una afección que compromete la sustancia blanca por exposición a sustancias tóxicas. La heroina es una de las implicadas en el desarrollo de la leucoencefalopatia con diferencias exclusivas que suceden con la inhalación según las diversas técnicas en comparación al uso intravenoso, bien sea de la heroína o de otras sustancias psicoactivas. En esta serie describimos cinco casos, de sexo masculino, que desarrollaron leucoencefalopatia espongiforme por heroína (LEH) posterior a la inhalación de vapores, en un hospital del sistema de salud público en la ciudad de Armenia, Colombia. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características demográficas, clínicas, hallazgos de laboratorio e imágenes diagnósticas, así como la mortalidad asociada a LEH en la muestra estudiada. MÉTODOS: Recolección de datos de historias clinicas y búsqueda de imágenes registradas en el Hospital San Juan de Dios de Armenia durante el periodo 2017-2018. RESULTADOS: Se obtienen cinco casos clínicos de pacientes usuarios de vapores inhalados de heroina, quienes ingresan con signos neurológicos de predominio motores y extrapiramidales, con el signo radiológico clásico de "Chasing the Dragon" en estudios de TC cerebral simple en todos los casos. De los cinco casos se presenta un deceso, determinando una mortalidad de 20% comparado con un 25% de mortalidad reportado en la literatura. CONCLUSIONES: La LEH suele estar subdiagnosticada dado que suele confundirse con un trastorno neuropsiquiatríco o de la conducta asociada al consumo de sustancias psicoactivas (SPA), el diagnóstico se realizó con los hallazgos típicos en las imágenes de TC cerebral simple. Se debe tener en cuenta las estadísticas sobre consumo de heroína a la hora de realizar el abordaje de un paciente con historial de consumo de SPA y los signos neurológicos para relacionarlos con esta etiologia y dar un manejo integral a estos pacientes.


ABSTRACT IlNTRODUCTION: Toxic leukoencephalopathy is a condition that compromises the encephalic white matter due to exposure to toxic substances. Heroin is one of those involved in the development of leukoencephalopathy and there are certain differences that occur with its inhalation with the different techniques compared to intravenous use, either heroin or other psychoactive substances. In this serie, we describe five cases of male sex who developed heroin spongiform leukoencephalopathy (HSLE) after inhalation of vapors, in a Hospital of the public health system in the city of Armenia, Colombia. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and diagnostic images, as well as the mortality associated with HSLE in the sample studied. METHODS: Collection of data from medical records and search of images registered at the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Armenia during the period 2017-2018. RESULTS: Five clinical cases were obtained of patients who were users of inhaled heroin vapors and were admitted to the hospital with predominantly motor and extrapyramidal neurological signs, with simple brain CT studies showing the classic radiological sign of "Chasing the Dragon" in all five cases. One death was presented, with a mortality of 20% compared to the 25% mortality that has been reported in the scientific literature. CONCLUSIONS: HSLE is usually underdiagnosed since it is often confused with a neuropsychiatric or behavioral disorder associated with the consumption of psychoactive substances (PAS). The diagnosis was made with the typical findings in simple brain CT images. Statistics on heroin use must be considered when approaching a patient with a history of PAS use and neurological signs, to relate them to this etiology and provide comprehensive management to these patients.


Subject(s)
Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Hypoxia, Brain , Inhalation , Heroin , Leukoencephalopathies
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909287

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of naltrexone hydrochloride combined with trazodone on preventing relapse in heroin addicts after detoxification.Methods:A total of 274 opioid heroin addicts who received treatment in Beijing Gaoxin Hospital between June 2016 and January 2019 were included in this study. After detoxification with methadone, all patients were randomly assigned to receive either naltrexone hydrochloride combined with trazodone (group 1, n = 60) or naltrexone hydrochloride alone (group 2, n = 60) for preventing relapse in heroin addicts. The effects on relapse prevention were determined in each group. Results:There were no significant differences in age distribution, sex composition, marital status, and drug use between groups 1 and 2 (all P > 0.05). After 6 months of treatment, the non-relapse rate was 86.7% (52/60) and 6.7% (4/60) in groups 1 and 2 respectively, in the case of unchanged personal life status. There was significant difference in non-relapse rate between groups 1 and 2 ( χ2 = 77.1, P < 0.001). Conclusion:Naltrexone hydrochloride combined with trazodone exhibits superior efficacy in preventing relapse in opioid heroin addicts after detoxification to naltrexone hydrochloride alone.

3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1135-1141, dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152944

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Atualmente, o vício em heroína é um problema de saúde preocupante, e as informações sobre os efeitos eletrocardiográficos da heroína são limitadas. Objetivos O objetivo do presente estudo é investigar os efeitos da dependência de heroína em parâmetros eletrocardiográficos. Métodos Um total de 136 indivíduos, incluindo 66 indivíduos que fumam heroína como grupo de estudo e 70 indivíduos saudáveis sem dependência de drogas como grupo de controle, foram incluídos no estudo. Indivíduos que injetam heroína foram excluídos. A avaliação eletrocardiográfica (ECG) dos usuários de heroína foi realizada e comparada com as do grupo controle. Além disso, os ECGs pré e pós-tratamento do grupo usuário de heroína foram comparados. Um valor de p<0,05 foi aceito como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados A frequência cardíaca (77,2±12,8 versus 71,4±11,2; p=0,02) foi maior no grupo usuário de heroína em comparação com o grupo controle. Os intervalos QT (341,50±25,80 versus 379,11±45,23; p=0,01), QTc (385,12±29,11 versus 411,3±51,70; p<0,01) e o intervalo do pico ao fim da onda T (Tpe) (65,41±10,82 versus 73,3±10,13; p<0,01) foram significativamente menores no grupo usuário de heroína. Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre os grupos com respeito às razões Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc. Na análise de subgrupo do grupo usuário de heroína, os intervalos QT (356,81±37,49 versus 381,18±40,03; p<0,01) e QTc (382,06±26,41 versus 396,06±29,80; p<0,01) foram significativamente mais curtos no período pré-tratamento. Conclusão O vício em heroína afeta significativamente os intervalos de tempo QT, QTc e Tpe. Os efeitos de arritmia desses parâmetros já são conhecidos. Os parâmetros eletrocardiográficos desses indivíduos merecem mais atenção. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1135-1141)


Abstract Background Heroin addiction is currently a significant health problem, and information on the electrocardiographic effects of heroin is limited. Objetivo The aim of the present study is to investigate effects of heroin addiction on electrocardiographic parameters. Methods A total of 136 individuals, including 66 individuals who smoke heroin as the study group and 70 healthy individuals with no drug addiction as the control group, were included in the study. Individuals who inject heroin were excluded. Electrocardiographic (ECG) evaluation of those using heroin was performed and compared with those of the control group. In addition, pre-treatment and post-treatment ECG of the heroin group were compared. A p-value of <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results Heart rate (77.2±12.8 versus 71.4±11.2; p=0.02) were found to be higher in the heroin group compared to the control group. QT (341.50±25.80 versus 379.11±45.23; p=0.01), QTc intervals (385.12±29.11 versus 411.3±51.70; p<0.01), and T peak to end time (Tpe) (65.41±10.82 versus 73.3±10.13; p<0.01) were significantly shorter in the heroin group. No difference was observed between the groups with regard to Tpe/QT and Tpe/QTc ratios. In the subgroup analysis of the heroin group, QT (356.81±37.49 versus 381.18±40.03; p<0.01) and QTc (382.06±26.41 versus 396.06±29.80; p<0.01) intervals were significantly shorter in the pre-treatment period. Conclusion Heroin addiction significantly affects the QT, QTc, and Tpe time intervals. The arrhythmia effects of these parameters are well known. More attention to the electrocardiographic parameters of these individuals should be given. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1135-1141)


Subject(s)
Humans , Heroin/adverse effects , Electrocardiography , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Heart Rate
5.
Infectio ; 24(2): 88-93, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114846

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: the availability of high purity and low-cost drugs has increased the use of intravenous substances, which makes it a public health problem due to its association with HIV infection. Objective: to identify the factors associated with HIV infection in people who inject drugs. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between December 2017 and January 2018 in Medellin, Colombia. We use the sampling conducted by the respondent (RDS). Results: They have recruited 224 subjects, 86.2% were men, 82.0% were single and 67.0% belonged to the subsidized or linked health system. The prevalence of HIV infection was 3.6%. This study found that 38.8% of consumers have shared needles and syringes with up to three people, representing a risk of infection of 5.07 times, compared to those who do not share (RPc = 5.07 95% CI: 1.19-21.55), and if this practice is carried out with a close friend, the probability increases to almost double (10.69) (RPc = 10.69 IC 95%: 2.26-50.61) (p <0.05). Conclusion: Given the low prevalence of HIV, it is vital to develop and implement public policies whose objective is to create prevention programs that ultimately lead to the reduction of infection in this population.


Resumen Introducción: La disponibilidad de drogas con una alta pureza y un bajo costo, ha aumentado el consumo de sustancias por vía intravenosa; llevándolo a ser considerado como un problema de salud pública, por su asociación con la presencia de infección por VIH. Se estima que existen aproximadamente 16 millones de consumidores de drogas intravenosas en el mundo y en Colombia, 15.000. Objetivo: identificar los factores asociados con la infección por VIH en personas que se inyectan drogas. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado (diciembre 2017/ enero 2018) Medellín - Colombia, se utilizó la metodología Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Resultados: Fueron reclutados 224 participantes, un 86,2% fueron hombres, el 82,0% eran solteros, el (67,0%) pertenecía al régimen de salud subsidiado o vinculado. Con relación a la prevalencia de infección por VIH esta fue del 3,6%. Este estudio encontró que el 38,8% de los consumidores había compartido agujas y jeringas con hasta tres personas, lo cual representa una probabilidad de 5,07 veces de contraer la infección comparado con aquellos que no comparten (RPc=5,07 CI95% 1,19-21,55), si esta práctica se hace con un amigo cercano dicha probabilidad aumenta a casi el doble 10,69 (RPc= 10,69 CI95% 2,26-50,61), (p<0,05). Conclusión: Ante la baja prevalencia de VIH, es necesario, el desarrollo e implementación de políticas públicas que tengan como objetivo la creación de programas de prevención que finalmente, lleven a la reducción de la infección en esta población.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , HIV , Cross-Sectional Studies , Needle Sharing , Heroin , Drug Users , Infections
6.
Salud colect ; 16: e2481, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139518

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las salas de consumo higiénico (SCH) son espacios para consumir drogas en condiciones higiénicas y seguras. Sin embargo, los usuarios alternan sus prácticas de consumo en vía pública y viviendas, entornos que conllevan mayores riesgos a la salud. Para comprender mejor este problema, se realizó un estudio etnográfico en diferentes espacios de consumo de Barcelona, incluyendo SCH, vía pública y viviendas. Centrándonos en los discursos y prácticas de consumo, se recogieron datos mediante la observación participante y entrevistas semiestructuradas a 16 usuarios de las SCH. Los resultados muestran que, en los diferentes espacios de consumo, los usuarios experimentan varios tipos de placer. Además, estos espacios están asociados a diversos daños, los cuales son gestionados por los usuarios autorregulando sus prácticas. Estos aspectos, por lo tanto, deben tenerse en cuenta para diseñar acciones de reducción de daños adaptadas a las necesidades de los usuarios.


ABSTRACT Drug consumption rooms (DCR) aim to facilitate consumption in hygienic and safe conditions. However, users also consume drugs in public spaces and homes generating incremental risk for health. To strengthen our understanding of consumption practices, we conducted an ethnographic study in different consumption locations in Barcelona, including DCRs, public spaces, and homes. Focusing on consumption practices and narratives, we conducted participant observation and interviewed 16 DCR users. Our findings show that different consumption spaces allow users to experiment different types of pleasures. In addition, consumption in each type of location is associated with various types of harms, which are managed by users by self-regulating their practices. These aspects, therefore, must be taken into account to design harm reduction action aligned with users' practices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Drug Users , Harm Reduction , Pleasure , Anthropology, Cultural
7.
Salud ment ; 42(4): 173-184, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058952

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The evaluation of methadone maintenance programs reports generally positive outcomes. Objective To explore the psychosocial factors that contribute to achieve treatment goals even when patients live in conditions of precariousness and exclusion. Method Qualitative study of multiple cases, with a sample of 12 interviews with patients participating in a maintenance and detoxification program with methadone; a thematic and discursive-narrative analysis was undertaken. Results We identified the predominance of a typical discursive scheme composed of clearly differentiated narrative segments: previous conditions, establishment of a relationship with the therapeutic system, process of adjustment as a part of treatment and social reintegration. Two main themes were also identified: addiction and dealing with substances, and the problem of normative integration; there was also an experience of acceptance and recognition that constitutes a central factor for treatment. Discussion and conclusion These findings are discussed in light of the disaffiliated conditions of people using injected heroin and the need to consider psychosocial and normative adjustment as a relevant factor for treatment and social reintegration, which leads to the suggestion to include psychotherapeutic interventions to accompany and reinforce the process.


Resumen Introducción La evaluación de los programas de mantenimiento con metadona reporta, en general, resultados positivos. Objetivo Explorar factores psicosociales que contribuyan al logro de los objetivos del tratamiento, incluso cuando los pacientes se encuentran en condiciones de precariedad y exclusión. Método Estudio cualitativo de casos múltiples, con una muestra de 12 entrevistas con pacientes participantes en un programa de mantenimiento y deshabituación con metadona; se realizó un análisis discursivo-narrativo y temático. Resultados Identificamos el predominio de un esquema discursivo típico compuesto de segmentos narrativos claramente diferenciados: condiciones previas, vinculación con el sistema terapéutico, proceso de ajuste al interior del tratamiento y proceso de reintegración social. También se identificaron dos ejes de articulación temática: la adicción y el manejo de sustancias, y el problema de la integración normativa; hubo además una experiencia de aceptación y reconocimiento que constituye un factor central en el tratamiento. Discusión y conclusión Estos hallazgos se discuten a la luz de las condiciones de desafiliación del usuario de heroína y de la necesidad de considerar el ajuste psicosocial y normativo como un factor relevante para el tratamiento y la reintegración social, lo que lleva a sugerir que los programas incluyan componentes psicoterapéuticos con el objeto de acompañar y reforzar efectivamente el proceso.

8.
Salud ment ; 42(4): 185-189, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058953

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Mexico northern border has high levels of heroin use. For more than 10 years, the country has implemented several harm reduction interventions to reduce the risks associated with drug use. New strategies such as Safe Consumption Sites (SCS) must be considered as a next step to service vulnerable populations and increase their health outcomes. Objective This report seeks to measure and compare attitudes on a potential SCS intervention in Tijuana among police and people with lived experience (PLE) in heroin use in the city. Method Two parallel studies on police practices and everyday experiences of heroin users in Tijuana were able to ask similar questions about attitudes toward SCS and its implementation in the city. They conducted quantitative interviews with 771 active police officers and 200 PLE while in rehabilitation services. Results Both groups showed a high personal support for SCS of nearly 82% and a perceived implementation success around 80%. Officers reported 58.9% peer support for SCS while PLE 79%. Around 76% of both groups agreed that a SCS would help to improve their personal health. Finally, 86.2% of the officers would refer people to a SCS while 62.5% of PLE would use the service. Discussion and conclusions The strong positive attitudes from police officers and PLE towards SCS in the city of Tijuana reported in both studies indicate the possibility of a successful implementation of a SCS. This intervention would represent an innovative way to protect PLE from police harassment and victimization, helping reduce HIV and HCV risk behaviors while improving community health.


Resumen Introducción En la frontera norte de México hay niveles altos de consumo de heroína. Durante más de 10 años, el país ha implementado diversas intervenciones de reducción de daños para minimizar los riesgos asociados con el uso de sustancias. Los sitios de consumo seguro (SCS) se deben considerar como una opción que brinde servicios a poblaciones vulnerables para mejorar su salud. Objetivo Este reporte mide y compara actitudes entre policías y personas con experiencia vivida (PEV) en uso de heroína en Tijuana, relacionadas con una posible implementación de SCS en la ciudad. Método Dos estudios paralelos sobre prácticas policiales y experiencias cotidianas de usuarios de heroína en Tijuana incluyeron preguntas similares sobre actitudes hacia los SCS y su implementación en la ciudad. Se realizaron 771 entrevistas cuantitativas con oficiales de policía y 200 con PEV internadas en centros de rehabilitación. Resultados Ambos grupos mostraron un alto apoyo hacia los SCS cercano al 82% y un éxito percibido en implementación del 80%. Los oficiales reportaron 58.9% de apoyo entre pares a las SCS y del 79% entre PEV. Un 76% en ambos grupos coincidieron que un SCS ayudaría a mejorar su salud personal. Finalmente, el 86.2% de los oficiales referirían hacia un SCS, mientras que 62.5% de PEV las usarían. Discusión y conclusiones Las actitudes hacia los SCS indican una posible implementación exitosa de SCS en la ciudad. Esta intervención representaría una forma innovadora de disminuir el acoso y victimización policial hacia las PEV, reduciendo los factores de riesgo de VIH y VHC, mejorando la salud comunitaria.

9.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 48(2): 96-104, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1042853

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Colombia está enfrentado una epidemia emergente del consumo endovenoso de heroína. Un conocimiento de los programas existentes que ofrecen tratamiento asistido con metadona en el país es necesario para que se puedan proponer estrategias de mejoría. Métodos: Se encuestaron 13 programas de regiones prioritarias. Se evaluaron las caracte rísticas demográficas y clínicas de los usuarios, así como los servicios ofrecidos por estos programas, sus protocolos de tratamiento con metadona y las diferencias en las barreras al tratamiento y las causas de abandono del tratamiento. Resultados: Se analizaron 12/13 cuestionarios, con un total de 538 pacientes activos. La mayo ría de los pacientes eran varones (85,5%) de 18 a 34 arios (70%). El 40% eran usuarios de drogas intravenosas y el 25% admitió compartir agujas. Entre las comorbilidades asociadas con el consumo de heroína se encontró la enfermedad mental (48%), la hepatitis C (8,7%) y la infección por el VIH (2%). La comorbilidad psiquiátrica se asocia más con los pacientes que acuden al sector privado (el 69,8 frente al 29,7%; p < 0,03). La media de la dosis inicial de metadona es 25,3 ± 8,9mg/día y las dosis de mantenimiento van de 41 a 80 mg/día. La falta de articulación con atención primaria fue una barrera más sentida que los problemas con la cobertura del seguro médico y los prejuicios del tratamiento con metadona (p < 0,05). También, los problemas administrativos y de la aseguradora (p < 0,003), la falta de sumi nistro de metadona (p < 0,018) y la recaída en el consumo (p < 0,014) son las razones más significativas de abandono del tratamiento. Conclusiones: Estos programas tienen diferentes niveles de desarrollo e implementación en los protocolos de tratamiento. Algunas de las barreras de acceso y de las causas de abandono del tratamiento pueden mitigarse mejorando la administración de salud.


ABSTRACT Objective: Colombia is facing a rising epidemic of intravenous heroin use. Knowledge of the methadone-assisted treatment programs in the country is crucial in order to propose improvement strategies. Methods: 13 programmes from priority regions were surveyed. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients attending the programs, a description of the services offered, their methadone treatment protocols, the various barriers to treatment and the causes of treatment abandonment were reviewed. Results: 12/13 questionnaires were analysed with a total of 538 active patients. Most of the patients attending these programs were men (85.5%) between 18 and 34 years-old (70%). Forty percent (40%) were intravenous drug users and 25% admitted sharing needles. The comorbidities associated with heroin use were mental illness (48%), hepatitis C (8.7%) and HIV (2%). Psychiatric comorbidity was more likely in patients attending the private sec tor (69.8% vs 29.7%; p < 0.03). The initial average dose of methadone administered was 25.3 ± 8.9mg/day, with a maintenance dose ranging from 41 to 80mg/day. Lack of align ment with primary care was perceived to be the most serious barrier to access, ahead of problems with insurance and prejudice towards treatment with methadone (p < 0.05). Health Administration and insurance problems (p < 0.003), together with the lack of availa bility of methadone (p < 0.018) and relapse (p < 0.014) were the most important reasons for abandonment of treatment. Conclusions: The treatment protocols of these programmes offer different levels of develop ment and implementation. Some of the barriers to access and reasons for abandonment of treatment with methadone can be mitigated with better health administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Drug Users , Heroin Dependence , Methadone , Primary Health Care , Recurrence , Therapeutics , Comorbidity , Clinical Protocols , Colombia , Heroin , Health Administration
10.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(1): 83-86, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043519

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder persisting in adulthood in 40-60% of cases. Clinical and neuroimaging studies suggest that patients affected by both drug addiction and ADHD show higher rates of craving for drug than patients without ADHD. We designed a pilot open-label study to investigate the effects of ADHD on craving for heroin in methadone maintenance therapy patients. Method Patients were recruited from outpatient facilities in an addiction treatment unit in the municipality of Alba, Italy. They were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 (SCID-5), the SCID-5 for Personality Disorders (SCID-5-PD), the Diagnostic Interview for Adult ADHD, second edition (DIVA 2.0), and the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS). Categorical variables were examined using the chi-square test, and continuous variables, the t-test and Mann-Whitney's U test for normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Data distribution was evaluated using Shapiro-Wilk's test. Significance was set at p=0.05. Bonferroni correction was applied (0.0063) to avoid type I error. Results A total of 104 patients were included in the study: 14 affected by ADHD (13.5%) and 90 were not affected (86.5%). Patients with ADHD showed higher intensity of craving for heroin than patients without ADHD in the absence of withdrawal symptoms. Conclusion Drug addiction and ADHD share various neurobiological mechanisms that mutually influence the evolution of both disorders. In particular, dopamine dysfunction within various brain circuits may influence impulsivity levels, motivation, inhibitory control, executive functions, and behavior and, consequently, the intensity of craving.


Resumo Introdução O transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH) é um transtorno do neurodesenvolvimento que persiste na idade adulta em 40-60% dos casos. Estudos clínicos e de neuroimagem sugerem que pacientes afetados tanto por adição quanto por TDAH apresentam maiores índices de fissura (craving) por droga do que pacientes sem TDAH. Este estudo piloto aberto investigou os efeitos do TDAH sobre fissura por heroína em pacientes em terapia de manutenção com metadona. Método Os pacientes foram recrutados em serviços ambulatoriais em uma unidade de tratamento de adição na cidade de Alba, Itália. Eles foram avaliados usando os seguintes instrumentos: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 (SCID-5), SCID-5 for Personality Disorders (SCID-5-PD), Diagnostic Interview for Adult TDAH, second edition (DIVA 2.0) e Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS). Variáveis categóricas foram examinadas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado, e variáveis contínuas, o teste t e o teste U de Mann-Whitney para dados com distribuição normal e não normal, respectivamente. A distribuição dos dados foi avaliada usando o teste de Shapiro-Wilk. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em p=0,05. A correção de Bonferroni foi aplicada (0,0063) para evitar erro tipo I. Resultados Um total de 104 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo: 14 com TDAH (13,5%) e 90 sem (86,5%). Pacientes com TDAH mostraram maior intensidade de fissura por heroína do que pacientes sem TDAH na ausência de sintomas de abstinência. Conclusão Adição e TDAH compartilham mecanismos neurobiológicos que influenciam mutuamente a evolução dos dois transtornos. Em particular, a disfunção da dopamina em vários circuitos cerebrais pode influenciar os níveis de impulsividade, motivação, controle inibitório, funções executivas e comportamento, e, portanto, a intensidade da fissura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods , Craving/physiology , Heroin Dependence/physiopathology , Heroin Dependence/drug therapy , Methadone/administration & dosage , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Pilot Projects , Heroin Dependence/epidemiology , Middle Aged
11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 602-606, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Reaction time is defined as the time from the start of a stimulus to the start of the voluntary movement. Time plays an important role in undertaking daily living activities. Reaction time is an important factor in respect of both quality of life and of capabilities demonstrated in the work environment. Alcohol and some addictive substances have effect on RT. The aim of this study was to compare the visual and auditory reaction times of patients with opioid use disorder with healthy control subjects. METHODS: The study was applied to two groups as the opioid use disorder group and the control group. A Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Form was prepared for each patient including age, gender, marital status and education level. Using a computer program the response to visual screen color change (red/blue) and to an auditory ‘beep’ sound of the computer system were recorded. The Student’s t-test was applied as a statistical method. RESULTS: The results showed longer reaction times in the patients with opioid use disorder. CONCLUSION: To add improving reaction time approaches in opioid use disorder treatment may contribute to treatment by increasing quality of life and work performance.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Computer Systems , Drug Users , Education , Heroin Dependence , Humans , Marital Status , Methods , Mortuary Practice , Opioid-Related Disorders , Quality of Life , Reaction Time , Work Performance
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-861267

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the impact of protracted abstinence on heroin addicts' psychological craving and brain network function under drug cue task. Methods: Totally 37 heroin addicts (protracted abstinence group) and 32 matched normal volunteers (control group) were recruited. Resting state and craving task fMRI data were acquired, and the psychological craving quantitative scoring was evaluated. Resting fMRI data were analyzed to obtain task negative correlation networks (TNN) and task positive correlation networks (TPN). After modeling task-state fMRI data and comparing with the control group, the abnormal activated brain areas in TNN and TPN in the protracted abstinence group were obtained, and the correlation with psychologic behavior was analyzed. Results: The craving scores of the protracted abstinence group were significantly higher than those of control group before and after the presentation of task cues (all P<0.01). Under the craving task, compared with control group, the right para-hippocampal gyrus was significantly activated in the protracted abstinence group in TNN, and the significantly enhanced networks in TPN included visual spatial network (bilateral anterior central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus) and sensorimotor network (left posterior central gyrus). The activation intensity of bilateral inferior frontal gyrus in protracted abstinence group was negatively correlated with the duration of heroin use (right: r=-0.37, P=0.02; left: r=-0.41, P=0.01). Conclusion: The subjective craving of heroin addicts who are forced to quit is still increased, and the abnormal function of multiple large brain networks has not completely recovered, which may be the neuropathological basis of relapse.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-861166

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of protracted abstinence (PA) and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) on the brain function of heroin addicts for 6 months. Methods: Twenty-two heroin addicts with PA for 6 months intervention (PA group), 25 heroin addicts with MMT for 6 months intervention (MMT group), and 35 normal controls (control group) were recruited. The resting data were collected by fMRI. The low-frequency amplitude (ALFF) method was used to calculate the intensity of local brain spontaneous activity in the 3 groups. The differences in ALFF of the 3 groups were analyzed and compared. Results: There were significant differences in ALFF between the 3 groups in the right frontal medial, left medial frontal gyrus, left island leaf, left tongue lingual, right lingual gyrus and right auxiliary motion zone (all P0.05). Conclusion: After 6 months of intervention, there are still abnormalities in some brain regions between PA and MMT, but PA may be more conducive to brain function recovery in heroin addicts.

14.
Acupuncture Research ; (6): 323-328, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-844306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture plus moxibustion on the synaptic ultrastructure and expression of synaptic skeleton related proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of heroin re-addicted rats, so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying improvement of heroin addiction. METHODS: Twenty-four Wister rats (half male and half female) were randomly divi-ded into normal control, model and acupuncture groups (n=8 in each group). The heroin re-addicted model was established by muscular injection of heroin into the hind limbs for 8 days (incremental 0.8-3.6 mg, once daily for 6 days, and twice daily for 2 days), followed by conventional breeding for 5 days (detoxification), the procedure (addition-detoxification) was repeated 3 cycles. For rats of the acupuncture group, "Baihui" (GV20) was needled with filiform needles which were retained for 30 min, and moxibustion was then applied to bilateral "Shenshu" (BL23) for 30 min. The treatment was conducted once daily during the deto-xification. On the 39th day of experiment, the bilateral prefrontal cortex tissues were sampled for examining the ultrastructure by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) after fixative solution immersion and for determining the expression of genes and proteins of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), microtubule-asso-ciated protein-2 (MAP-2) and microtubule-associated protein Tau (Tau) with quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: After modeling, the expression levels of Arc mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated, and those of MAP-2 and Tau mRNA and proteins ob-viously down-regulated in the model group relevant to the normal control group (P<0.05). Following the intervention, the up-regulated Arc protein and mRNA and the down-regulated MAP-2 and Tau were obviously reversed relevant to the model group (P<0.05). Outcomes of TEM showed unclear pre- and post-membranes of the synapses, narrowing of the synaptic gap and non-uniform of the density of the thickened dense plaque after modeling, which was relatively milder in the acupuncture group. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture plus moxibustion can improve changes of synaptic ultrastructure in heroin re-addicted rats, which may be related to their effect in regulating the expression of some synaptic skeleton proteins and genes.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843509

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of alcohol use and related influencing factors among the patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Shanghai, and to provide information for the alcohol intervention in the future. Methods: A total of 837 MMT patients were investigated and evaluated by General Situation Questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, General Well-being Schedule. According to whether drinking or not in the past year, the two groups were divided into the non-drinking group and the drinking group. T-test, Chi-square test and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were used to detected between two groups. Results: 30.9% of the patients had drinking behavior in the past year, 13.8% of them had problem drinking behavior. The main factors affecting patients' drinking behavior were sex (P=0.029), age of first drug use (P=0.005), drinking before taking heroin (P=0.000) and drinking when taking heroin (P=0.000). Conclusion: In Shanghai, alcohol consumption is generally prevalent among MMT patients who lack awareness of the dangerous of drinking. In the future, targeted intervention measures should be taken to reduce the harm of drinking among MMT patients.

16.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 25(5): 343-343, sep.-oct. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1042775

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los eventos cardiovasculares asociados al consumo de heroína son infrecuentes y se relacionan con la vía intravenosa. Se presenta un caso de un varón de 39 años, consumidor de heroína inhalada, que sufrió un infarto de miocardio evolucionado. El cateterismo coronario reflejó una oclusión subaguda de la arteria descendente anterior, que requirió implante de un stent farmacoactivo. Algunos estudios observacionales retrospectivos sugieren que el consumo de opiáceos por vía oral o inhalada incrementa el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria e infarto, de ahí la importancia de la prevención cardiovascular en este grupo de pacientes.


Abstract The cardiovascular events associated with heroin use are uncommon, and related to intravenous use. A case of a 39-year-old male is presented, a consumer of inhaled heroin, who suffered an evolving myocardial infarction. The coronary catheterisation showed a sub-acute occlusion of the anterior descending artery, which required a drug-eluting stent. Some retrospective observational studies suggest the consumption of opiates by the oral or inhaled route increases the risk of coronary disease and infarction, as well as the importance of cardiovascular prevention in this patient group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Coronary Disease , Radiography, Thoracic , Cocaine , Myocardial Infarction
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(11): e00179417, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974583

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Heroin consumption in Mexico is low compared with its use in the United States; however, this practice is more common in the northern region of Mexico than in the rest of the country, being documented only in cities that are located exactly at the Mexico-U.S. border. The Mexican legal framework is focused on rehabilitation, but its effects on the lives of users are unknown. The objective of this research was to analyze how the regulatory Mexican framework is conceptualized and practiced in the daily life of a group of heroin users from a northern city, where consumption has recently spread and has not been documented. We collected the official registered data from users and conducted a qualitative study in Hermosillo, Sonora. A research on the legal framework was conducted, as well as on the city's context. Data on heroin users can be found at HIV health center, as there is no other source of such records. The Mexican legal framework aims at rehabilitation and at avoiding criminalization; however, the daily life of users drives them towards crime circuits: people commit crimes to stay in prison, where they can control the addiction and get heroin, in case of abstinence. The Mexican State has no empirical information to improve its programs and laws related to the use of heroin. The daily practices of users become not only epidemiological but social risks to the community and to the users themselves. Also, the lack of access due to stigmatization, criminalization and violence, increases the inequities, creating a cycle that reproduces poverty and suffering as part of a social structure. Therefore, changes are needed in the justice system.


Resumen: El consumo de heroína en México es bajo si se compara con su consumo en EE.UU.; no obstante, esta práctica es más común en la zona norte de México que en el resto del país, estando documentada solamente en ciudades que están localizadas exactamente en la frontera entre México y EE.UU. El marco legal mexicano está centrado en la rehabilitación, sin embargo sus efectos en las vidas de los consumidores son desconocidos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar cómo se conceptualiza el marco regulatorio mexicano, y cómo se hace realidad en la vida diaria de un grupo de personas usuarias de heroína, procedentes de una ciudad del norte, donde recientemente el consumo se ha extendido y no se ha documentado. Nosotros recogimos datos oficiales registrados de consumidores y realizamos un estudio cualitativo en Hermosillo, Sonora. Se realizó una investigación sobre el marco legal, así como del contexto de la ciudad. Los datos sobre los consumidores de heroína sólo se pueden encontrar en centros de salud especializados en VIH, pues que no existe otra fuente para tales registros. El marco legal mexicano pretende la rehabilitación y evitar la criminalización; sin embargo, la vida diaria de los consumidores les conduce hacia los circuitos del crimen: la gente comete delitos para estar en prisión, donde pueden controlar la adicción y conseguir heroína, en caso de abstinencia. El estado mexicano no cuenta con información empírica para mejorar los programas y leyes relacionadas con el consumo de heroína. Las prácticas diarias de los consumidores se han convertido no sólo en riesgos epidemiológicas, sino tambiém en riesgos sociales para la comunidad y los propios consumidores. Asimismo, la falta de acceso debido a la estigmatización, la criminalización y la violencia, incrementa las inequidades, creando un círculo vicioso que reproduce la pobreza y el sufrimiento, como parte de la estructura social. Por ello, es necesario que se produzcan cambios en el sistema judicial.


Resumo: O consumo da heroína é baixo no México, comparado ao uso nos Estados Unidos, porém essa prática é mais comum na região Norte do México em comparação com o resto do país, sendo documentada apenas nas cidades localizadas justamente na fronteira com os Estados Unidos. A legislação mexicana visa principalmente a reabilitação, mas seus efeitos sobre a vida dos usuários não são conhecidos. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a maneira pela qual o arcabouço regulatório mexicano é conceituado e praticado na vida diária de um grupo de usuários de heroína de um município no Norte do México, onde o consumo tem sido disseminado recentemente, mas sem ter sido documentado até então. Foram coletados os dados oficiais sobre usuários, seguido por um estudo qualitativo em Hermosillo, no Estado de Sonora. Foram estudados a legislação pertinente e o contexto local em Hermosillo. Os dados sobre os usuários de heroína foram encontrados nos centros de atendimento a pessoas com HIV, uma vez que não existe outra fonte desses registros. A legislação mexicana visa a reabilitação dos usuários, evitando sua criminalização, mas sua vida cotidiana os empurra para os circuitos do crime. Assim, os indivíduos cometem crimes para permanecer na prisão, onde conseguem controlar a dependência e obter a droga em casos de síndrome de abstinência. O governo mexicano não dispõe de dados empíricos para melhorar os programas e leis relacionados ao uso da heroína. As práticas diárias dos usuários se transformam em riscos, não apenas epidemiológicos como também sociais, tanto para a comunidade quanto para os próprios usuários. Além disso, a falta de acesso a serviços, em função da combinação de estigmatização, criminalização e violência, aumenta as desigualdades, criando um ciclo que reproduz e o sofrimento enquanto parte de uma estrutura social. Portanto, são necessárias mudanças urgentes no sistema de justiça.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Self Concept , Public Health , Drug Users/psychology , Heroin Dependence/psychology , Heroin Dependence/rehabilitation , Time Factors , HIV Infections , Substance Abuse Treatment Centers/legislation & jurisprudence , Crime , Qualitative Research , Mexico , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792686

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the characteristics of methadone maintenance treatment(MMT)clients, and to explore their retention rate and associated factors in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province. Methods Heroin or opiate addicts who started MMT between 2006 and 2014 in study area were included. Data including demographics, history of drug use and treatment information was extracted from the National MMT Data Management System and descriptive analysis were conducted. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with retention rate. Results In total, 2 262 MMT clients were included for analysis. Most of them were male(87.53%), single, divorced or widowed(55.75%), and had an education of junior middle school or below(88.68%). Almost all of them (98.32%)were heroin addicts, and the age at first drug use ranged from 9 years to 54 years, with average age of(25.06±6.34)years. A total of 1 123(49.65%)clients had a history of inject drug use and 81(3.58%)clients had ever shared needles with others. The average duration on MMT was 5.02±2.01 years, and the average methadone dosage during treatment was (34.49 ±22.69)mL. The MMT retention rate was 29.2% (661/2 262). In multivariable analysis, districts such as Huangyan District, Yuhuan County and Linhai City, aged≥40 years and average methadone dosage>20 mL during treatment were independently and positively associated with retention rate. Conclusion Most of MMT clients in Taizhou are male, unmarried, and had low education level. The retention rate is low in Taizhou but older patents and those receive high methadone dosage have a relatively higher retention rate.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are markers that can determine the presence of systemic inflammatory response. In this study, we examined the NLR and PLR levels in patients with heroin dependence compared to healthy controls. METHODS: The study sample included 90 male patients with heroin dependence aged 18 to 45 years and 60 healthy subjects who had similar socio-demographic characteristics as the patient group. The diagnoses of heroin dependence and other Axis I psychiatric disorders in the patient and control groups were screened with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID-I). The extent of heroin addiction was assessed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). RESULTS: The mean NLR and PLR levels of patients with heroin dependence were significantly higher than the control subjects (p=0.031 and p < 0.001, respectively). Positive correlations were found between NLR, PLR and duration of the disorder. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that inflammatory processes may play a role in the pathophysiology of heroin dependence.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Healthy Volunteers , Heroin Dependence , Heroin , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-712654

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of acupuncture in regulating ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP),and discuss the action of acupuncture in intervening heroin-induced brain damage.Methods:Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into a control group,a model group and an acupuncture group by using the random number table.Rats in the model and acupuncture groups received intramuscular heroin injection for successive 8 d at a progressively increased dose.Afterwards,the injection was suspended for 5 d for withdrawal.The heroin relapse rat model was established by repeating the drug addiction and withdrawal process for 3 times.The control group followed the step of the model establishment,but was given intramuscular injection of normal saline at the stage of addiction and no intervention at the stage of withdrawal;the model group was given intramuscular heroin injection at a progressively increased dose at the addiction stage and no intervention at the withdrawal stage;the acupuncture group was dealt in the same way as the model group at the addiction stage,but received acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) at the withdrawal stage,with the needles retained for 30 min each time,1 session a day,for successive 5 d.On the 39th day,brain tissues were extracted from the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the three groups of rats.The apoptosis of brain nerve cells was detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick and labeling (TUNEL).The mRNA and protein expressions of ubiquitin (Ub),ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) and 26S were examined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).Results:Compared with the model group,rat's hippocampus and VTA in the acupuncture group showed significantly fewer cells positively stained by TUNEL staining (P<0.01),and its mRNA and protein expressions of Ub,E3,26S were significantly lower (P<0.01).Conclusion:Reducing nerve cell apoptosis and regulating the mRNA and protein expressions of Ub,E3 and 26S in rat's hippocampus and VTA are possibly one of the action mechanisms of acupuncture in intervening heroin-induced brain damage.

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